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CONTENT

Time-harmonic
Fields (dynamic)
Magnetostatic
Fields

Electrostatic
Fields

Vector Analysis and


Coordinate System
Fundamental course in Electrical
and Electronic Engineering
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TOPICS

VECTOR POSITION
SCALAR AND ADDITION AND VECTOR COMPONENT
UNIT VECTOR MULTIPLICATI
VECTOR AND DISTANCE ON OF VECTOR
SUBTRACTION VECTOR

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SCALAR DAN VECTOR

• A quantity can be either a scalar or a vector.

• Scalar – a quantity that has only magnitude


– e.g. time, mass, distance, temperature, electric potential and
population.
– Scalar is represented simply by a letter A, B, and V.

• Vector – a quantity that has both magnitude and direction.


– e.g.: velocity, force, displacement, and electric field intensity.
 
– Vector is represented by a letter A and B or A and B.

• Field – a function that specifies a particular quantity


everywhere in a region.
– If the quantity is scalar (or vector), the field is said to be a scalar (or
vector) field, e.g. temperature distribution in a building and etc.

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UNIT VECTOR
• A magnitude of A is a scalar – written as A or |A|.
• A unit vector, aA along A - a vector whose magnitude is unity
(i.e. 1), and its direction is along A, that is,
aA = A / |A|
=A/A
• Note that |aA| = 1, thus A = AaA (1.1)
which specifies A, in terms of its magnitude A and its direction aA.
• A vector A in Cartesian coordinates in 3D may be represented
as,
(Ax, Ay, Az) or Axax + Ayay + Azaz (1.2)

Ax, Ay, Az are components of A in the x, y and z directions


ax, ay, az are unit vector in the x, y and z directions

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Figure 1.1 (a) Unit vectors ax, ay, and az, (b) components of A along ax, ay, and az.

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OPERATION AND COMPONENT
OF A VECTOR

Addition Position
& &
Subtraction Distance

VECTOR

Component
Multiplication of a
Vector

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VECTOR ADDITION & SUBTRACTION
• Magnitude of vector A,
A = Ax2 + Ay2 + Az2 (1.3)
• The unit vector along A is given by,
aA = Axax + Ayay + Azaz (1.4)
Ax2 + Ay2 + Az2

• Two vectors, A and B can be added together to give another vector


C; that is,
C=A+B
C = (Ax + Bx)ax + (Ay + By)ay + (Az + Bz)az

• Vector subtraction is similarly carried out as


D = A – B = A + (–B)
D = (Ax – Bx)ax + (Ay – By)ay + (Az – Bz)az

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Graphically, vector addition and subtraction are obtained
by either the parallelogram rule or the head-to-tail rule

Parallelogram rule Head-to-tail rule

C B
A
A
Addition C
B

D
B

A
D A
Subtraction
-B B
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The three basic laws of algebra obeyed by any given vectors A, B
and C are summarized as follows:

Law Addition Multiplication

Commutative A+B=B+A kA = Ak
Associative A + (B+C)=(A+B) +C k(lA) = (kl)A
Distributive k(A+B)= kA + kB

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cummutative

associative

distributive
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Practice Exercise
Given vectors
A = ax + 3az and
B = 5ax + 2ay – 6az ,
determine:
1) |A + B|
2) 5A – B
3) Component of A along ay
4) A unit vector parallel to 5A – B
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POSITION VECTOR AND DISTANCE VECTOR

• POSITION VECTOR – a vector started from the origin O


to another point in space.

• A point P may be represented by (x, y, z).


• The position vector, rP (or radius vector) of point P is
defined as the directed distance from origin O to P.
• That is,

rP = OP = xax + yay + zaz (1.5)

• The position vector is useful in defining its position in


space.
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Illustration of position vector rP = 3ax + 4ay + 5az.

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• DISTANCE VECTOR – the displacement from one point
to another.
• If we have two points P and Q given by (xP, yP, zP) and
(xQ, yQ, zQ), the distance vector or separation vector is
the displacement from P to Q as shown below.

rPQ = rQ – rP
= (xQ - xP)ax + (yQ - yP)ay + (zQ – zP)az (1.6)
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• Point P is different from vector A, though P and A may be
represented in the same manner as;
P => (x, y, z) and A=>(Ax, Ay, Az )
P is not a vector, only its position vector rp is a vector.
• Vector A may depend on point P.
• e.g., if A = 2xyax + y2ay - xz2az and P (2,-1,4),
then A at P would be -4ax + ay - 32az

• Vector B = 3ax -2ay + 10az is a uniform vector


• Vector A = 2xyax +y2 ay - xz2az is not uniform

B is the same everywhere, whereas A varies from point to


point.

