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Feb 13, 2018

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Msruas Maths Assignment 1st sem

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Msruas Maths Assignment 1st sem

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Course Name Engineering Mathematics-1

Programme B.Tech.

Department Mathematics

Faculty FET

Reg. No 17ETCS002130

Semester/Year 1st/2017

Course Leader/s Chandankumar S., Shekar M.,

Hemanthkumar B., and Meenakshi N.

i

Declaration Sheet

Student Name Pritam Das

Reg. No 17ETCS002130

Programme B.Tech. Semester/Year 1st/2017

Course Code BSC101A

Course Title Engineering Mathematics – 1

Course Date to

Deepak A. S., Mahesha Narayana, Chandankumar S., Shekar M.,

Course Leader

Hemanthkumar B., and Meenakshi N.

Declaration

The assignment submitted herewith is a result of my own investigations and that I have

conformed to the guidelines against plagiarism as laid out in the Student Handbook. All

sections of the text and results, which have been obtained from other sources, are fully

referenced. I understand that cheating and plagiarism constitute a breach of University

regulations and will be dealt with accordingly.

Signature of the

Date

Student

Submission date

stamp

(by Examination & Assessment

Section)

Signature of the Course Leader and date Signature of the Reviewer and date

ii

Contents

____________________________________________________________________________

Contents .................................................................................................................................................... iii

Part A.......................................................................................................................................................... 4

Question No. B.1 ........................................................................................................................................ 6

B2.1 Compute velocity and acceleration at 𝑡𝑡 = 𝜋𝜋/2 and 𝑡𝑡 = 3𝜋𝜋/ 2. ........................................................ 6

B1.2 Graph of displacement curve……………………………………………………………………………………11

B1.3Show that the particle comes to rest at least once before attaining the uniform velocity

B1.4Conclusion………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….11

Question No. B.2 ........................................................................................................................................ 8

B.2.1 Obtain the Maclaurin series for the kinetic energy as a function of the velocity. ....................... 8

B.2.2 Show that when 𝑣𝑣 is very small compared to 𝑐𝑐, the expression for 𝐾𝐾 agrees with the classical

Newtonian physics given by . .............................................................................................. 9

3.4 Conclusions .................................................................................................................................... 10

Question No. B.3 ...................................................................................................................................... 11

B.3.1 Choose any algorithm to search the index of a given element in vector 𝑋𝑋 and explain. ........... 11

B.3.2 Write a MATLAB function to implement the above chosen algorithm. The function should

accept the array and an element as input and should output the index of that element in the given

array. .................................................................................................................................................... 11

B.3.2 Use MATLAB built-in function ‘find’ to search the index of the required element. Compare and

comment on the results. ...................................................................................................................... 12

This specific code is exceptionally productive in regards to the time and many-sided quality with the

code composed without the discover work. This inbuilt capacity 'find' of MATLAB encourages us to

effectively figure the list of the given number .................................................................................... 12

B.3.3 Conclusions ................................................................................................................................. 12

Question No. B.4 ...................................................................................................................................... 13

B.4.1 Obtain equations for the temperature at the four intersection points. .............................. 13

B.4.2 Solve the resultant system to find the temperature at each intersection point in the grid ...... 13

B.4.3. Write a matlab Script to check for the consistency of the system and obtain the solution: .... 14

B.4.4 Comment on the results obtained and conclude: ...................................................................... 15

Part A

Solution to Part A:

A Riemann entirety is the most straightforward approach to inexact a zone under a capacity f(x) on the

interim x=a to x=b. To begin, you separate the interim into n pieces, or sub-interims. For a Riemann whole,

these sub-interims all have a similar width, h= (b-a)/n. Each of these sub-interims is approximated with a

basic shape whose range can be effectively ascertained. The aggregate of every one of these territories is the

Riemann Sum.

There are a few distinctive approaches to ascertain a Riemann whole. The easiest path is by approximating

each sub-interim with a rectangle, whose tallness can be equivalent to the capacity assessed at the left

endpoint, right endpoint, or midpoint of the sub-interim. You can likewise inexact with a trapezoid that

agrees with the capacity assessed at the left or right endpoints. It is likewise conceivable to utilize further

developed procedures, similar to quadratic or cubic approximations for each sub-interim.

