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Ch.

7 Introduction to the Endocrine System LSN 15-16 BME 3430C


LO 7.1 Explain the four criteria that make a chemical signal a hormone.
Group 1: Nick “Vanilla Ice” Norberg, Kevin “The Big Putch” Putchie, Thomas “Gage” Rion

Four Criteria that make a hormone: Pg. 198


 Hormones are secreted by a cell or
group of cells.
→ Secreted by classic endocrine
glands, by isolated endocrine cells,
by neurons, and cells of the
immune system.
 Hormones are secreted into the
blood.
→ Some hormones are secreted into the external environment
(ectohormone). Ex. Pheromones are a type of ectohormone.

Four Criteria that make a hormone: Pg. 198


 Hormones are transported to a
distant target.
→ A hormone is transferred by blood
to a distant target cell.
→ Hormones are distributed widely
in the circulation.
→ Growth factors are not considered
hormones because they are not widely
distributed in the circulation.

Four Criteria that make a hormone: Pg. 199


 Hormones exert their effect at very
low concentrations.
→ Can act at concentration of
nanomolar (10-9M) to picomolar
(10-12M) range.
Ch.7 Introduction to the Endocrine System LSN 15-16 BME 3430C
LO 7.2 Explain what the cellular mechanism of action of a hormone is.
Group 2: Julio Francisco, Brendan Bailey, Roshanak Gonzalez

 Cellular mechanism of action of hormone is the [p. 197-199]


intracellular events via which the hormone’s
message is carried out (responses)
→ Act on their target cell in three ways
 By controlling the rates of enzymatic
reactions
 By controlling the transport of ions or
molecules across cell membrane
 By controlling gene expression and the
synthesis of protein

→ Peptide Hormones
 Lipophobic, so they bind to surface
membrane receptors
 Signal transduction
 Open or close membrane channels and
modulating metabolic enzymes or transport
proteins
→ Steroid Hormones
 Found inside cells in the cytoplasm or
nucleus
 Acts as transcription factor, binds to DNA
and either activating or repressing one or
more genes.
 Initiate nongenomic response
 action of steroid hormone that does
not require altered gene activity
Ch.7 Introduction to the Endocrine System LSN 15-16 BME 3430C
LO 7.4 Compare endocrine cells’ synthesis, storage, and release of peptide and steroid hormones.
Group 3: Katie Newman, Cassie Bayes, Brandon Roche

Peptide Hormone Steroid Hormone

Synthesis  Ribosome makes  Synthesized in the


preprohormone that is smooth ER
inactive  Only made in the
 Golgi packages it so it can adrenal cortex
be chopped into active  Made on demand
hormones by enzymes
 Made in advance

Storage  In the secretory


vesicles in the
cytoplasm of the
endocrine cell

Release  Calcium dependent  Simple diffusion


exocytosis (lipophobic) (lipophilic)
 Rapid because they  Slower because they
modify existing make an entire new
proteins protein starting with
gene modification

Table 7.1 pg 202


Figure 7.3 pg 203

Preprohormones – contain one or more copies of a peptide hormone, a signaling sequence that directs the protein into the lumen of
the rough ER and other peptide sequences that may or may not have biological activity. (pg. 202)
Ch.7 Introduction to the Endocrine System LSN 15-16 BME 3430C
LO 7.5 Compare the location of hormone receptors and the cellular mechanisms of action of peptide and steroid hormones.
Group 4: Loren Phillips, Alexandria Sergo, Daniel Drumm

Peptide Hormone Steroid Hormone


Location of hormone  Cell membrane (p. 202)  Cytoplasm or nucleus
receptors  Water soluble - hydrophilic o Some have membrane receptors
 Steroid hormones act primarily on
intracellular receptors
o Diffuse through membrane, into
target cell because of hydrophobic
properties
Cellular mechanisms  Unable to enter target cell because  Some bind to cell surface or cytoplasmic
lipophobic receptors that use second messenger systems
o Must combine with membrane to create rapid cellular responses
receptors that initiate signal o Estrogen and aldosterone
transduction processes  Destination is nucleus, where the complex
 Activation of cAMP second messenger acts as a transcription factor, binds to DNA,
systems; may activate genes then activates or represses one or more
 Ex: Insulin and parathyroid hormone genes
o Activated genes create new mRNA
that moves back to the cytoplasm
o Translation produces new proteins
for cell processes
Fig. 7.5b
Fig. 7.4

Because of nongenomic effects of steroid hormones, the functional differences between steroid and peptide hormones seem almost
to have disappeared.

