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Course offshore engineering

Course offshore engineering

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Environnement

2ème Année

P. Vannucci

paolo.vannucci@meca.uvsq.fr

This course on Offshore Engineering is a basic course serving as an

introduction to the problems concerning design and construction of

offshore platforms, normally used in oil industry.

So, some topics will be considered in this course, namely the

principal ones that concern the structural design of an offshore

platform; some other topics, like for instance marine installation

procedures, corrosion protection, facilities and plants engineering

will not be considered here.

The course is addressed to undergraduate students having already

a good knowledge in structural engineering and fluid mechanics.

1

Content

paolo.vannucci@meca.uvsq.fr

Chapter 1: Introduction 7

General considerations

Platform functions and types

Historical background

Design process

Standards and regulations

Types of loads

Operational loadings

Deformation loads

Accidental loads

Environmental loadings

Storm selection

Wind forces

Ice forces

Snow loads

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paolo.vannucci@meca.uvsq.fr

Current forces

Marine growth

Earthquake actions

Design load combinations

The actions of a fluid on an immerged body

Inertial force: the added mass

The drag force

Wave theories

Slender and large bodies

First order wave action on a slender body

The case of a moving body

Second order wave action on a slender body

First order wave action on a large body

The Mc Camy and Fuchs solution

The Garrett solution

4

2

Content

paolo.vannucci@meca.uvsq.fr

The simplified Garrett solution

The Ogilvie solution

Second order wave action on large bodies

Something about the case of multiple bodies

Oscillating large bodies

Wave slamming

Vortex shedding

Numerical methods for the wave action

The spectral method in wave forces calculation

Introduction

Response to regular waves

Response to an impulsive force

Response to irregular waves: the spectral analysis

The wave force spectrum

Bibliography

Copyright P. Vannucci – UVSQ

paolo.vannucci@meca.uvsq.fr

The most part of information, figures and diagrams of this course,

where not explicitly indicated, have been taken from the following

sources.

Books

T. Sarpkaya & Isaacson: Mechanics of wave forces on offshore

structures. Van Nostrand, 1981.

B. Mc Clelland & M. D. Reifel (Eds.): Planning and design of fixed

offshore platforms. Van Nostrand, 1986.

O. C. Zienkiewicz, R. W. Lewis & K. G. Stagg (Eds.): Numerical

methods in offshore engineering. J. Wiley, 1978.

M. G. Hallam, N. J. Heaf & L. R. Wotton (Eds.): Dynamics of marine

structures. Report UR8 – CIRIA, 1978.

Internet sites

http://www.kuleuven.ac.be/bwk/materials/Teaching/master/wg15a/l0200

.htm

http://www.nts.no/norsok

http://www.offshore.tudelft.nl/

3

Chapter 1

paolo.vannucci@meca.uvsq.fr

Introduction

7

paolo.vannucci@meca.uvsq.fr

General considerations 9

Platform functions and types 10

Historical background 48

Design process 52

4

General considerations

paolo.vannucci@meca.uvsq.fr

Offshore engineering is a branch of civil engineering involved with

the construction of sea structures, far form the coast.

Such structures are normally called platforms. They are usually

employed in oil industry, but there are also platforms for

broadcasting, navigational lighting, radar surveillance, space

operations, oceanographic research and so on.

The general design requirements for an offshore platform are similar

to any industrial structure; the first step in the design is to develop a

concept of the structure based on its functional requirements,

environmental restraints and construction method. The function of

an offshore platform is to provide a secure working support, so the

platform must be structurally adequate to withstand both operational

and environmental loading; in addition, it must be practical to

construct and economically feasible.

Nevertheless, due to their characteristics, to environmental and

geographic aspects, to the construction procedures, offshore

platforms are very peculiar structures, and several unusual aspects

must be taken into account in its design phase: environmental

loadings, construction phases, economic aspects, linked to the type,

construction procedure and date and to the installation site.

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paolo.vannucci@meca.uvsq.fr

During the last five decades, several types of offshore platforms

haves been designed and used; this variety of platform types is due

to different factors: technological and scientific progress, economical

factors, need to exploit deeper natural reservoirs, ecological

constraints.

A possible, of course incomplete, classification is the following one.

steel jacket

steel tower

rigid steel gravity

Fixed offshore concrete gravity

platforms

free standing tower

guyed tower

compliant

spar tower

TLP

drilling ship

Mobile offshore platforms semi-submersible

10

jack up

5

Platform functions and types

paolo.vannucci@meca.uvsq.fr

Fixed offshore platforms are normally used for production, while

mobile platforms are almost exclusively used for exploration and

drilling phases.

The difference between fixed and compliant platforms is in the way

they face environmental (namely wind and wave) lateral actions.

As its name clearly indicates, a fixed platform is a traditional

structure, in the sense that its deformation under lateral loads is

small, but it is located into the sea water.

Unlike fixed, compliant platforms are designed to move under lateral

forces, so that the effects of these forces are mitigated. The trade-off

in a compliant platform is between excursion amplitude and

restraining force.

Compliant platforms are used in deep water, where the stiffness of a

fixed platform decreases while its cost increases, and they are the

only technical solution in very deep waters (> 500 m).

The fluid-structure interaction is a capital aspect in platform design,

but it assumes a biggest role in the case of a compliant platform.

11

paolo.vannucci@meca.uvsq.fr

General scheme of offshore platforms in relation with water depth.

drilling ship

semi-submersible TLP

jack-up

jacket

www.mms.gov

12

6

Platform functions and types

paolo.vannucci@meca.uvsq.fr

Steel jacket: it is the most

classical and widely used

offshore platform. A typical

jacket is shown in the figure.

It is composed of three

principal parts: the deck,

carrying the topsides (living

quarters, drilling derrick,

consumables, facilities,

helideck, flare etc.), the

jacket itself and the

foundation piles.

Steel jackets are normally

used in shallow to moderate

deep waters (from 20 to 100

m), but they have been used

up to 500 m of water.

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paolo.vannucci@meca.uvsq.fr

If not too big, jackets are built in a

dock and then charged onto a

barge by a crane. Large jackets

www.offshore-technology.com

barge or on rails to be the skidded

onto a barge.

An important characteristic of a

jacket is a small floatability: in fact,

legs are not plugged, as they are

the templates for the piles, and the

braces are normally too small to

ensure the necessary buoyancy.

So, a barge is needed to carry

www.offshore-technology.com

is put into water by a crane, for

small jackets, or directly skidded or

rolled off the barge (launching

operation) for large jackets.

14

7

Platform functions and types

paolo.vannucci@meca.uvsq.fr

In the first case, the design phase

must take into consideration the

lifting phase, while in the second

cases a complete analysis of the

launching phase must be done, in

order to asses the transient stress

distribution and to control the actual

behaviour of the jacket during the

transportation and the launching

phases, namely if an additional

buoyancy is needed and if the jacket

touch the sea bottom during

launching.

www.offshore-technology.com

Numerical investigations are normally

used to simulate these phases, which

considerably condition the design of

a steel jacket. In the next pages,

these phases are outlined.

15

paolo.vannucci@meca.uvsq.fr

http://community.webshots.com/album/126570186ZWQFUs

16

8

Platform functions and types

paolo.vannucci@meca.uvsq.fr

Two pictures of a jacket installed by a crane and of the mating of a

deck and a jacket.

www.offshore-technology.com

www.offshore-technology.com

17

paolo.vannucci@meca.uvsq.fr

The construction phases of a jacket. 1: construction in a coast yard;

2: transportation by barge on

the oil field;

www.offshore-technology.com

1

www.doris-engineering.com

www.offshore-technology.com

3 2

18

9

Platform functions and types

paolo.vannucci@meca.uvsq.fr

Another characteristic of steel jackets is the foundation system: as

previously said, piles are directly inserted into the legs and they

directly support the deck. Sometimes, especially for larger platforms,

additional skirt piles are necessary. Once the piles driven, they are

grouted into the legs to join them to the platform.

Once the piles installed and grouted, the deck is placed at the top of

the jacket by a crane. Normally, all the installments and facilities are

already installed onto the deck before its mating with the deck.

www.rigzone.com

www.structurae.de

19

paolo.vannucci@meca.uvsq.fr

Steel tower: it is a large jacket where

the piles cannot be inserted in the

legs mainly for economical reasons.

In fact, too long piles are too

expensive. So, when the platform is

located in deep waters, the jacket

becomes very heavy and the piles

cannot be as long as the legs. They

become skirt piles inserted in sleeves

around the outside of the legs.

In this way, the legs are plugged and

normally sufficient to ensure the

buoyancy: the jacket does not need a

barge to be carried on the site, as it

floats (eventually with auxiliary

buoyancy) and can be towed. This is

very convenient both for economical

and construction aspects.

They exist tower structures installed in

more than 400 m water depth.

20

10

Platform functions and types

paolo.vannucci@meca.uvsq.fr

Some relevant achievements of jacketed structures.

21

paolo.vannucci@meca.uvsq.fr

Steel gravity platforms: this type of structure, rarely used, uses its

own weight to counter the lateral actions due to wind and waves that

tend to overturn the platform: the weight is used as a stabilizing

force.

Nevertheless, the real reason for using gravity platforms is the

nature of the soil: when it is of solid rock, it is impossible to drive

piles into it, so the gravity solution is the only possible one.

Normally, gravity platforms are concrete platforms, but in some

cases a steel solution can be adopted, in relation with several

factors, mainly economic considerations.

Normally, the structure has a certain number of large tanks, flooded

by water or by crude oil, to ballast the platform and provide the

necessary weight to counter overturning lateral forces.

These tanks, in the transportation phase, provide the necessary

buoyancy.

An important feature of all the gravity platforms is that they can be

removed for demobilization or re-use.

22

11

Platform functions and types

paolo.vannucci@meca.uvsq.fr

The Maureen Alpha platform is a steel

gravity platform with a weight of

112000 t, height of 241 m.

It has been installed in 1983 in the

North Sea; in 2001 it has been removed

and replaced on another oil field.

www.tecnomare.it

www.paroscientific.com

www.raeng.org.uk

23

paolo.vannucci@meca.uvsq.fr

Loanga platform

(Nigeria): it is a steel

gravity platform, with

inclined risers to optimize

the exploitation of the

field.

24

12

Platform functions and types

paolo.vannucci@meca.uvsq.fr

Concrete gravity platforms: they are the hugest and most

impressive structures ever built.

In this platforms, the steel structure supporting the deck is totally or

partially replaced by a concrete structure of large dimensions.

www.ogp.org.uk

www.ogp.org.uk

25

paolo.vannucci@meca.uvsq.fr

Concrete gravity platforms are used when some particular

circumstances are present:

economical factors: in some cases, the construction of a very large

concrete structure can be cheaper than the construction of a steel

structure;

ecological factors: a concrete platform can be very huge, so as to

concentrate onboard some industrial treatments of the crude and to

allow a great stocking capacity in the ballast cells;

construction conditions: the pile driving operation for a steel jacket

needs usually 5 to 10 days; in the North Sea it is rare to have such a

period of fine weather; the installation in the oil field of a concrete gravity

platform, complete with its deck, requires a shorter period (1 to 2 days);

decommissioning aspects: concrete gravity platforms can be

decommissioned and eventually re-used;

soil conditions: when the soil is made of rock it is impossible to drive

piles into it: the gravity solution is then the only one possible;

geographical conditions: the presence of calm and deep waters not far

from the oil field is an important factor for the construction phases.

26

13

Platform functions and types

paolo.vannucci@meca.uvsq.fr

The above factors have often been determinant in the choice of this

kind of platforms in the North Sea.

Nevertheless, rather recently concrete gravity platforms have been

commissioned in other parts of the world (East Russia, Philippines

and so on).

These structures can reach a height of 400 m and weigh more than

800000 t.

www.ogp.org.uk

27

paolo.vannucci@meca.uvsq.fr

Source: www.ogp.org.uk

28

14

Platform functions and types

paolo.vannucci@meca.uvsq.fr

Source: www.ogp.org.uk

29

paolo.vannucci@meca.uvsq.fr

It is important to understand the construction phases of this kind of

platforms: the fundamental aspect is the Archimedes' force.

In fact, the concrete substructure is built onshore, in a dock under

the sea level.

Once the base is ready, the dock is flooded and the base floats; it is

then towed in deeper but calm waters, where the construction of the

substructure continues on the floating base.

www.offshore-technology.com

www.sir-robert-mcalpine.com

30

15

Platform functions and types

paolo.vannucci@meca.uvsq.fr

Once the substructure ready, it is towed in sufficiently deep and

calm waters (a fiord gives the optimal conditions) for the mating

operation: the deck, carried by two barges with all the topsides, is

mated to the concrete substructure just by an operation of ballasting

and deballasting the concrete substructure with water.

All these operations are outlined in the following scheme.

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paolo.vannucci@meca.uvsq.fr

Malampaya concrete gravity platform (Philippines; the first concrete

gravity platform in Asia): all the construction phases.

to be towed

32

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Platform functions and types

paolo.vannucci@meca.uvsq.fr

4. towing of the concrete substructure 6. mating

www.malampaya.com

5. ballasting of the concrete substructure

7. the final platform

Source: www.arup.com

33

paolo.vannucci@meca.uvsq.fr

The disaster of Sleipner A: this platform produces oil and gas in

the North Sea in a water depth of 82 m. The first concrete base

structure for Sleipner A sprang a leak and sank under a controlled

ballasting operation during preparation for deck mating in

Gandsfjorden outside Stavanger, Norway on 23 August 1991.