The three techniques for Riemann summation are typically best drew nearer with parcels of equivalent size.

The interim [a, b] is thusly partitioned into n subintervals, each of length.

Left Riemann aggregate of x3 over [0, 2] utilizing 4 subdivisions

For the left Riemann aggregate, approximating the capacity by its incentive at the left-end point gives numerous

rectangles with base Δx and tallness f (a + iδx). Doing this for I = 0, 1, n − 1, and including the subsequent zones

gives

The left Riemann aggregate adds up to an overestimation if f is monotonically diminishing on this interim, and

an underestimation in the event that it is monotonically expanding.

Right Riemann sum of x3 over [0, 2] utilizing 4 subdivisions

F is here approximated by the incentive at the correct endpoint. This gives different rectangles with base Δx

and tallness f(a + I Δx). Doing this for I = 1, n, and including the subsequent zones produces

overestimation on the off chance that it is monotonically expanding. The mistake of this equation will be

Midpoint rule

Midpoint Riemann whole of x3 over [0, 2] utilizing 4 subdivisions.

Approximating f at the midpoint of interims gives f (a + Δx/2) for the primary interim, for the following one

f (a + 3δx/2), until f (b − Δx/2). Summing up the zones gives

on the interim.

<Subject Title> 5

Question No. B.1

The given displacement function of particle with respect to time

𝑠𝑠(𝑡𝑡) = 1/2(𝑡𝑡2 + 5𝑡𝑡 𝑠𝑠𝑠𝑠𝑠𝑠(𝑡𝑡))

Therefore, velocity function v(t) will be

𝑑𝑑 1

𝑣𝑣(𝑡𝑡) = ( (𝑡𝑡2 + 5𝑡𝑡 𝑠𝑠𝑠𝑠𝑠𝑠(𝑡𝑡)))

𝑑𝑑𝑑𝑑 2

5𝑡𝑡 5

𝑣𝑣(𝑡𝑡) = 𝑡𝑡 + 𝑐𝑐𝑐𝑐𝑐𝑐(𝑡𝑡) + 𝑠𝑠𝑠𝑠𝑠𝑠(𝑡𝑡)

2 2

Then, the function of acceleration a(t) is

𝑑𝑑 5𝑡𝑡 5

𝑎𝑎(𝑡𝑡) = (𝑡𝑡 + 𝑐𝑐𝑐𝑐𝑐𝑐(𝑡𝑡) + 𝑠𝑠𝑠𝑠𝑠𝑠(𝑡𝑡))

𝑑𝑑𝑑𝑑 2 2

5

𝑎𝑎(𝑡𝑡) = 1 + 5 𝑐𝑐𝑐𝑐𝑐𝑐(𝑡𝑡) − 𝑡𝑡 𝑠𝑠𝑠𝑠𝑠𝑠(𝑡𝑡)

2

π

Now, calculating the velocity V at t =

2

𝜋𝜋

𝜋𝜋 𝜋𝜋 5 2 𝜋𝜋 5 𝜋𝜋

𝑉𝑉 = 𝑣𝑣( ) = + 𝑐𝑐𝑐𝑐𝑐𝑐 � � + 𝑠𝑠𝑠𝑠𝑠𝑠( )

2 2 2 2 2 2

𝑉𝑉 = 4.07 𝑚𝑚/𝑠𝑠

𝜋𝜋

Acceleration at 𝑡𝑡 =

2

𝜋𝜋 𝜋𝜋 5 𝜋𝜋 𝜋𝜋

𝐴𝐴 = 𝑎𝑎( ) = 1 + 5 𝑐𝑐𝑐𝑐𝑐𝑐 � � − ( ) 𝑠𝑠𝑠𝑠𝑠𝑠( )

2 2 2 2 2

𝐴𝐴 = − 2.9269 𝑚𝑚/𝑠𝑠 2

3𝜋𝜋

Velocity at 𝑡𝑡 =

2

3𝜋𝜋 π

Since > , so, as stated in the question itself, the velocity at t > π will be a constant velocity obtained at t

2 2

=π

5𝜋𝜋 5

𝑉𝑉’ = 𝑣𝑣(𝜋𝜋) = 𝜋𝜋 + 𝑐𝑐𝑐𝑐𝑐𝑐(𝜋𝜋) + 𝑠𝑠𝑠𝑠𝑠𝑠(𝜋𝜋)

2 2

𝑉𝑉’ = 11.1207 𝑚𝑚/𝑠𝑠

3𝜋𝜋

Acceleration at 𝑡𝑡 =

2

3𝜋𝜋

Since the particle is moving at a constant velocity at t = so the acceleration will be zero.

