You are on page 1of 16

Tuesday, September 12, 2017

1. What is instrument air?

The term “Instrument Air” refers to an extremely clean supply of compressed air that is
free from contaminates such as moisture & particulates. A system may utilize instrument
air for various types of pneumatic equipment, valves & electrical controls.

2. Flash point & fire point?

Flash point: The temperature at which fuel oil gives off vapor that flashes when exposed to
an open flame.
Fire point: The temperature to which fuel oil must be heated to burn continuously when
exposed to an open flame.

3. Furnace purge : The purge system assures that the boiler furnace, the associated air and flue gas
paths, machineries like FD, ID and APH and equipments containing sources of ignition energy
like ESP are purged with air to remove any explosive mixture before ignition.

4. A stiffener ring is a ring with cross section in various shapes like L, I, T etc or any other shape
attached to the vessel either inside or outside of the vessel. It stiffens the shell so it will not
buckle. The required thickness of shell for an external pressure depends on the diameter of
shell, effective length of shell and material properties. The effective length of an un-stiffened
shell is equal to length of shell +2/3 depth of head. Higher the effective length, higher the
thickness required. If a stiffener require ring is provided, the effective length will now reduce to
the distance from stiffer ring to shell end + 1/3 depth of head and thereby required thickness
will be reduced. If vessel is very long it is practice to provide multiple number of stiffeners.
When the multiple stiffeners are provided, the effective length is maximum of distance between
stiffeners and distance from the end stiffener to shell end + depth of head. Please refer UG-28 of
ASME VIII Division 1

Tuesday, September 13, 2017

1. What is flare package?
To burn off the combustible gases coming
out of petrochemical refineries, chemical
industries, oil well facilities etc. (See Fig.
2. What is Minimum Design Metal Temperature?
MDMT is a temperature arbitrarily selected by the user of the vessel according to the type of
fluid and the temperature range the vessel is going to handle. Minimum (Design Metal)
Temperature signifies lowermost temperature of operation which the designed material
for pressure vessel could bear. For that, the material selected has to be impact tested at
MDMT to check for any cracks or voids developed. The so-called arbitrary MDMT must be
lower than or equal to the CET (which is an environmental or "process" property, see below)
and must be higher than or equal to the (MDMT)M (which is a material property). Critical
Exposure Temperature (CET) is the lowest anticipated temperature to which the vessel will be
subjected, taking into consideration lowest operating temperature, operational upsets, auto-
refrigeration, atmospheric temperature, and any other sources of cooling. In some cases it may
be the lowest temperature at which significant stresses will occur and not the lowest possible
temperature. (MDMT)M is the lowest temperature permitted according to the metallurgy of the
vessel fabrication materials and the thickness of the vessel component, that is, according to the
low temperature embrittlement range and the charpy impact test requirements per
temperature and thickness, for each one of the vessel's components.
For this, ASME, Sec VIII, Div. 1, UCS-66 code is used.

3. Stiffener Rings
4. Reinforcement Pads
5. Internals like weir plate, demister, Vortex Breaker, Deflector plate, coalescer, Foam Breaker
Friday, September 22, 2017
1. What is API gravity?

A specific gravity scale developed by the American Petroleum Institute (API) for measuring the
relative density of various petroleum liquids, expressed in degrees. API gravity is gradated in
degrees on a hydrometer instrument and was designed so that most values would fall between 10°
and 70° API gravity. The arbitrary formula used to obtain this effect is: API gravity = (141.5/SG at
60°F) - 131.5, where SG is the specific gravity of the fluid.

Industry indicator

API gravity is short for American Petroleum Institute gravity, an inverse measure that is used to
determine the weight of petroleum liquids in comparison to water. If a liquid has API gravity of
more than 10 it is considered light oil that floats on water. If the liquid’s API gravity is less than 10 it
will sink and falls into the heavy oil category. While API gravity essentially measures the relative
density of petroleum liquid and water it is primarily used to evaluate and contrast the relative
densities of petroleum liquids.

In mathematical terms API gravity has no dimensions. However the measure is gradated in degrees
using a purpose built hydrometer instrument. Thanks to a strategic API scale design most
petroleum liquids will be categorized between 10 and 70 API gravity degrees.