The loss was caused by a failure in a cell wall, resulting in a serious

crack and a leakage that the pumps were not able to cope with. The

wall failed as a result of a combination of a serious error in the

finite element analysis and insufficient anchorage of the

reinforcement in a critical zone.

A better idea of what was involved can be obtained from the photos

in the following page. The top deck weighs 57,000 t, and provides

accommodation for about 200 people and support for drilling

equipment weighing about 40,000 t.

When the first model sank in August 1991, the crash caused a

seismic event registering 3° on the Richter scale, and left nothing

but a pile of debris at 220 m of depth. The failure involved a total

economic loss of about $700 million.

34

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Platform functions and types

paolo.vannucci@meca.uvsq.fr

The post accident investigation traced the error to inaccurate finite

element approximation of the linear elastic model of the cells (using

the popular finite element program NASTRAN). The shear stresses

were underestimated by 47%, leading to insufficient design. In

particular, certain concrete walls were not thick enough. More

careful finite element analysis, made after the accident, predicted

that failure would occur with this design at a depth of 62 m, which

matches well with the actual occurrence at 65 m.

Source: http://www.ima.umn.edu/~arnold/disasters/sleipner.html

www.ima.umn.edu

www.ima.umn.edu

35

paolo.vannucci@meca.uvsq.fr

Free standing towers: they are classical towers but so slender that

their structural behavior is that of a compliant structure: large sway

displacements and high oscillating period.

Baldpate: the highest, freestanding compliant structure in the world.

Characteristics:

water depth: 501 m;

sway response cycle: 30 s;

lateral displacement: 3 m;

cross section: 42.6 x 42.6 m (bottom),

27.4 x 27.4 m (top);

weight of the tower:

28900 t;

www.offshore-technology.com

www.offshore-technology.com

topsides: 2700 t;

foundation: 12 piles

driven for 130 m.

36

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Platform functions and types

paolo.vannucci@meca.uvsq.fr

Guyed towers: these compliant platforms are composed by a

slender jacket, normally pin-joined at its base, whose vertical stable

position is ensured by the buoyancy of the structure itself and by a

series of mooring catenary lines.

The structure can oscillate under the lateral actions, the restoring

force being provided by the buoyancy and the mooring lines. The

clump weights provide additional restraining forces in case of storm,

when they are lifted off the seafloor.

These platforms are used for water depth in the range 200-600 m,

and they can be re-used.

37

paolo.vannucci@meca.uvsq.fr

SPAR towers: these platforms are composed by a large steel tube

as substructure directly supporting the deck and topsides.

The tube is ballasted so as its floating stable equilibrium position is

vertical (including topsides), and moored by tensioned risers and by

mooring lines (catenaries).

On the lateral surface of the large vertical cylinder there are

helicoids, installed to counter vortex-shedding.

38

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Platform functions and types

paolo.vannucci@meca.uvsq.fr

TLP (Tension Leg Platforms): they are floating structures

anchored to the seafloor by a series of vertical tendons (tethers) pre-

tensioned by extra-buoyancy. The tethers are made by steel pipes.

A TLP is composed by 4 principal parts: the foundation template, the

tethers, the hull and the deck.

Some TLPs (e. g. Heidrun) have a concrete hull.

TLP are very large structures, able to host

great payloads. So, they are used for great

fields and can host some refining processes

and have a good storage capacity.

TLP can be used from 150 m of water depth

on, and theoretically there is no limit of water

depth for their use.

The restoring force is given by extra

buoyancy; this is obtained deballasting the

www.offshore-technology.com

TLP hull once the tethers installed.

TLPs can be re-used.

39

paolo.vannucci@meca.uvsq.fr

The constructing phases of a TLP are similar to those of a concrete

gravity platform, and are sketched in the figure.

a: construction of the hull in a dock;

b: towing the hull to the mating site;

c: towing the deck to the mating site;

d: mating;

e: tethers positioning;

f: deballasting for tensioning the tethers.

www.rigzone.com

www.offshore-technology.com

40

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Platform functions and types

paolo.vannucci@meca.uvsq.fr

TLPs have known a wide diffusion all over

the world in the last decade. The water

depth, in 20 years, has been multiplied by a

factor of ten.

Jolliet Snorre Auger Heidrun Ursa

www.offshore-technology.com

water depth (m) 536 395 872 345 1158

diam. col. (m) 12,2 24,4 22,6 24 26

column height (m) 54

dimension (m) 55 x55 100 x 100 87,6 x 103,1 110 x 110

hull's weight (t) 1950 43700 21772 20321

topsides weight (t) 4170 30000 35380 26018

displacement (t) 16602 106000 66225 290610 88450

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paolo.vannucci@meca.uvsq.fr

Some pictures of TLPs (source: Atlantia Offshore LTD).

Magnolia

Heidrun

Marlin Snorre

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Platform functions and types

paolo.vannucci@meca.uvsq.fr

Recently, a new TLP concept has been developed: it is that known

as mini TLP.

In this solution, only one column is present, just as in the case of

spare towers.

The column is anchored to the

seafloor by pretensioned tethers that

are fixed at the end of three

pontoons at the bottom of the

cylinder.

These TLP have a less payload

capacity, and are normally used for

deep water small fields.

www.offshore-technology.com

www.offshore-technology.com

43

paolo.vannucci@meca.uvsq.fr

Drilling ships: like all the mobile systems, drilling ships are used

mostly for the drilling phase, but they can be used, at least

temporarily, also as FPS (Floating Production System).

A drilling ship is, as its name indicates, a common ship equipped

with a drilling system (a derrick tower).

It is maintained in its position by a system of mooring catenaries,

eventually assisted by servo-motors and GPS positioning.

www.offshore-technology.com

44

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Platform functions and types

paolo.vannucci@meca.uvsq.fr

Semi-submersibles: as their name indicates, these are special

ships, normally composed of two pontoons, some columns and a

deck. The deck is equipped for all the drilling operations.

A semi-submersible is a complete platform, that can navigate as it is

furnished of motors. Once in place, its positioning is provided by a

system of catenaries normally controlled by a GPS system.

Recently a concrete semi-submersible

www.offshore-technology.com

has been constructed.

www.doris-engineering.com

www.doris-engineering.com

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paolo.vannucci@meca.uvsq.fr

Jack-ups: these are special mobile platforms,

http://community.webshots.com/photo/126570186

www.offshore-technology.com

equipped for the drilling operations and

disposing of three truss legs.

These legs can be lifted

or lowered by motors.

http://community.webshots.com/album/126570186ZWQFUs

lifted, the jack-up can

navigate just as a

http://community.webshots.com/photo/126570186

arrived on the field, the

jack-up lowers the legs

so as to be fixed in the

drilling place and it lifts

itself at the right height

above the sea level.

46

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Platform functions and types

paolo.vannucci@meca.uvsq.fr

In this course, only fixed platforms will be considered, as the case of

mobile platforms concerns much more naval engineering.

Nevertheless, several considerations which will be made in the

following, such as dynamic response, wind and wave force analysis

and so on, concern as well mobile platforms, namely jack ups.

www.offshore-technology.com

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paolo.vannucci@meca.uvsq.fr

1896. Summerland, California: the first oil and gas operations over

water, with wells drilled from piers extending from shore.

1909 or 1910. Ferry Lake, Louisiana: wells drilled using a wood

deck erected on a platform supported by cypress trunks driven as

piling.

1924 and after. Lake Maracaibo, Venezuela: wells drilled from

wooden platforms supported on timber pilings.

1930s: the oil industry moves into the marsh and swamplands of

South Louisiana, and then, as a natural extension, into shallow

waters of the Gulf of Mexico, using existing technology for timber

structures.

1937. Gulf of Mexico: the first platform close to shore; it is a

traditional timber-pile structure.

1945. Gulf of Mexico: Magnolia Petroleum Company builds a

wooden structure in about 6 m of water and drills the first offshore

well remote from shore.

48

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Historical background

paolo.vannucci@meca.uvsq.fr

1947. Gulf of Mexico: the first steel platform is installed out of sight

of land, in 6 m of water by Superior Oil Company, and another in 5.4

m of water by the Kerr McGee-Phillips-Stanolind group. These early

steel platforms were fabricated entirely offshore. They were

supported by a large number of small steel pilings (40-60) driven in

varying directions and to varying depths. After the pilings were

driven, horizontal pipe braces were laid out on the construction

barge and cut to fit.

1948. The first prefabricated substructure sections assembled on

the site.

1950. The first onshore fabrication

of unitized substructures, referred

to as templates or jackets. The

steel jacket was placed on the

ocean floor, where it acted as a

template for the steel piles that

were driven through its tubular

legs. The first steel platform (1947).

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paolo.vannucci@meca.uvsq.fr

1955 to 1978. The water depth for steel jacket platform construction

passes from about 30 to 311.8 m: a progression of ten times in 20

years.

1973. North sea: the first concrete gravity platform, Ekofisk, is

installed in 70 m of water.

1983. Gulf of Mexico: Exxon installs the first guyed tower, Lena, in

304 m of water.

1984. North Sea: Conoco installs Hutton, the first TLP, in 147 m of

water, used as a drilling and production platform.

1991. Bullwinkle, the highest rigid steel jacket is installed in 412 m of

water.

1995. The highest concrete platform is installed in 330 m of water.

1998. Baldpate, the highest steel jacket, is installed in 501 m of

water: it is a compliant free standing platform.

1999. A TLP is installed for the first time in more than 1000 m of

water: Ursa, in 1158 m of water, in the Gulf of Mexico.

2005. The TLP Magnolia is installed in 1425 m of water.

50

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Historical background

paolo.vannucci@meca.uvsq.fr

1600

1400 TLP 2004; 1311

Concrete

1200 1999; 1158

Water depth (m)

1994; 872 1996; 894

800

600

1989; 536

1998; 501

1995; 330

1976; 258,6 1989; 217

200 1993; 250

1975; 144

1984; 147

1965; 68,5 1977; 151

1947; 6 1955; 30

1973; 70

0

1940 1950 1960 1970 1980 1990 2000 2010

Year

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paolo.vannucci@meca.uvsq.fr

The design of an offshore platform is a very complex process, as

several different aspects must be taken into account.

Normally, in a preliminary phase data concerning the industrial

activity, the construction facilities, the environmental conditions must

be collected.

These data concern the payload, that is the total weight, surface and

distribution of the topsides facilities, installments and plants; all this,

of course, depends on the kind of industrial activity of the platform

(see hereafter).

Then, the environmental and geographic conditions must be known;

the design storm must be selected and the characteristic wave

determined, which is fundamental to assess the wave lateral forces

on the platform.

The wind characteristics must also be determined, in order to

evaluate the maximum horizontal force acting on the superstructure.

The soil stratigraphy must also be known, which is capital for

foundation design.

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Design process

paolo.vannucci@meca.uvsq.fr

In fact, the number and length of piles, which are in connection with

soil properties and stratigraphy but also with the platform

dimensions and with the amount of horizontal actions, can affect

greatly the design of the platform. Moreover, the existence of bad

soil layers or of solid rock can suggest, and eventually impose, the

choice of a gravity platform.

The construction phases must always be taken into account during

the design process. In fact, small jackets and decks are lifted and

installed by cranes, and so these phases must be considered and

submitted to structural calculation, as very different from the normal

conditions the jacket and the deck are designed for.

Greater jackets are skidded onto barges and then launched into the

sea, eventually with the aid of a crane or of floating units. Also these

phases must be carefully considered and analyzed, as very different

from the usual situation of the jacket.

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Finally, the transitory phase of pile driving must be studied: during

this phase, the jacket must not overturn under the action of

moderate waves.

In the design phase, the corrosion aspects and the marine growth

must be considered: for the first problem, an additional thickness of

the steel members is used (normally 5 mm), and also the use of

sacrificial anodes, while for the latter an extra thickness (about 50

mm) is taken into account to calculate the wave action and the total

immersed weight.

Another important factor is time: it is always important to construct

the platform in as less time as possible, for evident economical

reasons, and this can affect considerably the structural choices and

the construction phases.

For rigid structures installed in water depths to about 100 m, static

analyses are normally adequate, because these structures are

sufficiently stiff, so that dynamic effect can be safely ignored.

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Design process

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Unlike this case, that is in deeper water and anyway for any situation

in which the fundamental period of the structure exceeds 3 sec

(compliant structures), the effect of cyclic platform motion caused by

wave action becomes an important factor and must be carefully

analyzed: the fluid-structure interaction becomes an important

problem and must be properly taken into account in the design

phase.

Usually, a preliminary design is done, taken into consideration a

cardinal rule in offshore engineering: the onshore work must be

maximized and the offshore work minimized, and this for economical

reasons.

This preliminary design is useful to obtain the overall dimensions of

the platform, the number of piles and so on.

Once this preliminary design done and approved, a detailed design

is done, in which all the structural parts are studied and calculated in

detail.

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In this phase, also the exact construction

sequence is attentively considered and taken

into consideration in the structural calculations.