2

𝑑𝑑

𝐴𝐴 = (𝑐𝑐𝑐𝑐𝑐𝑐𝑐𝑐𝑐𝑐𝑐𝑐𝑐𝑐𝑐𝑐) = 0

𝑑𝑑𝑑𝑑

<Subject Title> 6

B.1.2 Plot the graph of displacement curve.

Working with Matlab

t = linspace(0,pi);

s = 1/2*(t.^2 + 5. *t.*sin(t));

and then plotting the graph with the following command

figure

plot(t,s)

B.1.3 Show that the particle comes to rest at least once before attaining uniform velocity.

It is clearly observed from the graph as well as from the solution in (a) section that after certain time

period the acceleration first becomes zero and then afterward becomes negative which will start

decreasing the velocity of the particle and eventually lead it to zero value. Also from the graph, we notice

that there is a point in the graph where the tangent to the displacement-time curve is parallel to the time

axis indicating that the velocity at that point is zero.

We can also prove it by using the rolls theorem.

Here,

5

f(x)=t+ t cost + sin t ,

2

a) This function is continuous at the [0,∏], hence it is a sin function and cos function .

5 5 5

𝑏𝑏)𝑓𝑓 ′ (𝑥𝑥)= 1+ cost - t sin t+ 𝑐𝑐𝑐𝑐𝑐𝑐𝑐𝑐

2 2 2

Therefore, this function is differentiable at (0, ∏)

b) Here f(0)=0

f(∏)=0

Therefore, rolls theorem is applicable here. So there exist at least one point such that 𝑓𝑓 ′ (𝑐𝑐) = 0

Therefore, we can say that the particle comes to rest at least once before attaining uniform velocity.

B.1.4 Conclude and comment on the results.

𝑆𝑆𝑆𝑆 𝐼𝐼𝐼𝐼 𝑡𝑡ℎ𝑖𝑖𝑖𝑖 𝑝𝑝𝑝𝑝𝑝𝑝𝑝𝑝𝑝𝑝𝑝𝑝𝑝𝑝 𝑤𝑤𝑤𝑤 𝑐𝑐𝑐𝑐𝑐𝑐 𝑓𝑓𝑓𝑓𝑓𝑓𝑓𝑓𝑓𝑓 𝑡𝑡ℎ𝑎𝑎𝑎𝑎 𝑡𝑡ℎ𝑒𝑒 𝑝𝑝𝑝𝑝𝑝𝑝𝑝𝑝𝑝𝑝𝑝𝑝𝑝𝑝𝑝𝑝 𝑤𝑤𝑤𝑤𝑤𝑤 𝑚𝑚𝑚𝑚𝑚𝑚𝑚𝑚𝑚𝑚𝑚𝑚 𝑤𝑤𝑤𝑤𝑤𝑤ℎ 𝑡𝑡ℎ𝑒𝑒 𝑎𝑎𝑎𝑎𝑎𝑎𝑎𝑎𝑎𝑎𝑎𝑎𝑎𝑎𝑎𝑎𝑎𝑎𝑎𝑎𝑎𝑎𝑎𝑎

5∏

(1 − ) 𝑚𝑚/𝑠𝑠 2

4

However, after reaching the point of ∏ it gets a uniform speed .So there will be no acceleration. Therefore,

3∏

we have not taken the value of velocity at the point of . Rather we have taken the value at the point

2

3∏

of∏. As after ∏ it gets a uniform velocity so there is no acceleration. At the acceleration is zero.

2

<Subject Title> 7

Question No. B.2

B.2.1 Obtain the Maclaurin series for the kinetic energy as a function of the velocity.