The origins of API gravity

The original technique used to measure the gravity of liquids was called the Baumé scale. It was
developed in France in 1768 and officially accepted by the U.S. National Bureau of Standards in
1916. After encountering a series of errors and variations the American Petroleum Institute refined
the scale and created API gravity. This is now widely used across the globe.

Clear-cut formulas

The official formula used to derive the gravity of petroleum liquids from the specific gravity (SG), as

API gravity = 141.5/SG – 131.5

The relative density of petroleum liquids can also be uncovered by using API gravity value:

RD at 60oF = 141.5 / (API gravity + 131.5)

A key formula for establishing barrels of crude oil per metric ton

Using the following formula, API gravity can also be used to calculate how many barrels of crude oil
can be produced per metric ton. Given that the weight of oil plays an integral role in establishing its
market value this formula is incredibly important!

Barrels of crude oil per metric ton = 1 / [141.5 / (API gravity + 131.5) x 0.159]

API gravity classifications and grades

In general oils with API gravity of 40 – 45 generate the highest market prices. Any oils with API
gravity of 45 or over have shorter molecular chains which are less desirable to refineries. Below is
an overview of the four major crude oil classifications:

Light crude oil

Any crude oil with API gravity of over 31.1 degrees falls into the light crude oil category.

Medium crude oil

Oils with API gravity falling between 22.3 and 31.1 degrees are classed as medium crude oils.

Heavy crude oil

Heavy crude oils have API gravity of fewer than 22.3.

Extra heavy oil

Also referred to as bitumen, extra heavy crude oils have API gravity of below 10.0 degrees.

While these are accurate classifications it’s important to note that exact differentiations between
light, medium, heavy and extra heavy will vary depending on the region of origin. At the end of the
day, fluctuations are largely based on current oil commodity trading.
2. What is degree of radiography – RT1, RT2, RT3, RT4?

The purpose of radiography of pressure vessels is to insure the structural integrity of welded joints
on the vessel. The amount of radiography used affects the head and shell thickness and the vessel
cost. Generally, if more radiographs are taken, thinner materials can be used. This technical paper is
meant to be used for informational purposes only. The ASME Code should be referred to for specific
questions and applications. There are several levels of radiography that should be considered by
engineers who write specifications for pressure vessels. ASME Section VIII, Div.1, Par. UG-116
defines the following: 1. RT1 – This designation indicates that 100 % of all longitudinal and
circumferential seams have been radio graphed. It also indicates that 100 % of nozzle welds over
10” diameter and of weld neck design have been radio graphed. This level yields a 1.0 joint
efficiency on all welds. RT1 is mandatory for head/shell thickness greater than 1.25” (ASME SA-
516-70). 2. RT2 – This designation indicates that 100 % of longitudinal weld seams have been radio
graphed and that spot RT has been done on circumferential seams. This level yields a 1.0 joint
efficiency for thickness calculations. No radiographic testing is done on nozzle welds for this level.
This is defined in Par. UW-11(a)5 and UW-11(a)(5)(b). 3. RT3 – This level requires spot RT on all
longitudinal and circumferential seams and yields a 0.85 joint efficiency. No nozzle connection
welds have RT performed on them. This is defined in UW-11(b) and UW-52. 4. RT4 – This is defined
as any level of RT performed, but not defined by RT1, RT2, or RT3. 5. Vessels designed to ASME
code, Section I require 100% RT on circumferential and longitudinal seams and certain nozzles as
defined by the ASME Code. Each specifying engineer should consider safety, cost and quality
assurance before deciding which level of RT to include on a given pressure vessel.

3. What are the vessel internals?

Weir plate – to separate the oil and water by placing a plate or restricting the section of pressure
vessel so that only upper layer, that is, oil layer on water could flow into that section.

