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The chapter focuses about the problem of people in Japan about the Bicycle

accidents. We try to study and analyze the problem to determine what will be our solution

and how our product will be. The latter, introduction, tells us the main points in Japan’s

environment problem.


Japan is an island nation in East Asia. It is an archipelago of 6,852 islands, most

of which are mountainous, and many are volcanic. The government system is a

parliamentary government with a constitutional monarchy; the chief of state is the

emperor, and the head of government is the prime minister. Japan has a market economy

in which the prices of goods and services are determined in a free price system. The

Japanese are said to be hard-working. With that, transportation is important for them to

be able to go to work.

The Tokyo Metropolitan Government aims to get more people using bicycles and

aims to roughly double the total length of bike lanes in the city by the time it hosts the

2020 Summer Olympics. Whether the target is attainable is unclear. Observers note that

the planned bike lanes do not necessarily connect with each other, partly because Tokyo

roads are managed by a range of different entities. Also, how can they make this possible

if Japan is lack of parking areas? In theory, cyclists are supposed to use the streets and

not the sidewalks, except when signs indicate that the sidewalks are for use by both

pedestrians and cyclists. Helmets are optional and are not usually provided by rental
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International Marketing Country Notebook: Japan

shops. In Japan, where there is a lack of designated parking space, do not follow bicycles

that are ruthlessly parked even in clearly designated non-parking zones. Illegally parked

bicycles may be removed by the local authorities and can only be retrieved by paying a

fine. Knowing that the Japan is also one of the cycling countries in the world.

Based from our study and analysis, people in Japan love to go anywhere using

bicycles that even tourists’ demands to rent a bike as their transportation to refresh and

relax. They can also use bicycles as a transportation heading to work that will help them

lessen the transports cost. In fact, Motor Vehicles; Electronic Equipment; Machine Tools;

Steel and Nonferrous Metals are their top industries. So, we the researchers, created

extraordinary bicycle using electronic equipment’s to help the Japanese lessen the

problems regarding to the parking area in Japan.


Human beings have lived in Japan for at least 30,000 years. During the last ice age

Japan was connected to mainland Asia by a land bridge and Stone Age hunters were able to

walk across. When the ice age ended about 10,000 BC Japan became a group of islands. About

8,000 BC the ancient Japanese learned to make pottery. The period from 8,000 BC to 300 BC is

called the Jomon. The word Jomon means 'cord marked' because those people marked their

pottery by wrapping cord around it. The Jomon people lived by hunting, fishing and collecting

shellfish. The Jomon made tools of stone, wood and bone. They also made clay figurines of

people and animals called dogu. Between 300 BC and 300 AD a new era began in Japan. At that

time the Japanese learned to grow rice. They also learned to make tools of bronze and iron. The

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International Marketing Country Notebook: Japan

Japanese also learned to weave cloth. This period is called Yayoi. (It was named after a village

called Yayoicho). Farming meant a more settled lifestyle. Yayoi people lived in villages of

wooden huts. (

Japan is an archipelago of some 6,852 islands located in volcanic zone on The Pacific

Ring of Fire. A nearly continuous series ocean trenches, volcanic areas and shifting tectonic

plates, the pacific ring of fire accounts for more than 75% of the world’s active volcanoes and

90 percent of the world’s earthquake. (source:Tokyo for bike,Byron Kidd)

For three decades, overall real economic growth had been impressive - a 10%

average in the 1960s, 5% in the 1970s, and 4% in the 1980s. Growth slowed markedly in the

1990s, averaging just 1.7%, largely because of the aftereffects of inefficient investment and an

asset price bubble in the late 1980s, after which it took a considerable time for firms to reduce

excess debt, capital, and labor. Modest economic growth continued after 2000, but the

economy has fallen into recession four times since 2008. Government stimulus spending

helped the economy recover in late 2009 and 2010, but the economy contracted again in 2011

as the massive 9.0 magnitude earthquake and the ensuing tsunami in March of that year

disrupted economic activity. The economy has largely recovered in the five years since the

disaster, although output in the affected areas continues to lag behind the national average.

Japan is the most technological advanced society on earth; as a result it has the

world’s second largest economy b GDP (after USA). Japan exports automobiles, consumer and

office electronics, steel and transportation equipment, it also imports food, oil, lumber, and

metal. Japan as the World’s third greatest cycling nation behind the Netherlands and Denmark,

but just what is it about Japan that makes a cycling an alternative transport option to millions of
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International Marketing Country Notebook: Japan

dentists. (source:Tokyo by japan. Residents have to cycle no more than 5 to 10 minutes to reach supermarkets. a bicycle make a perfect sense. (source:Tokyo by japan.people every day. (source:tokyobyjapan.Byronkidd) One of the great consideration which made us propose this multifunctional bicycle because out of 127milion people has 72 million bicycle with over 10million new bicycle being sold every year. doctors.Byronkidd) Japanese cycling laws are largely unforced until such time that there is an incident. finding a (legal) place to park is often quite difficult so parking illegally with everyone else is the accepted norm. bicycles and car are comfortable sharing the same space. and it will surely much increased because we made it more innovative so that Page 4 of 92 International Marketing Country Notebook: Japan . but Japanese people won’t take the law as long as you are riding safely and with respect for other it doesn’t matter how many of Japanese cycling laws you’re breaking just don’t get into an accident. kindergarten.byronkidd) Owning a car in Tokyo is inconvenient and expensive before purchasing a car the buyer is required proof that they can secured an appropriate parking spot. schools. Japan has terrible bicycle infrastructure yet millions of people cycle every single day most suburban Japanese streets often do not have sidewalks in pedestrians. in fact most necessities for everyday living are just a short ride away. without the need to travel excessive distances for daily life’s basics. As most city dwellers have no garage hiring a parking space can be an expensive exercise and that parking space may be many minute walk from home and cost more per month than a small apartment in the suburbs. Despite this few people are calling for improved cycling infrastructure and cycling is booming. bicycle lane non-existent when there is often enough space for even a sidewalk.

000 sq. 374. mi) water area: 3. It serve the Japanese people with the complete change the way they live and work. GEOGRAPHICAL SETTING A. km ( Page 5 of 92 International Marketing Country Notebook: Japan . It serve not only the whole nation of Japan and even the entire world as well. Honshu. quality and comfortability of the bicycle commuters and a truly-healthy environment friendly. Kyushu and Shikoku.Byronkidd). it is the action of moving around from all the journey of life.091 sq.834sq km (144. (afe.Easia. The total land space of the Japanese islands is about 142. km: land area.193sq mi). Among these several islands there are four main islands that comprise at least 97% of the total land area in Japan.724sq. Japan is the home to a population which the tenth largest in the whole world and the regarding the density of population. our innovated bicycle would guarantee the safety.we could help the bicycle commuters without breaking the government laws and maintain country’s clean and efficiency because this bicycle occupy a unique place in Japan’s transport ecosystem (source:tokyobybike. This multifunctional bicycle “PEDALOUX” is the transportation for everyone that you can carry anywhere you want without occupying parking space. Japan stands out to be the thirtiest country in the world. III. We inspired with our tagline: ’JOURNEY TO REVOLUTION”. Korean and Russia. It is located on the Pacific Ocean and in the eastern side of China. LOCATION Japan has a wide geographical variety. Japan is an island country that is comprised of more than three thousand islands.Columbia. These four mail islands are Hokkaido.

cold and sunny around Tokyo (which occasionally has snow). causing rail and air services to be stopped. respectively. with four distinct seasons. Winters are cool and sunny in the south. and there is a danger of landslides in rural areas. which is covered in snow for up to four months a year. The Japan Sea coastline also often receives heavy snowfall during winter. however. is generally much drier than the Tokyo area. Summer. Spring and autumn are generally mild throughout the country. Strong typhoons often affect transport systems. B. between June and September. is the mountainous with coastal lowlands. Honshu. Hokkaido. and very cold around Hokkaido. but can occur through May to October. TOPOGRAPHY The mainland. Mt Fuji is 3776 meters above sea level and is a volcano. although it has not erupted for hundreds of years. or tropical cyclones. The two smaller islands. Page 6 of 92 International Marketing Country Notebook: Japan . In the mountain ranges is Japan’s highest mountain. Rain falls all over Japan throughout the year but June and early July is the main rainy season. with strong wind sand torrential rains often hit Japan during August and September. ranges from warm to very hot with high levels of humidity in many areas. Mt Fuji. Umbrellas are a daily essential during this season. (worldtravelguide. and offer spectacular views of pretty sakura cherry blossoms and colorful autumnal leaves. the weather in the Japan is mostly temperate. Typhoons. CLIMATE Expect for the Hokkaido area and the subtropical Okinawa C.

These areas of land have to accommodate cities where business is conducted rural areas. FAMILY 1. As three-quarters of the land is mountainous the population of Japan lives in a very small portion of the country. Rivers run through the valleys in the mountains and the mountains are covered in forests. The land in Japan is 85 percent mountains. our group watched a series of videos depicting the typical Japanese way of life as a salaried man. The mountains are often very steep which means that houses cannot be built on them. People are generally restricted to living on the flatlands at the bottom of the mountains ranges along the coast. All of this and there has to be enough land for the people live on.Kyushu and Shikoku. This river is 367 kilometers long. ( IV. SOCIAL INSTITUTION A. NUCLEAR FAMILY During the recess week. university student. The rivers of Japan flow quickly and are generally short. Where arable (suitable for growing crops) and pastoral farms produce food. The longest river in Japan is the Shinano. It runs from the mountains in central Honshu to the Sea of Japan. The topography of the country and the population combine to create a population density that is quite high. and high school Page 7 of 92 International Marketing Country Notebook: Japan . and industrial areas where factories and other industries operate. also have mountain ranges. housewife.

9 hours a day. Japanese men worked an average of 9. to certain extents depending on the societal norms. the refusal of children to attend school.3 hours a day. family support is important as it helps to absolve them of the sense of blame. According to the 1994 Family Life Education International Survey. The reclusive people in society behave this way because of traumatic experiences such as academic failure. For example. It offers many perspectives of a certain role in society. It cannot be denied that Japan and most of Asia is still rather patriarchal. although some common traits can be observed in a family: the nuclear structure. The title of this series of videos is “日本人のライフスタイル”.student. guilt. I am concerned about this phenomenon of the absent fathers or the ‘Sunday friend’ in Japan. and thus the lack of such interaction leads to many behavioural problems of children 1. Page 8 of 92 International Marketing Country Notebook: Japan . However. but the average time spent with their children was only 3. regret or disillusionment. dismissal from work or ostracism. increasing rates of juvenile delinquency. I am inclined to think that the phenomenon of Hikikomori is Japan is related to the lack of family solidarity. women has to be in charge of the domestic duties at home once she is married. the family-oriented housewife. which means that. and the father who always has to work overtime in the office. on issues such as the upbringing of the children and family cohesion. and children’s mental health problems and suicide are frequently attributed to Japanese fathers’ physical absence from home due to work- related demands. Japanese studies have shown that father’s involvement with their children is extremely important.

nus. EXTENDED FAMILY IN JAPAN Like many Asian family systems. are becoming increasingly liberal in thinking. Hence they will aspire for financial In the earliest times. active members of the family. (http://blog. The state can also impose regulations that require firms to restrict employees’ overtime hours. The modern Japanese nuclear-family-in-japan/) 2. The role of the Japanese housewife whose life revolves around the household would not be appealing to these modern women. Although individual attitudes are hard to change. Education systems in Japan should emphasize the equality of domestic roles for both men and women. Noble families. individual freedom and gender equality. and certainly with the influence of China. the Japanese family system was an extended family which included distant relatives as well as the dead. ancestor worship was a strong and vibrant belief which made deceased real. Although the state is encouraging increasing participation in household matters from the Japanese married men. on the other hand. and families of Page 9 of 92 International Marketing Country Notebook: Japan . so that more time can be allocated to the family. The culture of working overtime in Japan definitely needs an overhaul. which could partially explain why marriage rates in Japan are falling. we can start from the larger spheres of social life such as in the workplace or schools. the patriarchal mindset is deeply entrenched and it will be difficult to demand a change in attitude in the short run.

a system/) 3. PARENTAL ROLES The family has a crucial role in forming Japanese students’ towards schooling and academic. An extended family consisted at least of grandparents. placed great value and importance on their ancestors. even the three-generation family (grandparents. certainly few families experienced the pleasures of more than one grandparent until well after World War II when life expectancy reached eighty years. DYNAMICS OF THE FAMILY A. well-organized. parents. Mothers are expected to play a central role in supporting their children’s education they are often referred to as kyoiku mamas. and children) was more of a dream than a reality. Each branch family at some time might itself. (https://www. parents and children in addition to ancestors. Simply put. Specifically.nakasendoway. very few families were organized along the lines of the extended family.the warrior class. In fact. For the majority of Japanese. Page 10 of 92 International Marketing Country Notebook: Japan . while maintaining its subordinate position to the main family. Thus. Life expectancy was so short until recently that few lived long enough to see grandchildren. in the Japanese culture. A main or stem family might have affiliated to it branch families. become the stem family to several branches. few were rich enough to sustain or require such a complex system. One of the problems of newly arisen aristocratic families was to ‘find’ sufficiently impressive ancestors who would justify contemporary importance. and rich family could become extremely large.