This particular question deals with the concept of Maclaurin Series and to deal with the problems related to

this series. In addition, we need to have basic knowledge about the associated equation of physics in the

question. It also deals with the theory of relativity viz. when a body is moving very fast, with speeds

comparable to speed of light, the mass of the, rest mass, m o . And if the object is moving at a velocity v. Then,

the realistic mass of the object is

The Einstein’s mass-energy equivalence says that the total energy of an object of mass m is

𝐸𝐸 = 𝑚𝑚𝑐𝑐 2

Kinetic energy of an object is the energy of the object due to its motion/velocity. In relativity, kinetic energy

of an object is defined to be

𝐾𝐾 = 𝑚𝑚𝑐𝑐 2 – 𝑚𝑚𝑜𝑜 𝑐𝑐 2

But classical physics says that kinetic energy is

Also,

𝒗𝒗𝟐𝟐

If we assume = 𝒙𝒙

𝒄𝒄𝟐𝟐

Then we have

To obtain Taylor series, we have

Hence,

<Subject Title> 8

Then Taylor series is obtained as

(𝑥𝑥 − 𝑥𝑥𝑥𝑥)2 (𝑥𝑥 − 𝑥𝑥𝑥𝑥)𝑛𝑛

𝑓𝑓(𝑥𝑥) = 𝑓𝑓(𝑥𝑥𝑥𝑥) + 𝑓𝑓 ′ (𝑥𝑥𝑥𝑥)(𝑥𝑥 − 𝑥𝑥𝑥𝑥) + 𝑓𝑓 ′′ (𝑥𝑥𝑥𝑥) + ⋯ + 𝑓𝑓 𝑛𝑛 (𝑥𝑥𝑥𝑥) +⋯

2! 𝑛𝑛!

And Maclaurin series can simply be obtained by putting x 0 = 0.

Hence required Maclaurin Series is

(𝑥𝑥 − 0)2 (𝑥𝑥 − 0)𝑛𝑛

𝑓𝑓(𝑥𝑥) = 𝑓𝑓(0) + 𝑓𝑓 ′ (0)(𝑥𝑥 − 0) + 𝑓𝑓 ′′ (0) + ⋯ + 𝑓𝑓 𝑛𝑛 (0) +⋯

2! 𝑛𝑛!

This Maclaurin Series is written in addition form as

𝟏𝟏 𝟑𝟑 𝟓𝟓 𝟑𝟑 𝟑𝟑𝟑𝟑 𝟒𝟒

𝒇𝒇(𝒙𝒙) = 𝒙𝒙 + 𝒙𝒙𝟐𝟐 + 𝒙𝒙 + 𝒙𝒙 + ⋯

𝟐𝟐 𝟖𝟖 𝟏𝟏𝟏𝟏 𝟏𝟏𝟏𝟏𝟏𝟏

B.2.2 Show that when 𝑣𝑣 is very small compared to 𝑐𝑐, the expression for 𝐾𝐾 agrees with the classical

Newtonian physics given by .

The kinetic energy can be found out as follows:

𝐾𝐾 = 𝑚𝑚𝑚𝑚 2 – 𝑚𝑚𝑜𝑜 𝑐𝑐 2

Putting the value of m

𝒎𝒎𝒎𝒎

𝑲𝑲 = 𝟐𝟐

𝒄𝒄𝟐𝟐 − 𝒎𝒎 0𝒄𝒄𝟐𝟐 R

�𝟏𝟏−𝒗𝒗

𝒄𝒄𝟐𝟐

Taking m 0 c2 common

𝟏𝟏

−

𝟐𝟐 �𝟏𝟏 𝒗𝒗𝟐𝟐 𝟐𝟐

𝑲𝑲 = 𝒎𝒎 0𝒄𝒄 − � − 𝟏𝟏

𝒄𝒄𝟐𝟐

R

<Subject Title> 9

𝑣𝑣 2

Then, afterwards we can ignore the higher order terms when/if values of are very small, as here we are

𝑐𝑐 2

Hence, for lower speeds, the formula of kinetic energy changes from relativistic form to classical form.

3.4 Conclusions

<Subject Title> 10

Question No. B.3

B.3.1 Choose any algorithm to search the index of a given element in vector 𝑋𝑋 and explain.

