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ISSN: 2278-0181

Vol. 2 Issue 11, November - 2013

Shaiv Parikh

B.E.- Sardar Vallabhbhai Patel Institute of Technology — Vasad (Affiliated with GTU)

ABSTRACT SQUASHING

Compression members are very important Squashing occurs in relatively small length columns.

components for any building. All the kinds of loads It occurs by yielding of a cross section of the column.

such as dead load or live load are ultimately

transferred to the columns (compression members)

which in turn transfer it to the foundation. Thus, a

OVERALL FLEXURAL BUCKLING

column can be considered to be the main supporting

unit for any kind of structure. In this mode, failure of the member occurs by

excessive deflection in the plane of weaker principal

This article gives a brief description about the axis.(fig1)

characteristics and the behaviour of steel

compression members. The various design steps are

taken in accordance to IS:800.

INTRODUCTION

compressive forces which tend to decrease its length

is called a compression member.

RT

If the net end moments are zero, then the load is said

to be acting concentrically to the member and the

structure is said to be axially loaded.

IJE

vertical compression members in building frames are

called columns, the inclined ones are called struts. Fig. 1

The principal compression member in a crane is

called a boom.

In the above fig, x-x and y-y axis are shown. Ixx > Iyy ,

so the resistance about y-y axis is less as compared

to x-x axis. Hence buckling will occur about y-y axis.

The strength of a column depends on the following

parameters:-

Cross-sectional configuration. TORSIONAL BUCKLING

Support conditions.

Torsional buckling failure occurs by twisting of the

Length of the column.

column about shear center in the longitudinal axis. A

Residual stresses.

combination of flexural and torsional buckling is

called flexural-torsional buckling.

COMPRESSION MEMBER (axially loaded):

LOCAL BUCKLING

more parts of the member, for example: flange or

web of an I-section. No overall deflection is observed

in this kind of buckling.

Fig. 2

IJERTV2IS110360 www.ijert.org

1411

International Journal of Engineering Research & Technology (IJERT)

ISSN: 2278-0181

Vol. 2 Issue 11, November - 2013

THEIR LENGHTS AND THEIR BEHAVIOUR:

SHORT COLUMNS

members. Slenderness ratio of such columns is very

low.

hence stresses at failure are yield stresses. No

buckling is observed in such columns.

Fig. 3

RT

INTERMEDIATE COLUMNS

SLENDER OR LONG COMPRESSION A column under an axial load has some fibers yielded

MEMBERS some fibers in the elastic limit are known as

IJE

intermediate columns.

The strength of any compression member decreases

with the increase in its length. These compression members would fail both by

yielding and buckling. The failure would fall under

Compression members with high slenderness ratio

the ‘inelastic’ category. Hence, Euler’s formula is not

and which satisfy all the conditions of Euler’s

applicable for such columns.

Formula for buckling are called slender or long

compression members.

stresses induced during failure (buckling) are well

below the yield limit and lie in the elastic zone. So, SLENDER COMPRESSION MEMBERS

the failure occurs elastically. (ELASTIC BUCKLING):

column was first described by Euler. He was the first

one to give remarks about the strength of a column.

Euler considered an ideal column with the following

properties-

and homogeneous.

Column has no imperfections.

Column is pinned at both the ends.

Column is initially straight and the load are

acting concentrically.

IJERTV2IS110360 www.ijert.org

1412

International Journal of Engineering Research & Technology (IJERT)

ISSN: 2278-0181

Vol. 2 Issue 11, November - 2013

at N = 1 (as both ends are pinned).

2

Hence, Pcr = EI/L2

2

fcr = Pcr/Ag = E/ λ (I=Agr2)

(a) (b) column(for pins at both ends)

Fig. 5 r = radius of gyration of the axis

about which buckling occurs.

Given in the above figure is a Euler column. The

Ag = gross cross section of the

column will remain straight at load P. No deflection

column.

or buckling is observed then. But when the load

reaches Pcr buckling of the column (about weaker

axis) is observed. Such a load (when the column

buckles) is termed as Critical Load or P cr. (Note: For different end conditions, the value of

effective length changes.)

RT

From figure (b), at any location at distance x, bending

moment M is

M = Pcr * y For short columns, fcr = fy. They can be loaded in the

strain hardening range and hence λ is replaced by λp.

IJE

Therefore, for short columns:

fy=π2E/ λp2

So, -EI d2y/dx2 = Pcr * y

=˃ λp= (E/fy)1/2

d2y/dx2 + (Pcr/EI)*y = 0

Now let k2 = Pcr/EI

y = A1sinkx + A2coskx

1. At x=0 ; y=0

0 = A1(0) + A2(1)

So, A2 = 0

2. At x=L ; y=0

0 = A1sinkL

Fig. 6

IJERTV2IS110360 www.ijert.org

1413

International Journal of Engineering Research & Technology (IJERT)

ISSN: 2278-0181

Vol. 2 Issue 11, November - 2013

curves i.e. Euler column buckling curve and the short

column yield curve. The curve can also be defined in Pcr = 2K (K is the spring

a non-dimensional form, where of λ is taken on X- constant)

axis and fc/fy on Y-axis.

