Vector algebra

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Vector algebra

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You are on page 1of 31

CONTENT

Time-harmonic

Fields (dynamic)

Magnetostatic

Fields

Electrostatic

Fields

Coordinate System

Fundamental course in Electrical

and Electronic Engineering

2

TOPICS

VECTOR POSITION

SCALAR AND ADDITION AND VECTOR COMPONENT

UNIT VECTOR MULTIPLICATI

VECTOR AND DISTANCE ON OF VECTOR

SUBTRACTION VECTOR

3

SCALAR DAN VECTOR

– e.g. time, mass, distance, temperature, electric potential and

population.

– Scalar is represented simply by a letter A, B, and V.

– e.g.: velocity, force, displacement, and electric field intensity.

– Vector is represented by a letter A and B or A and B.

everywhere in a region.

– If the quantity is scalar (or vector), the field is said to be a scalar (or

vector) field, e.g. temperature distribution in a building and etc.

4

UNIT VECTOR

• A magnitude of A is a scalar – written as A or |A|.

• A unit vector, aA along A - a vector whose magnitude is unity

(i.e. 1), and its direction is along A, that is,

aA = A / |A|

=A/A

• Note that |aA| = 1, thus A = AaA (1.1)

which specifies A, in terms of its magnitude A and its direction aA.

• A vector A in Cartesian coordinates in 3D may be represented

as,

(Ax, Ay, Az) or Axax + Ayay + Azaz (1.2)

ax, ay, az are unit vector in the x, y and z directions

5

Figure 1.1 (a) Unit vectors ax, ay, and az, (b) components of A along ax, ay, and az.

6

OPERATION AND COMPONENT

OF A VECTOR

Addition Position

& &

Subtraction Distance

VECTOR

Component

Multiplication of a

Vector

7

VECTOR ADDITION & SUBTRACTION

• Magnitude of vector A,

A = Ax2 + Ay2 + Az2 (1.3)

• The unit vector along A is given by,

aA = Axax + Ayay + Azaz (1.4)

Ax2 + Ay2 + Az2

C; that is,

C=A+B

C = (Ax + Bx)ax + (Ay + By)ay + (Az + Bz)az

D = A – B = A + (–B)

D = (Ax – Bx)ax + (Ay – By)ay + (Az – Bz)az

8

Graphically, vector addition and subtraction are obtained

by either the parallelogram rule or the head-to-tail rule

C B

A

A

Addition C

B

D

B

A

D A

Subtraction

-B B

9

The three basic laws of algebra obeyed by any given vectors A, B

and C are summarized as follows:

Commutative A+B=B+A kA = Ak

Associative A + (B+C)=(A+B) +C k(lA) = (kl)A

Distributive k(A+B)= kA + kB

10

cummutative

associative

distributive

11

Practice Exercise

Given vectors

A = ax + 3az and

B = 5ax + 2ay – 6az ,

determine:

1) |A + B|

2) 5A – B

3) Component of A along ay

4) A unit vector parallel to 5A – B

12

POSITION VECTOR AND DISTANCE VECTOR

to another point in space.

• The position vector, rP (or radius vector) of point P is

defined as the directed distance from origin O to P.

• That is,

space.

13

Illustration of position vector rP = 3ax + 4ay + 5az.

14

• DISTANCE VECTOR – the displacement from one point

to another.

• If we have two points P and Q given by (xP, yP, zP) and

(xQ, yQ, zQ), the distance vector or separation vector is

the displacement from P to Q as shown below.

rPQ = rQ – rP

= (xQ - xP)ax + (yQ - yP)ay + (zQ – zP)az (1.6)

15

• Point P is different from vector A, though P and A may be

represented in the same manner as;

P => (x, y, z) and A=>(Ax, Ay, Az )

P is not a vector, only its position vector rp is a vector.

• Vector A may depend on point P.

• e.g., if A = 2xyax + y2ay - xz2az and P (2,-1,4),

then A at P would be -4ax + ay - 32az

• Vector A = 2xyax +y2 ay - xz2az is not uniform

point.