1) Begin

2) function SearchIndex (a,x);

3) l:=length(a);

4) for i:=1 to l, step 1 do

If a(i)=x)

q=1

break;

else

count=0;

end

end

5)if q=1

Write i;

6) if const=0

Write “The element is not present in the Array\n”;

end

7) End

B.3.2 Write a MATLAB function to implement the above chosen algorithm. The function should accept

the array and an element as input and should output the index of that element in the given array.

function [] = SearchIndexPD(a,x)

b=length(a);

for i=1:1:b

if(a(i)==x)

q=1;

break;

else

q=0;

end

end

if(q==1)

fprintf("%d\n",i);

else

fprintf("not found\n");

end

end

<Subject Title> 11

OUTPUT

>> a=[5 4 8 3 6 7 1]

a=

5 4 8 3 6 7 1

>> SearchIndexPD(a,6)

5

>>

B.3.2 Use MATLAB built-in function ‘find’ to search the index of the required element. Compare and

comment on the results.

This particular code can be used by the inbuilt function ‘find’ to search the index of required element--

x=[1 4 5];

y=5;

k=find(x==y);

disp(k);

This specific code is exceptionally productive in regards to the time and many-sided quality with the code

composed without the discover work. This inbuilt capacity 'find' of MATLAB encourages us to effectively

figure the list of the given number

B.3.3 Conclusions

An arrangement of number for a specific variable, we can without much of a stretch discover position or

record of the specific number in the set by the exhibit work or by utilizing, the inbuilt 'discover' work. In the

working of both the program, the inbuilt capacity 'find' is more reasonable since it is exceedingly good with

the MATLAB.

<Subject Title> 12

Question No. B.4

B.4.1 Obtain equations for the temperature at the four intersection points.

200 + 200 + 𝑥𝑥3 + 𝑥𝑥4

𝑇𝑇𝑇𝑇𝑇𝑇𝑇𝑇𝑇𝑇𝑇𝑇𝑇𝑇𝑇𝑇𝑇𝑇𝑇𝑇 𝑎𝑎𝑎𝑎 𝑥𝑥1 =

4

200 + 100 + 𝑥𝑥4 + 𝑥𝑥1

𝑇𝑇𝑇𝑇𝑇𝑇𝑇𝑇𝑇𝑇𝑇𝑇𝑇𝑇𝑇𝑇𝑇𝑇𝑇𝑇 𝑎𝑎𝑎𝑎 𝑥𝑥2 =

4

200 + 𝑥𝑥1 + 𝑥𝑥4 + 100

𝑇𝑇𝑇𝑇𝑇𝑇𝑇𝑇𝑇𝑇𝑇𝑇𝑇𝑇𝑇𝑇𝑇𝑇𝑇𝑇 𝑎𝑎𝑎𝑎 𝑥𝑥3 =

4

𝑥𝑥2 + 100 + 100 + 𝑥𝑥3

𝑇𝑇𝑇𝑇𝑇𝑇𝑇𝑇𝑇𝑇𝑇𝑇𝑇𝑇𝑇𝑇𝑇𝑇𝑇𝑇 𝑎𝑎𝑎𝑎 𝑥𝑥4 =

4

The sets of Linear equation formed are:

4𝑥𝑥1 − 𝑥𝑥2 − 𝑥𝑥3 = 400

−𝑥𝑥1 + 4𝑥𝑥2 − 𝑥𝑥4 = 300

−𝑥𝑥1 + 4𝑥𝑥3 − 𝑥𝑥4 = 300

−𝑥𝑥2 − 𝑥𝑥3 + 4𝑥𝑥4 = 200

The above equation can be brought down to matrix –

4 −1 −1 0 𝑥𝑥1 400

�−1 4 0 −1� �𝑥𝑥2 � = �300�

−1 0 4 −1 𝑥𝑥3 300

0 −1 −1 4 𝑥𝑥4 200

B.4.2 Solve the resultant system to find the temperature at each intersection point in the grid