The knowledge of the climatic and geographic

data allows to determine some fundamental

dimensions of the structure. ag

In fact, once the LAT (Lowest Astronomical a

tmax

h = LAT + tmax + a + ag

maximum tide and ag is the so-called air-gap,

a safety height, normally 0.5 m.

Actually, no point of the deck must be

positioned under the height h, and this to put

all the installments off the wave action.

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Design process

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The most important parameter, however, in the design phase is the

economical aspect: this point conditions very much the choice of the

structure type.

In the figure, it is shown a comparison of the relative cost trends for

different platform types, for mild-sea (e.g. the Gulf of Mexico) and for

extreme-sea conditions (e.g. the North Sea).

It is apparent that the cost of bottom-supported platforms increases

rather quickly with the water depth: beyond a certain water depth,

these are no more cost-effective.

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The offshore installments must be safe to protect the human,

marine, and coastal environments, and to preserve the very

considerable investments of time and resources involved.

It is the purpose of this section to identify the methods by which

responsible parties seek assurance of the structural integrity of

offshore platforms.

Until the late 1960s, structural integrity in the U.S. offshore industry

was largely the responsibility of the designers, who worked to a

variety of standards drawn from coastal and onshore engineering

experience.

The first published design standard for fixed offshore platforms was

issued in 1969 by the American Petroleum Institute (API).

Actually, the structural integrity can be checked through one of three

similar, but different, procedures known as verification, certification,

and classification, having the characteristic that each is carried out

by specialist organizations independent of both the owner and the

designer.

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Standards and regulations

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The object of quality assurance procedures is to verify that the best

available technical and environmental knowledge has been applied

during the phases of design, construction, installation, and operation

of an offshore platform.

Classification is a quality assurance service provided by one of the

private organizations known as classification societies, and begins

during the design phase of a structure.

Criteria for classification are the society’s published standards,

known as rules or guides. The procedure begins with submittal of

engineering calculations, specifications and fabrication drawings so

that the society can verify compliance of the design with the rules.

During the subsequent phases of construction, installation, and

operation, surveys are conducted as necessary to ensure complete

and continuing adherence to standards.

The classification procedure includes periodic inspections and

special damage surveys to ensure that integrity and serviceability

are maintained throughout the life of the installation.

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Well-known classification societies include the American Bureau of

Shipping, Det Norske Veritas (Norway) and Lloyd’s Register of

Shipping (U.K.).

These and other societies have expanded their scope of services

beyond the traditional classification of vessels of commerce to

encompass many other types of marine structures, including

offshore structures.

Certification is a quality assurance procedure under which the

owner or a government mandates adherence to specified standards

or rules for design or construction and requires verification of

compliance by one of a limited number of authorized certification

agents.

While an authorized certification agent may apply the standards of

its own organization in the process of evaluation, the standards

specified by the owner or government having jurisdiction prevail in

cases of conflict.

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Standards and regulations

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Examples of assuring structural integrity by certification are the

procedures adopted by the U. K. and by Norway.

In the U.K. regulations stipulate that a fixed offshore structure must

be certified by American Bureau of Shipping, Det Norske Veritas

(Norway), Lloyd’s Register of Shipping (U.K.), Bureau Veritas

(France), Germanischer Lloyd (Germany) or Halcrow Ewbank and

Associates Certification Group (U. K.).

The U.K. regulations make it clear that the owner has the

responsibility for sound design and construction as well as adequate

maintenance of the offshore installation.

Norwegian regulations specify only the Norwegian Petroleum

Directorate (NPD) as the approval agency, but NPD customarily

contracts with independent review agencies to confirm compliance

with its rules. The owner carries responsibility for assuring structural

integrity.

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Verification is the procedure used in the U.S. to assure structural

integrity of offshore platforms. It is administered by the government

under the Platform Verification Program.

In the USA, verification is mandatory for a new platform and for

major modifications to an existing platform if any of the following

conditions will exist:

it is installed in water deeper than 120 m;

it has a natural period greater than 3 s;

it is installed in an area having unstable bottom conditions;

it is installed in a frontier area;

it uses an unusual design concept in comparison to typical installations

in the region.

Mexico, over 32000 platform years of service had been accumulated

with 37 platforms lost.

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Of these, 34 losses were due to overloading from hurricane waves,

and 3 losses occurred because of hurricane wave loading combined

with wave-induced motion of unstable sea-floor deposits. This

represents a failure rate of 0.1 percent annually.

By 1984, five years after the period covered by the above statistics,

approximately 14000 platform years of service had been added

without further losses.

Present offshore technology, standards, and regulations provide

adequate safety of fixed offshore structures against general

collapse.

The general knowledge about this topic has spread rapidly all over

the world and at present all the countries have similar and

equivalent rules.

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Nevertheless, there are some rules that are considered as reference

norms:

API RP 2A - Recommended Practice for planning, designing,

constructing fixed offshore platforms. In the following of this course, if

not specified differently, API norms are intended to be used (abridged in

API);

Det Norske Veritas – Rules for the design, construction and inspection

of off-shore structures (abridged in the following with DNV);

British Standard 6235 – Code of practice for fixed offshore structures

(abridged in the following with BS);

DOE – Offshore installations: guidance on design and construction;

German norms.

NTS: Norsok Standard – Actions and action effects (abridged in the

following with NTS – Norwegian Technology Standards, or Norsok

Standard).

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Chapter 2

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Design actions

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Types of loads 67

Operational loadings 68

Deformation loads 77

Accidental loads 79

Environmental loadings 81

Storm selection 82

Wind forces 99

Ice forces 114

Snow loads 127

Current forces 128

Marine growth 131

Earthquake actions 133

Design load combinations 137

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Types of loads

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As for any other type of structures, loads acting upon an offshore

platform can be divided into two different main classes:

permanent (dead) loads;

variables (live) loads.

In turn, these two classes can be divided into several subclasses of

loads:

Permanent loads are composed of structural loads, operational dead

loads, deformation and hydrostatic permanent loads.

Variable loads are composed of operational live loads, environmental

loads, accidental loads, variable hydrostatic and deformation loads.

Structural load: it is the self weight of the structure constituting the

platform; hence, it is a result of the design process.

Hydrostatic loads: they are the buoyancy of some submerged

members, buoyancy that, for a part of it, can be also variable as a

function of the immersion (depending upon tides and waves). It must

be remarked that hydrostatic loads are essential in floating

structures, as they give the global stiffness of the structure.

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Operational loadings: they are all the loadings which are inherent

to the proper use and functions of the platform.

So, each technical equipment onboard the platform (production and

process moduli, but also the appurtenances, i.e. the boat landing,

the helideck, the cranes, the flare boom and so on) and each bulk

material and technical pieces (e.g. drilling tubes) used onboard for

different purposes are operational loads.

Usually, operational loadings are divided into:

topsides;

consumables;

human weights.

the deck: process units, pumps, generators, drilling units, cranes,

helideck, flare, living quarters, bridges, boat landing and so on.

Topsides are permanent loads.

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Consumables: it is the weight of all the items and liquids that must

be stored onboard for production, treatment and so on: fuel (diesel

or gas condensate), potable water, waste treatment, corrosion

inhibitors, lubricants, drilling tubulars, drilling mud, chemicals for

various treatments and so on.

Human weights: it is the weight of the personnel onboard; it is often

already considered in the weight of the living quarters.

In the design process, all these weights are input data.

In fact, once the production capabilities decided, the designers are

able to decide what goes onboard and its dimensions.

Normally, topsides facilities, like for instance living quarters or

process units, are pre-assembled and standardized items.

So, once decided the number and type of items to be used, the

designer is able to know the topsides weights and dimensions, and

following the norms concerning mutual distances of units, to decide

the deck: arrangement and dimensions.

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It must be recalled that pre-fabricated units or pre-designed items

(like a helideck) apply generally speaking a complex load to the

platform structure.

For instance, the action applied by a flare to the deck of the platform

consists not only of vertical loads, but of all the loads applied by the

truss of the flare, which can have also horizontal components.

In addition, the loads given by a modulus are not, in general,

uniformly distributed, but they are applied in some singular precise

points, which support the topside weights: of course, this affects the

deck design.

However, in a first design phase, some average uniform loads can

be used for pre-dimensioning: from 2 t/m² for usual platforms up to 4

t/m² for North sea platforms.

A more rigorous method is to utilize the following figures to obtain

topside weights and deck areas. The data in these figures are from

installed platforms.

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Operational loadings

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Topsides weight as a function of production rate.

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Deck area as a function of production rate.

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Actually, once the deck arrangement chosen, all operating loads are

usually given by the operator and the equipment manufacturers.

An example of detailed operational loads is given in the following

table.

Loads to be taken into account (kN/m2) For portions of the structure For the

structure as a

whole

joints components

Emergency exits 5 5 0

STORAGE

Delivery zone 10 10 5

Non-attributed area 6 4 3

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Notes:

In the process and drilling zone, for loads on a portion of the structure,

the load must be accumulated with a point load equal to the weight of

the heaviest part likely to be removed, with a minimum value of 5 kN.

Point loads are assumed as being applied to a 0,3m x 0,3m surface.

early design stage, the following values are recommended in BS

norms:

crew quarters and passageways: 3,2 KN/m2;

working areas: 8,5 KN/m2;

storage areas: γ H KN/m2;

with

γ is the specific weight of stored materials, not to be taken less than

6,87KN/m3;

H is the storage height (m).

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The Norwegian NTS in Norsok Standard gives the following average

accidental (i.e. variable) loads for the deck design:

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The design is intended to be divided into three parts:

Local design: design of deck plates and stiffeners;

Primary design: design of deck beams and beam-columns;

Global design: design of deck main structure (and substructure).

Notes:

Wheel actions to be added to distributed actions where relevant. (Wheel

actions can normally be considered acting on an area of 0.3 x 0.3 m).

Point actions to be applied on an area 0.1 x 0.1 m, and at the most

severe position, but not added to wheel actions or distributed actions.

The distributed load q is to be evaluated for each case. Storage areas

for cement, wet or dry mud should be the maximum of 13 kN/m² and

ρgH, where H is the storage height in m. Laydown areas are not

normally to be designed for less than 15 kN/m².

The factor f is the min of 1.0 and (0.5 + 3/A0.5), where A is the action

area in m².

Global action cases should be established based upon “worst case”,

representative variable action combinations, complying with the limiting

global criteria to the structure.

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Deformation loads

paolo.vannucci@meca.uvsq.fr

Deformation loads: they are all the loads produced by an imposed

state of strain on the structure.

Such imposed states of strain can be produced by temperature

differences, ground settlements, pre-stressed states.

In the case of temperature differences, they are typical variable

deformation loads, with different periods (daily, annual).

In hyperstatic structures, temperature differences produce stress

states that can be very important.

To be recalled that the submerged part of the platform is at an

almost constant temperature, while the emerged part can be

subjected to very important temperature excursions, generally

varying with time and place.

In addition, some structural parts are subjected to temperature

differences produced by the production processes: the most

representative case is that of risers, with the external temperature

equal to that of the sea and the internal one typical of oil produced,

normally rather high.

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Another example is that of submerged tanks in gravity platform: the

tank can be filled in with water or with oil or gas, and they have

different temperatures.

Pre-stressed states are used in concrete platforms for preventing

from concrete cracks.

In TLP, the tethers are highly pre-stressed by the extra buoyancy of

the hull, which gives the global stiffness of the platform.

Of course, this pre-stress affects also the stress distribution in the

hull.

Ground settlements often occur during reservoir exploitation.

If they are not uniform, they induce stresses in hyperstatic

structures.

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Accidental loads

paolo.vannucci@meca.uvsq.fr

Accidental loads: they are caused by wrong operations or by

events not considered in the normal operations of the platforms,

such as explosions, impacts, fires and so on.

The most important accidental loads for a platform are those caused

by impact, that produce impulsive forces.

These impulsive forces can arise during some transient operations,

and the most important are those that arise during the landing of

helicopters and during the mooring of vessels to the platform.

BS norms consider two situations for helicopter landing: heavy and

emergency.

For the first case, the impact load is equal to 1.5 times the maximum

take-off weight, whilst for the second case this factor is 2.5. In both

cases, a horizontal load applied at the points of impact and equal to

half the maximum take-off weight must be taken into account.

NTS give some more detailed conditions for the analysis of impact

during helicopter landing, making a distinction between the local

forces and the global forces.

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For vessel mooring, design impact forces, to be applied at the boat

landing but also to other less favorable parts, should be computed

for the largest ship foreseen for the platform, at a velocity

corresponding to operational speed.

BS norms, for instance, consider for the minimum design impact that

generated by a vessel of 2500 tons with a velocity of 0.5 m/s.

The added mass must be considered (i.e. DNV norms prescribe an

added mass of 40% for sideways collisions and of 10% for stern or

bow impacts).

All the kinetic energy of the ship must be absorbed by the fender, or,

for the zones out of the boat landing, the platform must be able to

withstand without major damages (only local damages are allowed)

to the same impacts.

When deeper investigations are not conducted, the impact zone

goes from 10 m under the LAT to 13 m above the LAT.

Other accidental loads often considered are those produced by the

fall of objects.