Before the child ever enters his or her first year of school. tutors and jukus available. in Japan. and preparing material for the next day at school. Her commitment to furthering the education of the child can include everything from pouring tea for the studying child to consulting with teachers. With regards to the junior high school student. the primary goal in junior high is preparation to take a difficult test to get into high school. if a child fails or does poorly. and continues to be. the mother carries the burden of blame. supported and guided her youngster through the many hurdles of the educational system. a cultural expectation that a Japanese mother commit to her children as home educator and mentor. It has been. prodded. she will even quit her job to stay at home making lunches. Needless to say. It is not unusual for the mother to curtail or cancel social involvements in the two years leading up to the high school entrance exams. If the mother happens to work. fixing school uniforms. Because of their superhuman efforts to ensure that their children will come out winners in the cut-throat competition that characterizes country’s exam- based educational system. and bone up on subjects in which her child is deficient. but they must be able to pass the test to Page 11 of 92 International Marketing Country Notebook: Japan .or “education mothers”. Japanese students can go to any high school they wish in the prefecture (county). the mother is charged with making sure her child thrives in the school system. the mother may investigate the range of schools. behind every successful Japanese student is a goal-oriented mother who has coached. tutored. Evidently. Have you ever heard of “examination hell” (jukenjigoku) that young Japanese students go through just to get into high school? By far.

attending juku takes precedence over other activities. students have to weigh their chances of getting into the high school of their choice. and the juku lessons begin after 5:00 p. Because passing such tests significantly influences how students may spend the rest of their lives. Since regular school finishes between 3:30-4:00 p. so each juku school tries to identify its specialty. A juku school provides extra tutoring to public school children to help them get into a good high school. As soon as junior Page 12 of 92 International Marketing Country Notebook: Japan . But basically. If the student does not meet that cut off on the test.get into the high school. There are different kinds of jukus because there are not enough students for each juku school. These private schools range from major franchises throughout the country to small “mom and pop” operations conducted in private homes. The student may go two to three times a week. he or she could be left without a school to attend since it is not a requirement in Japan.m. or sometimes they take bento (a box meal) with them to the juku. students have a snack after school and their dinner after juku. they often decide to attend a juku school (Japanese “cram school”) in addition to their regular school. If a junior high school student has a conflict of time between juku and an afterschool club. Since there are high schools that have high cut-off points and are more prestigious than others. he or she will leave the club early. about two hours each night.m. 60% of junior high school students enroll in course specifically designed to improve their scores on practice tests and the entrance exams. For many of these students.

more than 79% of Japanese people still belong to Shinto temples. The Betrothal/ Engagement Called the yuino in Japanese. Even today. Still. The most popular gifts are a seaweed called "konbu" that refers to "child-bearing woman". Keep reading to learn more about some interesting wedding traditions in Japan.high school is over for the summer holidays. a long piece of hemp in white that represents wish that both husband and wife grow old together. the third year students (9th graders) begin to go to juku Schools organize extra classes (hoshu) after school or over the holidays that are directed at preparing for the exams.html) B. (http://culturequest. Students may also take on jukubenkyo (exam preparation) by buying whatever practice books and pamphlets are available in bookstores. MARRIAGE VS. and a folding fan that Page 13 of 92 International Marketing Country Notebook: Japan . students in junior high also have another alternative to do their benkyo (studying). the betrothal ceremony is an exchange of symbolic gifts between bride's and groom's families. REGISTERED PARTNERSHIP Shinto is the ethnic religion in Japan with a huge impact on the country's culture and its ceremonial traditions. around July 20th. Besides attending the jukus. The same is the case with Japanese wedding traditions that may come as a surprise to many. 1. a large majority of people in and even outside of Japan are not that familiar with how the religion influences different ceremonies and events in Japan.

and mankind. the venues are always quite attractive. One of the main gifts in this ceremony is money. San-San-Kudo This sake sharing ceremony is common in Buddhist as well as Shinto Japanese weddings. The most common ones also include a hakama for the groom and an obi for the bride. 3. three. which can be $5. Page 14 of 92 International Marketing Country Notebook: Japan . So. stone dogs. and tall red gates that symbolize the division between the corporeal and spiritual worlds. "Three. a special envelope with gold and silver strings. heaven. and the bride's parents. These places also feature religious iconography that give the whole function a special feel. The Places Since most of the Japanese weddings take place in Shinto temples. Ku or 9 means good luck in Japanese culture. the groom's parents. Some of the most common are water pavilions. which are passion. There will be three stacked cups of sake and both bride and groom have to drink taking three sips. It is among the most interesting Japanese wedding traditions for the outsiders. some believe the three sips each time represent love. Ornate rice-paper envelopes are also used to give other gifts.000 or more – the money is offered in a shugi-bukuro. However. some believe they represent the biggest human flaws. and ignorance that the couple will overcome together in life. nine times" – just as the name has suggested. hatred. 2. wisdom and happiness while other believe they represent earth. Some believe they represent the three couples – the bride and groom.spreads and indicates future growth and wealth.

the color is usually white. These speeches can be moralistic tales about marriage. There will be loads of presents for the parents of both bride and groom. Family. bouquets of flowers. The most common gifts are a toast for parents. 5. You may also find some Japanese weddings with brides wearing a white silk hood over the bun in their hair – that silk headdress is called a wataboshi and is one of the oldest Japanese wedding traditions. 6. The hood represents humility and modesty. teachers. and you will also notice the same in Japanese weddings. Grooms usually opt for black – they may wear suits or kimonos. Sleek evening gowns may come as a surprise to you. Gifts for Parents You may have gathered the idea that Japanese wedding traditions are quite about exchanging gifts. colleagues.4. Speeches Wedding speeches hold a great importance in Japanese wedding ceremonies. friends. Wedding Wardrobe Something that will always fascinate you in a Japanese wedding is wedding wardrobe. and a personal letter Page 15 of 92 International Marketing Country Notebook: Japan . While a bride's gown may be of delicate silk or some other material. and other relatives stand in line and wait for their turn to wish the couple well. but they are quite common. The country's national colors are red and white. It is all in white – at least most of the time. but they can also be heartfelt messages of love from family and friends.

Japanese weddings have a lot available for the guests as well. Gifts for the Guests Oh. they are still a useful tool in civil matters such as hospital visitation rights. 2009. 7. Japan does not allow same-sex marriage domestically and has so far also refused to issue a key document required for citizens to wed overseas if the applicant's intended spouse is of the same legal sex. the Shibuya ward office in central Tokyo has offered same-sex couples special partnership certificates which are stated to be equivalent to marriage. Koseki household registration allows for some next of kin legal rights. These simple gestures make Japanese weddings a lot more intimate and special. A small but growing number of cities and city wards have legalized same-sex partnerships. it was reported that Japan has allowed its nationals to marry same-sex foreign partners in countries where same-sex marriage is legal. Beginning April 1. On March 27. Most polls conducted since 2013 find that a slight majority of Japanese people support the legalization of same-sex marriage or partnerships. 2015. Under the change. the Ministry of Justice instructed local authorities to Page 16 of 92 International Marketing Country Notebook: Japan . These favors can be a lace bag of sweet almonds and much more.of thanks and love. While these licenses are not legally recognized as marriage certificates. Brides usually spend up to $50 or even more on favors for their guests. yes. which provide some of the benefits of marriage. Same-sex marriage is not legal in Japan.

On March 3. Many Japanese people do in fact accept that physical interest is part of the attraction. 2012. In June 2011. many can be extremely conservative when it comes to dating. Courtship "Goukon" or group blind date is a modern pattern for dating where friends arrange for other friends to meet up to see if they like each other.everafterguide. 2013.html) C. Tokyo Disney Resort has allowed symbolic (not legally recognized) same-sex marriage ceremonies in its Cinderella's Castle hotel. who was only identified by the name Hiroko. Japan is much more a culture of traditions. Having said that. Since May 15. its first same-sex marriage was held. (https://www. Sex and sexuality is less frowned upon in Japan than it is in western countries such as the USA. than it is picking up dates in bars. swapping email addresses and business cards. the deputy head abbot of Kyoto's Shunkō-in Zen temple announced that the temple would perform same-sex marriage ceremonies as part of Gay and Lesbian Pride Month. Koyuki Higashi married her partner. Japan does not have a Christian history with its attached morals that place a somewhat undue sense of "wrong" on what many countries see as very natural occurrences. Page 17 of 92 International Marketing Country Notebook: Japan .issue the key certificate—which states a person is single and of legal age—for those who want to have a same-sex marriages. this does not mean all Japanese women will jump straight into bed at the drop of a hat.

video games. Japanese women are often more demure. Japan is much more a culture of introductions. where people are generally more "forward thinking". swapping email addresses and business cards. Although the love hotel is an obvious place for sex. dating couples will often book into a "love hotel". due to the fact their own homes are often very small and overcrowded with family.but do recognize that sex is a natural part of life if dating develops into a relationship. Because of this. a little tempting but not overly forward. cutesy. karaoke machines and other forms of entertainment. a place geared specifically for romantic situations and usually equipped with a bath large enough for two people.In a large city like Tokyo. Many Japanese women are unlikely to take the lead while on a date because there is still a social taboo on female expressions of desire. to emphasize his ability to care for his date. This kind of conversation will often happen at "blind date parties" (goukon) where friends arrange for other friends to meet up to see if they like each other. some people do go there because it is one of the few places were a couple can be intimate. Money can sometimes play a small part in early dates in Japan. This is almost a subconscious act that many westerners may consider pointless bragging. more than once. when it is not. where a man might mention his salary. People from the more provincial areas of Japan. Japanese women are often conservative in social groups but may be more open and flirty in more intimate situations. Page 18 of 92 International Marketing Country Notebook: Japan . than it is picking up dates in bars.

Female Roles Japan. 1992). Family lineage is more important than marriage. Confucian family ideals shifted. Marriage was often arranged. (http://tripsandtipsandsocialtricks. the Japanese Constitution revised a set of laws that defined Japanese family relations.  Women could marry and divorce D. Page 19 of 92 International Marketing Country Notebook: Japan .  Women could inherit a family estate. women did not legally exist. produce heirs. Men are the heads of the household. Confucian society focuses on the family. In 1946. women are dependent on the men. The largest shift happened after World War II. It is a contract between families. like China and Korea. Ideally. however. is heavily influenced by Confucian ideals. may well cringe at the thought of a love hotel and the forwardness of the Tokyo lifestyle. During the Tokugawa Shogunate (1602-1868). The Civil Code of 1947 granted woman every possible legal right:  Women could own property.  Women gained parental rights. Women could not own property and were subordinate to men in every way (Friedman. Wives could be returned to her family if she failed to produce an heir. and oversee the household. Women are expected to marry. three generations would live under a single roof. Gradually.

The revised Civil Code sought to create equality between the sexes. Saito. All children enter first grade at age B. Men were expected to be the breadwinners (Cooper. (http://www.  Women could vote. Women were still expected to protect the household. and starting school is considered a very important event in a child's life.japanpowered. Primary Education More than 99 percent of elementary school-age children are enrolled in school. Despite legal equality. Some private elementary schools are prestigious. The Civil Code was a marked shift in thinking. 2007). and they serve as a first step to higher-level private schools with which they are affiliated. 1987). 1987. Competition to enter some of these "ladder schools" is quite intense. Virtually all elementary education takes place in public schools. should could be the head of the household (Sato. although the rate of cost increases in tuition for these schools had slowed in the 1980s. in practice women were not equal. less than 1 percent of the schools are private. her husband. Sato. Page 20 of 92 International Marketing Country Notebook: Japan . a woman was expected to be dependent on her father. 2013. and finally on her eldest son. Now. All were heads of the household. Women were granted additional rights. and thence to a university. EDUCATION 1. Private schools tended to be costly. Before.

homemaking. social studies. for extra books. or private lessons. and moral education. or juku. both academic and non-academic. Students are usually organized into small work groups. Japanese language is the most emphasized subject. Non-academic subjects taught include art and handicrafts. including moral education and "special activities. For many families. The standard academic curriculum include Japanese language. The complexity of the written language and the diversity of its spoken forms in educated speech require this early attention. Page 21 of 92 International Marketing Country Notebook: Japan . physical education. by the use of student monitors and by having the students assume responsibility for the physical appearance of their classroom and school. reaching an average of ¥184. Such expenses rose throughout the 1980s. but higher numbers are permitted. arithmetic. which have both academic and disciplinary functions. Costs for private elementary schools are substantially higher. Elementary school classes are large. The ministry's Course of Study for Elementary Schools is composed of a wide variety of subjects. for example. about thirty-one students per class on average. there are also non- school educational expenses. Although public elementary education is free. some school expenses are borne by parents. and a sense of responsibility encouraged. school lunches and supplies. Discipline also is maintained." "Special activities" refer to scheduled weekly time given over to class affairs and to preparing for the school activities and ceremonies that are used to emphasize character development and the importance of group effort and cooperation. music.314) in FY 1987 for each child.000 (US$1. and science.

SECONDARY EDUCATION Lower-Secondary School Lower-secondary school covers grades seven. and nine-. about four times more than the ¥130. with thirty-eight students per class on average. and each class is assigned a homeroom teacher who doubles as counselor. The teacher.children between the ages of roughly twelve and fifteen--with increased focus on academic studies. Instruction in lower-secondary schools tends to rely on the lecture method. however.592 (US$3. and there is some laboratory Page 22 of 92 International Marketing Country Notebook: Japan . fewer than 4 percent did so by the late 1980s. Teachers also use other media. moves to a new room for each fifty-minute period. Unlike elementary students. eight. Classes are large. Private schools were costly.989) per student in 1988. such as television and radio. but 5 percent were private. most lower-secondary schools in the 1980s were public.828 (US$934) that the ministry estimated as the cost for students enrolled in public lower secondary schools. 99 percent of whom were men in 1988. 2. Schools are headed by principals. The teaching force in lower-secondary schools is two-thirds male. rather than the students. Teachers often majored in the subjects they taught. and more than 80 percent graduated from a four-year college. Although it is still possible to leave the formal education system after completing lower secondary school and find employment. lower-secondary school students have different teachers for different subjects. Like elementary schools. averaging ¥558.

Page 23 of 92 International Marketing Country Notebook: Japan . usually English. and physical education. Moral education and special activities continue to receive attention. social studies. Students also attend mandatory club meetings during school hours. although it is the chance to meet their friends daily--not the lessons--that is particularly attractive to them. All course contents are specified in the Course of Study for Lower-Secondary Schools. To improve instruction in spoken English. Others. including schools that used them only for administrative purposes. mathematics. Some subjects.000. the government invites many young native speakers of English to Japan to serve as assistants to school boards and prefectures under its Japan Exchange and Teaching Program. fine arts. such as Japanese language and mathematics. are coordinated with the elementary curriculum. By lower-secondary school. students are expected to have mastered daily routines and acceptable although no longer for reasons of discipline. health. begin at this level. The ministry recognizes a need to improve the teaching of all foreign languages. By 1989 about 45 percent of all public lower-secondary schools had computers. Lower secondary students say they liked school. By 1988 participants numbered over 1. All students also are exposed to either industrial arts or homemaking. Classroom organization is still based on small work groups. music. and many also participate in after-school clubs. especially English. science. The curriculum covers Japanese language. such as foreign-language study.

