POYNTER INSTITUTE (AL TOMPKINS): 2000

POYNTER INSTITUTE (BOB STEELE): 1999

DAVID PALETZ AND ALEX SCHMID (EDS., TERRORISM AND THE MEDIA:1992) - Provide no live coverage of terrorists, which gives them an unedited propaganda platform.

BBC EDITORIAL GUIDELINES (HIJACKING, KIDNAPPING, HOSTAGE TAKING AND SIEGE): 2005 - We do not interview a perpetrator live on air. - We do not broadcast any video and/or audio provided by a perpetrator live on air. - We install a delay when broadcasting live material of sensitive stories, for example a school siege or plane hijack. This is particularly important when the outcome is unpredictable and we may record distressing material that is unsuitable for broadcast without careful thought.

CBS NEWS (PRODUCTION STANDARDS FOR COVERAGE OF TERRORISTS): 1977 - Except in the most compelling circumstances, and then only with the approval of the President of CBS News, or in the President's absence, the Senior Vice President of News, there should be no live coverage of the terrorist/ kidnapper since we may fall into the trap of providing an unedited platform for him/her. (This does not limit live on-the-spot reporting by CBS News reporters, but care should be exercised to assure restraint and context.)

INTERNATIONAL CENTER FOR JOURNALISTS DISASTER AND CRISIS COVERAGE: 2009

1. Covering an incident “live”

- Beyond competitive factors, what are your motivations for "going live?" Why do your viewers need to know about this story before journalists have the opportunity to edit, question or filter the information off the air? What truth testing are you willing to give up in order to speed information to the viewer? - How does the journalist know that the information they have is true? How many sources have confirmed the information? How does the source know what they say they know to be true? What this source’s past reliability? How willing is the source to be quoted? - What are the consequences short-term and long-term of going on the air with the information? What are the consequences of waiting for additional confirmation or for a

- Avoid describing with words or showing with still photography and video any information that could divulge the tactics or positions of SWAT team members. - Seriously weigh the benefits to the public of what information might be given out versus what potential harm that information might cause. This is especially important in live reporting of an ongoing situation. - Be forthright with viewers, listeners or readers about why certain information is being withheld if security reasons are involved. - Challenge any gut reaction to "go live" from the scene of a hostage-taking crisis, unless there are strong journalistic reasons for a live, on-the-scene report. Things can go wrong very quickly in a live report,

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POYNTER INSTITUTE (AL TOMPKINS): 2000

POYNTER INSTITUTE (BOB STEELE): 1999

DAVID PALETZ AND ALEX SCHMID (EDS., TERRORISM AND THE MEDIA:1992)

BBC EDITORIAL GUIDELINES (HIJACKING, KIDNAPPING, HOSTAGE TAKING AND SIEGE): 2005

CBS NEWS (PRODUCTION STANDARDS FOR COVERAGE OF TERRORISTS): 1977

INTERNATIONAL CENTER FOR JOURNALISTS DISASTER AND CRISIS COVERAGE: 2009

regular newscast? - Are you prepared to air the worst possible outcome that could result from this unfolding story? (such as a person killing himself or someone else live on TV) What outcomes are you not willing to air? Why? How do you know the worst possible outcome will not occur? - What is the tone of the coverage? How can the journalist raise viewer awareness of a significant event while minimizing hype and fear? Who in your newsroom is responsible for monitoring the tone of what is being broadcast? - What electronic safety net has your station considered that could minimize harm, such as a tape and signal delay, that could give you time to dump out of live coverage if the situation turns graphic, violent or compromises the safety of

endangering lives or damaging negotiations. Furthermore, ask if the value of a live, on-thescene report is really justifiable compared to the harm that could occur.

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POYNTER INSTITUTE (AL TOMPKINS): 2000

POYNTER INSTITUTE (BOB STEELE): 1999

DAVID PALETZ AND ALEX SCHMID (EDS., TERRORISM AND THE MEDIA:1992)

BBC EDITORIAL GUIDELINES (HIJACKING, KIDNAPPING, HOSTAGE TAKING AND SIEGE): 2005

CBS NEWS (PRODUCTION STANDARDS FOR COVERAGE OF TERRORISTS): 1977

INTERNATIONAL CENTER FOR JOURNALISTS DISASTER AND CRISIS COVERAGE: 2009

others? - How clearly does the technical crew at your TV station understand the newsrooms' standard for graphic content? How well are guidelines understood by directors, tape editors, live shot techs, photojournalists, pilots, or engineers who might have to make an editorial call when the news director or other "formal decision-maker" is not available? - What factor does the time of day play in your decision to cover a breaking event? For example, if the event occurs when children normally are watching television, how does that fact alter the tone and degree of your coverage? 2A. Covering an ongoing incident - Assume the gunman/hostage taker always has access to the reporting. - Give no information, factual - Avoid inflammatory catch-words and phrases.
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- We should also consider carefully the ethical issues raised by providing a

- An essential component of the story is the demands of the

POYNTER INSTITUTE (AL TOMPKINS): 2000

POYNTER INSTITUTE (BOB STEELE): 1999

DAVID PALETZ AND ALEX SCHMID (EDS., TERRORISM AND THE MEDIA:1992) - Report any demands without propaganda and rhetoric. - Refrain from doing anything that could endanger the lives of hostages.