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Environmental loadings

paolo.vannucci@meca.uvsq.fr

Environment gives different kinds of actions on offshore platforms:

wave forces;

wind forces;

ice forces;

snow loads;

current forces;

marine growth;

earthquake actions.

next chapter the hydrodynamics of wave forces, the most important

environmental action on offshore structures.

The most part of the environmental loadings depends upon

meteorological conditions.

So, before considering the different actions, we deal in the next

section with the procedure to select a design storm.

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There is a relation between the frequency and the intensity of the

events that a structure may experience. Such a relation is

qualitatively sketched in the figure.

which has a frequency fD. The choice of the event is made so that

the chance of having events with severity greater than SD occur

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Storm selection

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during the lifetime L of the structure is reasonably small. This is

called the encounter probability and represents one of several ways

to characterize environmental risk.

Usually a designer should consider three types of events:

those causing fatigue effects;

those that may interfere with normal operations;

those that may produce the failure or a severe damage of the structure.

Each category requires a different type of data and statistical

analysis for resolution of the associated problems.

Considered as random process, a storm must be statistically

described.

Actually, the physical elements of a storm (e.g. the wave height or

the wind velocity) are described, using the recorded meteorological

data, by some distribution laws, particularly suited to describe

extreme events, such the occurrence of a storm of great intensity.

The random wave variables, usually recorded and processed, are

defined in the following figure.

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If a suitable convention is adopted, the random sea shown in the

previous figure can be described in terms of wave height (H) and

period (T).

In engineering applications the usual definition of wave height is the

maximum surface elevation difference between successive up-

crossings of still water level.

This leads to the definition of zero-crossing period Tz.

Longuet-Higgins (1952) has shown that, for certain conditions the

cumulative distribution of wave height is approximated by the

Rayleigh distribution:

H2 H2

− −

H 2

8σ η 8σ η2

p(H ) = e → P (H ) = 1 − e .

4σ η2

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A measure often used of the random wave field is the significant

wave height, HS.

Hs is taken as H1/3, the expected value of the highest one-third of the

waves in a sample.

For the case of the Rayleigh distribution, it can be shown that:

H1/3= 4ση.

The expected value of the maximum wave height Hmax in a sample

of N waves is given by:

H1 3

H max = 2 ln N .

2

deterministic approach: they introduce a regular train of waves

where the wave height is taken as equal to Hs or Hmax.

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So, in this deterministic approach the statistics of waves is used only

to obtain a wave height for a regular sea state.

However, in this approach there is the problem of the selection of a

wave period to be associated with the wave height.

This point, concerning the choice of the wave period, will be treated

after.

stationary conditions.

They must be developed for the prediction of the expected

maximum wave height, the design wave, over a long-term period

such as 50 or 100 years (the centennial wave).

The long-term wave height distribution is, usually, based on one-

year’s data and its extrapolation to a return-period of 50 or 100

years is made using the Weibull or Gumbel distribution, which are

typical probability laws of extreme values.

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The Weibull probability law is

γ γ

γ −1 H −η H −η

γ H −η −

α

−

α

p(H ) = e → P (H ) = 1 − e .

α α

α : scale parameter, α>0;

γ : shape parameter, γ>0;

η: location parameter, H≥η;

The values of the mode µ, mean m, median M and standard

deviation σ of the distribution are given by:

1

1 γ 1

µ = η + α 1 − , m = η + α Γ1 + ,

γ γ

1 2 1

M = η + α (ln 2)γ , σ = α Γ1 + − Γ 2 1 + .

γ γ

∞

Γ is the gamma function: Γ( x ) = ∫ e −t t x −1dt .

0

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Storm selection

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The Gumbel probability law is

H −µ H −µ H −µ

1 −

β −e

−

β

−e

−

β

p(H ) = e e → P (H ) = e .

β

µ : location parameter; it corresponds to the mode of the distribution;

β : scale parameter:

6

β= σ ≅ 0.7797σ ;

π

σ : standard deviation of the distribution.

The values of the mean m and of the median M are given

respectively by

m = µ + 0.45σ ,

M = µ + 0.2858σ .

Both the Weibull and the Gumbel distribution of the maximum wave

height can be derived from an histogram of the recorded daily

highest waves in one year.

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In the figure, the probability density function and the cumulate

probability function for the case of Weibull (for η=0) and Gumbel

distribution sharing the same mode (µ= 5 m) and median (M= 5.73

m); the curves do not fit the same recorded histogram.

p(H) P(H)

Gumbel

Gumbel

Weibull

Weibull

H (m) H (m)

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Storm selection

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The probability distribution used to fit the wave height data is used to

select the design wave.

This is usually done choosing a return period TR: it is the average

time interval between successive events of the design wave being

equalled or exceeded:

1 1

TR = → P (H ) = 1 − .

1 − P (H ) TR

So, once TR fixed, P(H) is known and by the distribution of wave

height, the design wave is obtained.

For instance, for the case of a Gumbel distribution with mean m and

standard deviation σ, it is easy to find that the design wave has the

height

T

H = m − 0.45σ − 0.7797σ ln ln R .

TR − 1

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This value of H will be, in the average, equalled or exceeded once in

a period equal to TR.

So, for TR= 50 years, it is:

H 50 = m + 2.5923σ .

H100 = m + 3.1367σ .

For instance, for the case of the Gumbel distribution sketched in the

previous figures (m= 6,15 m, σ = 2.565 m) it is H50= 12,8 m and

H100= 14,2 m. This means, for instance, that waves with a height

equal to or greater than 14,2 m are waited once in a century.

For instance, in the Adriatic Sea H100= 13 m, while in the North Sea

H100= 26 m.

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An alternative approach, is that using the encounter probability E: it

is the probability that the design wave is equalled or exceeded

during the lifetime L of the structure.

It can be shown that

L

1

E = 1 − 1 − .

TR

So, what is done is that an encounter probability E and a lifetime L is

fixed for the platform (actually, L is known from the production

planning and from the data of the reservoir) and TR is calculated:

−1

1

TR = 1 − (1 − E ) L .

After this, the determination of the design wave follows the same

steps seen above.

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For instance, in the previous example, if L= 20 years and E= 0.1, i.e.

if a probability of 10% is accepted for the wave design being

exceeded in 20 years, then TR= 190.3 years, P(HD)= 99.474% and

the design wave has a height HD= 15,5 m.

to be associated with the design wave.

One possibility is to repeat the entire procedure used for determining

HD using wave periods instead of wave heights as statistics.

Draper (1963) has suggested to take, in determining the wave

period, the same return period as for wave heights and then to

associate this wave period to the wave height.

An alternative approach consists in using the design wave height to

set a lower limit to the wave period; then, a series of wave periods

above this lower limit should be used to find the worst possible effect

on the structure.

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Storm selection

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For instance, DNV rules suggest, for a deterministic analysis, a

range of

6.5 HD<T<15 HD.

Battjes (1970) has indicated that limitations on wave steepness due

to wave breaking imply that wave periods must respect the condition

2π HD 1

2

≤ .

gT 16

32π H D

T≥ ≅ 10.25 H D .

g

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A more correct procedure should consist in fitting a bivariate

probability distribution of both wave heights and wave periods

(Longuet-Higgins, 1975, Cavanié et alii, 1976).

Some attempts (Thom, 1975) have also been made to link wind and

waves in predicting the design wave.

frequency content of the wave field and the relative distribution of

energies at different frequencies are not retained in the formulation.

Such information is given by the wave energy spectral density

function or, more simply, the surface-elevation spectrum.

The surface-elevation spectrum, Sηη(ω), is crucial to a wide range of

design situations in the offshore environment.

In design, one of many standard forms of Sηη(ω) may be adopted,

specified by a small number of properties or characteristic measures

of the random sea.

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For instance, the Pierson-Moskowitz spectrum is, for the fully

developed sea condition,

ω4

2 −β o

αg 4

Sηη (ω ) = e ω ;

(2π )4 ω 5

α= 0.0081;

β= 0.74;

ωo= g/U;

U: characteristic wind speed at 19.5 m above the still water level;

The JONSWAP spectrum has been proposed for fetch-limited

situations and not completely developed sea states:

4 (ω −ωm )2

ωm −

−1.25 2 2

α g2 ω4 γ e 2θ ωm

Sηη (ω ) = e ;

ω5

γ= 3.3;

σ = 0.07 for ω≤ ωm, σ = 0.09 for ω> ωm;

ωm frequency of the spectral peak.

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α and ωm are functions of U and of the fetch F:

1

U 2 5

α = 0.042 10 ,

F

ωm = 14.04 U10−0.4F −0.3 ,

U10: wind speed at 10 m above the still water level.

S (m²s)

In the figure, the Pierson-Moskowitz

spectrum for U= 40 m/s.

importance of the wave spectrum in

the analysis of the dynamical

behavior of the platform in a

stochastic approach. ω (1/s)

98

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Wind forces

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Severe winds and waves can occur simultaneously during a storm.

Usually, wave forces are several times greater then those due to

winds; however, it is important to determine with a sufficiently good

accuracy wind forces.

In fact, their moment arm about the seafloor is larger than that of

wave forces (for shallow-waters platforms, it can be more or less

twice), so that the moment due to winds can be substantial,

sometimes greater than that due to waves.

Physical theories giving wind action on bluff bodies are much

poorer, under a theoretical point of view, than those concerning

wave actions.

Actually, this is essentially due to the fact that wind actions on bluff

bodies cannot be easily modeled: the flow is normally turbulent,

unsteady and the boundary layer separated.

In this context, no exact theories exist to predict fluid actions and the

wind force is normally modeled as a drag force.

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The drag force: the drag force can be steady or unsteady, can

depend upon the position, and is a function of some experimental

coefficients.

The general form of the drag force (the form or pressure drag) is

1

Fd = Cd ρ A U 2 .

2

ρ: fluid density (air: 1,225 kg/m3);

A: area of the projection of the body on a plane orthogonal to the flow;

U: wind speed;

Cd: drag coefficient.

The drag coefficient: for what concerns Cd, basically it depends

upon body’s shape, Reynolds number, surface roughness,

orientation of the body relative to the wind vector and the influence

of any adjoining members.

The variation of Cd with Reynolds number and surface roughness for

a flow perpendicular to a circular cylinder is presented in the next

figure.

100

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Wind forces

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If it is found that wind forces are substantial, it is worth to conduct

wind tunnel tests for a model of the structure, but this is rarely done.

101

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Drag

Ar e a

Co e f f icie n t

- cd - - A -

coefficients for different shapes and Old Car like a T-for d 0 ,7 - 0,9 fr ont al ar ea

objects affects the flow and hence the Tract or Tr ailed Tr uck

Dolp hin

0 ,9 6

0 ,0 0 36

fr ont al ar ea

w et t ed area

What is done, is that the wind actions Solid Hem isp here flow nor m al

t o flat side

1 ,1 7 p / 4 d2

s2

the platform are added together; this

Cub e 0 ,8

St r eam line b od y 0 ,0 4 p / 4 d2

1 .1 7

1 .9 8

take into account for interactions Hollow sem i-sp here op p osit e

st r eam

1 .4 2

among bodies for what concern the Hollow sem i-sp here facing

st r eam

0 .3 8

global wind action, but usually this Hollow sem i-cy lind er op posit e

st r eam

1 .2 0

Usually, Cd = 1,5 for beams and sides Tur b ulen t flat plat e (Re= 1 0 6 ) 0 .0 0 5

of buildings, Cd= 0,5 for cylindrical Sub sonic Transp or t Air craft

0 .0 1 2

0 .0 1 6

sections and Cd= 1,0 for total Per son (up r ig ht p osit ion) 1 .0 - 1.3

102

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Wind forces

paolo.vannucci@meca.uvsq.fr

Velocity profile: concerning the

wind speed U, generally

speaking it depends upon place

and time:

U= U(x, y, z, t).

However, in structural

applications and for static

analysis it is commonly admitted

that U depends only upon the

vertical position z above the

mean water level.

In this case, a value for U is

chosen (for instance, the mean

value or a percentile value).

A question arises: what kind of

variation of wind speed with the

vertical position must be used,

i.e., what about U= U(z)?

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Wind data are obtained by recorded measures; in particular, the

wind speed is that averaged on a given time interval.

For averaging intervals less than one minute, wind speeds are

classified as gusts. For averaging intervals of one minute or longer

they are classified as sustained wind speeds.

Usually, the surface winds reported are measured at a certain height

(e.g. at 10 m above the mean water level in the API norms).

Winds at this standard elevation are those usually available for

engineering use.

But winds changes with height as a consequence of the fact that

they are a flow in the boundary layer of the earth.

So, the question is how to extrapolate a wind distribution from a

single measure at a certain height.

Some wind profiles have been proposed in the literature; two

velocity profiles which are in fairly common use are the logarithmic

velocity distribution and the power law distribution.

104

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Wind forces

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Logarithmic Velocity Distribution: the logarithmic velocity

distribution is based on reasonable physical considerations of

uniform shear stress within the first few meters of elevation and a

mixing length that increases linearly above the mean free surface.

The resulting mean velocity distribution is:

Uo z + zo

U (z) = ln ;

κ zo

zo is the characteristic roughness height, which is related to the height

characteristics of the waves;

Uo is the friction velocity, which is proportional to the square root of the

shear stress on the water surface:

κ UR

Uo = ;

zR + zo

ln

zo

UR is the wind speed at the reference elevation zR of 10 m.