16

Exercise

• Points P and Q are located at P(0, 2, 4) and

Q(-3, 1, 5). Calculate:

– The position vector P

– The distance vector from P to Q

– The distance between P and Q

– A vector parallel to PQ with magnitude of 10

17

VECTOR MULTIPLICATION

either a scalar or a vector depending on how they are

multiplied.

– scalar/dot product : A · B

– vector/cross product : A × B

either:

– scalar triple product : A · (B × C)

– vector triple product : A × (B × C)

the magnitude A in k values but remain in the same

direction.

18

• DOT PRODUCT of two vectors A and B, written as A · B, is

defined geometrically as the product of the magnitude A and B

and the cosine of the angle between them.

If A = (Ax, Ay, Az) and B = (Bx, By, Bz), then

component.

• Two vectors are said to be orthogonal (or perpendicular) with

each other if A · B = 0.

19

• Dot product obeys the following:

– Commutative law:

A·B=B·A (1.9)

– Distributive law:

A · (B + C) = (A · B) + (A · C) (1.10)

A · A = |A|2 = A2 (1.11)

ax · a x = ay · a y = az · az = 1 (1.13)

Why?

20

• CROSS PRODUCT of two vectors A and B,

• written as A × B,

• a vector quantity

• magnitude is area of parallelogram formed by A and B,

and is in the direction of advance of a right-handed screw

as A is turned into B.

A × B = AB sin θABan (1.14)

• The direction of an is taken as the direction of the right thumb

when the fingers of the right hand rotate from A to B.

A x B= ax a y az

Ax Ay Az

Bx By Bz

21

Figure 1.8 Direction of A B and an using (a) the right-hand rule

and (b) the right-handed-screw rule.

Figure 1.7 The cross product of A and B is a vector with magnitude equal to the area of the

parallelogram and direction, as indicated.

22

• Cross product has the following basic properties:

A×B≠B×A

A × B = −B × A (1.15)

– It is not associative

A × (B × C) ≠ (A × B) × C (1.16)

– It is distributive

A × (B + C) = A × B + A × C (1.17)

ax × ay = az

ay × az = ax

az × ax = ay (1.19)

23

Cross product using cyclic permutation

-Moving clockwise, positive result

-Moving counterclockwise, negative result

24

• Given three vectors A, B and C.

• The SCALAR TRIPLE PRODUCT is:

A · (B × C) = B · (C × A) = C · (A × B) (1.20)

• A = (Ax, Ay, Az), B = (Bx, By, Bz) and C = (Cx, Cy, Cz)

• So, equation 1.20 is the volume of a parallelogram having A, B and C as

edges.

• It is obtained by finding the determinant of the 3 × 3 matrix formed by A,

B and C.

• It is called the scalar triple product.

A · (B × C) = Ax Ay Az

Bx By Bz (1.21)

Cx Cy Cz

25

• For vectors A, B and C, we define the vector triple

product as :

A × (B × C) = B(A · C) − C(A · B) (1.22)

obtained using the ‘bac-cab’ rule.

(A · B)C ≠ A(B · C)

but (A · B)C = C(A · B)

26

COMPONENT OF A VECTOR

The projection can be vector or scalar.

• Given a vector A, the scalar component AB of A along vector

B is:

AB = A cos θAB = |A||aB| cos θAB (1.23)

or AB = A . aB

multiplied by a unit vector along B, that is

parallel, so that A = kB, where k is a constant.

27

Figure 1.10 Components of A along B: (a) scalar component AB, (b) vector component AB .

28

PROBLEM 1

R(0, 3, 8), find:

a) The position vector of P and R

b) The distance vector AQR

c) The distance between Q and R

29

PROBLEM 2

• Given vectors:

• A = 3ax + 4ay + az and

• B = 2ay – 5az,

• find the angle AB between A and B,

30

PROBLEM 3

orthogonal or non-orthogonal:

B = -2ax + 4ay + 8az

31

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