Table 7.1
Ch.7 Introduction to the Endocrine System LSN 15-16 BME 3430C
LO 7.6 Compare the three main groups of amine hormones.
Group 5: Jocelyn Garcia, Jerry Labady, Christopher Millamena

Catecholamines Thyroid Hormones Melatonin Similarities


 Made up by modifying  Synthesized from two  Hormones secreted by  Notable for
the side groups of tyrosine molecules and pineal gland the carbon
tyrosine one Iodine molecule  Derived from ring structures
o Modification of  Produced by the tryptophan in their R-
a single butterfly-shaped thyroid  “Darkness hormone”, groups
tyrosine gland in the neck secreted at night as we  Small
molecule  Behave more like steroid sleep. hormone
 Neurohormones that hormones o governs the molecules
bind to cell membrane  Intracellular receptors body’s
receptors that activates genes biological clock
o Just like  Examples:
peptide o Thyroxine
hormones o Triiodothyronine
o Found in
adrenal
medulla
 Examples:
o Dopamine
o Norepinephrine
o Epinephrine

Fig 7.6 (Page 207)

Tyrosine: is the parent amino acid for catecholamines and thyroid hormones.

Notes:
Ch.7 Introduction to the Endocrine System LSN 15-16 BME 3430C
LO 7.7 Describe the role of the nervous system in endocrine reflexes.
Group 6: Moriah Irizarry, Brooke Da Silva, Santiago Rubio

Notes:
Endocrine Reflexes & The Nervous System  In complex endocrine reflexes, hormones
1. Overlap in structure and function act as negative feedback signals
o Structure: The brain (CNS) includes two  CNS- Central Nervous System
endocrine structures: (1) pineal gland (2)
pituitary gland
o CNS acts as an integrating center.
o Function: CNS receives the stimulus and
the endocrine system controls the
response
o Example: Both endocrine cells and the
CNS can act as an integrating center
2. CNS influences the release of hormone through
efferent neurons
3. The nervous system release three major
neurohormones:
o (1) catecholamines are secreted by
modified neurons in the adrenal
medulla
o (2) hypothalamic hormone secreted by
posterior pituitary
o (3) hypothalamic controls hormone
release in the anterior pituitary
4. Hormone secretion and function influenced by
emotions ☹
o Stress can affect the immune system
Ch.7 Introduction to the Endocrine System LSN 15-16 BME 3430C
LO 7.8 Compare the structure and function of the anterior and posterior pituitaries.
Group 7 : Hunter Kemmerer, Ryan McCully, Christian Rydstrand

Posterior Pituitary [Pg. 209]


 Is an extension of the brain that − Anterior and posterior pituitary are
secretes neurohormones made in both on the brain
the hypothalamus − An extension from the brains neural
tissue
 Produces − Made in the hypothalamus known as
→ Oxytocin paraventricular and supraoptic nuclei
→ Vasopressin
 Has no endocrine cells and acts
through a neurons’ axon

Anterior Pituitary [Pg. 211]


− Derived from embryonic tissue
 True endocrine gland that secretes 6 − Secretion of anterior pituitary
classic hormones: hormones are controlled by
→ Prolactin hypothalamic neurohormones
→ Thyrotropin
→ Adrenocorticotropic
→ Growth Hormone
→ Follicle-stimulating hormone
→ Luteinizing hormone

Anterior Pituitary (Cont.) [Pg. 213]


 Main function is Portal veins carry trophic neurohormones
→ Hormone control growth directly to the ant. pituitary where they
→ Metabolism act on the endocrine cells there
→ Reproduction
Ch.7 Introduction to the Endocrine System LSN 15-16 BME 3430C