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Finally, it is

z + zo

ln

zo

U (z) = UR .

zR + zo

ln

zo

Wu (1969) has found that for wind speeds in excess of 15 m/sec the

roughness height zo is related to the reference wind speed UR at a

reference elevation of 10 m by

U R2

zo = 2.91 10 −5 .

g

g is the gravitational constant.

more empirically based than the logarithmic distribution and can he

written in terms of the reference velocity UR and reference elevation

zR as

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Wind forces

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1

z n

U ( z ) = U R ;

zR U (m/s) power law for sustained

winds (n= 13)

n is ranges from 7 to 13, and power law for

is a function of the sea state, gusts (n= 13)

the distance from land and

the time interval over which logarithmic

the design wind blows. It is

approximately equal to 13 for

gusts and to 8 for sustained

winds in the open ocean.

The power law velocity

distribution is used in API

UR= 44 m/s

norms.

In the figure, the wind profile z (m)

given by the logarithmic and

the power law velocity

distribution.

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Norsok wind laws: the Norwegian NTS in Norsok Standard

suggests to take the following wind velocities for the standard height

of 10 m:

Annual probability of Velocity Velocity

exceedance (10 min average) (1 hour average)

10-2 41 m/s 38 m/s

10-4 48 m/s 44 m/s

The same norms give a different wind profile, taking into account the

time variation too:

z t

U ( z, t ) = U R 1 + 0.137 ln − 0.047 ln ;

zR tR

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Wind forces

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The figure shows the variation of the wind speed U with z and t.

It is apparent the quick

variation of U with the

height in the first part: the U (m/s)

wind increases rapidly just

above the sea level.

In case of extreme wind

conditions (exceedance

probability of 10-2 or 10-4),

the following formula is

suggested: t (s) z (m)

t

U ( z, t ) = U ( z )1 − 0.41 Iu ( z ) ln ;

tR

z

U(z):1 hour mean wind U ( z ) = U o 1 + 0.0573 1 + 0.15 U o ln ;

speed: zR

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Uo: 1 hour mean wind speed at zR= 10 m;

tR= 3600 s;

Iu(z): turbulence intensity factor:

−0.22

z

Iu ( z ) = 0.06[1 + 0.043 U o ] ;

zR

U (m/s)

between the two wind normal conditions

laws of NTS.

t=3600 s

UR= 44 m/s

z (m)

110

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Wind forces

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The drag force is a static force; nevertheless, wind can produce

some dynamical effects:

the time-oscillating part of wind can produce in-line vibrations of a body;

the steady part of wind can produce cross vibrations of a body due to

vortex shedding (see next chapter).

Usually, these effects are neglected, especially the first one.

In some cases, however, they should be considered:

slender parts, such as flares, bridges, derricks and so on, can be

dynamically excited by wind;

in compliant structures, the wind can significantly participate to the

dynamic excitation of the whole structure.

For instance, API norms consider that, when the ratio of height to

the least horizontal dimension of the wind exposed object (or

structure) is greater than 5, then this object (or structure) could be

wind sensitive; in this case, the dynamic effects of the wind are to be

taken into account and the flow induced cyclic wind loads due to

vortex shedding must be investigated (see next chapter).

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In accounting for the dynamical effects due to wind fluctuations, the

wind velocity U is normally written as:

U ( z, t ) = U m ( z ) + Uf ( z, t );

Uf: fluctuation wind velocity: the velocity during a gust minus Um (see

figure on page 103).

1 1

Fd = Cd ρ A (U m + U f )2 ≅ Cd ρ A (U m2 + 2U mU f ).

2 2

in this way, the dynamical wind excitation is linear in the fluctuating

velocity.

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Wind forces

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For combination with wave loads, the DNV norms propose the less

favorable loading combination between :

1-minute sustained wind speeds combined with extreme waves.

3-second gusts.

global wind load: values of 1-hour average wind speeds are given, to be

combined with extreme wave and current loads;

local wind load: values of extreme wind speeds are given, to be used

without regard to waves.

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Sea ice exerts forces on arctic fixed offshore structures. In areas

subjected to severe ice conditions such forces will probably control

the design of an offshore structure. Even in areas with less severe

ice conditions, ice forces may constitute an important or even a

predominant design consideration.

Before giving the formulae for the calculation of ice forces, the

various forms in which sea ice occurs must be introduced, along

with the mechanical properties of sea ice.

Turning to the calculation of ice forces, we will first review various

theoretical aspects of ice-structure interaction.

We shall see that ice impinging on a structure with vertical sides

behaves very differently from ice impinging on a structure with

inclined sides.

As a consequence, different theoretical considerations and different

procedures for calculating ice forces arise in these two situations.

It must be emphasized that at present the calculation of ice forces

on a structure involves considerable uncertainty even under the

most favorable conditions. 114

57

Ice forces

paolo.vannucci@meca.uvsq.fr

Sea ice occurrence: sea ice occurs in a variety of forms. The

purpose of this section is to review these forms and to point out the

main features of each.

The properties of arctic sea ice as well as its form will vary from

location to location and will be a primary determinant of the ice

forces that may be exerted on a structure in a given location.

The near shore regions of the Arctic are characterized by the

seasonal occurrence of fast ice. Characteristically, fast ice forms

each year during the fall and winter, possibly reaching a maximum

thickness of approximately 2 m, and it breaks up and dissipates in

summer. It is attached to the coast or to emerging structures.

Unlike this, the pack ice is not attached to the shore, either directly

or by connection to the fast ice. It is in continual motion, and

consists of a more varied and heterogeneous ice covering, with

large masses of ice in various forms constantly interacting with one

another.

The distinction between fast and pack ice is important: the pack ice

is normally stronger and moves with a greater speed (it can have a

speed similar to that of ocean current, about 300m/h).

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paolo.vannucci@meca.uvsq.fr

Structure of the Ice: a brief description of the process of formation

and the consequent structure of a smooth sheet of arctic sea ice will

be helpful to understand the mechanical properties of such ice.

Ice forms at the surface and grows downward: this forms a

predominant polycrystalline structure (see figure).

So, the ice sheet consists primarily of an array of more or less

parallel vertical, columnar crystals, having a length that can equal

the thickness of the ice sheet.

As a result, the ice is

transversely isotropic, with the

anisotropic axis vertically

disposed.

In addition, salt and droplets of

brine are included, not

homogenously, in the ice,

which affects the behavior of

ice for strength and stiffness

with the temperature.

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Ice forces

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Strength Characteristics of Smooth Ice: strength within a given

ice sheet depends on temperature, salinity, and orientation.

In addition, it depends strongly upon strain rate, i.e. the speed of

deformation and it is ordinarily greater near the top and middle of the

ice sheet than near the bottom.

Generally, however, the spatial variation of strength within an ice

sheet is not accounted for in carrying out an analysis of ice-structure

interaction, and an average strength is usually considered.

Consideration of the impingement of ice on a structure with vertical

sides usually requires the characterization of the ice sheet in terms

of a mean compressive strength. For a structure with inclined sides

a mean flexural strength is required.

For compressive strength, design values range from 2 to 10.6 MPa,

while for bending from 0.3 to 1 MPa.

The following diagrams show the dependence of compressive

strength on strain rate and temperature.

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Compressive strength vs strain rate

118

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Ice forces

paolo.vannucci@meca.uvsq.fr

Young’s modulus: The dependence of Young’s modulus on

various parameters is similar qualitatively to that of compressive

strength.

The increase of modulus with strain rate is an indication of the visco-

elastic character of ice material behavior. Again, account must be

taken of the dependence of modulus on temperature and on salinity.

A range of values for modulus that allows for these dependences is

1700— 9500 MPa.

A modulus value within this

range should be satisfactory for

preliminary design calculations,

particularly as such calculations

of ice forces may not involve or

at least are not very sensitive to

modulus.

In the figure, the dependence of

Young’s modulus on strain rate.

119

paolo.vannucci@meca.uvsq.fr

Ice forces on vertical cylinders: for a

geometry like that in the figure, and

assuming elastic response of the ice

sheet, an analysis of the stresses

induced in the ice sheet by its contact

with the cylinder should be done to

obtain the global ice force.

This is the value of load required to

cause a sufficiently extensive failure in

the ice sheet to move past the cylinder

without any further increase in the load.

Thus, a completely nonlinear analysis of

the ice structure interaction problem is

necessary.

One approach is to assume the ice as

perfectly plastic, and then to apply the

theorems of plastic limit analysis to

develop upper- and lower-bound

solutions for the load necessary to fail the

ice sheet completely (see the figure for

the case of a flat indentor). 120

60

Ice forces

paolo.vannucci@meca.uvsq.fr

Similar, but more involved, results are available for the circular

indentor of more general interest in the present context.

An examination of the results of these and similar calculations

shows that for a given geometry and condition of contact between

the ice sheet and the cylinder, the force F exerted on the cylinder is

given by an equation of the form

d

F = C σ c t d f ;

t

C: a constant of proportionality;

σc: ice compressive yield strength;

t: ice sheet thickness;

d: cylinder diameter;

f: a function of the aspect ratio d/t.

This type of formulae usually overestimates the force: this is mainly

due to the assumptions of perfectly plastic behavior of the ice. In

fact, ice often shows a brittle behavior, so after yielding it can no

longer carry as large a stress as the initial yield stress.

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A number of relatively simple design formulas have been proposed

for the prediction of ice forces exerted by smooth ice on vertical

cylinders.

A formula which appears to agree well with the available data, and

in particular to reflect the dependence of the maximum force on the

aspect ratio of the contact between the ice and the structure, is

t

F = σ c t d 1+ 5 ;

d

The dependence of F upon

temperature, salinity and

strain rate is considered in

the value of σc.

The agreement of this

formula with some

experimental data is shown

in the figure.

122

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Ice forces

paolo.vannucci@meca.uvsq.fr

Ice forces on vertical cones: as the ice forces on vertical

structures are very large, structures with inclined sides have been

often used (bridge piers and lighthouse pedestals are often inclined

for this purpose).

The reduction in ice force arises because in general it is easier to

cause an ice sheet to fail by applying a vertical force that will induce

failure in bending.

For an ice feature riding up the side of a structure inclined at an

angle α to the horizontal and with the coefficient of friction µ

between the ice and the side of the structure, the relation between

the horizontal force F and the vertical force V at the point of contact

is given by

F = V tan(α + β )

β= arctan µ, friction angle.

This equation shows that for the small angles of friction,

characteristic of the contact between ice and other materials, and for

angles of inclination of the side of the structure of the order of 45°,

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the horizontal force exerted on the structure when the ice first fails is

of the same order of magnitude as the vertical force required to

cause the failure.

The horizontal force becomes

greater than the vertical force

only when the sum of the

inclination angle and the angle of

friction substantially exceeds 45°.

The ratio of these two forces for

various angles of inclination and

friction is shown in the figure.

As the sum α+β approaches 90°,

the horizontal force will become

sufficiently large to cause the ice

sheet to fail in compression

rather than in bending.

124

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Ice forces

paolo.vannucci@meca.uvsq.fr

For the horizontal force due to the impingement of smooth ice on a

conical structure, the following formula has been proposed on the

basis of upper-bound, plasticity theory calculations:

F = [ A1 σ f t 2 + A2 γ w t d 2 + A3 γ w t (d 2 − dT2 )]A4;

t: ice sheet thickness;

σf: ice flexural strength;

γw: water specific weight;

d: waterline diameter of the cone;

dT: diameter of the cone at its top;

Ai: numerical coefficients, see the figures.

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paolo.vannucci@meca.uvsq.fr

This formula is in good agreement with available test data, as

indicated by the comparisons plotted in the figure.

A corresponding formula is available for the vertical force imposed

on the structure. It is noteworthy that similar formulas have been

developed to describe forces on icebreaking ships.

126

63

Snow loads

paolo.vannucci@meca.uvsq.fr

Snow loads: are calculated with the same norms as for civil

constructions, e.g. Eurocode 1, DNV.

values range from 50 to 100 daN/m².

they of course are considered only for platforms in the arctic regions

and in the North Sea.

Snow actions can be, however, rather important for local effects on

some single element (e.g. roofs, beams and so on).

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paolo.vannucci@meca.uvsq.fr

Currents in oceans can be determined by several factors: circulation

currents, density currents (due to salinity, atmospheric pressure or

thermal differences), tidal currents, storm (wind) currents and so on.

In still water (i.e. without waves) a typical vertical profile of the

current speed is decreasing with deepness, like that in the figure,

relative to a typical current profile in the Gulf of Mexico..

Nevertheless, in some cases, significant currents can happen at

higher depth. 1.00 0.91

The best way to consider currents, is to z/d V(z/d)

(m/s)

have some in situ measurements. If these 0.75 0.70

are not at the disposal of the structural

designers, some current profiles can be d 0.50 0.58

found in various sources.