BBC EDITORIAL GUIDELINES (HIJACKING, KIDNAPPING, HOSTAGE TAKING AND SIEGE): 2005 platform to hijackers, kidnappers or hostage takers, especially if they make direct contact. - We broadcast recordings made by perpetrators, whether of staged events, violent acts or their victims, only after referral to a senior editorial figure.

CBS NEWS (PRODUCTION STANDARDS FOR COVERAGE OF TERRORISTS): 1977 terrorist/kidnapper and we must report those demands. But we should avoid providing an excessive platform for the terrorist/ kidnapper. Thus, unless such demands are succinctly stated and free of rhetoric and propaganda, it may be better to paraphrase the demands instead of presenting them directly through the voice or picture of the terrorist/ kidnapper. - Responsible CBS News representatives should endeavor to contact experts

INTERNATIONAL CENTER FOR JOURNALISTS DISASTER AND CRISIS COVERAGE: 2009

or speculative, about a hostage taker's mental condition, state of mind or reasons for actions while a standoff is in progress. The value of such information to the audience is limited, and the possibility of such characterizations exacerbating an already dangerous situation are quite real. - Give no analyses or comments on a hostage taker's or terrorist's demands. As bizarre or ridiculous (or even legitimate) as such demands may be, it is important that negotiators take all demands seriously. - Keep news helicopters out of the area where the standoff is happening, as their noise can create communication problems for negotiators and their presence could scare a gunman to deadly action.

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POYNTER INSTITUTE (AL TOMPKINS): 2000

POYNTER INSTITUTE (BOB STEELE): 1999

DAVID PALETZ AND ALEX SCHMID (EDS., TERRORISM AND THE MEDIA:1992)

BBC EDITORIAL GUIDELINES (HIJACKING, KIDNAPPING, HOSTAGE TAKING AND SIEGE): 2005

CBS NEWS (PRODUCTION STANDARDS FOR COVERAGE OF TERRORISTS): 1977 dealing with the hostage situation to determine whether they have any guidance on such questions as phraseology to be avoided, what kinds of questions or reports might tend to exacerbate the situation, etc.

INTERNATIONAL CENTER FOR JOURNALISTS DISASTER AND CRISIS COVERAGE: 2009

2B. Telephoning the hostagetaker/gunman/t errorist

- Strongly resist the temptation to telephone a gunman or hostage taker. Journalists generally are not trained in negotiation techniques, and one wrong question or inappropriate word could jeopardize someone's life. Furthermore, just calling in could tie up phone lines or otherwise complicate communication efforts of the negotiators.

- Avoid making telephone calls to terrorists

- News personnel should be mindful of the probable need by the authorities who are dealing with the terrorist for communication by telephone and hence should endeavor to ascertain, wherever feasible, whether

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POYNTER INSTITUTE (AL TOMPKINS): 2000

POYNTER INSTITUTE (BOB STEELE): 1999

DAVID PALETZ AND ALEX SCHMID (EDS., TERRORISM AND THE MEDIA:1992)

BBC EDITORIAL GUIDELINES (HIJACKING, KIDNAPPING, HOSTAGE TAKING AND SIEGE): 2005

CBS NEWS (PRODUCTION STANDARDS FOR COVERAGE OF TERRORISTS): 1977 our own use of such lines would be likely to interfere with the authorities' communications.

INTERNATIONAL CENTER FOR JOURNALISTS DISASTER AND CRISIS COVERAGE: 2009

- Notify authorities immediately if a hostage taker or terrorist calls the newsroom. Also, have a plan ready for how to respond. 2C. Reporting medical condition and interviewing of hostages - Be very cautious in any reporting on the medical condition of hostages until after a crisis is concluded. Also, be cautious when interviewing hostages or released hostages while a crisis continues. - Exercise care when interviewing family members or friends of those involved in standoff situations. Make sure the interview legitimately advances the story for the public and is not simply conducted for the shock value of the emotions conveyed or as a conduit for the interviewee to transmit messages to specific individuals
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2D. Interviewing family members or friends of those involved

POYNTER INSTITUTE (AL TOMPKINS): 2000

POYNTER INSTITUTE (BOB STEELE): 1999

DAVID PALETZ AND ALEX SCHMID (EDS., TERRORISM AND THE MEDIA:1992) - Avoid making themselves part of the story.