Demister – to collect gas and to restrain liq. getting mixed with gas by sucking it

Vortex breaker – To break the vortices formed at the outlet to have the uniform flow and avoid

Inlet deflector – to suddenly change the flow of fluid at the inlet

Calming baffle – to transform the fluid flow into more uniform, organized flow (turbulent to

4. What is Hydrostatic Test?

All ASME Code Stamped Section VIII pressure vessels must undergo a pressure test. Cryogenic
pressure vessels with Code Stamps are no different. The requirements for this pressure testing are
contained within paragraphs “UG-99 Hydrostatic Pressure Test”, “UG-100 Pneumatic Test”, and
“UG-101 Proof Tests to Establish Maximum Allowable Working Pressure”. Anyone even passingly
familiar with the Code knows that even the most seemingly simplest of subjects, like Pressure Tests,
can lead into a myriad of clarifications and exceptions. For this reason we will limit our discussion
to cryogenic pressure vessels built to Division 1 and “Part UHA Requirements for Pressure Vessels
Constructed of High Alloy Steel”. Further we will assume that maximum allowable working
pressure (MAWP) is determinable by calculation and that UG-101 does not apply.

Pneumatic Testing Conditions

Per the requirements of UG-99 and UG-100 a hydrostatic test (along with a visual inspection during
test) is the default test that must be satisfactorily performed as one of the conditions for U stamping
the pressure vessel. A pneumatic test may be performed if certain conditions are met. UG-100(a)
lists these conditions being for vessels:

1. that are so designed and/or supported that they cannot safely be filled with water.

2. not readily dried, that are used in services where traces of the testing liquid cannot be
tolerated and the parts of which have, where possible, been previously tested by hydrostatic
pressure to the pressure required in UG-99.

The application requirements of cryogenic pressure vessels often meet these conditions, especially
those of (2) above, and are most often pneumatically pressure tested.

Why The Pressure Test is performed

Not discussed in UG-99 or UG-100 are the reasons the pressure test is performed. The most
obviously of reasons is that the pressure test serves as a proof of design and workmanship
verification. Two trusted sources 1 2 state these reasons for performing the pressure test,

 The pressure test uncovers gross errors, due to design or workmanship, including leaks at
welded, brazed or flanged connections.

 The application of the test pressure results in a stress relief of the vessel, where local areas
of high stress, either due to design or fabrication issues, undergo local yielding at the test
pressure, resulting in a better stress pattern after release of the pressure.

Regardless of the reasons behind the pressure test, the test must always be performed after all
other fabrication steps are complete.

Hydrostatic Test

The hydrostatic test utilizes a liquid to fill and pressurize the vessel. Water is most the most
commonly used liquid. The hydrostatic pressure is raised inside the vessel until the pressure
reaches at least the minimum hydrostatic test pressure which is:

Minimum Hydrostatic Test Pressure = 1.3 X MAWP x LSR

Where LSR is the smallest ratio of the allowable stress at test temperature to the allowable stress at
design temperatures of materials used in the vessel construction. (Bolting is excluded except when
the calculated test pressure will exceed 90% of the bolt material minimum yield strength at the test

For the hydrostatic test the Code recommends the temperature of the vessel and its contents are
the same and between a range of 30°F above the minimum design metal temperature (MDMT) and
120°F. After the pressure reaches the test pressure, the pressure is reduced until it reaches a value
equal to the test pressure divided by 1.3. A visual examination or gas leak test is used to check for
cracks or leaks in all connections and welded joints.

The pneumatic test, on the other hand, utilizes gases; commonly nitrogen gas is specified for
cryogenic pressure vessels, to perform a similar pressure test. The vessel must meet one or more of
the stated conditions to allow the use of the pneumatic test rather than the hydrostatic test. There
are valid safety concerns regarding pneumatic testing, as it is intrinsically less safe than hydrostatic

Pneumatic Test

All vessels that undergo a pneumatic test are first examined under the requirements of UW-50,
which requires that all openings, welds, and attachments be examined before testing. For cryogenic
vessels of the type under discussion this would require liquid dye-penetrant testing per UW-50.

The minimum required test pressure for a pneumatic test is

Minimum Pneumatic Test Pressure = 1.1 X MAWP x LSR

Where again LSR is the smallest ratio of the allowable stress at test temperature to the allowable
stress at design temperatures of materials used in the vessel construction. (Bolting is excluded
except when the calculated test pressure will exceed 90% of the bolt material minimum yield
strength at the test temperature.)