For instance, DNV rules give the following 0.25 0.46

z

velocity profile V(z) for a current, sum of

the astronomic tide current Vt(z) and of the 0 0.18

wind current Vw(z):

128

64

Current forces

paolo.vannucci@meca.uvsq.fr

V ( z ) = Vt ( z ) + Vw ( z )

with: z

1

h+z 7 0 Vt=0.5 m/s

Vt ( z ) = Vt , Vw:=0.1 m/s

h ho h=100 m

h +z h

Vw ( z ) = Vw o for 0 ≥ z ≥ −ho ,

h

o

Vw ( z ) = 0 for z < −ho ,

ho: conventional water height: ho= 50 m;

Vt: velocity of the astronomic tide current at the surface;

Vw: velocity of the wind current at the surface.

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paolo.vannucci@meca.uvsq.fr

Usually, the effects of currents are taken into account in the design

phase simply superimposing the velocity of the current to that of the

waves, also if this is not completely correct.

Actually, the current force, considered as constant, affects only the

drag force (see next chapter for the theory of wave forces).

Since the drag force varies with the square of the velocity, the

superposition of current to waves can significantly increase the total

sea horizontal force on a platform.

In addition, unlike wave motion which decreases rapidly with depth,

current speed can be significant also at great depth.

In this case, vibrations on slender members can be induced by the

vortex shedding due to the current.

This effect can be very significant on the time-life design of such

members and must be taken into account.

130

65

Marine growth

paolo.vannucci@meca.uvsq.fr

Marine growth is a common designation for a surface coat on

marine structures, caused by plants, animals and bacteria.

Marine growth is accumulated on submerged members. Its main

effect is to increase the wave forces on the members by increasing

not only exposed areas and volumes, but also the drag coefficient

due to higher surface roughness.

In addition, it increases the unit mass of the member, resulting in

higher gravity loads and in lower member frequencies.

Depending upon geographic location, the thickness of marine

growth can reach 0,3 m or more.

It is accounted for in design through appropriate increases in the

diameters and masses of the submerged members.

In the calculation of structural actions, unless more accurate data

are available, or if regular cleaning is not planned, thickness

referring marine growth to mean water level as indicated in the table

may be assumed (North Sea conditions).

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Water depth

(referred to mean 56-59°N 59-72°N

water level) [m]

+2 ÷-40 100 mm 60 mm

Under -40 50 mm 30 mm

The thickness of marine growth may be assumed to increase

linearly to the given values over a period of 2 years after the

structure has been placed in the sea.

Unless more accurate data are available, the roughness height may

be taken as 20 mm. The roughness should be taken into

consideration when determining the coefficients in Morison’s formula

(see next chapter).

The weight of marine growth is classified as a variable functional

action. Unless more accurate data are available, the specific weight

of the marine growth in air may be set equal to 13 kN/m3.

132

66

Earthquake actions

paolo.vannucci@meca.uvsq.fr

Earthquake actions are classified as environmental actions in

offshore engineering.

Platforms in seismic regions are typically designed for two levels of

earthquake intensity: the strength level and the ductility level

earthquake.

For the strength level earthquake, defined as having a "reasonable

likelihood of not being exceeded during the platform's life" (mean

recurrence interval ~ 200 - 500 years), the structure is designed to

respond elastically.

For the ductility level earthquake, defined as close to the "maximum

credible earthquake" at the site, the structure is designed for

inelastic response and to have adequate reserve strength to avoid

collapse.

For strength level design, the seismic loading may be specified

either by sets of accelerograms or by means of design response

spectra.

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paolo.vannucci@meca.uvsq.fr

Use of design spectra has a number of advantages over time history

solutions (where input is the base acceleration), and usually they are

preferred for strength level designs.

Be amax the design spectral intensity; then API norms recommend

using amax for the two principal horizontal directions and 0,5 amax for

the vertical direction. The DNV rules, on the other hand, recommend

amax and 0,7 amax for the two horizontal directions (two different

combinations) and 0,5 amax for the vertical.

The value of amax and often the spectral shapes are determined by

site specific seismological studies.

In the next figure, typical design response spectra are shown.

Designs for ductility level earthquakes are made in the inelastic

behavior range for the structure.

In these analyses, the seismic input is given as 3-component

accelerograms, real or artificial, which represent the extreme ground

motions during the seismic event at the platform site.

134

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Earthquake actions

paolo.vannucci@meca.uvsq.fr

135

paolo.vannucci@meca.uvsq.fr

prescribed by means of design spectra, which are usually the result

of a site specific seismotectonic study.

For the rest, the seismic

analysis of an offshore

platform is performed just

like another civil structure,

but with the difference that

water can affect the

response of the structure,

and consequently the

stress level, by the

combined effects of added

mass and damping.

The effects of seismic

accelerations on compliant

structures are usually

negligible.

136

68

Design load combinations

paolo.vannucci@meca.uvsq.fr

As for any other kind of structures, offshore platform must be

designed for suitable load combinations that should account, in

some way, for the probability that extreme actions realize at the

same time.

These combinations depends upon the design method: allowable

stress design or limit state design.

In the case of allowable stress design, the following load

combinations should be considered:

Combination 1: dead loads (structural plus permanent operational

loads) plus operating environmental loads plus maximum live loads (non

permanent operational loads).

Combination 2: dead loads plus operating environmental loads plus

minimum live loads.

Combination 3: dead loads plus extreme (design) environmental loads

plus maximum live loads.

Combination 4: dead loads plus extreme (design) environmental loads

plus minimum live loads, appropriate for combining with extreme

conditions.

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paolo.vannucci@meca.uvsq.fr

Environmental loads should be combined consistently with their joint

probability of occurrence during the considered load condition.

Earthquake loads must be considered as a separate environmental

load, i.e., not to be combined with waves, wind, etc.

Operating environmental conditions are defined as representative of

severe but not necessarily limiting conditions that, if exceeded,

would require cessation of platform operations.

Allowable stress design is permitted by some rules (e.g. DNV, BS),

while API norms recommend to use this method.

For what concerns limit state analysis, the DNV and the NPD rules

for limit state design consider four limit states:

1. Ultimate limit state: the following two loading combinations must

be used:

ordinary: 1,3 P + 1,3 L + 1,0 D + 0,7 E;

extreme : 1,0 P + 1,0 L + 1,0 D + 1,3 E.

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69

Design load combinations

paolo.vannucci@meca.uvsq.fr

P, L, D and E stand for Permanent (dead), Operating (live),

Deformation (e.g., temperature, differential settlement) and

Environmental loads respectively. For well controlled dead and live

loads during fabrication and installation, the load factor 1,3 may be

reduced to 1,2.

In case of unmanned platforms during storm and without storage of

oil and gas, the 1,3 load factor for environmental loads, except

earthquakes, may be reduced to 1,15.

2. Fatigue limit state

All load factors are to be taken as 1,0.

3. Progressive Collapse limit state

All load factors are to be taken as 1,0.

4. Serviceability limit state

All load factors are to be taken as 1,0.

For both the methods, in any design load combination, the load

condition must be the less favorable.

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140

70

Content

paolo.vannucci@meca.uvsq.fr

The actions of a fluid on an immersed body 143

Inertial force: the added mass 148

The drag force 171

Wave theories 180

Slender and large bodies 201

First order wave action on a slender body 211

The case of a moving body 218

Second order wave action on a slender body 219

141

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The Mc Camy and Fuchs solution 233

The Garrett solution 250

The simplified Garrett solution 256

The Ogilvie solution 270

Second order wave action on large bodies 272

Something about the case of multiple bodies 295

Oscillating large bodies 301

Wave slamming 313

Vortex shedding 323

Numerical methods for the wave action 340

The spectral method in wave forces calculation 362

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Generally speaking, the interaction between a

body Ω and a fluid is a force acting on Ω given ∂Ω

by

t

Ω

f = ∫ t ds

∂Ω

n

t: surface stress applied on ∂Ω by the fluid.

f = ∫ σ n ds = ∫ div σ dv

∂Ω Ω

σ = − pI + 2µD

we get

f = −∫ p n ds + 2µ ∫ D n ds = − ∫ ∇p dv + µ ∫ ∆u dv

∂Ω ∂Ω Ω Ω

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To be remarked that the second term does not appear in the case of

ideal fluids; nevertheless, also in this case f is a function of the

velocity field through p.

For body forces b depending upon a potential β,

b = ∇β ( b = − ge z → β = − g z for the gravity force, axis z upward)

du 1

= − ∇p* + ν ∆u

dt ρ

with

p* = p − ρβ → ∇p = ∇p * + ρ∇β .

f = f1 + f2 + f3

where

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f1 = − ρ ∫ b dv = ρ g ∫ dv e z = ρ gV e z .

Ω Ω

This is the Archimedes' force (the only existing with the fluid at rest),

depending only upon the immersed volume V of the body and not on

its shape or orientation with respect to the stream lines.

f2 = (τ ⊗ τ )( − ∫ p * n ds + 2µ ∫ D n ds ) = (τ ⊗ τ )∫ ( −∇p * + µ ∆u)dv .

∂Ω ∂Ω Ω

This is the more general expression of the force that the fluid applies

on the body in the direction τ, which should be the direction of the

undisturbed flow. We will see that this force has different

expressions, depending upon the negligibility or not of some effects.

This force is composed of two terms: the first one linked to p* and

the other one to the stretching tensor D, the symmetric part of the

velocity gradient.

This second term, being proportional to viscosity, is absent for

inviscid fluids. It is the part of the resistance called the friction or

viscous force. The term proportional to p* gives the force due to the

pressure fields around the body.

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This force is usually, for bluff bodies, the largest part of the

resistance.

Of course, it can be calculated once the pressure field around the

body is known.

We will see that this is crucial for bluff bodies, as in this case the

computation of the pressure field downstream the body is often

impossible analytically.

In addition, in such cases, the pressure field is not balanced around

the body and this gives rise to larger values of the resistance term

due to p*, called in this cases the drag force.

The pressure being linked to the velocity field u through he Navier-

Stokes equations (more simply by the Bernoulli’s theorem for

inviscid fluids), the term of resistance due to p* is indeed affected by

the velocity field u.

We will see that, also for the ideal case of inviscid fluids, giving rise

to balanced pressure fields around the body, a term of resistance is

due to the time variation of the velocity field: it is the inertial force.

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Finally, the last term of f is

f3 = f − f1 − f2 = f + ρ ∫ b dv + (I − τ ⊗ τ )∫ ( p * n − 2µ D n)ds

Ω ∂Ω

called lift force, the Archimedes' force excluded.

The given expressions of f2 et f3 are not useful for computations,

and we will find other expressions of them, especially for f2.

Nevertheless, they show a general decomposition of the global

interaction force and also that resistance and lift force depend upon

not only the volume of Ω but also on its shape and orientation with

respect to the undisturbed flow.

So, the interaction force concerns always one body and one

orientation.

In the reminder of this chapter, we will consider mainly the

resistance.

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In order to give a suitable expression to the resistance, let us first

consider an ideal case: that of an inviscid incompressible fluid in

irrotational motion subjected to conservative body forces.

In this case the potential theorem ensures the existence of a scalar

function, the velocity potential Φ, such that

u = ∇Φ.

The continuity equation gives then

div u = 0 → ∆Φ = 0.

This is the field kinematical condition for such flows.

The Navier-Stokes equations reduce to Euler equations:

∂u p u2

= ∇( β − − )

∂t ρ 2

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The boundary condition is:

∂Φ

(u − w ) ⋅ n = 0 → = wn,

∂n

w: velocity of the boundary;

n: unit normal at the boundary surface.

∂ Φ p ( ∇Φ ) 2

+ + − β = f (t ),

∂t ρ 2

f(t) is a time function accounting for unsteady effects (f(t)= 0 for steady

flows, but anyway f(t) can be included into Φ).

pressure.

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It is apparent the link between p and the velocity field, also for what

concerns the unsteady part.

The problem is now the determination of only one scalar function,

the velocity potential, harmonic on the field with Neumann-type

boundary conditions.

The problem is linear, and the superposition of solutions is possible,

but only for the velocity field, not for pressure, as the link between

velocity and pressure remains non linear in the Bernoulli’s theorem

(which contains now all the non linearity of the problem).

The determination of Φ for some geometrical simple forms in

uniform flows, sometimes can be done analytically.

Let us now consider the forces on a body in the present case.

The previous formulae giving f reduce to

f = − ∫ ∇p * dv − ρ ∫ b dv .

Ω Ω

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The previous equation can be rewritten as

f = − ∫ ∇p dv = − ∫ p n ds.

Ω ∂Ω

Let us use the this formula for the case of a body moving at velocity

v in a fluid at rest at infinity. Be the flow irrotational and the fluid

ideal.

Then, we can write

Φ ( x, y , z; t ) = v(t ) ⋅ ϕ( x, y , z ).

This because, being the flow irrotational, the whole velocity field is

instantaneously affected of a change in the boundary conditions,

which can happen only at the body surface (actually, it can be

shown that irrotational ideal flows are the fluid equivalent of the rigid

body).

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We now integrate the Euler equation over the fluid field, limited by

the boundary of the body and by a sphere S∞ of infinite radius

centered on the body itself.

Neglecting the Archimedes’ force, inessential as static, the result is

dΦ

∫Ω ρ ∇( dt )dv = − ∫Ω ∇p dv .

The divergence (Gauss) theorem gives then (n is the unit normal

exterior to the fluid region)

dΦ

∫Ω

∂ US ∞

ρ

dt

n ds = − ∫

∂Ω US∞

p n ds.

and not on position.