Pcr Lsin /2 = 2K (from fig. = Lsin /2)

Therefore,

λ = non dimensional slenderness ratio given by (

Pcr = 4K / Lsin ……… (1)

fy/fcr)1/2

slender is observed and the value of λ = 1 . This is

But when an initial crookedness is observed in the

also known as critical slenderness ratio.

member such that 0, P=0 and 0 = Lsin 0/2, on

IN PRACTICE:

actual practice. It was ignored because the test results

did not agree with it. The column in actual practice

tends to have initial crookedness, experience

accidental eccentric loading, local or lateral buckling

and may have residual stresses.

RT

Due to these imperfections, the deflection curve of a Fig. 8

real column will differ from the curve of an idealized

column. Three main factors which result in reduction

of the strength of the column are:

IJE

# Initial Crookedness:-

rigid bars connected to each other by a linearly elastic

torsion spring. The member is loaded with

Fig. 9

Hence, 0

For equilibrium,

P = 2K - 0)

shown on figure (b).Fig. 7

= 0 *(1/(1-P/Pcr))………. (3)

IJERTV2IS110360 www.ijert.org

1414

International Journal of Engineering Research & Technology (IJERT)

ISSN: 2278-0181

Vol. 2 Issue 11, November - 2013

Fig. 11

Fig. 10 parts of the member while forming process, residual

stresses are formed in it.

after application of load is y, then

-EI(d2y/dx2) = P (y + y0)

RT

Applying boundary conditions y = 0 at x = 0 and y =

0 at x= L, the solution of equation:

(d2y/dx2) + P (y + y0)=0 is

IJE

y= sin(πx/L)

(It is observed that eqn. (3) and (4) are similar.) compression member with residual stresses, they add

upto the residual stresses and may affect the strength

of the member by phenomena like premature yielding

(for short or stocky columns) or spontaneous

buckling(for slender columns).

amplitude of initial deflection by a factor (1/(1-

P/Pcr)). This value is known as amplification factor. EFFECTS OF IMPERFECTIONS TAKEN

TOGETHER (MULTIPLE COLUMN CURVES)

ACCORDING TO IS:800

LOADING:

Fig shows a non-dimensional form of a strength

curve of a Euler column. Considering all the

imperfection factors encountered in a real

As discussed earlier, it is impossible to ensure that

compression member, the Indian Code(13800) has

the load is applied at the exact centroidal axis of the

adopted the multiple column curves, as shown in the

column. The above figure shows a load P applied at

fig below.

an eccentricity e to the centroidal axis of the column

which induces a bending moment (P * e) and causes

lateral deflection of the column.

IJERTV2IS110360 www.ijert.org

1415

International Journal of Engineering Research & Technology (IJERT)

ISSN: 2278-0181

Vol. 2 Issue 11, November - 2013

COLUMNS:

the section in accordance with the

classification as detailed in the Table

(Limiting Width to Thickness Ratios) of

IS: 800.

Fig. 13

Pd = Aefcd

member.

2

fcd = (1/[ +( – λ2)]1/2) (fy/ mo)

RT

= χfy/ mo<= fy/ mo

Where, (λ-0.2) + λ2 )

IJE

½

(fy/fcr) Fig. 14

fcr = Euler buckling stress = π2E/(kL/r)2

(note: The section can be classified into

4 categories:

KL/r is the effective slenderness ratio

1. Plastic

is the imperfection factor 2. Compact

3. Semi compact

X is the stress reduction factor. 4. Slender

slender sections are not available. But,

if the section is more on the plastic side,

the failure would occur by yielding of

On the basis of the value of a particular buckling the section while it is on the slender

curve is selected. side, failure would occur by buckling in

the elastic zone.

plastic limit have a better strength than

the ones on the slender or elastic side.)

ratio, the value of design stress fcd can be obtained.

IJERTV2IS110360 www.ijert.org

1416

International Journal of Engineering Research & Technology (IJERT)

ISSN: 2278-0181

Vol. 2 Issue 11, November - 2013

equation

(vii) Choose appropriate value of Partial safety

factor for material strength, γ from

m0

Table 5.2 of IS: 800

(viii) Calculate design stress in compression,

f , as per the following equation

cd

(Clause 7.1.2.1 of IS: 800):

d

d e cd

(x) Calculate the factored applied load and

(If section is slender then apply appropriate

check whether the column is safe

corrections.)

against the given loading. The most

economical section can be arrived at by

(ii) Calculate effective sectional area, A as

e trial and error, i.e. repeating the above

defined in Clause 7.3.2 of IS: 800 process.

(iii) Calculate effective slenderness ratio, KL/r,

ratio of effective length KL, to REFERENCES-

appropriate radius of gyration, r

1. Design of Steel Structures by

(Note: values of r for a particular N.Subramanian

section are given in the steel table.) 2. Design of Steel Structures by Edwin h.

Gaylord Jr., Charles N. Gaylord, James

E. Stallmeyer

RT

3. www.steel-insdag.org/

IJE

Fig. 16

dimensional effective slenderness ratio=

2

(λ - 0.2)+ λ ] Where, α = Imperfection

factors for various Column Buckling

Curves a, b, c and d are given in the

following Table: (of IS: 800)

IMPERFECTION FACTOR, α

Buckling a b c d

Class

α 0.21 0.34 0.49 0.76

IJERTV2IS110360 www.ijert.org

1417

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