Mainstreaming in Japan. even though it had been nationally mandated and implemented only in 1979. Private upper-secondary schools account for about 24 percent of all upper-secondary schools.000 (US$2. and neither public nor private schools are free. many parents desire to have their children attend regular schools. it often means attending a regular school that has special classes for handicapped students. The Ministry of Education estimated that annual family expenses for the education of a child in a public upper-secondary school were about ¥300. There are few private institutions for special education. which have departments equivalent to the various levels of elementary and secondary schools. Some students attend regular classes and also special classes for training for their particular needs." In a society that stresses the group. Some teachers are also dispatched to children who cannot attend schools. however.142) in both 1986 and 1987 and that private upper-secondary schools were about twice as expensive. There is still controversy over whether children with special needs can or should be "mainstreamed.Special Education Japanese special education at the compulsory level is highly organized in the late 1980s. Page 24 of 92 International Marketing Country Notebook: Japan . including kindergarten and upper-secondary departments in some cases. There are also special public schools for the handicapped. Upper-Secondary School Even though upper-secondary school is not compulsory in Japan. 94 percent of all lower-secondary school graduates entered upper secondary schools in 1989. does not necessarily mean attending regular classes.

status. prestige.3%.4%. to reach 37. the figure had rapidly climbed to 23. are informally ranked. 3. Higher education system consists of various categories and types of institutions that are different in their missions. having hardly changed at all and showing that entry to higher education was still tinged with a select elitism. The number of students going on to universities or junior colleges also increased. the increase in higher education institutions was very striking. functions. academic standards.1% of the age cohort (15. the figure had risen still further. based on their success in placing graduates in freshman classes of the most prestigious universities. In 2004 the figure eventually Page 25 of 92 International Marketing Country Notebook: Japan . HIGHER EDUCATION The Japanese higher education system can be distinguished as an example of diversified mass higher education in a highly industrialized country. In 1955. the percentage going on to higher education was a mere 10. After World War II. Students are closely counseled in lower-secondary school. But by 1970. the figure had reached 10. and financing methods. 5. and there was substantial pressure to do well in the examinations that determined the upper-secondary school a child entered. Admission also depends on the scholastic record and performance evaluation from lower-secondary school. All upper-secondary schools. but the examination results largely determine school entrance. public and private. private upper-secondary schools occupied the highest levels of this hierarchy. By 1960.0% of boys. especially from the 1960s to the 1980s. In the 1980s.6%. By 1980.0% of girls). so that they will be relatively assured of a place in the schools to which they apply.

and 5-year doctoral programs. with the changing global environment such as an aging population and increasing international competitions. which was drafted after the end of World War II. POLITICAL SYSTEM 1. Japanese higher education is in the mature stage. There are 6-year programs in medicine. The universities. Enacted on May 3. normally 4 years in length. Japanese society faces significant new trends that will have a major impact on its higher education system and affect the mode of its operation. Postgraduate options include 2-year master's degree programs. led primarily by the national universities. universal higher education was seen as having become a reality.htm) C. Some radical reforms such as the incorporation of national universities. They offer a regular undergraduate degree program. More than half the universities have graduate programs and two-thirds of these offer both masters and doctoral level work. expanding competitive resource allocation. In the same way as in the United States. sit at the apex of the hierarchical structure of the postsecondary system.exceeded 50%. POLITICAL STRUCTURE The Japanese political system is based on Japan’s constitution. and the promotion of internationalization are proceeding. 1947. (http://countrystudies. it firmly established a democracy Page 26 of 92 International Marketing Country Notebook: Japan . and veterinary science. initiating the certified evaluation system. However.

Unlike the Americans or the French. district courts. A lay judge system was introduced in May 2009. which. The Diet. The prime minister forms and leads the cabinet of ministers of state. Japan's national parliament. The cabinet. All Japanese citizens can vote in elections once they reach the age of 20. is the highest organ of state power and the sole law-making organ of the state. The Diet comprises the 480-seat House of Representatives (lower house) and the 242-seat House of Councillors (upper house). Page 27 of 92 International Marketing Country Notebook: Japan . and judiciary branches respectively.K. governmental power has been distributed between three branches. all of whom are appointed by the cabinet. and summary courts. Japan has a parliamentary system of government like Britain and Canada.. the Japanese do not elect a president directly. similar to the U. in the exercise of executive power. These entities serve as the form of a constitutional monarchy. Most cases are handled by district courts. the National Diet. such as high courts. Diet members elect a prime minister from among themselves. Judicial power lies with the Supreme Court and lower courts. executive. which deal with problems like traffic violations. Under this system. is responsible to the Diet. and the judiciary sections of the government. From this point forward. the Cabinet. There are also summary courts. maintained its long- standing imperial family as the honorary figurehead of the country. six adult citizens (20 or over) are chosen at random to act as lay judges in criminal cases tried in district courts. The Supreme Court consists of a chief justice and 14 other justices.

It is a unitary state. it is the Cabinet. As in many other states. Their responsibilities include providing education. and is formed by the Prime Minister. the organ of the Legislative branch. His role is ceremonial and he has no powers related to Government. composing of the Ministers of State and the Prime Minister that directs and controls the Government. Instead. who is the head of government.japanindustrynews. The National Diet is the legislature. Their administrative activities bring them into close contact with local people. consisting of two houses with the House of Councilors being the upper house. containing forty-seven administrative divisions. including utilities. and other services and building and maintaining infrastructure.[3][4] He or she is designated by the National Diet and appointed to office by the Emperor. (https://www. welfare. Its members are directly Page 28 of 92 International Marketing Country Notebook: Japan . and the House of Representatives being the lower house. The heads of regional Governments and local assembly members are chosen by local people through elections. There are 47 prefectural and numerous municipal governments in Japan. GOVERNMENT ADMINISTRATION The government of Japan is a constitutional monarchy in which the power of the Emperor is limited and is relegated primarily to ceremonial duties. the Legislative branch and the judicial 2. the Government is divided into three branches: the Executive branch. The Government runs under the framework established by the Constitution of Japan adopted in 1947. with the Emperor as its head of state. It is bicameral. The Cabinet is the source of power of the Executive branch.

meaning of a citizen of a free town). DIVISION OF RESPONSIBILITY BETWEEN LEVELS OF GOVERNMENT The federal level (from the Latin foedus.grips. some natural resources. with responsibilities that are given to them by the federal government. such as education. Sometimes they share responsibility with the federal government. 1867 and that generally affect the whole country. The provincial level (from the Latin provincia. and they are independent from the executive and the legislative who are the source of sovereignty.elected from the people. and vincere. meaning land). Page 29 of 92 International Marketing Country Notebook: Japan . The municipal level (from the Latin municipalis. meaning under Roman rule: from pro. to be in favour of something. to conquer) and the territoriallevel (from the Latin terra. In each of the 10 provinces in Canada. health care. The three territories have their own The Supreme Court and other inferior courts make up the Judicial branch.pdf) 4. This level of government deals with areas of law listed in the Constitution Act. and road regulations. meaning league). the provincial government is responsible for areas listed in the Constitution Act. 1867. (http://www.

Currently Japanese political alignments are undergoing a vigorous transition that Page 30 of 92 International Marketing Country Notebook: Japan . POLITICAL PARTIES Most part of this page is an excerpt from Japan: A Pocket Guide. although lacking any constitutional authority. roadways and parking. They receive authority for these areas from the provincial governments. formed in 1874 under the leadership of TaisukeItagaki. Municipal governments are responsible for areas such as libraries. inaugurating the system of party cabinets. But genro. pp. local police. The first political party to emerge in Japan was the Aikoku Koto (Public Party of Patriots). Across the country there are also band councils.12-18 (Foreign Press Center). In 1898 a cabinet was formed by the leader of a party for the first time. which govern First Nations communities. parks. This is the level of government that is usually based in a city. These elected councils are similar to municipal councils and make decisions that affect their local communities. 1996 Edition. and it was not until after World War II that true party cabinets began to be formed. 4. town or district (a municipality). community water systems. exerted a decisive influence in determining transfers of power. or elder statesmen. Japanese political situation has been dynamically changed since then. The party presented a written petition advocating the establishment of a parliamentary system through public elections. Additional notes were written around 1998 by MK.

kanzaki. two urban prefectures (fu--Kyoto and Osaka). forty-three rural Page 31 of 92 International Marketing Country Notebook: Japan .html) 5.has resulted in the emergence of a number of new parties. The following traces the development of the main parties.  The Liberal Democratic Party  The Social Democratic Party  New Party Sakigake  The New Frontier Party  The Japanese Communist Party  Other Parties  The Democratic Party of Japan (Minshuto)  '96 General Election  The Taiyo Party  LDP challenges majority in Lower House  Shinshinto disbanded  Small parties merge with DPJ  '98 Upper House Election (http://www. LOCAL GOVERNMENT Japan is divided into forty-seven administrative divisions: one metropolitan district (to--Tokyo).com/jimfo/politicalparties.

Cities (shi) are self-governing units administered independently of the larger jurisdictions within which they are located. City government is headed by a mayor elected for four years by popular vote. or subdistricts (shicho) and counties (gun).000 inhabitants. which select ward superintendents. Like the cities. In order to attain shi status. The governor is responsible for all activities supported through local taxation or the national government. Large cities are subdivided into wards (ku). There are also popularly elected city assemblies. They often consist of a number of rural hamlets (buraku) containing several thousand people Page 32 of 92 International Marketing Country Notebook: Japan . a jurisdiction must have at least 30. Departments of agriculture. Villages (son or mura) are the smallest self-governing entities in rural areas. The terms machi and cho designate self-governing towns outside the cities as well as precincts of urban wards. and further split into towns. or precincts (machi or cho). depending on local needs. each has its own elected mayor and assembly. and one district (d --Hokkaido). commerce. All are required by national law to maintain departments of general affairs. welfare. Each of the forty-seven local jurisdictions has a governor and a unicameral assembly. forestry. 60 percent of whom are engaged in urban occupations. both elected by popular vote every four years.prefectures (ken). health. and labor. fisheries. The wards (ku) of larger cities also elect their own assemblies. and industry are optional. finance.

such as Tokyo and Kyoto. Yet local governments are not entirely passive. Because local tax revenues are insufficient to support prefectural and city governments. The result of this power is a high level of organizational and policy standardization among the different local governments. to Page 33 of 92 International Marketing Country Notebook: Japan . in which local jurisdictions largely depend on national government both administratively and financially. as well as other national ministries. TAXATION POWERS Corporations engaged in economic activities in Japan are subject to taxes in Japan on the profits generated by those economic activities. and wish to preserve the uniqueness of their prefecture. the post-war Ministry of Home Some of the more progressive jurisdictions. Japan has a unitary rather than a federal system of government. however. The term "30 percent autonomy" is frequently used to describe local government because that amount of revenues is derived from local taxation. city. has the authority to intervene significantly in regional and local government. People have a strong sense of local community. Villages have mayors and councils elected to four-year terms. (http://countrystudies. have experimented with policies in such areas as social welfare that later were adopted by the national government.htm) 6. are highly suspicious of the central government.connected to one another through the formally imposed framework of village administration. these bodies depend on the central government for subsidies. Although much less powerful than its pre-war counterpart (the Home Ministry). or town. Steps have been taken.

the source country of income). Regarding Japanese branches of foreign corporations.. Due to this. Under the new regulation applicable from the business year commencing on or after April 1. regardless of where it was generated (i. The scope of taxable income of Japanese branches of foreign corporations has changed significantly from the business year commencing on or after April 1. Income of corporations established in Japan is.ensure that the tax system does not impose unfair burdens on multinational corporations engaged in economic activities in Japan on the basis of the mode of their business presence in Japan.e. When calculating the income attributable to the Japanese branch (permanent establishment). 2016. as well as other prescribed income. the income of a Japanese branch subject to taxation will be the income attributable to the Japanese branch (permanent establishment) which is the income earned by the Japanese branch on the basis that if the branch is deemed to be a company which is separated/independent from the head office. foreign tax credits are available whereby taxes paid in a foreign country may be credited within certain bounds against Japanese taxes owed for the purpose of eliminating double taxation between the source country of income and Japan. etc. etc. head office. 2016. as a rule and with the exception of certain non-taxable and tax-exempt income. have been implemented to avoid international double taxation in Japan. the profits/losses Page 34 of 92 International Marketing Country Notebook: Japan . measures such as only certain income is subject to taxation in Japan. but when that income includes profits earned in foreign countries that are taxed in the source countries of that income. Japanese branches. subject to taxation. shall be respectively deemed to be an independent corporation and subject to taxation.

jetro. establishing the Page 35 of 92 International Marketing Country Notebook: Japan . must be presented to the people in a referendum. (https://www. The prime minister must be designated by Diet resolution. LEGAL SYSTEM The Legislature Article 41 of the constitution describes the National Diet. new foreign tax credits have also become available to foreign corporations. or national legislature.htm) C. With the change in the scope of taxable income of Japanese branches (permanent establishment). are to be recognized based on the presumption that transactions are conducted with the arm's length prices. The Diet may conduct "investigations in relation to government" (Article 62). etc. if approved. foreign tax credits are available whereby taxes paid in the third country may be credited within certain bounds against Japanese taxes owed to avoid international double taxation. which.go. This statement is in forceful contrast to the Meiji Constitution. which described the emperor as the one who exercised legislative power with the consent of the Diet. When the income that the Japanese branch (permanent establishment) has earned in a third country which is attributable to the Japanese branch (permanent establishment) is taxable in the third country. The Diet's responsibilities include not only the making of laws but also the approval of the annual national budget that the government submits and the ratification of treaties. It can also initiate draft constitutional amendments.from the internal transactions between the branch and head as "the highest organ of state power" and "the sole law-making organ of the State".