Anterior Pituitary (Cont.) [Pg.211]


 Circulation is carried out through the Leave the rest of this space open to insert
portal system your own notes while studying.
→ Hypothalamic neurohormones
enter the blood at the 1 set of
capillaries and directly through
portal veins to 2 capillary bed
→ Here they diffuse out to reach
target cells
Ch.7 Introduction to the Endocrine System LSN 15-16 BME 3430C
LO 7.10 Compare long-loop negative feedback for anterior pituitary hormones to the negative feedback loops for insulin and
parathyroid hormone.
Group 8: Robert Ogden, Deyrel Diaz, Sydney Innes

Name ( ex-endocrine Example Differences Response Type Inhibit points References


pathways)
Long-loop negative anterior pituitary Utilizes No single response Multiple Pg. 214 Figure
feedback (Dominant) hormones (downstream) that can be throughout 7.11
Complex neural hormones from the monitored/regulated processes
endocrine reflex response loop to
inhibit previous
steps in pathway
(i.e. hormone
secretion)
Short-loop negative insulin and Response of the Regulated variable Single feedback to Pg.208 Figure 7.7
feedback Parathyroid pathway feeds beginning of
Simple endocrine hormone back to initial process
reflex stimulus and
inhibits entire
process
Ch.7 Introduction to the Endocrine System LSN 15-16 BME 3430C
LO 7.11 Explain permissiveness, synergism, and functional antagonism as they apply to hormones.
Group 9: Karissa Rhoades, Sarah McClish, Richard Santiago

PERMISSIVENESS [Purple text to indicate reference to


page number, figure, or table in the
 When a hormone requires a textbook.]
COREQUISITE to fully exert its desired
effect. Leave the rest of this space open to
insert your own notes while studying.
→ The second hormone may
sometimes have no apparent action
(i.e. 2 + 0 > 2)
Thyroid hormone alone = no
development of reproductive system
→ Reproductive hormone alone =
delayed development of
reproductive system
→ Reproductive hormone with thyroid
hormone = normal development of
reproductive system

SYNERGISM Figure 7.12


 When the combined effect of two Leave the rest of this space open to
(or more) hormones is greater than insert your own notes while studying.
the hormones individually summed.
→ Not limited to just hormones, can
occur with chemicals too
→ The combination is greater than
additive ( 1 + 2 > 3 )
→ Ex: Glucagon and epinephrine
raises blood glucose concentrations.
Ch.7 Introduction to the Endocrine System LSN 15-16 BME 3430C

FUNCTIONAL ANTAGONISM [Purple text to indicate reference to


page number, figure, or table in the
 Two hormones that have opposing textbook.]
physiological actions (compete for the
same receptor) Leave the rest of this space open to
insert your own notes while studying.
- One diminishes the effect of the
other
→ EX: glucagon and some growth
hormone rise the concentration of
glucose in the blood. They are
antagonistic to insulin.
Ch.7 Introduction to the Endocrine System LSN 15-16 BME 3430C
LO 7.13 Explain how negative feedback can be used to determine the location of a problem with one gland in a two- or three-gland
pathway.
Group 10: Anita Sze, Pedro Legrand, Ely Perez, Nicole Nelson

Diagnosis of Endocrine Pathology [Purple text to indicate reference to page


number, figure, or table in the textbook.]
 Primary Pathology happens when a
pathology (def. deficiency or excess) Leave the rest of this space open to
arises in the last endocrine gland of insert your own notes while studying.
the pathway
 Secondary Pathology is when
dysfunction occurs in anterior
pituitary

 To determine which is the correct Fig 7.14


etiology (cause), assess the levels of Leave the rest of this space open to
the 3 hormones in the control insert your own notes while studying.
pathway
→ Primary hypersecretion due to
problem with adrenal cortex
→ Secondary Hypersecretion due to
pituitary problem
→ Tertiary Hypersecretion due to
hypothalamic problem

 In endogenous hypersecretion and Fig 7.13


exogenous administration, high Leave the rest of this space open to
levels of cortisol act as a negative insert your own notes while studying.
feedback signal that shuts off
production of CRH and ACTH