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 The Maillard reaction (often defined as
nonenzymatic browning reaction) is a
chemical reaction between amino acids and
reducing sugars that gives browned food its
distinctive flavor.

 Reducing sugar is any sugar that is capable of

acting as a reducing agent because it has a free
aldehyde group or aReducing
free form
ketone group.
of glucose (the aldehyde
group is on the far right)

Introduction (contd.)

 Caramelization is the browning of sugar, a

process used extensively in cooking for the
resulting sweet nutty flavor and brown color. The
brown colours are produced by three groups of
polymers: caramelans (C24H36O18), caramelens
(C36H50O25), and caramelins (C125H188O80).
 Caramelization is pyrolytic process, is a thermal
decomposition of materials at elevated
temperatures in an inert atmosphere such as a
vacuum or nitrogen gas.
Benefits and Losses
 Some Millard Reaction Process
particularly melanoidins have beneficial
effects on health such as antioxidative and
antibiotic effects.
 Millard Reaction Process such as high
carboxymethyl lysine (CML) promote
diabetes and cardiovascular diseases while
acrylamide acts as a carcinogen.

Inhibit Millard Reaction Process
 Avoid the critical water content (water
activity that cause non-enzymatic
browning, aw:0.2)
 Use non-reducing sugar