are required to appear before Diet investigative committees and answer inquiries. if the prime minister or members of the House of Representatives decide to hold a general election before the expiration of that term (Article 7). It may be dissolved earlier. which yields a Page 36 of 92 International Marketing Country Notebook: Japan . however. and a national "proportional representation" constituency. and secrecy of the ballot is guaranteed (Article 15). represented by 127 councilors. including the prime minister and cabinet members. Multiple representatives are elected from 130 constituencies based theoretically on population. apportioned according to the district populations. Japan's legislature is bicameral. for the forty-seven prefectures and districts. The term of the House of Representatives is four years. There are two types of constituencies in the upper house: prefectural constituencies. are elective bodies. Members of the House of Councilors have six-year terms. In 1993 the House of Representatives had 511 members.principle of legislative supremacy over executive government agencies (Article 67). Members of the two new houses are elected by universal adult suffrage. Both the upper house. The government can also be dissolved by the Diet if it passes a motion of no confidence introduced by fifty members of the House of Representatives. represented by thirteen councilors." Upon the enactment of the 1947 constitution. One half of these terms expire every three years. Government officials. and the lower house. the lower chamber. The constitution's Article 14 declares that "peers and peerages shall not be recognized. the old House of Peers was abolished. the House of Representatives. The Diet also has the power to impeach judges convicted of criminal or irregular conduct. the House of Councilors.

however. Budgeting is an important annual political function. and the selection of the prime minister. The House of Representatives has the greater power of the two contemporary houses. Critics charged. In all three cases. setting both Page 37 of 92 International Marketing Country Notebook: Japan . According to Article 59. as had previously been the case. the bill becomes law. was the first major electoral reform under the postwar constitution. adoption of treaties with foreign of 140 in 1992. are selected on the basis of the parties' proportions of the total national constituency vote. in contrast to the prewar system in which the two houses had equal status. 61. the LDP and the Japan Socialist Party (Nihon Shakaito. if the upper and lower houses have a disagreement that is not resolved by a joint committee of the two houses. that this new system benefited the two largest parties. The system was introduced to reduce the excessive money spent by candidates for the national constituencies. a bill that is approved by the House of Representatives but turned down by the House of Councilors returns to the House of Representatives. which in fact had sponsored the reform. The proportional representation system. If the latter passes the bill with a two-thirds or higher majority on this second ballot. and 67). Individual councilors. covering the approval of the budget. then after a lapse of thirty days "the decision of the House of Representatives shall be the decision of the Diet" (Articles 60. However. introduced in 1982. three important exceptions to the principle exist. voters cast ballots for parties. after 1991 known as the Social Democratic Party of Japan). listed officially by the parties before the election. Instead of choosing national constituency candidates as individuals.

and the impotence of the upper house has been demonstrated on a number of occasions. In times of emergency. the wrangling caused some minor inconvenience to the country's more than 1 million national civil servants whose monthly salary payments were delayed. 1989. election for half the members of the House of Councilors. This result gave an admittedly unstable coalition of opposition groups the opportunity to use the limited powers of the upper house to delay or frustrate initiatives taken in the LDP-dominated lower house. with its fixed terms. the events showed how opposition control of the upper house could complicate the political process. The more serious Page 38 of 92 International Marketing Country Notebook: Japan . On August 9. In the July 23. the House of Councilors. for the first time in forty-one years. 1989. the largest opposition party. the two houses nominated two different candidates for Prime Minister--KaifuToshiki of the LDP and Doi Takako of the Japan Socialist Party. while the opposition parties together won ninety. In March 1990. Although Kaifu was finally chosen because of the principle of lower house supremacy. Nevertheless. Although the bill was eventually approved despite rejection by the upper house. won forty-six. the upper house rejected a supplementary budget bill for fiscal year (FY) 1989 that had been proposed by the lower house.taxes and the allowable expenditures of all segments of the central government. the cabinet may convene the House of Councilors rather than the House of Representatives (Article 54). It won only thirty-six of the seats contested in the prefectural and national constituencies. cannot be dissolved by the prime minister. the Japan Socialist Party. the LDP lost its majority.

thirty- three seats short of the simple majority required to control the 511-member lower house. The LDP won 223 seats in the July 1993 House of Representatives election. the Democratic Socialist Party.htm) 2. Few rules prescribed how disputes should be resolved. was able to gain the support of the Shinseito. The closest counterpart to the Western lawyer was the kujishi. which might have occurred had there been a real deadlock or a potential shift in fiscal policies brought about by the opposition parties. the other Western. In early 1994. (http://countrystudies. Remarkably Page 39 of 92 International Marketing Country Notebook: Japan . Conciliation was emphasized in response to social pressures exerted through an expanded family unit and a close-knit one indigenous Japanese. With postelection adjustments and realignments. Japanese law developed independently of Western influences. Hosokawa Morihiro. was avoided. and United Social Democratic Party to form a minority government. it remained to be seen how long and how effectively Prime Minister Hosokawa would be able to hold the coalition together. an innkeeper who developed a counseling function. Before Japan’s isolation from the West was ended in the mid-19th century.upheaval. the law as it has developed in Japan as a consequence of a meld of two cultural and legal traditions. the Social Democratic Party of Japan. JAPANESE LAW Japanese law. the Komeito. the Japan New Party head. This coalition of small conservative parties that had broken off from the LDP and socialist-based opposition parties differed on many issues but shared the common objective of passing political reform legislation. the Sakigake.

which had reflected traditional Japanese attitudes.little law in the modern sense existed. Fundamental changes inevitably followed Japan’s sudden involvement with the Western world after the Meiji Restoration of 1868. best characterized as following the first draft of the German Civil Code. largely as a result of the post-World War II occupation and of later contacts with U. Many aspects of labour and corporation law are U. In legal matters the Japanese took for models the systems of continental Europe. completed the transition of Japanese civil law to the continental European family of laws. The introduction of Western law was one element in a wholesale importation of things Western. however. Japan sought to construct an economic. and preserving national independence. and common laws. ideas. political. a static society. The drafters of the Japanese Civil Code of 1896 surveyed many legal systems. Japanese law is closer to that of the United States than to European models. ending extraterritoriality. which officially discouraged commercial activity.S. Swiss. In its subsequent development the Japanese legal system remained true to these sources. and legal structure capable of commanding respect internationally. The absence of a special hierarchy of administrative courts is consistent with U. however. Their final product is. The examination of witnesses in civil cases is now (at least theoretically) modelled on U. legal thinking and education. procedure.S. The 1947 revisions of the code provisions dealing with relatives and succession. including the French. Page 40 of 92 International Marketing Country Notebook: Japan . On some points.S. apparently neither desired nor needed a developed legal order. especially the German. taking something from each.-inspired.S.

and middle-sized firms. The paucity of Japanese decisions involving automobile accidents. The notion that a business is analogous to a family unit persists and typically influences labour relations. manufacturer’s liability for defective products. who also may note the small size of the Japanese bar and the persistence of extra-legal methods of resolving disputes. Local police stations provide conciliation rooms. In the Page 41 of 92 International Marketing Country Notebook: Japan . For many purposes a family transcending the nuclear family still exists. the Japanese legal order differs markedly from all Western legal orders. Most importantly. moreover. in its rules and institutions. SIMILAR TOPICS  Greek law  Adat  Egyptian law  Roman law  Chinese law  Scottish law  Common Law  Roman-Dutch law  Civil Law  Soviet law Nevertheless. law in Japan plays a far less pervasive role in resolving disputes and creating and adjusting rules regulating conduct. In many ways. especially in small. the Japanese legal system is closer to the civil law of Europe than to the common law. Elders act as go-betweens. and nuisance may be surprising to Westerners.

(https://www.britannica. INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY RIGHTS Intellectual property rights in Japan primarily consist of patents. electronics. computer programs and business methods. The scope of protection under the Patent Law extends to such fields as mechanical engineering. and community pressure is extremely powerful. biotechnology. Now that Japan has become a dominant world economic power and has increased its global geopolitical presence. law may come to play a role there more akin to its role in the West. A "device" is defined as a creation of a technical idea utilizing a law of nature.relatively homogeneous Japanese society. Accordingly. the creation need not be highly advanced for utility models. utility model law) 3. protection of trade secrets and protection from unfair competition. In addition. mechanized society. design rights. trademark rights. copyrights. which are defined in the Patent Law as highly creative technological ideas utilizing laws of nature. The Utility Model Law of Japan (the "Utility Model Law") offers protection for "devices" which relate to the shape or construction of articles or a combination of articles. Unlike patents. social status carries heavy obligations. agricultural economy to an urban. the sociological supports essential to the continued vitality of the Japanese conception of law are being undercut by the shift from a rural. chemical engineering. The Patent Law of Japan (the "Patent Law") offers protection for "inventions". if an Page 42 of 92 International Marketing Country Notebook: Japan .

In Japan. A design must be specified b y drawings attached to the application. pattern. such as manufacturing or marketing methods. a handle of a cup). The Unfair Competition Prevention Law defines trade secrets as technical or business information useful in commercial activities. Under the Design Law of Japan (the " Design Law"). trade secrets are protected under both of the Unfair Competition Prevention Law and the Civil Code of Japan. or the combination of these. scientific. it could still qualify for utility model. in any article that produces an aesthetic impression on a viewer of the article. which was revised extensively in 1999.invention does not qualify for patent because of its level of creativity. or coloring. rather they are granted by JPO to applicants for trademark registration upon completion of the trademark registration. Under the Trademark Law of Japan (the "Trademark Law"). The Copyright Law protects only expression of a work but any idea underlying in the work. trademark rights do not come into existence by use of a trademark.g. a "design" is defined as the shape. The Copyright Law of Japan (the "Copyright Law") extends its protection to “work”. it must be tangible and be capable of mass-production. which are kept secret and not publicly Page 43 of 92 International Marketing Country Notebook: Japan . While such article includes a part of a product (e. artistic or musical domains. which is defined as a creative expression of thoughts or sentiment that falls within the literary. The Copyright Law specifically confirms that computer program and database are included in such “work”.

Japanese human development may be seen as a movement toward mastery of an ever expanding circle of social life. The Unfair Competition Prevention Law provides for fifteen (15) types of “unfair competition”. (ii) trade secret misappropriation (as discussed in the above). a parent-teacher association member. socialization does not culminate with adolescence. for example. for the individual must learn to be. (v) false advertisement (vi) commercial disparagement. beginning with the family. inferior. from the beginning infants are influenced by society's emphasis on social interdependence. or a grandparent at various points in life. (http://countrystudies. widening to include school and neighborhood as children grow. (www. and designates trade secrets misappropriation as “unfair competition” comprehensively under six (6) categories.htm) Page 44 of 92 International Marketing Country Notebook: Japan . trademark or other indication. In fact.ictregulationtoolkit. and (vii) unauthorized use of principal’s trademark by an agent or ex- agent in Japan.known. a section chief. SOCIAL ORGANIZATION From birth. (iv) unjustifiable acquisition and use of domain name similar to other’s trade 4. (iii) circumvention of effective technological measures (as required under the WIPO Copyright Treaty and the WIPO Performances and Phonograms Treaty).us/japan/68. Japanese are recognized as autonomous human beings. and superior. and incorporating roles as colleague. However. Viewed in this perspective. which extend to (i) passing off.

the prominence of dating rises significantly during college and beyond. which are basically popular bars that also serve large meals. typically at some form of restaurant or izayaka. There is an enormous expanse and variance when it comes to how people meet and start their relationships. When it comes to beginning a relationship in Japan. and hopefully phone numbers and/or e-mails are exchanged. starting a relationship can be a daunting and scary process for many in Japan. (Note: E-mailing is still somewhat popular in Japan even with the enormous Page 45 of 92 International Marketing Country Notebook: Japan . Essentially. primarily due to the high demand on the students to get into a good college. or what we might refer to as "group dating". most do no begin to date until sometime after high school. and students will simply be entirely too occupied with school and studying to give it any legitimate consideration. After some initial communicating and socially encouraging games amongst the each other. possibly due to the lack of developing communication or flirtation skills with the opposite sex during adolescence. As such. if a single male and female know one another. the level of shyness seems to be significantly magnified. RELATIONSHIP OF THE PEOPLE In Japan. they will typically arrange to bring an additional 3 or 4 other eligible friends and all meet up together. One of these practices is called gōkon.A. and it is extremely popular in Japan. and so they try to find ways to help eliminate this potential awkwardness and difficulty. Even with the potential that waits within school or work. the same sexes get together and discuss who is interested in whom. This is indefinitely reflected through the numerous dating services and practices readily available and encouraged in the culture. Parents typically will discourage any form of dating.

popularity of cell phones). This type of dating is quite prevalent; most are very wary of a

one-on-one situation when first meeting individuals, as most people come to know others

through third party introductions in Japan.

Some forms of meeting people to date take on a more time-tested cultural

approach (though not as popular as it has been in the past) called Omiai, where the

parents of a son or daughter will undergo a search process to find an appropriate mate if

they seem to show little interest in seeking a partner of their own, helping to ensure they

marry before acceptable window of marriageable age closes (22-30). The parents may or

may not mention to the child they are doing such, and will typically employ a third party

called a nakōdo, who will often have a wide range of contacts, and will act as a go-

between for two parties seeking to have their children meet others. Then, "portfolios" of

the potential mates are analyzed as provided by the nakōdo, which typically include

photographs and a rirekisho, or what we would consider as a resume, that includes other

basic information concerning the individual, such as age, occupation, etc. Once the best

candidates are selected, which is often based primarily on occupation and education level,

there is then a further level of investigation done by either the nakōdo them self, or by

a Kooshinjo, or detective agency, they hire. If all criteria are acceptable to both parties,

and the potential couple do not reject based on the photos, then the nakōdo will arrange

an interview for a miai, or essentially, the first casual meeting between the potential

couple, the parents, and the nakōdo. During the miai, there is generally an introduction by

the nakōdo, a lot of small talk between the parents, and then the couple is sent off to get

to know one another better. In Japan, being courteous is priority number one, whether or
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not you enjoyed yourself at a first date/meeting or not. Generally, one party will E-Mail

the other, telling the other that they enjoyed themselves and wish to continue further by

going out again, or just thank them for the nice time, which may or may not imply that

they would not be interested in another meeting. Typically, if a meeting is desired, either

party will send another message within a week or so, otherwise, it is assumed that they

wish to go their separate ways. This is the accepted way to do it; in fact, it is primarily the

exception for someone to flat out deny or reject someone unless it's absolutely necessary

to do so, as they would rather just...disappear, and try to avoid conflicts and

confrontations whenever possible. Even after dating for years, there have been cases

where the significant other just flat out disappears and drops all communication, as they

find it easier this way. The potential to date depends on a common dating custom

called kokohaku, or "confession", which you may find similar to our dating culture.