For the pneumatic test the Code requires the temperature of the vessel and its contents are the
same and between a range of 30°F above the minimum design metal temperature (MDMT) and
120°F. After the pressure reaches the test pressure, the pressure is reduced until it reaches a value
equal to the test pressure divided by 1.1. Again a visual examination or gas leak test is used to check
for cracks or leaks in all connections and welded joints.

5. Differentiate between ASME sec. VIII Div. 1, 2, 3?

You may know ASME Code Section 8 has three divisions. Division 1 covers pressure up to 3000 psi,
Division 2 has an alternative rule and covers up to 10,000 psi and Division 3 can be used for
pressure higher than 10,000 psi.

6. What is the Summary of Important Points in ASME Code Section 8?

1. ASME Code Section 8 edition is issued once every 3 years and addenda, once a year – both on July
1st. Edition and addenda become effective on the 1st of January of next year (i.e., 6 months after

2. Thickness of cylindrical shell t = PR/(SE-0.6P) + C

3. Longitudinal weld is more critical because it is subjected to double the stress than Circ. Weld.

4. “Weld joint categories” A, B, C, D – is based on joint locations in the vessel and stress levels
encountered. “Weld Types” (type 1, 2, 3, etc.) describe the weld itself.

5. Depths of 2:1 Ellipsoidal and hemispherical heads are D/4 and D/2 respectively. (D= Head

6. Weld Joint categories:

Category A:

- All longitudinal welds in shell and nozzles.

- All welds in heads, Hemispherical-head to shell weld joint
Category B:

- All circumferential welds in shell and nozzles

- Head to shell joint (other than Hemispherical.)

Category C and D are flange welds and nozzle attachment welds respectively.

7. Weld Types:

Type 1: Full penetration welds (Typically Double welded)

Type 2: Welds with backing strip

Type 3: Single welded partial penetration welds

Type 4, 5 and 6: Various Lap welds (rarely used)

8. For full penetration welds (type 1):

Joint efficiency, E = 100%, 85%, 70%

(For the radiography = Full, Spot, Nil respectively)

9. Radiography marking on name plates (typically for Type-1 welds)

RT-1: (E=1) All butt welds – full length radiography

RT-2: (E=1.0) All Cat. A Butt welds Full length, Cat B, spot

RT-3: (E=0.85) Spot radiography of both Cat A and B welds

RT-4: (E=0.7) Partial/No radiography

10. For Welded Heads for E=1, all welds within the head require full length radiography (since they
are all Cat. A welds)

11. For seamless heads, E=1, If a) head to shell weld is fully radiographed (if Cat. A), and at least
spot radiographed (if Cat. B)

12. Compared to Cylindrical shell, thickness of 2:1 Ellipsoidal head is approx. same as shell,
Hemisph. head approx. half and Torisph head is 77% higher.

13. MAWP is calculated for: Working condition (Hot & Corroded). Vessel MAWP is always taken at
the Top of the Vessel and is lowest of all part MAWPs adjusted for static pressure.

14. Hydro-Test is Standard Pressure test on Completed Vessels.

Hyd. Test Pr. = 1.3 x MAWP x stress ratio

Insp. Pressure (hydro) = test pr. / 1.3

Min. Test temp. = MDMT + 30°F

Max. Inspection temp. = 120°F

15. Pneumatic test is performed if hydro is not possible due to design or process reasons. Prior to
the test, NDT as per UW-50 is mandatory.

Pneumatic test pressure = 1.1 x MAWP x stress ratio, Pressure should be increased in steps (Total

1st step – 50% of test pressure

2nd to 6 step – 10% of test pressure

Insp. Pr. (pneumatic) = test pressure /1.1

16. Pressure gauge range should be about twice the test pressure. However, in any case it shall not
be lower than 1.5 times and not higher than 4 times the test pressure.

17. Vessel MAWP represents the maximum safe pressure holding capacity of the vessel. Vessel
MAWP is measured at top-most point and is lowest of vessel part MAWPs, adjusted for hydrostatic

18. For vertical vessels, hydrostatic pressure caused due to liquid with specific gravity = 1, 1ft of
height = 0.43 psig. Or 1 mtr of height = 0.1 Bar

19. Total pressure at any point of Vertical vessel is given by:

Total Pr. = Vessel MAWP + h x 0.433.