The same holds for the pressure, as the Bernoulli’s theorem shows

immediately.

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Now, the surface integral, over a sphere, of a quantity not depending

upon the place and multiplying the unit normal at the sphere is the

null vector, for evident symmetry reasons, so the previous equation

reduces to

dΦ

∫Ω ρ

∂ dt

n ds = − ∫ p n ds.

∂Ω

The second member is nothing else than the dynamical force acting

on the body, f.

So

dΦ

f=∫ ρ n ds.

∂Ω dt

Remembering the expression of Φ used in this case, we get

dv

f = ρ ( ∫ n ⊗ ϕ ds ) .

∂Ω dt

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This last equation can be rewritten as (Ω is the volume of the body)

dv

f = ρΩ A .

dt

This shows that all the dynamical force is an inertial force: if the

body moves with constant speed, the force is null.

It is the celebrated d’Alembert paradox, already known to Euler

(1745): in the case of an ideal fluid, the only force acting on a

moving body and due to the fluid is an inertial force, null in the case

of steady motion (of course, if the body is at rest and the fluid in

motion the result is the same).

The tensor A appearing in the previous equation is the inertial

coefficients tensor, given by

1

A= (∫ n ⊗ ϕ ds).

Ω ∂Ω

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This is a general demonstration of the fact that in an inviscid fluid the

only force acting upon a moving body is of the inertial type, with a

coefficient multiplying the mass of the displaced fluid and depending

upon the shape, volume and orientation of the body with respect to

the movement.

The result found here is of course false: it is easy to experiment that

each body moving at constant speed in a fluid experiences a force

acting upon it.

This paradox is due to the assumption of inviscid fluid: the presence

of viscosity produces friction forces at the boundary and, most

important, in the case of bluff bodies produces the boundary layer

separation, that alters the pressure fields around the body and gives

a steady force acting upon the body. We will see this in the next

section.

Now, it is of some importance to remark that the results obtained in

the case of inviscid fluid, give not only the d’Alembert paradox, but

also the existence of an inertial force, proportional to the mass of the

displaced fluid through the inertial coefficient.

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This force exists any time that the body (or fluid) motion is unsteady

and is of paramount importance in the case of the wave action.

Anyway, a basic difference exists between a body accelerated in a

fluid at rest and a body at rest in an accelerated fluid.

This can be seen in a simple case, but of great interest in offshore

engineering: the case of a circular cylinder.

Let us first consider the case of the cylinder in an accelerated fluid.

The problem being plane, the complex potential technique can be

used.

Be V(t)=α t the fluid particles velocity, with α the flow acceleration.

So, the flow can be

described by a complex n

potential describing the

superposition of a R

f θ

uniformly accelerated flow

and a doublet: V(t)

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R2 R 2 −iθ

f ( z ) = fu ( z ) + fd ( z ) = V (t )z + V (t ) = V (t )re iθ + e .

z r

z=r eiθ;

fu:= potential of the uniform flow;

fd: potential of the doublet.

ϕ (r ,θ ) = Re(f ) = ϕu (r ,θ ) + ϕd (r ,θ ) = V (t )r cosθ +

R2 R 2

cosθ = V (t ) cosθ r +

+ V (t ) .

r r

The complex velocity is

df R 2

g= = V (t ) 1 − .

dz 2 2iθ

r e

Its value on the cylinder’s surface is:

g (r = R ) = V (t )(1 − cos 2θ + i sin 2θ ).

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Hence, the norm of the fluid particles velocity on the cylinder’s

surface is

v ( r = R ) = gg = 2V (t ) sinθ .

r =R

p v 2 ∂ϕ

+ + = F (t )

ρ 2 ∂t

In writing the above equation, the body forces have been neglected

(actually, they give rise only to the Archimedes’ force).

The time function F(t) can be included in the potential (it is a spatial

constant) to give the value of the pressure everywhere:

v 2 ∂ϕ

p = −ρ + .

2 ∂t

The time derivative of the potential is:

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∂ϕ R 2

= α cos θ r + .

∂t r

The pressure on the cylinder’s surface is hence:

v 2 ∂ϕ

p = −ρ +

2 ∂t

(

= − ρ 2α 2t 2 sin2 θ + 2αR cos θ . )

r =R

The force acting upon the cylinder is then the surface integral of the

pressure over the cylinder’s surface:

f= ∫∂Ω t ds = − ∫∂Ω p n ds.

For symmetry, the only component of f different from zero is that

along the direction of the flow; so, with reference to the figure on

page 156:

2π

f = − ∫ p cos θ ds = −R ∫ p cos θ dθ .

∂Ω 0

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Using the expression of p found above, one gets:

2π 2π

f = ρ R∫ 2α 2t 2 sin2 θ cos θ dθ + ρ R ∫ 2αR cos 2 θ dθ .

0 0

It is readily seen that the first integral is null over 2π; physically, this

means that the force due to the kinetic pressure is still null, also in

the case of an uniform accelerated flow.

On the contrary, the second integral is not null and gives

f = 2π ρ α R 2.

This is the inertial force acting upon the cylinder. It is exclusively due

to the transient pressure; in fact, from the demonstration above it is

apparent that, being null the contribution due to the kinetic pressure,

it is:

∂ϕ

f = − ∫ p n ds = ρ ∫ n ds.

∂Ω ∂Ω ∂t

This result has a general validity and the force above is called the

Froude-Krylov force (it is just the same already found on page 153).

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This force is strictly linked to the unsteadiness of the flow and is

actually an inertial force.

It is interesting to write this force decomposing it into the two parts

respectively due to ϕu and to ϕd (see page 157); using the Gauss’

theorem, one gets:

∂ϕ ∂ϕ ∂ϕ ∂ ∂

f = ρ∫ n ds = ρ ∫ u + d n ds = ρ ∫ ∇ϕu dv + ρ ∫ ∇ϕ d dv .

∂Ω ∂t ∂Ω ∂t ∂t ∂t Ω ∂t Ω

Remembering the link between the velocity and the potential, one

can write that the term depending upon the uniform flow potential is

∂ ∂ ∂v u

ρ ∫

∂t Ω

∇ϕu dv = ρ ∫ v u dv = ρ ∫

∂t Ω Ω ∂t

dv = ρα ∫ dv = ραΩ .

Ω

force necessary to accelerate a body having the mass equal to the

fluid displaced by the body (just like the Archimedes’ force, but due

to the flow acceleration and not to the gravitational one).

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This result, as apparent, is quite general, and it is not limited to

cylinders.

Unlike this, the second part of the Froude-Krylov force is shape-

dependent. In the case of a cylinder, this part is well represented by

a doublet potential, but of course for other shapes it is not so.

Anyway, we can write that

∂ ∂

ρ

∂t ∫Ω

∇ϕ d dv = ρ ∫ v d (α ) dv = ρ ∫ ad (α ) dv .

∂t Ω Ω

In the above formula, the subscript d stands, generally speaking, for

disturbed (in the sense that the presence of the body disturbs the

uniform flow) not only for doublet, and vd and ad are respectively the

disturbed velocity and acceleration, both functions of α, the fluid

acceleration.

The above formula shows that also this term is an inertial one and

generally speaking it can be written as

∂

∂t ∫Ω

ρ ∇ϕ d dv = µα .

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In the above equation, µ is the added mass and α the fluid

acceleration. The meaning of the added mass will be shown later.

Finally, one can write that, generally speaking, the Froude-Krylov

force, that is, the force acting upon a fixed body and due to the

transient pressure is, in the case of an uniformly accelerating fluid,

of the type (eα is the direction of the fluid acceleration)

∂(ϕu + ϕd )

f = ρ∫ n ds = (ρ Ωα + µα )eα .

∂Ω ∂t

f = CM ρ Ω α e α .

coefficient:

CM = 1 + C A .

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In the last equation, CA is the added mass coefficient:

µ

CA = .

ρΩ

The meaning of CM is clear: the force being inertial, that is

proportional to an acceleration, it is the ratio between the apparent

mass, that is the mass multiplying the acceleration in the expression

of the force, and the fluid mass displaced by the body.

It is apparent that CM>1, so the apparent mass is always greater

than the mass of the displaced fluid.

The meaning of CA is different: it is the ratio between the added

mass and the mass of the displaced fluid.

Now, it is of importance to remark that, for the case of the circular

cylinder, the force per unit length will be

f = ρ CM π R 2α = 2 ρ π R 2α → CM = 2.

So, in such a case the apparent mass is twice the displaced mass.

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This implies also that CA= 1, that is, the added mass is exactly equal

to the displaced mass.

Actually, this result comes directly by the computation made above

for the cylinder.

Let us now consider the dual case of the previous one: that of a

cylinder accelerating with acceleration α in a fluid at rest.

What changes? Only the fact that the potential is now that of the

doublet for a flow having the direction opposite to that of the

cylinder, i.e. there is not the potential of the uniform flow (the fluid is

at rest).

But the procedure is exactly the same; so, remembering, from the

above discussion, what the uniform potential gives, that is the term

ρΩα, now this last will not appear in the final expression of the force,

which hence will be, in the general case,

∂ϕ d

f = ρ∫ n ds = µ α eα = C A ρ Ω α eα .

∂Ω ∂t

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So, the force necessary to accelerate a body in a fluid at rest, is

proportional to the added mass and not to the apparent mass, i.e. to

CA and not to CM; this force is hence always less than that acting

upon the same body, fixed and acted upon by a flow accelerating

with the same acceleration.

In the case of a circular cylinder, the hydrodynamic force acting

upon the fixed cylinder is exactly twice that necessary to accelerate

the cylinder with the same acceleration and in the fluid at rest (apart

from the force necessary to accelerate the own cylinder mass).

In other words: the two cases of fixed or moving body are not

equivalent. This difference is due to the absence, in the case of the

fixed body, of the potential of the uniform flow, in other words, to a

different condition to infinity: this simply means that the flows in the

two cases are not the same changed of sign.

The meaning of the added mass is now clear: it is the quotient of the

additional force required to maintain the acceleration of the body

throughout the fluid divided by the same acceleration of the body.

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This means also that to accelerate a body into a fluid it is necessary

not only to accelerate the own mass of the body, but also its added

mass.

This is important for instance in dirigibles and aerostats, but also in

the navigation of submarines and ships.

It must be recall that this inertial force is due to the transient

pressure and not to the kinetic pressure (proportional to the square

of the fluid velocity).

The following figures (source: Sarpkaya & Isaacson) show the value

of the added mass in some cases of interest.

which, as already said, is a consequence of the assumption of

inviscid fluid.

Nevertheless, a first partial removal of the d’Alembert paradox can

be done right in the case of inviscid fluids.

In fact, it can be shown (Blasius, Kutta, Jukowski theorem) the

existence of a lift force, fL, orthogonal to the flow direction, whose

expression is, in the bi-dimensional case,

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fL = − ρ Γ v

Γ : circulation around the body contour.

fL

However, this result does not yet make appear a resistance in the

case of steady flow.

Actually, to obtain such a force, it is necessary to remove the basic

assumption used in the demonstration of the d’Alembert’s paradox:

the hypothesis of inviscid fluid.

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It is a classical result of fluid mechanics the fact that the only

irrotational flow of a viscous fluid is the fluid at rest.

Nevetheless, the boundary layer theory (Prandtl, 1905) shows that it

is still possible to consider an irrotational fluid motion almost

everywhere, excepted in a thin layer, the boundary layer, at the solid

boundaries of the fluid field.

This can be justified in the following way: let us introduce the

Reynolds number Re:

UD

Re =

ν

U: characteristic fluid velocity in the flow;

D: linear characteristic dimension of the problem;

ν: kinematical viscosity of the fluid.

of inertial and viscosity forces in the motion equation and of the

convection and the diffusion terms in the vorticity equation:

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∂ω

+ (∇ω)u = (∇u)ω +ν∆ω, ω = curlu.

∂t

The convection term is the second one at the first member whilst the

diffusion term is the last at the second member.

For fluids like water or air, the values of ν give almost always rise to

values of Re much greater than unity (of the order of 104 and more).

This means that in all these cases, the viscosity term can be

neglected in the motion equation and the diffusion term in the

vorticity equation.

So the motion equations can still be approximated by the Euler

equations also for a viscous fluid.

Actually, viscosity is taken into account by the dynamical boundary

condition, stipulating the adherence of the fluid particles to the solid

surface:

u=w.

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Vorticity is generated at the body surface as a consequence of the

adherence condition.

This vorticity is transported by convection and diffuses in the fluid

domain.

Re is >>1 means that the diffusion of vorticity can be neglected with

respect to its convection.

Physically, vorticity that generates at the solid walls do not diffuse in

the fluid domain but remains confined in a thin boundary layer at the

body surface and is transported by convection along such surface.

In other words, it can be considered that all the vorticity is

concentrated in a boundary thin layer at the body surface and

outside this region the motion can still be considered as irrotational

and inviscid.

So, in the exterior region the solution to the Euler equations is still

sought by the same methods as for potential fluids, while in the

boundary layer the viscosity must be taken into account.

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The two solutions are then connected by a continuity condition on

the velocity of the fluid.

A result of the Prandtl theory is that the thickness of the boundary

layer is of the order 1/ Re and that the pressure do not vary along

the thickness of the boundary layer.