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Exercise
• Points P and Q are located at P(0, 2, 4) and
Q(-3, 1, 5). Calculate:
– The position vector P
– The distance vector from P to Q
– The distance between P and Q
– A vector parallel to PQ with magnitude of 10

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VECTOR MULTIPLICATION

• When two vectors A and B are multiplied, the result is


either a scalar or a vector depending on how they are
multiplied.
– scalar/dot product : A · B
– vector/cross product : A × B

• Multiplication of three vectors A, B and C can result in


either:
– scalar triple product : A · (B × C)
– vector triple product : A × (B × C)

• Multiplication of vector A and a scalar, k may changed


the magnitude A in k values but remain in the same
direction.

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• DOT PRODUCT of two vectors A and B, written as A · B, is
defined geometrically as the product of the magnitude A and B
and the cosine of the angle between them.

A · B = AB cos θAB (1.7)

where θAB is the smaller angle between A and B.


If A = (Ax, Ay, Az) and B = (Bx, By, Bz), then

A · B = AxBx + AyBy + AzBz (1.8)

• which is obtained by multiplying A and B component by


component.
• Two vectors are said to be orthogonal (or perpendicular) with
each other if A · B = 0.
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• Dot product obeys the following:
– Commutative law:
A·B=B·A (1.9)
– Distributive law:
A · (B + C) = (A · B) + (A · C) (1.10)

A · A = |A|2 = A2 (1.11)

– Also note that ax · ay = ay · a z = az · ax = 0 (1.12)


ax · a x = ay · a y = az · az = 1 (1.13)

Why?

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• CROSS PRODUCT of two vectors A and B,
• written as A × B,
• a vector quantity
• magnitude is area of parallelogram formed by A and B,
and is in the direction of advance of a right-handed screw
as A is turned into B.
A × B = AB sin θABan (1.14)

an is a unit vector normal to the plane containing A and B


• The direction of an is taken as the direction of the right thumb
when the fingers of the right hand rotate from A to B.

A x B= ax a y az
Ax Ay Az
Bx By Bz
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Figure 1.8 Direction of A  B and an using (a) the right-hand rule
and (b) the right-handed-screw rule.

Figure 1.7 The cross product of A and B is a vector with magnitude equal to the area of the
parallelogram and direction, as indicated.
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• Cross product has the following basic properties:

– It is not commutative but anticommutative


A×B≠B×A
A × B = −B × A (1.15)

– It is not associative
A × (B × C) ≠ (A × B) × C (1.16)
– It is distributive
A × (B + C) = A × B + A × C (1.17)

– Also note that A×A=0 (1.18)


ax × ay = az
ay × az = ax
az × ax = ay (1.19)

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Cross product using cyclic permutation
-Moving clockwise, positive result
-Moving counterclockwise, negative result

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• Given three vectors A, B and C.
• The SCALAR TRIPLE PRODUCT is:

A · (B × C) = B · (C × A) = C · (A × B) (1.20)

• A = (Ax, Ay, Az), B = (Bx, By, Bz) and C = (Cx, Cy, Cz)
• So, equation 1.20 is the volume of a parallelogram having A, B and C as
edges.
• It is obtained by finding the determinant of the 3 × 3 matrix formed by A,
B and C.
• It is called the scalar triple product.

A · (B × C) = Ax Ay Az
Bx By Bz (1.21)
Cx Cy Cz

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• For vectors A, B and C, we define the vector triple
product as :
A × (B × C) = B(A · C) − C(A · B) (1.22)
obtained using the ‘bac-cab’ rule.

• It should be also noted that,


(A · B)C ≠ A(B · C)
but (A · B)C = C(A · B)

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COMPONENT OF A VECTOR

• Is the projection (or component) of a vector in a given direction.


The projection can be vector or scalar.
• Given a vector A, the scalar component AB of A along vector
B is:
AB = A cos θAB = |A||aB| cos θAB (1.23)
or AB = A . aB

• The vector component AB of A along B is the scalar component


multiplied by a unit vector along B, that is

AB = ABaB = (A . aB)aB (1.24)

• Division of vector A/B is undefined except when A and B are


parallel, so that A = kB, where k is a constant.

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Figure 1.10 Components of A along B: (a) scalar component AB, (b) vector component AB .

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PROBLEM 1

• Given points P(1, -3, 5), Q(2, 4, 6) and


R(0, 3, 8), find:
a) The position vector of P and R
b) The distance vector AQR
c) The distance between Q and R

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PROBLEM 2

• Given vectors:
• A = 3ax + 4ay + az and
• B = 2ay – 5az,
• find the angle AB between A and B,

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PROBLEM 3

• Show that the following vector is a


orthogonal or non-orthogonal:

A = 4ax + 6ay – 2az


B = -2ax + 4ay + 8az

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