By using Gauss Jordan Method

4 −1 −1 0 :400

�−1 4 0 −1:300�

−1 0 4 −1:300

0 −1 −1 4 :200

𝑅𝑅2 4𝑅𝑅2 + 𝑅𝑅1

𝑅𝑅3 4𝑅𝑅3 + 𝑅𝑅1

<Subject Title> 13

4 −1 −1 0 : 400

�0 15 −1 −4:1600�

0 −1 15 −4:1600

0 −1 −1 4 : 200

𝑅𝑅3 15𝑅𝑅3 + 𝑅𝑅2

𝑅𝑅4 15𝑅𝑅4 + 𝑅𝑅2

4 −1 −1 0 : 400

�0 15 −1 −4 : 1600 �

0 0 224 −64:25600

0 0 −16 56 : 4600

𝑅𝑅3 𝑅𝑅4

𝑅𝑅3 ; 𝑅𝑅4

32 8

4 −1 −1 0 : 400

�0 15 −1 −4:1600�

0 0 7 −2: 800

0 0 −2 7 : 575

𝑅𝑅4 7𝑅𝑅4 + 2𝑅𝑅3

4 −1 −1 0 : 400

�0 15 −1 −4:1600�

0 0 7 −2 : 800

0 0 0 45 :5625

𝑅𝑅𝑅𝑅𝑅𝑅𝑅𝑅 𝑜𝑜𝑜𝑜 𝑡𝑡ℎ𝑒𝑒 𝑎𝑎𝑎𝑎𝑎𝑎𝑎𝑎𝑎𝑎𝑎𝑎𝑎𝑎𝑎𝑎𝑎𝑎 𝑚𝑚𝑚𝑚𝑚𝑚𝑚𝑚𝑚𝑚𝑚𝑚 = 𝑟𝑟𝑟𝑟𝑟𝑟𝑟𝑟 𝑜𝑜𝑜𝑜 𝑚𝑚𝑚𝑚𝑚𝑚𝑚𝑚𝑚𝑚𝑚𝑚, ℎ𝑒𝑒𝑒𝑒𝑒𝑒𝑒𝑒 𝑤𝑤𝑤𝑤 ℎ𝑎𝑎𝑎𝑎𝑎𝑎 𝑎𝑎𝑎𝑎 𝑢𝑢𝑢𝑢𝑢𝑢𝑢𝑢𝑢𝑢𝑢𝑢 𝑠𝑠𝑠𝑠𝑠𝑠𝑠𝑠𝑠𝑠𝑠𝑠𝑠𝑠𝑠𝑠

𝑁𝑁𝑁𝑁𝑁𝑁 𝑤𝑤𝑤𝑤 ℎ𝑎𝑎𝑎𝑎𝑎𝑎

45𝑥𝑥4 = 5625

7𝑥𝑥3 − 2𝑥𝑥4 = 800

15𝑥𝑥2 − 𝑥𝑥3 − 4𝑥𝑥4 = 1600

4𝑥𝑥1 − 𝑥𝑥2 − 𝑥𝑥3 = 400

𝑇𝑇ℎ𝑒𝑒 𝑆𝑆𝑆𝑆𝑆𝑆𝑆𝑆𝑆𝑆𝑆𝑆𝑆𝑆𝑆𝑆 𝑏𝑏𝑏𝑏𝑏𝑏𝑏𝑏𝑏𝑏—

𝑥𝑥1 = 175

𝑥𝑥2 = 150

𝑥𝑥3 = 150

𝑥𝑥4 = 125

B.4.3. Write a matlab Script to check for the consistency of the system and obtain the solution:

function[] = linsys(A,B)

M=[A B];

rA=rank(A);

rM=rank(M);

[m,n]=size(A);

if(rA==rM)

fprintf('The System is Consistent')

if(rA==n)

fprintf('The System has Unique Solution')

X=A/B;

fprintf ('The solution of X is \n')

disp(X)

<Subject Title> 14

else

fprintf('The System has Infinite Solution')

end

else

fprintf('The System is Incosistent' )

end

end

Actually, the given problem turns out to be a four variable equation as there are 4 unknown variable

𝒙𝒙𝟏𝟏 , 𝒙𝒙𝟐𝟐 𝒙𝒙𝟑𝟑 𝒙𝒙𝟒𝟒 there whose values are to be computed. to find the value of these I set four equation which I

have solved it to get the values of the respective variables .The system is consistent and has a unique

solution (as the rank augmented matrix =rank of matrix) which has been verified with the results obtained

using the formed mat lab function .

<Subject Title> 15

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