Basically, the man or woman must first profess their love for the other person, and then,

depending on if the other person equally confesses their love, they can then begin to date

one another. In the case of Omiai, there is very little focus on actual dating. If the miai

was successful, then the couple will go on a series of dates, after which a decision is

made as to whether or not they decide to marry, which is typically decided by the third or

so date. If they choose to marry, they undergo a formal marriage process called miai

kekkon arranged by the groom’s family. If they choose not to marry, then they typically

each go their separate ways. In Japan, showing affection for your loved one in public is

considered rude or shameful. This includes kissing, holding hands, hugging, or basically

any physical contact, so often times, you would never know that people were actually
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couples. Kissing is even extremely rare in Japanese films. Some even consider kissing in

public places to be a sign of weakness. An interesting side note on affection: The

Japanese will often say "I Love You" to foreigners in English, and can vary between

platonic or non-platonic meaning, naturally depending on the situation. However, "I love

you" is more equivalent to our "I like you", as they have their own serious words for love

as we commonly think of it. The average age for a typical Japanese citizen to get married

is 30.5 for men and 28.5 for women. Legally, men can marry at 18 and women at 16. The

age of 25 is generally considered a reasonable, acceptable age for a woman to get

married. The average amount of people who get married per year is 6 per 1000, and the

average divorce rate is 2 per 1000. Marriage rates have generally been on the decline for

a variety of factors since the 70's, where 10 per 1000 got married. As a side note, roughly

5-6% of all Japanese marry a foreigner. In Japan, you generally pick between a more

westernized style of marriage, and the classical Shinto style; Shinto mostly occurs for

those who marry through Omiai, as many Japanese now prefer a more westernized style.

Naturally, there is also a hybrid of the two as well.

Despite what is commonly assumed to be the norm, arranged marriages only

make up 10-30% (some say less than 10%, some say 20%, some say at most 30%) of all

Japanese marriages today. Marriage was originally looked at as a "had to", and was

primarily done for having children/settling down with someone reliable. Today however,

many more marriages are done out of love for one another, although there is still a lot of

extra-marital affairs in Japan, which actually go mostly ignored in a lengthy marriage,

especially one done out of arrangement and not love. The booming sex and prostitution
Page 48 of 92

International Marketing Country Notebook: Japan

whether it be school. It runs through every facet of their lives. Every Japanese person's life is centred in a group.and implies a deep social interdependence. you will be forced to conform. and 1/3 was completely sexless. (http://outsiderjapan. A common Japanese proverb says: "The head of the nail that sticks up is pounded down. This concept governs individual beliefs and behaviour as well as social structure. is the equivalent of non-existence. work.pbworks. The concept most fundamental to understanding this emphasis on group is Japan is amae (ah-mah-ee). To meld. Japanese children are taught early to express loyalty to each other and to be both dependent and responsible to the groups to which they belong. as supposedly. It literally means -. This idea has come to be known as "sexless". GROUP BEHAVIOR The Japanese emphasis on group extends far beyond the family. and is widely recognized as to its meaning and relation to Japanese marriages. or play. and exclusion from such a structure. to be one with others is not only socially important."to look to others for affection" -. In Page 49 of 92 International Marketing Country Notebook: Japan . if you are different or out. One survey found that 1/6 found that sex was simply a chore." In others words. it is essential for survival.industry may also be a problem. with some people never having sex after having their %20in%20Modern%20Japan) B. many marriages end up very stale sex- wise.

and corporations. Because of the cultural emphasis on the authority of the group. Page 50 of 92 International Marketing Country Notebook: Japan . clubs. the Japanese word for individualism (kojin-shugi) has negative connotations of selfishness rather than self-reliance. But as long as someone is tanin." Tanin includes everyone with who one does not have a ninjo or giri relationship. they just do it as part of growing up and establishing bonds beyond family in school. which refers to the interdependence similar to an unwritten social contract. that sense of duty and obligation to those who are a member of the same group (classmate. The Japanese depends on the group throughout their lives for approval and gratification. They are who they are because of whom they are dependent upon. The threat of ostracism or abandonments is one of the most devastating to the Japanese. club. co-worker). study groups. ninjo. The Japanese word for that relationship. Japanese place the desire and needs of the group before their own individual desires and needs. or company group is basically unbreakable. study. means "spontaneously arising feelings. a Japanese person has no real relationship with them. The best model of amae is the relationship between baby and parent. Amae relationships in Japanese social groups are called giri.fact. The Japanese term for people outside the group is tanin (tah-nin) or "other people. Japanese don't think about amae. Naturally.similarly one's school. one's parents can never be tanin since that is an unbreakable bond -.

The degree of group loyalty is strongest towards the inner circle (family). sitting down. Amae teaches the Japanese to be comfortable with identifying and assimilating." another essential Japanese trait/ value. A Japanese child will rarely confront or provoke a classmate because he or she has been taught that such behaviour is childish and shameful. Outside that is everyone else. In first grade. Page 51 of 92 International Marketing Country Notebook: Japan . are firmly learned. The middle circle contains friends. This helps explain why Japanese have been so open (particularly since World War II) to incorporate many aspects of US culture. who are generally ignored. they will attempt to identify with them and adopt their ways. children begin to identify with a group outside the home. notebooks on right. Japanese take care to avoid confrontation and conflict. switching outside for inside shoes. Starting with preschool. between a person and those who have authority over that person. Each youngster carries a book bag made by his or her mother based on exact instructions from the school on how it is to be constructed. co-workers. Nothing is left to chance and "academic" lessons don't start until the rules which teach group conformity. standing up. A concept closely related to amae is wa (wah) or "harmony. children spend many days repeatedly placing pencils at top of desk.e. classmates. If that doesn't work (and strangers can no longer be ignored). taking notes. and learning how to answer questions. bowing. Wa works horizontally among group members while amae works vertically between groups in a hierarchy (i. Then they act superior (an old battle strategy). The Japanese tends to ignore the world of strangers until they are perceived as a threat or interest.

They Page 52 of 92 International Marketing Country Notebook: Japan . and of course was the person that defeated all of the opposing Daimyo. The Shogun was the leader of society.html) E. If a high school student gets in trouble (traffic ticket). because they essentially chose who the next leader of Japan would be. Even lunch is brought to the home room. with an Emperor as the figure head. there were the merchants. Also there were the ninjas and Samurai. The farmers played an important part in Feudal Japan. (https://www. and the Daimyo. won the throne. The Daimyo also had personal armies of Samurai and Ninjas. After the Shogun fell. After the Daimyo were the peasants. SOCIAL CLASSES AND CLASS SYSTEM Feudal Japanese Social Classes Feudal Japan was made up of social classes. consisting of the Shogun. At the top were the nobility. The merchants were considered nothing more than greedy pigs. They got most of their food from the Japanese farmers. The Daimyo were the rich land owners. The Emperor. the whole school feels responsible. After the Emperor were the Daimyo. especially for the Shogun and Emperor. To be sure children are not misbehaving. This class consisted of occupations such as farmers and artisans. Japanese junior and senior high school students are also loyal to their home The Ninjas and Samurai played an important part in society. No! They weren't a governing body! They just fought in wars by their Daimyo's side. Teachers come for each subject (except science and art where students go to the lab or studio).andrews. Whoever proved to be the strongest. And finally after the peasants. the Daimyo fought over land and the throne.

farming peasants. As this indicates. along with its social classes was abolished after World War II. and outcast classes including eta and hinin (those sold or sentenced into indentured servitude) were not Page 53 of 92 International Marketing Country Notebook: Japan . This system was based on the ideas of Confucianism that spread to Japan from japanese-social-classes/) The Tokugawa government intentionally created a social order called the four divisions of society (Shinokosho) that would stabilize the country. the classes were not arranged by wealth or capital but by what philosophers described as their moral purity. society was composed of samurai. In actuality. sometimes in Feudal Japan the merchants would buy or sometimes even steal goods from peasants and re-sell them out in a local market for a profit. Samurai were placed at the top of society because they started an order and set a high moral example for others to follow. Feudal Japan. By this system. The system was meant to reinforce their position of power in society by justifying their ruling status. (https://prezi.played the role of what is known in our society as the middle man. society could not survive without agriculture. For example. artisans and merchants. shinokosho does not accurately describe Tokugawa society. Peasants came second because they produced the most important commodity. Third were artisans because they produced nonessential goods. or court nobles (kuge). food. Merchants were at the bottom of the social order because they generated wealth without producing any goods. According to Confucian philosophy. Buddhist and Shinto priests.

in turn. the theory provided grounds for restricting privileges and responsibilities to different classes and it gave a sense of order to society. solidified social relationships in general helped create the political stability that defined the Edo period. Although they made up only about 10% of the population. samurai and their daimyo lords wielded enormous power.included in this description of hierarchy. When a samurai passed. Although Page 54 of 92 International Marketing Country Notebook: Japan . According to Confucian ideals. a poor samurai could be little better off than a peasant and the lines between the classes could blur. answered only to the shogun. In practice. Still. Samurai answered only to the daimyo for which they worked. especially between artisans and merchants in urban areas. In some cases. the samurai was legally entitled to chop off the recalcitrant person's head. If a farmer or artisan refused to bow. Peasants Just below the samurai on the social ladder were the farmers or peasants. The daimyo. farmers were superior to artisans and merchants because they produced the food that all the other classes depended upon. members of the lower classes were required to bow and show respect. There were about 260 daimyo by the end of the feudal era. Samurai Feudal Japanese society was dominated by the samurai warrior class.

and woodblock prints. but the higher classes were forbidden to mix with them except on business. such as clothes. farmers were not allowed to eat any of the rice they grew. and from the lower merchant class. they were considered less important than the farmers. During the reign of the third Tokugawa shogun. The artisan class lived in its own section of the major cities. segregated from the samurai (who usually lived in the daimyos' castles). The bottom rung of feudal Japanese society was occupied by merchants.technically they were considered an honored class. Not only did merchants live in a separate section of each city. the farmers lived under a crushing tax burden for much of the feudal era. They had to hand it all over to their daimyo and then wait for him to give some back as charity. Even skilled samurai sword makers and boat wrights belonged to this third tier of society in feudal Japan. Merchants were ostracized as "parasites" who profited from the labor of the more productive peasant and artisan classes. Merchants and artisans Although artisans produced many beautiful and necessary goods. both traveling traders and shop-keepers. cooking utensils. Iemitsu. Page 55 of 92 International Marketing Country Notebook: Japan .

Of those 130 million. which was making life difficult for some particular race in Korea. many merchant families were able to amass large fortunes.about. As their economic power grew. However.htm) D. due to race discrimination. so did their political influence. ETHNIC GROUPS OR RACES The Japanese people are a cohesive ethnic group originating from the Japanese chain of islands. The 2nd wave of immigration was during the World War II. there is about 200. Nonetheless. about 127 million are residents of Japan. and the restrictions against them weakened. Koreans in Japan The Koreans have settled in Japan from the early years of the 20th century. American ethnic groups in Japan The Americans have existed in Japan since the 2nd half of the 19th century. (http://asianhistory. The total number of Koreans in Japan had surpassed 3 million in these Page 56 of 92 International Marketing Country Notebook: Japan . Today. Japan is one of the most homogeneous countries in the world in terms of ethnic or national composition. The immigration of Koreans to Japan was mainly to escape the tremendous pressures. they were granted citizenship after the end of the 1st decade of the century.000 Americans in Japan. There are roughly 130 million people of Japanese descent. It ranks 5th in the minority ethnic groups classification on the basis of the size of the population.

(https://thetranslationcompany. Kobe.htm) 5. BUSINESS ETIQUETTE AND PROTOCOL IN JAPAN Understanding of Foreign Ways Japanese understand that it is very difficult for foreigners to work in Japan.They will not expect you to speak or read language/japanese-ethnic-groups. Some of the areas where the Chinese population is settled. Today. Osaka. Filipinos in Japan It is observed that the Filipino immigration was prominent in the last three decades. This practice has been consistent over the recent years. the Chinese visited and settled in Japan for taking higher education. as there were several opportunities in Japan than the Philippines. In the later years of the 20th century. there are more than half a million people with Chinese ethnicity staying in Japan. BUSINESS CUSTOMS AND PRACTICES A. There were continuous immigration of the Chinese to Japan in the following centuries. Nagasaki and Yokohama. These were mainly in the form of workers for the huge manufacturing corporations based in Japan.000 Filipinos in Japan during the latest years. Chinese in Japan Chinese ethnic groups are said to have existed in Japan since the 3rd century. in Japan include: Tokyo. or be conversant with their strict cultural Page 57 of 92 International Marketing Country Notebook: Japan . which has resulted into over 500.

should be made several weeks in advance. with the rest of the people in descending rank until the most junior person is seated closest to the door.nuances and protocol. Punctuality is important. Relationships & Communication The Japanese prefer to do business on the basis of personal relationships. It is best to telephone for an appointment rather than send a letter. Since this is a group society. They will usually try to help you but often feel embarrassment at their own lack of understanding or English language ability. It is important to be a good correspondent as the Japanese hold this in high esteem. even if you think you will be meeting one person. being introduced or recommended by someone who already has a good relationship with the company is extremely helpful as it allows the Japanese to know how to place you in a hierarchy relative to themselves. This initial getting to know you time is crucial to laying the foundation for a successful relationship. The most senior Japanese person will be seated furthest from the door. fax or email. It may take several meetings for your Japanese counterparts to become comfortable with and be able to conduct business with you. Mistakes are allowed as long as genuine respect is shown at all times. Arrive on time for meetings and expect your Japanese colleagues will do the same. Business Meeting Etiquette Appointments are required and. You may be awarded a small amount of business as a trial to see Page 58 of 92 International Marketing Country Notebook: Japan . be prepared for a group meeting. One way to build and maintain relationships is with greetings /seasonal cards. whenever possible. In general.