(h = height from top in ft.)

20. If part MAWP and elevations are known, Vessel MAWP can be calculated by the deducting
hydrostatic head from part MAWP.

21. Ext. Pressure is worked out on basis of Geometric factor A (which depends on L/Do and Do/t
ratios) and factor B (depends on A, )

Allowable Ext. Pressure, Pa = 4B/(3(Do/t))

22. For values of A falling to the left of material line in the material chart:

Pa = 2AE/(3(Do/t))

23. Name plate shows The Code stamping, MAWP, design temp., MDMT, and Extent of Radiography.

24. ASME materials (SA) shall be used for code stamped vessel fabrication instead of ASTM (A)

25. Reinforcement pad is not required, if the size of finished opening is (UG 36)

 Not exceeding 2-3/8” for all thicknesses of vessel

 Not exceeding 3-½”, if vessel thickness is ≤ 3/8’’

26. Reinforcement pad with OD = 2d and thk = vessel thk is always safe (d = diameter of finished

27. Reinforcement limit along vessel wall = 2d

28. Reinforcement limit normal to vessel wall = smaller of 2.5 t or 2.5 tn

29. In reinforcement pad calculations, credit can be taken for area available in shell and nozzle.

30. Fillet weld throat dimension = 0.707 x leg of weld

31. Adequacy of weld sizes shall be checked as required by UW-16. The nozzles construction shall
be one of the Code acceptable types.

32. The maximum permitted ovality tolerance (D max – D min) shall not exceed 1% of nominal
diameter of vessel. If there is opening, then the tolerance can be increased by 2% x d (d = diameter
of opening) if measurement is taken within a distance of ‘d’ from axis of opening.

33. The mismatch tolerances and the maximum allowable weld reinforcement is more strict on
longitudinal welds compared to circumferential welds (UW-35).

34. Principle of reinforcement:

Area removed = Area compensated.

Compensation area shall be within reinforcement limits.

35. For use as pressure parts, the plates shall be fully identified. Maximum permitted under
tolerance on plates is 0.01” (0.3 mm) or 6% of ordered thickness, whichever is less.

36. All welding (including tack, seal, etc.) shall be done using qualified procedures and welders.

37. Mandatory full radiography in ASME Code Section 8 is required for all welding with thickness
exceeding Table UCS-57, and also for lethal service vessels and unfired boilers with Design Pr. More
than 50 psig.

38. PWHT is ASME Code Section 8 requirement if thickness exceeds those given in tables UCS-56
(given in notes under the tables). These tables also give min. PWHT temperature and min. holding
time (soaking period) based on P-Nos. and thickness respectively.

39. For Furnace PWHT in ASME Code Section 8 , Loading Temperature shall not exceed 800°F,
heating rate 400 deg F/hr/inch of thickness, cooling rate 500°F /hr/inch of thickness. Still air
cooling permitted below 800°F. During soaking period, temp difference between hottest and
coldest part shall not exceed 150°F.

40. Minimum overlap for PWHT in multiple heats = 5 ft.

41. For the ASME Code Section 8 impact test requirement, UCS 66 curve. If MDMT-thickness
combination falls on or above the curve, impact testing is exempted. Additional exemptions are
given as per UG-20(f) and UCS=68 (c).

7. What is flange rating?

The concept of flange ratings likes clearly. A Class 300 flange can handle more pressure than a Class
150 flange, because a Class 300 flange are constructed with more metal and can withstand more
pressure. However, there are a number of factors that can impact the pressure capability of a flange.

The Pressure Class or Rating for flanges will be given in pounds. Different names are used to
indicate a Pressure Class.
For example: 150 Lb or 150 Lbs or 150# or Class 150, all are means the same.

Example of Pressure Rating

Flanges can withstand different pressures at different temperatures. As temperature increases, the
pressure rating of the flange decreases. For example, a Class 150 flange is rated to approximately
270 PSIG at ambient conditions, 180 PSIG at approximately 400°F, 150 PSIG at approximately
600°F, and 75 PSIG at approximately 800°F.
In other words, when the pressure goes down, the temperature goes up and vice versa. Additional
factors are that flanges can be constructed from different materials, such as stainless steel, cast and
ductile iron, carbon steel etc. Each material has different pressure ratings.
Below is an example of a flange NPS 12 with the several pressure classes. As you can see, inner
diameter and diameter of the raised face at all the same; but outside diameter, bolt circle and
diameter of bolt holes become larger in each higher pressure class.