BBC EDITORIAL GUIDELINES (HIJACKING, KIDNAPPING, HOSTAGE TAKING AND SIEGE): 2005

CBS NEWS (PRODUCTION STANDARDS FOR COVERAGE OF TERRORISTS): 1977

INTERNATIONAL CENTER FOR JOURNALISTS DISASTER AND CRISIS COVERAGE: 2009

2E. Media as player

2F. Police and investigating authorities

- Fight the urge to become a player in any standoff, hostage situation or terrorist incident. Journalists should become personally involved only as a last resort and with the explicit approval of top news management and the consultation of trained hostage negotiators on the scene. - Do not report information obtained from police scanners. If law enforcement personnel and negotiators are compromised in their communications, their attempts to resolve a crisis are greatly complicated.

- When reporting stories relating to hijacking, kidnapping, hostage taking or sieges we must listen to advice from the police and other authorities about anything which, if reported, could exacerbate the situation. - Occasionally police/authorities will ask us to withhold or even to
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- As in the case of policy dealing with civil disturbances, in dealing with a hostage story reporters should obey all police instructions but report immediately to their superiors any such instructions that seem to be intended to manage or suppress the news.

POYNTER INSTITUTE (AL TOMPKINS): 2000

POYNTER INSTITUTE (BOB STEELE): 1999

DAVID PALETZ AND ALEX SCHMID (EDS., TERRORISM AND THE MEDIA:1992)

BBC EDITORIAL GUIDELINES (HIJACKING, KIDNAPPING, HOSTAGE TAKING AND SIEGE): 2005 include information. We will normally comply with a reasonable request, but we will not knowingly broadcast anything that is untrue. - The police may even request a complete news black-out. The BBC procedure for dealing with such requests must be followed.

CBS NEWS (PRODUCTION STANDARDS FOR COVERAGE OF TERRORISTS): 1977

INTERNATIONAL CENTER FOR JOURNALISTS DISASTER AND CRISIS COVERAGE: 2009

2G. Going beyond the incident

- Go beyond the basic story of the hostage taking or standoff to report on the larger issues behind the story, be it the how and why of what happened, reports on the preparation and execution of the SWAT team, or the issues related to the incident. - Treat each
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2H. Handling

POYNTER INSTITUTE (AL TOMPKINS): 2000

POYNTER INSTITUTE (BOB STEELE): 1999

DAVID PALETZ AND ALEX SCHMID (EDS., TERRORISM AND THE MEDIA:1992)

BBC EDITORIAL GUIDELINES (HIJACKING, KIDNAPPING, HOSTAGE TAKING AND SIEGE): 2005

CBS NEWS (PRODUCTION STANDARDS FOR COVERAGE OF TERRORISTS): 1977

INTERNATIONAL CENTER FOR JOURNALISTS DISASTER AND CRISIS COVERAGE: 2009 victim with dignity and respect. - Never ask: “How do you feel?” Never say, “I understand how you must be feeling.” It is best to simply introduce yourself and let them know, “I am sorry for your loss.” Or, “I am sorry for what you are going through today.” - Start the interview with open-ended questions that gently prod them into telling their story. “When did you learn of this?

victims

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POYNTER INSTITUTE (AL TOMPKINS): 2000

POYNTER INSTITUTE (BOB STEELE): 1999

DAVID PALETZ AND ALEX SCHMID (EDS., TERRORISM AND THE MEDIA:1992)

BBC EDITORIAL GUIDELINES (HIJACKING, KIDNAPPING, HOSTAGE TAKING AND SIEGE): 2005

CBS NEWS (PRODUCTION STANDARDS FOR COVERAGE OF TERRORISTS): 1977

INTERNATIONAL CENTER FOR JOURNALISTS DISASTER AND CRISIS COVERAGE: 2009 Who have you spoken to so far?” These questions are non-judgmental and provide a chance for them to tell what they are feeling and thinking. - If the person says no to an interview or becomes emotional about the media pushing for information, back off. Thank them kindly and walk away. Some journalists hand them a business card and say, “In case you would like to talk later”

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POYNTER INSTITUTE (AL TOMPKINS): 2000

POYNTER INSTITUTE (BOB STEELE): 1999

DAVID PALETZ AND ALEX SCHMID (EDS., TERRORISM AND THE MEDIA:1992)

BBC EDITORIAL GUIDELINES (HIJACKING, KIDNAPPING, HOSTAGE TAKING AND SIEGE): 2005

CBS NEWS (PRODUCTION STANDARDS FOR COVERAGE OF TERRORISTS): 1977

INTERNATIONAL CENTER FOR JOURNALISTS DISASTER AND CRISIS COVERAGE: 2009 or “Please give me a call if you feel like it.” - Give victims a sense of control. Ask if they would be more comfortable sitting or standing during the interview or whether they would like to go somewhere else, away from the chaos to talk.

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