Never lose your temper or raise your voice during negotiations. The Japanese often remain silent for long periods of time. They expect both parties to come to the table with their best offer. Using a Japanese lawyer is seen as a gesture of goodwill. Always provide a package of literature about your company including articles and client testimonials. Japanese prefer broad agreements and mutual understanding so that when problems arise they can be handled flexibly. you prove your ability and trustworthiness. The Japanese are looking for a long-term relationship. Group decision-making and consensus are important. Your Japanese contact can advise you on where to find something appropriate. The Japanese do not see contracts as final agreements so they can be renegotiated. as a token of your esteem. They have difficult time saying ‘no’ so you must be vigilant at observing their non-verbal communication. Written contracts are required. Never refuse a request. It is best to phrase questions so that they can answer yes. The Japanese seldom grant concession. Some Japanese close their eyes when they want to listen intently. no matter how difficult or non-profitable it may appear. Always give a small gift. and present it to the most senior person at the end of the meeting. If you respond quickly and with excellent service. Note that Japanese lawyers are quite different from Western lawyers as they are much more functionary.if you meet your commitments. Business Negotiation The Japanese are non-confrontational. Page 59 of 92 International Marketing Country Notebook: Japan . Be patient and try to work out if your Japanese colleagues have understood what was said.

When the meeting is over. BUSINESS ETHICS AND FRAMEWORKS In Japan. emphasize that not only individuals but also groups have their own Page 60 of 92 International Marketing Country Notebook: Japan . treat the business card you receive as you would the person. conservative business suits. and other traditional and modern Japanese religions. The normative environments.Dress Etiquette Business attire is conservative. Make sure your business card includes your title. Women should dress conservatively. Examine any business card you receive very carefully. (commisceo- global. influenced by Confucianism. place the business cards on the table in front of you in the order people are seated. Business cards are given and received with two hands and a slight bow. Always keep your business cards pristine condition. It is wise to have one side of your business card translated into Japanese. Men should wear dark-colored. Invest in quality B. During a meeting. Buddhism. You may be given a business card that is only in Japanese. put the business cards in a business card case or a portfolio. so your Japanese colleagues know your status within your organization. ethics is bound up with a religious dimension (two normative environments) and a social dimension (a framework of concentric circles). Business Cards Business cards are exchanged constantly and with great ceremony. Give your business card with the Japanese side facing the recipient.

with the elders of the village playing an important role. The dynamics of these religious and social dimensions lead to a different view of both individuals and corporations from that dominant in the West. groups. Due to its economies of scale.” In Page 61 of 92 International Marketing Country Notebook: Japan . when a large proportion of the Japanese population lived in rice farming villages. The framework of concentric circles lets moral agents apply different ethical rules to the circles. (wiley encyclopedia of management) C. the Japanese are likely to categorize them into four concentric circles: family. fellows. It’s much easier to band together. It’s no coincidence that Time magazine would invoke cowboy imagery to describe President Bush as being a “lone ranger. taken together. There are mainly two influential normative environments in Japan: the transcendental normative environment and the group normative environment. Decisions were made collectively as well.spirit (numen). Japanese corporations should have access channels through which newcomers can approach equally. constitute the overall social environment. rice farming is not something that it makes sense to do on one’s own. the decision-making processes common in American business (and society in general) were formed on the frontier. In contrast. as an ethical responsibility. Although there are many individuals. and organizations that. and the world. so whole communities would pool their labor and work all their fields together as a group. To provide opportunities for others to enter the Japanese market. DECISION MAKING The decision-making process of Japanese firms has its roots in Japan’s feudal period. Japan.

either from nature or human adversaries.” The frontier life also involved a lot of experimentation and improvisation. Even today. it ensures that all parts of the organization are on board with a decision and are prepared to implement it. For these reasons. one seldom sees any Japanese person who tries to change how decisions are made in their firms. the image of the cowboy who uses his gun to defend himself is invoked when describing someone who is decisive – “quick on the draw. And the thorough data gathering and analysis create careful. it seems that Japanese businesspeople seem to regard how their companies make decisions as a fact of life that cannot be changed. Talk to any Japanese company employee. It vets ideas with a wide variety of perspectives. The Japanese decision-making process does have advantages.the frontier’s wide open spaces. and he or she will admit that it takes a long time to make decisions in their company. and tinkering with things until they worked. Page 62 of 92 International Marketing Country Notebook: Japan . well-thought-out decisions. it makes the group feel included. By giving many people the opportunity to participate. or who tries to speed up a decision-making process. It was also often the case that they had to respond quickly to unexpected or unfamiliar developments. due to the number of people who look at any given potential decision. When executed correctly. However. They will admit that the process is quite frustrating at times. In a sense. Japanese companies have mixed feelings about their decision-making processes. people were physically separated from others and had to make decisions on their own.

However. Always allow slightly more time than you think might be necessary to achieve your goals Meetings are often preceded by C. Although it is important to search for a solution. each of which is concerned with the preservation of Wa. Show your impatience at your peril. No individual will wish to proffer a strong opinion. The concept of Wa. Japanese decisions are reached through a process of consensus-building meetings. this must not be achieved at the expense of disturbing the peace. Page 63 of 92 International Marketing Country Notebook: Japan .Japanese tend to feel comfortable with their companies’ decision-making processes. lies at the heart of the Japanese approach to meetings. non-business polite conversation which could cover such topics as mutual contacts. it can very often be difficult to determine a finish time. Japanese food etc. Do not become exasperated by this use of your time. as it is an essential element of the relationship-building process. the merits of your company. This means that the decision- making process can seem very long and drawn out. which might cause some form of confrontation and therefore affect War. even if they are time-consuming and cumber (japanintercultural. Patience is essential in these situations. as to show impatience could have an adverse effect on the all-important Wa. due to the consensus nature of decision making in Japan. MEETINGS Punctuality is important — it shows respect for the attendees. which is probably best described by the English word harmony.

Business Cards It is important. Richard Porter and Edwin McDaniel put it in Communication between Cultures. Don't write on it or leave it behind. Cards are presented at an early stage in a formal manner. Avoid giving gifts in quantities of four or nine as these are unlucky numbers. Gifts should always be wrapped. silence is valued over an overabundance of talking. place the cards carefully on the table in front of you with the senior person's card on the top. Anything sharp could signify the desire to end a relationship. is always an appreciated gift. Present and receive the card with two hands. "silence is linked to credibility.) Treat your Japanese contact's card with respect — the card is the man. (Present your card Japanese side up. Gift Giving Gift giving is an endemic part of Japanese business life and should not be confused with notions of bribery and corruption. as this would show disrespect. During the meeting. when doing business in Japan that you have a plentiful supply of business cards — with information printed on the back in Japanese. As Larry Samovar. It is important to take a number of small gifts to Japan to distribute to new and existing contacts. Gifts should not be too lavish but should always be of good quality. especially good single malt whiskey. Alcohol." Silence speaks loudly about wisdom and Page 64 of 92 International Marketing Country Notebook: Japan . BUSINESS ROLES Silence is Golden In a business setting.

such as. Singling out an individual in the group for special recognition. formal approach. but not ten in a bundle. made this astute observation about silence: "In times of stress or difficulty during a meeting. While we value individual contributions and strongly believe in recognition and individual praise. This may run counter to our approach back at home. The Japanese have many proverbs that signal the importance that they place on silence. the Japanese will often resort to silence in order to release the tension in the room and allow people to move away from the area of difficulty (to preserve harmony which is tantamount). World Business Culture A company that specializes in global cultural differences." Take a cue from your Japanese counterparts and tailor your approach. "The duck that quacks is the first to get shot. There is strength in the group. Group Solidarity is Paramount It's widely known that Japan is a group-oriented culture—group solidarity is valued over individualism. especially at the beginning of a business relationship." This cultural mind-set impacts certain behaviors such as how praise is received. as the famous Japanese saying implies: "A single arrow is easily broken.emotional self-control. is likely to be better received when doing business in Japan. the opposite is true in Japan. no matter Page 65 of 92 International Marketing Country Notebook: Japan ." Resist the urge to fill the silence with more talk about an issue your Japanese counterpart would rather avoid at the moment. where being more outgoing can facilitate communication. A more introverted.

Always remember that the team concept is very important for the Japanese and strive to give public credit to the entire group. It's considered a big faux pas to place their business card in your back pocket or wallet. have the Japanese-printed side facing the person you are offering it helpful he is to you. Business Cards are Talismans For Japanese business professionals. A survey of companies in the Nikkei 225 Index shows that the CEOs of these companies were consistently older than those of other countries. pronounced "MAY- SHEE") is an extension of their identity. age is revered in that country and can be synonymous with rank in a business setting. don't toss or push the card across the table. a business card (Meishi. and give your card with both hands. Accept the card with both hands. When presenting your business card. is likely to embarrass that individual. Treat older executives with a more marked deference than you Page 66 of 92 International Marketing Country Notebook: Japan . briefly read it and place it in your business card holder if you are standing. it's important to observe some engrained rules of etiquette that signal respect for the person. Therefore. Get up and walk over to them. Even if you are sitting far away from the person in a group. if you are seated. The youngest CEO was 43. with an average age of 62. Age Equals Seniority Notwithstanding the many changes in modern Japan. place it on the table for the duration of the meeting and then place it in your business card holder. Hierarchy is paramount.

Rather than be impatient. Privacy is Valued Japanese people are notoriously private and reserved. Hard Sell Doesn't Sell A hard-sell approach will not succeed in Japan. This might be the reason why Japan lags the world in social media adoption. Understand that the Japanese decision-making style is by consensus—trying to speed up the process may appear to be disrespectful of their way of doing business. only 28 percent of Japanese Internet users visit social media sites on a monthly basis. confrontational approach with a gentler. try to see the long process as an opportunity to build trust and cement the relationship. As businessman Jeffrey Hays puts it: "Privacy is important in Japan. Replace the high pressure. Likewise. Don't drive too hard on decisions and deadlines. For example. asking a lot of personal questions at the beginning of the relationship—which to us is a way of building rapport—may be regarded as pushy or rude. Windows are designed so people can't look in. Find points of agreement and build on those. and Page 67 of 92 International Marketing Country Notebook: Japan . offer your business card to the senior person first. be sure to greet the most senior person before you greet others. According to a 2012 article in Ad Age Digital. persuasive presentation that showcases the virtues of what you are proposing. People can have their names removed from phone books if they want." younger ones in the group you're interacting with.

What can possibly go wrong when giving a small gift? Many things. It may have been quaint at one time to be ignorant about the different types of sushi. Furthermore. When you finish eating. especially at the first meeting. use the opposite end of your chopsticks to pick up food to add to your plate.9 percent. Page 68 of 92 International Marketing Country Notebook: Japan . Today. be avoided. as funeral notices are customarily printed in red. lotus blossoms and camellias are used for funeral services and should. this means placing your used chopsticks in their paper envelopes or holder. even if it is slippery. therefore. When you serve yourself from shared dishes. on the damp towel (o- shibori) provided at the start of the meal.S. The same applies for any white flowers. it pays to know some of these differences so as not to appear unsophisticated.8 percent in the U.time spent on social networking in that country is a mere 2. And buying a set of four of anything is deemed unlucky. What You Don't Know Can Hurt You We all know that a business gift exchange is an important tradition in Japan. avoid red. compared to 16. Potted plants also carry negative superstitions. wipe your hands only. The number nine is also inauspicious. if you send Christmas cards. it seems: Flowers such as lilies. Don't use chopsticks to pierce food—pick it up. Chopstick Manners Speak Loudly Unlike on airlines. and replacing lids on small dishes. with the prevalence of sushi restaurants in North America. if there are no utensils for serving yourself. leave your place setting close to how you found it. not your face.

Remember to remove them before going back to your seat. It is also considered in good taste for women not to wear high heels if this results in towering over their male Japanese counterpart. is considered in poor taste. says Terri Morrison. which should only be stepped on with bare feet or socks. CEO of AKI Japan Ltd. And if you wear a kimono. it's noticed and appreciated when you do. Men wear conservative business suits and blend in with the group. For example. There is a lot of goodwill in this—or as David Syrad. If you go to the washroom. When invited to a Japanese home. you have yet another pair of slippers that's reserved for use in the washroom. blowing your nose in public. While you're not expected to know all of this. "Wrap it left over right! Only corpses wear them wrapped right over left. such as in a meeting room. it doesn't stop there. put Page 69 of 92 International Marketing Country Notebook: Japan . It simply means you've done some homework to honor your hosts." The Small Stuff Matters Observing the small details of politeness is a big way of showing respect in Japan. in Doing Business in Japan. and wearing the slippers your Japanese host will provide. However. Women are encouraged to keep jewelry to a minimum so as not to stand out. best to excuse yourself and walk out.. We all know about taking our shoes off at the door. you might have to remove your slippers once inside if you encounter a tatami floor—a type of mat.Honor the Unofficial Dress Code The operative word here for business clothes is conservative.

com) V. RELIGION Religion in Japan is dominated by Shinto (the ethnic religion of the Japanese people) and by Buddhist schools and organizations.3% are Christians. which has about 10 million members in Japan. and especially after World War II. less than 40% of the population of Japan identifies with an organized religion: around 35% are "Use your knowledge of Japanese business etiquette to demonstrate your flexibility and sensibility. Most of the Japanese pray and worship ancestors and gods at Shinto shrines or private altars. 3% to 4% are members of Shinto sects and derived religions. and principles of religious freedom articulated by the constitution provided space for the proliferation of new religious movements." It will pay dividends. a Buddhist sect founded in 1930. or they define membership in Shinto organizations or sects. With the profound changes that the Japanese society has gone through in the 20th century. while not identifying as "Shinto" or "Shintoist" in surveys. The officially recognized new religions number in the hundred. (americanexpress. Scholars in Japan have estimated that between 10% and 20% of the population belongs to the new religions. According to surveys carried out in 2006 and 2008. and from fewer than 1% to 2. This is because these terms have little meaning for the majority of the Japanese. The largest new religion is SokaGakkai. including rapid industrialization and urbanization. and total membership is reportedly in the tens of millions. although more realistic estimates put the number at well below the 10% Page 70 of 92 International Marketing Country Notebook: Japan . traditional religions were challenged by the transformation and underwent a reshaping themselves.

mark. As of 2007, there are 223,831 priests and leaders of the new religions in Japan,

three times the number of traditional Shinto priests.