The number and diameters (mm) of the bolt holes are: CL 150 - 12 x 25.4; CL 300 - 16 x 28.6; CL
400 - 16 x 34.9; CL 600 - 20 x 34.9; CL 900 - 20 x 38.1; CL 1500 - 16 x 54; CL 2500 - 12 x 73

Pressure-Temperature Ratings - Example -

Pressure-temperature ratings are maximum allowable working gage pressures in bar units at the
temperatures in degrees Celsius. For intermediate temperatures, linear interpolation is permitted.
Interpolation between class designations is not permitted.

Pressure-temperature ratings apply to flanged joints that conform to the limitations on bolting and
on gaskets, which are made up in accordance with good practice for alignment and assembly. Use of
these ratings for flanged joints not conforming to these limitations is the responsibility of the user.

The temperature shown for a corresponding pressure rating is the temperature of the pressure-
containing shell of the component. In general, this temperature is the same as that of the contained
fluid. Use of a pressure rating corresponding to a temperature other than that of the contained fluid
is the responsibility of the user, subject to the requirements of applicable codes and regulations. For
any temperature below -29°C, the rating shall be no greater than the rating shown for -29°C.

8. What is wind speed?

Wind speed, or wind flow velocity, is a fundamental atmospheric quantity. Wind speed is caused by
air moving from high pressure to low pressure, usually due to changes in temperature. Wind speed
is now commonly measured with an anemometer but can also be classified using the older Beaufort
scale which is based on people's observation of specifically defined wind effects.

Wind speed is a common factor in the design of structures and buildings around the world. It is
often the governing factor in the required lateral strength of a structure's design.

In the United States, the wind speed used in design is often referred to as a "3-second gust" which is
the highest sustained gust over a 3-second period having a probability of being exceeded per year
of 1 in 50 (ASCE 7-05). This design wind speed is accepted by most building codes in the United
States and often governs the lateral design of buildings and structures.

In Canada, reference wind pressures are used in design and are based on the "mean hourly" wind
speed having a probability of being exceeded per year of 1 in 50. The reference wind pressure (q) is
calculated in Pascal using the following equation (ref: NBC 2005 Structural Commentaries - Part 4
of Div. B, Comm. I): q=(1/2)pV² where p is the air density in kg/m³ and V is wind speed in m/s.

Historically, wind speeds have been reported with a variety of averaging times (such as fastest mile,
3-second gust, 1-minute and mean hourly) which designers may have to take into account. To
convert wind speeds from one averaging time to another, the Durst Curve (Ref: ASCE 7-05
commentary Figure C6-4, ASCE 7-10 C26.5-1) was developed which defines the relation between
probable maximum wind speed averaged over t seconds, Vt, and mean wind speed over one hour

9. What is AARH finish?

Machining of gasket faces of flanges to a smooth finish of Ra = 3.2 - 6.3 micrometer. (= 125 - 250
micro inches AARH) AARH stands for Arithmetic Average Roughness Height.

10. How to select type of roof i.e. dome or cone roof?

1. Dome and umbrella roofs are self-supporting and are generally limited to tanks 60 feet
or less in diameter. Except for small sizes, cone-roof tanks are supported by columns and
other structural members and may reach 300 ft diameter.
2. Self-supporting dome or umbrella roof designs are normally used in tanks with small,
positive vapor pressures (less than 2.5 psig).
I found the last note interesting since it was written as "less than". Guess I was expecting to
see a "greater than" value as a breakpoint between cone roof and dome roof but maybe the
self-supporting aspect is more of criteria than vapor pressure. It will be interesting to see if
anyone else has criteria about vapor pressure. Initial cost and ease of maintenance might
also factor in there. I would add that there was a note that with self-supporting roofs it is
difficult to provide a frangible roof to top angle joint so dome roofs were required to have
other means for emergency venting per API 2000.