By 1569 there were 30,000 Christians and 40 churches. Following the conversion of

some lords in Kyushu, mass baptisms of the local populations occurred, and in the 1570s

the number of Christians rose rapidly to 100,000. In the domains of Christian local lords,

non-Christians were forced to accept baptism and shrines; Buddhist temples were

converted into churches or destroyed.

Today, there is 1 to 3 million Christians in Japan, most of them living in the western

part of the country, where the missionaries' activities were greatest during the 16th

century. Nagasaki Prefecture has the highest percentage of Christians: about 5.1% in

1996. As of 2007 there are 32,036 Christian priests and pastors in Japan. Throughout the

latest century, some Western customs originally related to Christianity have become

popular as secular customs among many Japanese.

There are also estimated 15,700 Bahá'ís in 2005. Judaism in Japan is practiced by

about 2,000 Jews living in the country. Jainism is a minority religion in Japan. As of

2009, there were three Jain temples in the country. Muslim immigrant population

amounts to 70,000–100,000 people, while the "estimated number of Japanese Muslims

ranges from thousands to tens of thousands”. Hinduism in Japan is practiced by a small

number of people, mostly immigrants from India. Remaining population has another

religion from East Asia. (

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Japanese literature earliest extant works are the Koji8ki (712) and the Hihongi

(720), which are histories written in Chinese characters used phonetically. The earliest

recorded Japanese poetry is in the Manyoshu (760), which contains poems dating to the

4th century.

Early works of Japanese Literature were heavily influenced by cultural contact

with China and Chinese literature, often written in Classical Chinese. Indian literature

also had an influence though the Diffusion of Buddhism in Japan. Eventually, Japanese

literature developed into a separate style in its own right as Japanese writers began

writing their own works about Japan, although the influence of Chinese literature and

Classical Chinese remained until the end of the Edo period. Since Japan reopened its

ports to western trading and diplomacy in the 19th century, western and eastern literature

have strongly affected each other and continue to do so.


Japanese art covers a wide range of art styles and media, including ancient

pottery, sculpture in wood and bronze, ink painting on silk and paper, calligraphy,

ceramics, architecture, oil painting, literature, drama and music. The history of Japanese

art begins with the production of ceramics by early inhabitants sometime in the tenth

millennium B.C.E. The earliest complex art is associated with the spread of Buddhism in

the seventh and eighth centuries C.E. The arts in Japan were patronized and sustained for

centuries by a series of imperial courts and aristocratic clans, until urbanization and
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International Marketing Country Notebook: Japan

industrialization created a popular market for art. Both religious and secular artistic

traditions developed, but even the secular art was imbued with Buddhist and Confucian

aesthetic principles, particularly the Zen concept that every aspect of the material world is

part of an all-encompassing whole.


When you take a closer look, Japan is one of the world's outstanding nations of

performing arts. There are more than Nogaku(Noh/Kyogen), Bunraku and Kabuki that

are designated to the Intangible Cultural Heritage. Considerable numbers of performing

arts nation-wide are profoundly distinct and highly refined. (


Noh and Kyogen are two inextricably linked performing arts referred to collectively

in Japanese as Nogaku. Noh is the oldest surviving theatrical art in Japan, going back six

hundred years. It has evolved somewhat over time, and took on its present form in the

mid-Edo period (the Edo period as a whole lasting from 1603 to 1867).

Kyogen is performed on the same kind of stage as Noh and is a theatrical art with a

strongly comic tone. Though the comedic element is emphasized in Kyogen, the full

range of human emotions is present in its humor. It is predominantly a spoken form, but

includes some song and dance as well. With equal depth and breadth, Kyogen is also a

highly refined theatrical genre.

Bunraku is the name currently applied to the tradition of Puppet Theater that has

been performed in Osaka, combining spoken and sung narration (joruri), shamisen

musical accompaniment, and puppets (ningyo). Bunraku puppets are manipulated by
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International Marketing Country Notebook: Japan

accompanied by a shamisen player seated next to him.three puppeteers. women: 1296 individuals who completed the questionnaires were included.2% for fruit and that “ability to design meals” and “availability when eating outside of the home” were the most important factors related to self-efficacy and barriers to fruit and vegetable intake. FRUIT AND VEGETABLE CONSUMPTION RATES There is limited evidence in Japan regarding the psychosocial determinants of fruit/vegetable intake. People with high self-efficacy were more likely to consume more fruit and vegetables. People with high scores on attitude and social support were more likely to consume more fruit. (Encyclopedia. This study suggests a need to increase the general population’s awareness of the Page 74 of 92 International Marketing Country Notebook: Japan . LIVING CONDITIONS A. We performed a cross-sectional study of people aged 18 years or older in four regions of Japan. while a narrator. half-spoken intonation. People with high perceived barriers were less likely to consume fruit. respectively. DIET AND NUTRITION VII. There are more theatrical art form in Japan like Kabuki is a theatrical art form of sophisticated and stylized beauty. or tayu.8% of people were aware of the current recommendations for vegetables and 13. 2308: men: 1012. Gagaku refers to a genre of music and dance systematized in Japan in the mid-Heian period (784-1185) and Shomyo is the name for the style of chanting employed by the monks of certain Buddhist schools when they recite the Buddhist scriptures in a half-singing. We found that 24. seated on a small revolving platform to the right of the stage delivers the text of the drama.

3 g and 119. however. Healthy Japan 21 (Ministry of Health. there is limited evidence from Japan that addresses the psychosocial determinants of fruit/vegetable consumption and their relations to daily consumption. The National Health and Nutrition Survey revealed that the average daily consumption of vegetables and fruit was 271. and alterations in the cholesterol metabolism. including psychosocial factors. despite these recommendations vegetable and fruit consumption has remained low among Japanese adults. facilitating positive attitudes. and social support for individuals and strengthening the ability of individuals to design meals with more vegetables and fruit might be useful intervention programs. Therefore. Page 75 of 92 International Marketing Country Notebook: Japan . in 2013.fruit and vegetable intake recommendations. respectively. and hypertension through potential mechanisms such as antioxidant activity. increasing fruit and vegetable intake is one of the public health priorities in Japan. There is increasing recognition of the importance of identifying the psychosocial influences on dietary behaviors for designing effective intervention programs.2 g. stimulation of the immune system. Individual dietary behavior can be influenced by many factors. Labor and Welfare) and the Guidelines for a balanced diet (Ministry of Agriculture. The health benefits of fruit/vegetable consumption are widely accepted. modulation of detoxification enzymes.3 g and 105. cardiovascular disease. especially in the prevention of cancer. in 2011 and 280. stroke. However. self-efficacy.9 g. Forestry and Fisheries) recommend increasing the consumption of vegetables to 350 g or more and fruit to 200 g or more per day to prevent lifestyle-related diseases. decrease in platelet aggregation. respectively.

knowledge. which is better known as miso soup. TYPICAL MEALS Western cooking is a daily part of Japanese life.ncbi. we further suggest some strategies that might be helpful in designing future intervention programs. the elderly.only a few small-scale studies have reported positive associations of 2. responsibility.nlm. Let’s take a look at a typical day in Japanese cooking. or maybe nothing at all. social support.nih. miso shiro. The present study aimed to identify the psychosocial determinants of fruit and vegetable consumption in the general Japanese population and their relationship to daily consumption.  Breakfast Although it’s common for Japanese to rush to work having eaten toast and yogurt. and economic efficiency with vegetable intake. oshinko which are pickles. Based on the results. Every meal begins with cleaning one’s hands with a hot moist towel called an oshibori. Little is known about the association of attitudes. a traditional Japanese breakfast (most often served at a ryokan) consists of yakizakana which is grilled fish. in which the study populations were limited to university students. and a bowl of rice. and women. (.  Lunch Page 76 of 92 International Marketing Country Notebook: Japan . but traditional cooking is still main stream. and perceived barriers with fruit/vegetable intake.

and one hasn’t brought their own bentō box. but often it can be something quick to eat. 7-11 sell a host of items including popular snack foods (such as dried and boiled squid). or as said in Japanese. If there isn’t time to actually sit down at a restaurant. and what aren’t. oden. and stuffed with salmon. but this one is distinctly Japanese. Lunch can take on a variety of forms. as well as nikuman (see below). vegetables and octopus. Family Mart and the well-known American chain. thereby providing suppliers a better understanding of what products are hot. bentō boxes. Here is a list of common lunch time foods offered at corporate cafeterias and at local restaurants as daily specials: Japanese Lunch Foods Name Kanji/Hiragana Description Curry rice カレーラス A popular rice dish with a curry flavored sauce. a mixture of various fish cakes. hardboiled egg. then a trip to the corner convenience store. Convenience stores such as Lawson. to purchase their lunch meal is made. often thought of as an Indian dish. and other fillings). umeboshi plum. conbini (short for conbiniensusuto-a). onigiri (which are rice balls pressed into a triangular shape. Eki bentō 駅弁当 / えきべんとう Train station boxed meal which Page 77 of 92 International Marketing Country Notebook: Japan . Point of sale systems track the time of day as well as other types of consumer purchasing information.

The original idea of a light meal dates back to the 12th century. sushi or sashimias an appetizer and vegetables. Ramen ラメン A popular noodle soup. rice. Chinese dumpling called shu-mai. known as meisan or as meibutsu in which it is arranged in a particular manner or special commorative box. Obentōcomes from the kanji tōza meaning for the time being and benzuru meaning make do. for those in a real hurry. Makunouchi 幕の内弁当 / Similar to kaiseki bentō. there is nothing like picking up a couple of steamed pork buns. Obentō is made bentō まくのうちべんとう with locally available foods. originated in 1885 at Utsunomiya station through the entrepanurial spirit of Saitō Kahei who sold omusubi (pressed rice cakes) stuffed with umeboshi and takuan. Kaiseki bentō 会席弁当 / かいせきべんとう A poplular boxed lunch containing fish. or what is Page 78 of 92 International Marketing Country Notebook: Japan . Nikuman 肉マン / にくまん Of course.

to see what’s inside of this treat. That is called IchijyuSansai (一汁三菜)in Japanese. etc). It doesn’t have to be an elaborate menu. and materials (ceramics. called nikuman. Japanese dinner presentation can be very pretty with many dishes having different sizes. The soup could be Miso Soup or a clear broth soup. wood. marinated in vinegar. for example. and so on. HOUSING 1. Hamburger Steak. The three dishes include one main dish like Tempura. but Japanese people like to eat a variety of foods which are cooked in different ways for dinner. bamboo. (gohere. A proper Japanese dinner consists of one soup and three dishes along with rice. Page 79 of 92 International Marketing Country Notebook: Japan . or grilled. B. Each food is served in a separate dish. and two other smaller vegetable dishes like salads and boiled veggies. the other dishes could be boiled. In order to avoid moisture from the ground.  Dinner A number of traditional Japanese dinner dishes have made there way into the Western culinary vocabulary. If the main dish is fried. Place the mouse cursor over the picture on the right. shapes. grilled fish.4japan. TYPES OF HOUSING AVAILABLE Traditional Japanese houses are built by erecting wooden columns on top of a flat foundation made of packed earth or stones.

(http://web-japan. CLOTHING 1. so people either sit directly on the tatami or on flat cushions called zabuton. One characteristic of Japanese houses is that they have a large roof and deep eaves to protect the house from the hot summer sun. horizontal such as the living room. and the weight is supported by vertical columns. Diagonal braces came to be used when the technology of foreign countries was brought to Japan. Japanese houses have developed over the years by combining traditional forms with modern technology to improve their resistance to fire and their convenience. but rooms in which people sit. Areas like the kitchen and hallways have wooden flooring. people are beginning to look anew at the traditional methods of building houses. and the frame of the house supports the weight of the roof. NATIONAL DRESS Traditional clothing is the kimono. Japanese generally don't use chairs on top of tatami. left side over right. and tied with a sash(obi). though. are covered with mats called tatami that are made from woven rush grass. a robe that is wrapped around the body. and diagonal braces. The frame of a Japanese house is made of wood.the floor is elevated several tens of centimeters and is laid across horizontal wooden floor beams. which are easy on the environment and last a long time.html) C. Men rarely wear kimonos except for formal occasions and when Page 80 of 92 International Marketing Country Notebook: Japan . Recently.Women's kimonos vary from the simple everyday designs preferred by older women to the elaborate painted silk robes worn for ceremonial occasions. This is why people take off their shoes when entering a Japanese house.