Another Answer: Cone roof tanks were indicated for vapor space pressure/vacuum rating of
1.5"wc/1.5"wc respectively. Dome, umbrella roofs were indicated for vapor space
pressure/vacuum rating of 6"wc/1.5" WC respectively.

11. Mill under tolerance (ASME Sec. VIII Div. 1, UG-16 (c)): 0.25 mm for plate.
So whenever you calculate shell thickness by formula, add 0.25 mm in that and then
round it off to the next even integer.

12. For selection of SKIRT support for vertical vessels, following criteria is used:
1. H/D >= 5
2. D >= 1.5 m

Otherwise leg support can be used.

11. First angle v/s Third angle
12. What are girth flanges?

Girth flanges are used for mating two segments of a pressure vessel. These parts are also widely
used in shell and tube heat exchangers and other process equipment to mate various components.
There are two common kinds of girth flange such as welded hub joint, loose type (without hub).
Depended to design of equipment girth flange may have raised face gasket seating area. The seating
area can be special surface finished which is suitable for better sealing and prevent leakage.

13. What is killed steel?

Fully killed is the term to describe de-oxidised steel.

After the steel is made, it is then poured into the continuous caster to make a long slab of steel.
Think of a sausage maker – molten steel goes in at the top and rectangular slab comes out the
bottom. This is called casting.

During casting, small carbon monoxide bubbles can form between the steel grains if the oxygen is
not removed. If you’ve ever painted a door and seen bubbles in the paint once you apply it you’ll
recognise the similarities. To stop these bubbles appearing you paint slower, but in steel you add
certain elements to the steel as you define the metallurgy. For most steels to achieve this effect – de-
oxidisation – you add Silicon or Aluminium or both.

The impact is quite dramatic. A slab of steel is full of little steel grains. If you imagine a whole room
full of golf balls you can also imagine the space between them. You don’t want the space, so one way
of reducing it is to make the golf balls smaller. This is in effect what the Aluminium and Silicon do to
the grains in a slab of steel.

If it isn’t killed then as the slab cools you can see little bubbles forming on the surface as the CO
bubbles out.

The grains become smaller, reducing the spaces and it is then called fine grained steel – improving
the microstructure and thus, its strength. This is of great use for Structural and Pressure Vessels,
indeed anywhere where you require improved strength.

Generally if a steel has Silicon content of more than 0.10% then it is considered to be killed – and
ASME requirements for pressure vessels generally require any steel with a carbon content of more
than 0.24% to be killed. As to why it is called fully killed? Well when you compare a fresh non-killed
slab and a fully killed one – well one has bubbles coming out and the other is dead. Hence, it is
called killing.

14. What is difference between A/S and A/B notations in Pump Datasheets? (For reference, see
7046-M-DS-059 & 7046-M-DS-060)

- A/B notation represents two pumps working for half loading condition (50%). So, in case any of
the pump stops working, other can be run at full load condition to avoid shutdown.
- A/S notation represents two pumps in which only one is working at a time at full load (100%)
condition while other is standby. In case pump stops working, the process is temporarily shut down
and pump is replaced with standby one.

15. Reinforcement plates are used around nozzle to provide stiffness and supports & also to
prevent any deflections under undesired/sudden loading. So, the width of has to taken from table
6.6 (a).

16. Annular plate sits below the shell as a ring & protruded outside the tank circumference and
bottom plate is inside shell circumference and welded to the annular plate. As per API 5.5.1, if the
maximum product stress (see for the first shell course is less than or equal to 160 MPa
(23,200 psi) or the maximum hydrostatic test stress (see for the first shell course is less
than or equal to 171 MPa (24,900 psi), lap-welded bottom plates (see may be used instead
of annular plates.

17. When top wind girder is used?

For open top tanks or external floating roof tanks, a stiffening ring (top wind girder) is required to
maintain the roundness of a tank. However, for fixed cone roof tanks already, we are providing the
compression ring (top curb angle) for cone roof attachment to the shell top course. So, it is already
stiffened. Thus, there is no concept of ‘top wind girder’ as such in fixed cone/dome roof tanks.

However, we may need to use the wind girders in case the maximum unstiffened height exceeds the
transformed width of shell. Location should be estimated in such a way that transformed width
should not exceed the maximum unstiffened height.