Middle-and high-school students wear dark blue or black uniforms with badges that indicate their school and grade. the traditional kimonos are worn less aside from special occasions. (peopleof. Business casual attire is not always accepted in Japanese business etiquette.oureverydaylife. The Japanese are very formal and frequently dress to impress despite having a somewhat conservative demeanor. jeans. TYPES OF CLOTHING WORN AT WORK Everyday Japanese clothing among adults in modern Japan is much like western clothing. Of course there are situations where it is acceptable to dress casually such as a sporting event or activity. Jeans are popular with the young. Most Japanese wear Western-style clothing for daily use.performing traditional arts. men's dress suits for business and other ordinary clothing. and summer festivals. (http://www. T-shirts.html#ixzz4Vgnl0dqi) 2. The light summer cotton style (yukata)remains very popular for relaxing at home. Women prefer dresses. As Japan strives to stay modern. The rule of thumb is to always play it safe and dress Mali/Japanese. but you would never want to be the one who is underdressed in comparison to Page 81 of 92 International Marketing Country Notebook: Japan .com) In Japanese business etiquette dress code and appearance hold a very high value. Stick to dark colors preferably black or dark blue. Wear shoes that are easy to put on and remove as you will likely be doing so quite often.everyculture. resorts. Japanese tend to dress more formally and neatly than Americans.

Generally speaking. so it makes sense to invest in a nice suit and have it altered to fit you correctly. it is always better to be safe and dress formally. Therefore. The recommended code for men is a conservative and well put together business suit. the intensive preparation methods.the group. pickled vegetables and fresh seafood are staples of the Japanese diet. On the other hand. it never hurts you to be overdressed for any occasion. The quality of your attire makes a difference in your appearance. FOODS AND DRINKS AVAILABLE Japanese cuisine involves fresh. You want to impress without standing out too much. (japanesebusinessresource. chicken and pork is widespread. but Page 82 of 92 International Marketing Country Notebook: Japan . meat was not eaten because of Buddhist beliefs. Women should dress conservatively also. In Japanese business etiquette women should not have many accessories either. consumption of beef. miso (fermented soy bean) soup. Traditionally. tofu (soy bean curd). preferably black or dark 3. the same conservative principles that men follow should be applied to women also. Women should also avoid wearing pants in a business setting due to the fact that sometimes it is considered offensive. Heels are not appropriate in a business setting and should be avoided. Rice. Sushi is world renowned. delicate flavours based on seasonal ingredients. The wide range of ingredients. and the meticulous presentation found in Japanese cuisine is highly impressive. but these days. Wear something low key yet classy. The recommended colors are dark ones.

Then. pickled ginger and wasabi. of course. Tempura: Seafood and vegetables deep-fried in a light’s not the only style of cooking and the variety of regional dishes is astounding. Sashimi: Thinly sliced fresh fish served uncooked with soy sauce. Soba: Buckwheat noodles often served cold with a dipping sauce or in a hot broth. meat and vegetables deep-fried on skewers. Page 83 of 92 International Marketing Country Notebook: Japan . octopus balls and some of the finest beef in the world. there is kaiseki – a multi-course. Sushi: Slices of raw fish and vegetables placed on cooked vinegar rice. Ramen: Noodles in a meat. Specialties: Teriyaki: Beef. fish. chicken or fish marinated in a soy sauce and mirin wine. fine-dining-style banquet. Kushikatsu: Crumbed fish. ranging from noodle soups and dumplings to meat skewers. Yakitori: Skewers of bite-sized grilled chicken. While sake (rice wine) is still regularly served. soy or miso-based broth with toppings such as sliced pork. and seared on a hot plate. Whisky is also gaining popularity thanks to a number of Scotch-style distilleries. spring onions and a boiled egg. beer is by far the most popular alcoholic beverage.

In some up market places. Shojin-ryori: Known for its delicate flavourings. which can be quite steep. Whisky: Japanese distilleries such as Suntory and Nikka are winning plaudits around the world with their fine. The host will pour a drink for the visitor. Scotch-style malts. Things to know: Most traditional Japanese cuisine is eaten with chopsticks. Asahi and Sapporo: Crisp. Sake: Dry or sweet rice wine served hot or cold. Restaurants have table service and in some places it is customary to remove footwear. Tipping: Tips are never expected. There are no licensing hours. it's best to enquire in advance if you're in any doubt. tofu and rice. Matcha: A bitter green tea used in tea ceremonies. Page 84 of 92 International Marketing Country Notebook: Japan . there may be a table or "charm" charge too. pork and noodles Champuru: Okinawan style stir-fry featuring goya bitter melon and tofu.Okonomiyaki: A grilled savory pancake made with shredded cabbage. dry lagers served in most Japanese bars and restaurants. vegetables. In some bars. It is bad manners for a visitor to pour one for him or herself. seafood. and will insist on the visitor's glass being full. Shochu: A strong vodka-like spirit often mixed with soft drinks to make. Drinking is subject to long-standing rituals of politeness. a 10 to 15% service charge will be added to the bill. this traditional Buddhist cuisine is made using grains.

There has been an increase in “theme park” style hot-spring resorts located in suburban areas. However. and there is no single trend for spending leisure C. many young people are very interested in fashion and so like to spend their days-off shopping. and some young people visit such attractions on their days off. Karaoke is also a popular free-time activity. The teams of Japan's universities compete in baseball. Physical education classes in high school include an elective (optional class) in one of Japan's traditional martial arts such as judo. Baseball is extremely popular. karate. and other Leisure Activities B. young people have a wide variety of pastimes. and the annual national high school baseball tournament in August is followed throughout Japan. There are also many who are investing in their own future by learning a foreign language or studying to obtain a qualification. D. (worldtravelguide. Recreation. Page 85 of 92 International Marketing Country Notebook: Japan . Fewer young people are taking trips with their coworkers. SPORTS The Japanese are great sports enthusiasts. and other sports. (web-japan. or archery. RECREATION In this day and age when lifestyles are becoming ever more diverse. rugby. martial arts. People enjoy karaoke not only with friends but also with colleagues from work or family members.Drinking age: 20. increasingly preferring instead to travel with friends not related to work or family members—or even travel by themselves.

produced from mulberry bark. A striking feature is the huge size of the wrestlers. Gateball. Handmade paper. The aesthetic values of "wabi cha" (poverty tea) of the Tea Ceremony encourages this style of pottery. The most popular professional sport in Japan is baseball.html#ixzz4Vgmluuut D. Games in the two leagues. Special papers with distinct textures and patterns are prized for letter Page 86 of 92 International Marketing Country Notebook: Japan . Sumo wrestling is a native sport centered upon six annual fifteen-day tournaments. draw large crowds. is popular with elderly people. CRAFTS AND HOBBIES Japan is a land in which many handicrafts have been raised to the level of art. top-ranked wrestlers usually exceed three hundred pounds and can weigh over five hundred pounds. http://www. Popular participatory sports include golf. skiing. similar to croquet." a professional soccer league. The new "J-League. and fishing. the Pacific and the Central. swimming. Some fine pottery is delicate and finely detailed. including noisy but well- organized fan clubs. remains a popular art form.everyculture. fostered a soccer craze in the early 1990s. Japan has many regional variations on pottery. there is also a strong tradition of heavier folk pottery that is more simple and rustic. tennis. Two wrestlers seek to force each other out of a circle or to touch the ground with some part of their bodies (other than the soles of their feet). There is some interest in American football and basketball.

recognizing masters as National Living Treasures to honor and support their work. unpopular and seemingly powerless government – present an overwhelming challenge and possibly an existential threat. although at second glance Take destructive wildlife. ShukanJosei says while boar ravages rice paddies. calligraphy (decorative lettering). painting. Deer.everyculture. of which ShukanJosei enumerates The biggest problems it faces – sinking economy. If only the Japanese. and also to people in the form of personal injury – monkeys especially. The Japanese government cherishes these arts. Deer nibbling tree bark have turned half of Japan’s national parkland into wasteland. monkeys and other creatures who know not what they do cause each year an estimated 20 billion yen worth of damage to crops. SOCIAL SECURITIES OR PROBLEMS Everybody knows Japan is in crisis. http://www. Tie-dying is also employed. Some of them – one-third of single women living in poverty.html E. could acquire a taste Page 87 of 92 International Marketing Country Notebook: Japan . sinking birthrate. increasing destruction caused by wildlife – do seem at first glance to merit the back burner. and wrapping. aging society. like the Europeans. for instance. rising number of children needing protection from child abuse – are in fact far from minor. wild boar. Others – increase in bicycle accidents. and decorative styles and methods have developed to decorate the panels of silk used for women's kimonos. radiation. A variety of dying. Less fateful but closer to home is a tangle of smaller worries and anxieties.writing. national parks.

are almost extinct. apparently. The trouble with bicycles – convenient. but communities hardly exist anymore. notably Holland and Scandinavia. Why should one-third of single women be living in poverty? For one thing. Japan. of course. but extended families. which benefit from more attention. don’t know. or the whole extended family got involved. not altogether fairly. ShukanJosei adds. Moreover. Stress and isolation get much of the blame. receiving small salaries and few Page 88 of 92 International Marketing Country Notebook: Japan . is far behind other places. Child-raising used to be a community responsibility. But though the Japanese became meat-eaters. in creating exclusive bicycle lanes. unlike senior citizens’ homes. too. which many riders. their preference remains strictly for domestic livestock. public children’s homes tend to be understaffed and rundown. few people think of bikes as dangerous. Cyclists draw most of the blame. environment-friendly and excellent exercise – is that anyone can ride one. the magazine points out.for eating game! Then hunters would hunt the marauders in greater numbers. That’s small comfort to victimized children. you don’t need a license and there’s no mandatory instruction on rules of the road. so they’re not given the respect they deserve. which suggests spreading awareness and also maybe heightened neighborly concern. most working women – 12 million – are part-time employees. Many accidents – ShukanJosei doesn’t tell us how many – involve pedestrians and can be serious. and a sustainable balance be restored. There’s actually a silver lining in rising child abuse statistics. Besides. At least some of the rise is attributed to neighbors reporting problems.

In 2013. and providers. (. “Compared to other developed countries.benefits. National government sets the fee schedule and gives subsidies to local governments.japantoday. premiums. many of them presumably on women for whom child-raising is an economic impossibility. 83 percent of which was publicly financed. the impact on children is harsh. inheritance laws are skewed in favor of men. Page 89 of 92 International Marketing Country Notebook: Japan . estimated total health expenditure amounted to approximately 10 percent of GDP. 2014). For another. Since many single women are single mothers. It also establishes and enforces detailed regulations for insurers and providers. tax-financed subsidies. There are 340. HEALTHCARE Government regulates nearly all aspects of the universal public health insurance system (PHIS). insurers. 2015). mainly through the PHIS (OECD. Publicly financed health insurance: The PHIS. comprising more than 3. Within the PHIS.400 insurers. Female poverty is a factor in the declining birth rate F. The national and local governments are required by law to ensure a system that efficiently provides good-quality and well-suited medical care to the nation.” the magazine hears from a lawyer. provides universal primary coverage (National Institute of Population and Social Security Research.000 abortions a year in Japan. Japan gives very weak protection to its young generation.

. Since the early 2000s. Private health insurance: Private insurance plays only a minor supplementary or complementary role. 2014b). mainly in the form of lump-sum payments when insured persons are hospitalized or diagnosed with cancer or another specified chronic Page 90 of 92 International Marketing Country Notebook: Japan . Life Insurance Association of Japan. and user charges accounted for about 49 percent. as are resident noncitizens. Government employees are covered by their own insurers (known as Mutual Aid Societies). the number of standalone medical insurance policies has increased (Japan Institute of Life Insurance. undocumented immigrants and visitors are not covered. and treatment of traffic accident injuries (although treatment of these injuries is usually paid for by compulsory or voluntary automobile insurance. 2014).) (http://international. as are some groups of professionals (e. Citizens are mandated to enroll in one of the PHIS plans based on employment status and/or place of residence.commonwealthfund. The provision of privately funded health care has been limited to services such as dental orthodontics. and 12 percent of the sum of health expenditures. 38 percent. respectively (MHLW. or through payment of daily amounts during hospitalization over a defined period. doctors in private practice). expensive artificial teeth. 2013.g. It developed historically as a supplement to life insurance and provides additional income in case of sickness.

one also has to be concerned with things like punctuation and paragraph boundaries. they are different in pronunciation. It is ninth of the most spoken language in the world. SPOKEN VS. there can be several tens to several thousands of characters that need to be memorized. Mongolian and Manchu also to Korean which is frequently compared to Japanese language however. Depending on the In writing. the number of characters Page 91 of 92 International Marketing Country Notebook: Japan . (todaytranslations. Japan is the only country in the world to have Japanese as its official working language in Japanese companies though it’s not mandatory to speak Japanese at work for some expatriates are usually hired by non-Japanese companies. It is a member of Japonic or Japanese- Ryukyuan Language family and somehow has relation to Altaic language family which includes Turkish. WRITTEN LANGUAGES Japanese is the only one official language in Japan but they have 8 different spoken languages. (reddit. Japanese people can’t speak fluent English but they can understand as it is taught in schools as part of Japan's compulsory education. Japanese has three level of politeness in speaking: The “Kudaketa” plain form. (expatfocus. VIII. “Teinei” Simple polite form and “Keigo” advance polite F. Although it is a small country. it consists of little islands and those islands tend to develop their own language. In Japanese. LANGUAGE E. OFFICIAL LANGUAGES Japanese is the official language of

Hiroshima complicated by the fact that each character can have several pronunciations (including irregular ones). especially for older students. (studycountry. There are 7 major dialects in Japan these are Hataka ben. Though their accent may vary between dialects. or 食餌 (in order of decreasing frequency of use). (fluentu. Their dialects have been divided into two major type for Northern and southern: The Kyoto Type and the Kyoto Osaka G. which means “food or “meal” can be written as 食事. Osaka ben. Spoken language also has the challenge that you must be able to comprehend and respond in real time (unless you are watching a recording which you can rewind). and you can write a single word in several different They considered Tokyo dialect as their Standard dialect in japan. Nagoya ben. Pronunciation itself is also one of the most difficult things to master in a foreign language. DIALECTS There so many dialects in Japan from the time the Islands has been inhabited. For example. ( Page 92 of 92 International Marketing Country Notebook: Japan .しょくじ、ショクジ. “shokuji”. Sendai ben and Hokkaido ben. Kyoto ben. Today the English and western culture gives impact on Japanese language and it expected to continue.