This allows to calculate the pressure resultant on the body surface

with the result of the exterior region problem, i.e. considering the

fluid as inviscid and the flow as irrotational.

Once the pressure field found on the border between boundary layer

and exterior region, it can be applied directly to the body surface to

found the resultant pressure action being the pressure constant in

the boundary layer and being its thickness extremely small.

So, up till now nothing changes for what concerns the computation

of the pressure resultant: it is made as in the ideal irrotational case

(this implies also the existence of the inertial term in accelerated

motions).

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But now, the introduction of the boundary layer, where the flow is

rotational and the fluid must be considered as viscous, allows the

introduction of a force acting upon the body in the direction of the

motion, which is a resistance if the body moves.

In fact, the velocity of the fluid in the boundary layer passes quickly

from the value of the body speed (zero for a body at rest) on the

body surface to the value of the irrotational flow at the surface of

separation between the exterior zone and the boundary layer.

Usually, this implies very high gradients of the velocity, as the

thickness of the boundary layer is very small.

So, now the viscosity of the fluid gives a friction action on the

surface of the body, whose resultant is:

fv = 2µ ∫ D n ds.

∂Ω

But what can be shown in some examples and tests, is that the

viscous drag is always almost negligible with respect to the inertial

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force (in water) and that it is very small for some bodies with respect

to the measured value of the interaction force in steady motion (in

air and in water).

This means that the model sketched before does not well represent

the physical situation in some cases.

But, actually, what happens? The model described hereon has a

fundamental hypothesis: that the boundary layer, where vorticity is

concentrated, remains attached at the body surface.

This is true only for fluid-dynamic bodies, i.e. sharp-shaped bodies.

This is the case, e.g., of an airfoil, like in the figure.

layer

fv

v v

τ

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Unlike this case, is that of bluff bodies.

A bluff body is a body for which the boundary layer does not remain

attached at the body surface: it is detached and transported in to the

fluid field, downstream the body, creating a turbulent wake where

vorticity is concentrated: it is the phenomenon of the wake

separation.

This alters deeply the pressure field around the body, which is no

more equilibrated.

So, now the surface integral of the pressure on the body surface is

no more null: the drag force fd appears, and now this force, usually

fd

v wake

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of some orders of magnitude greater than the viscous drag for bluff

bodies, gives reason of the measured values of the resistance.

This force is only indirectly due to viscosity, as it is the resultant of a

pressure field (caused in part by viscosity).

Unfortunately, such a flow pattern usually cannot be described

analytically, and anyway the analytical tools used for the irrotational

inviscid flows in the case of fluid-dynamic bodies can no longer be

used.

Anyway, a general simple relation giving the drag force can be found

using for instance the methods of mechanical similitude.

The result, already introduced in Chapter 2, gives for the drag force

1

fd = Cd ρ A V 2 .

2

A is the area of the body in a plane orthogonal to the flow;

V is the undisturbed (or body) speed;

Cd is the drag coefficient.

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The drag coefficient depends upon the body shape and on its

orientation with respect to the flow (or the body motion) and on Re.

A wide discussion of Cd has already been done in Chapter 2.

Now, the d’Alembert’s paradox is definitely removed.

Other fluid-structure interactions can exist, namely of dynamical

type, i.e. coupling the fluid and the body motion.

Some of these will be briefly introduced in the following sections and

chapters.

Now, it is important, for offshore structure, to link the analysis done

before for the fluid actions to the flow generated by regular waves

around a fixed body, in order to calculate the wave action exerted on

a fixed structure.

For doing this, it is of importance to recall some aspects of the wave

theories.

This is done in the next section.

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Several wave theories exist to describe at best the flow produced by

gravity waves in water:

the trochoidal wave theory (Gerstner, 1802);

the sinusoidal wave theory (Airy, 1827);

the nth-order wave theory (Stokes, 1847);

the solitary wave theory (Boussinesq, 1871, Rayleigh, 1876);

the cnoidal wave theory (Korteweg & De Vries, 1895);

the long wave theory (Stoker, 1957);

the stream function wave theory (Dean, 1965);

the hyperbolic wave theory (Igawaki, 1968) etc.

Here, we will recall only the classical theories, the most used in

offshore engineering: the Airy theory and the second order Stokes

theory.

In this chapter, the approach to the modeling of wave action is

deterministic: a regular wave train, composed of identical waves is

considered.

The characteristic of these waves are those determined by the

stochastic analysis described in Chapter 2. 180

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The following assumptions will be made in formulating the wave

models:

ideal fluid (i.e. inviscid incompressible fluid);

irrotational motion;

bi-dimensional flow;

horizontal plane sea bottom.

L: the wave length; a η

d: the water depth; H

η: the wave surface position

above the still water level; L

a: the wave amplitude; d

Ω

H=2a: the wave height;

z

ω=2π/T: the wave frequency;

x

T: the wave period;

0

k=2π/L: the wave number.

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The flow is modeled as bi-dimensional as in many occasions it is

almost the case; in addition, this assumption does not alter the

results in a significant way.

The assumption that the curl of the velocity field is null is rather

confirmed by experience, at last in a region sufficiently far from the

boundaries (i.e. the bottom and free surfaces).

In fact, the Lagrange-Cauchy theorem assures that a flow beginning

from an ideal fluid at rest remains irrotational.

Water is not a high viscous fluid and in addition the Reynolds’s

number in typical situations are very large: the ideal fluid

approximation can be considered as satisfactory in the field, far from

the boundaries (boundary layer theory).

Hence, it is correct, thank to the Lagrange-Cauchy theorem and in

the theoretical framework of the boundary layer theory, to consider

the water as an inviscid fluid in irrotational motion.

Other theories, however, are rotational theories (e.g. the Gerstner

theory).

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Thanks to the assumptions done hereon, it can be easily verified

that the problem of describing the wave motion corresponds,

mathematically, to search of a scalar function ϕ, the velocity

potential, harmonic on the field and respecting the kinematical

condition of ideal fluids at the free and bottom surface, and the

dynamical condition (given by the Bernoulli’s unsteady theorem) at

the free surface (stipulating the continuity of the pressure field).

The equations to be satisfied by ϕ are:

∂ 2ϕ ∂ 2ϕ

∆ϕ = 2 + 2 = 0 in Ω ;

∂x ∂z

∂ϕ

= 0 for z = 0;

∂z

∂η ∂η ∂ϕ ∂ϕ

+ − = 0 for z = η + d ;

∂t ∂x ∂x ∂z

∂ϕ (∇ϕ )

2

+ + gη = 0 for z = η + d .

∂t 2

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The previous equations are highly non-linear, the non-linearity being

given by the two conditions at the free surface.

Actually, this non-linearity is not only algebraic, as there are

products of derivatives, but, and more important, it is given also by

the fact that these two conditions must be written in correspondence

of the moving free surface, which is just an unknown of the problem.

In fact, the main goals of a wave theory are to determine:

the moving wave profile, i.e. the function η=η(x,t);

the wave celerity, i.e. the propagation speed of the wave:

L ω

c= = ;

T k

the velocity field of the particles, u=∆ϕ.

boundary.

The way the free surface boundary conditions are treated

distinguishes the following wave theories.

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The Airy’s theory: in the Airy’s theory, the equations are linearized,

i.e. the non-linear terms are discarded and the two free surface

conditions are written at the still water level, not at the actual one,

i.e. for z= d and not for z=η + d.

It can be easily shown that these approximations are acceptable if

the following conditions are satisfied:

deep waters, i.e. L<<d (usually, this condition is considered satisfied if it

is approximately d>L/2);

small amplitude waves, i.e. H<<L.

So, this is a small amplitude wave theory in deep waters.

The free surface conditions become:

∂η ∂ϕ

− =0 for z = d ;

∂t ∂z

∂ϕ

+ gη = 0 for z = d .

∂t

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They can be rearranged to give:

1 ∂ϕ

η ( x, t ) = − =0 for z = d ;

g ∂t

∂ 2ϕ ∂ϕ

+g =0 for z = d .

∂t 2

∂z

The first equation gives the wave profile once the velocity potential ϕ

known.

In order to obtain a form of the solution, the separation of variables

technique is used: the solution is written in the form

ϕ ( x, z, t ) = f ( z ) cos (kx − ωt ).

This form assures that the motion is a regular train of wave

propagating in the positive x-direction at speed c=ω/k, periodic in

time and space.

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The function f(z) is determined in such a way to satisfy the boundary

conditions; it is easy to see that

f(z) = A cosh kz.

is a, the wave amplitude; this gives

ga

A=− .

ω coshkd

Finally,

g a cosh kz

ϕ ( x, z, t ) = − cos (kx − ωt ).

ω cosh kd

So

η ( x, t ) = a sin (kx − ω t ).

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The dynamical condition at the free surface gives, with the previous

value of ϕ, the dispersion equation, linking ω to k (or equivalently T

to L) and d:

ω 2 = g k tanh kd .

This gives

g tanh kd

c= .

k

The velocity vector is

kg a

u = ∆ϕ = [cosh kz sin(kx − ωt );− sinh kz cos (kx − ωt )],

ω cosh kd

and the displacement about the mean position is

a

x= [cosh kz cos (kx − ωt ); sinh kz sin(kx − ωt )].

sinh kd

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The particles motion is a periodic motion over closed elliptic orbits,

whose amplitude decreases exponentially with water depth; at the

bottom, the movement is purely oscillatory, according to the

boundary condition thereon.

The particles velocity has a similar variation with water depth.

So, in the Airy’s theory there is not mass transport; the wave profile

is sinusoidal, and crests and trough are exactly symmetrical.

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The Stokes' theories: in the Stokes' theories a perturbation

approach is used: the velocity potential and the free surface are

developed in power series of a perturbation parameter ε:

ϕ = ε ϕ1 + ε 2ϕ 2 + ....

η = ε η1 + ε 2η 2 + ....

The number of terms retained in the power series determine the

order of the Stokes' theory; here we will briefly outline the second

order Stokes' theory.

Each equation containing ϕ must be satisfied for each value of ε;

this allow to split each equation into two equations, on for the linear

term ϕ1, the other one for the quadratic term ϕ2.

So, the conditions on the field and at the bottom become

∆ϕ i = 0, i=1,2;

∂ϕi

∂ z = 0, i=1,2.

z =0

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The condition at the free surface is now written as

∂ 2ϕ ∂ϕ ∂ (∇ϕ )2 1

f ( x,z,t ) = +g + + ∇ϕ ⋅ ∇(∇ϕ )2 = 0, for z = η + d .

∂t 2

∂z ∂t 2

This equation can be found either from the two free surface

conditions, the kinematical and the dynamical one, either imposing

the derivative of the pressure to be null, using the Bernoulli’s

theorem and the formula for the substantial derivative.

The above condition is again to be imposed on an unknown

boundary. Stokes develops in a Taylor series the function f(x,z,t) up

to second term and then imposes the condition for z=d. This gives,

for the two orders, the conditions:

∂ 2ϕ1 ∂ϕ

+ g 1 = 0, for z = d ;

∂t 2

∂z

∂ ϕ2

2

∂ϕ2 ∂ (∇ϕ1 )2 ∂ ∂ 2ϕ1 ∂ϕ

+ g = − − η1 ( 2 + g 1 ), for z = d .

∂t 2

∂z ∂t ∂z ∂t ∂z

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The Bernoulli’s theorem gives also the free surface function η:

1 ∂ϕ 1

η = − + ( ∇ ϕ )2 .

g ∂ t 2 z =η + d

Using the power series expansion for η and developing it in Taylor’s

expansion up to the second order term written again for z=d, one

gets:

1 ∂ϕ

η1 = − 1 ;

g ∂ t z =d

1 1 ∂ 2ϕ1 ∂ϕ2

η2 = − (∇ϕ1)2 + η1 + .

g 2 ∂ t ∂ z ∂ t

z =d

Finally, all the linear terms define again the Airy’s theory, so the

Airy’s solution is just the linear term ϕ1 and η1 in a power expansion

of the wave problem. That is why the Airy’s theory is also called the

linear theory.

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The second order problem can be solved once the solution of the

first one is known (this technique is standard also for higher order

theories). The solution is

3 ω cosh 2kz

ϕ2 = − sin 2(kx − ωt );

8 k 2 sinh 4 kd

η2 = − (

2 g k 2 2 sinh 4 kd

+ 1 )

cos 2( kx − ω t ) +

sinh 2 kd

.

2π a

ε = ka = .

L

This parameter represent the steepness of the wave; if ε is small,

the wave steepness is small and hence the wave is a small

perturbation: the linear theory of airy is justified, i.e. the power series

can be truncated at the first term.

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But if the steepness is not sufficiently small, more terms must be

considered in the power expansions: the Stokes' theory appears

hence as a theory suitable for waves of finite amplitude.

Finally, the solution of the second order Stokes' theory is

ϕ=− cos(kx − ωt ) − a 2ω sin 2(kx − ωt );

ω cosh kd 8 sinh4 kd

η = a sin (kx − ωt ) − (

2 g 2 sinh4 kd

+ 1 cos )

2( kx − ωt )+

sinh2 kd

.

Unlike in the linear theory, now crests and troughs are no longer

symmetrical, the crests being steeper than the troughs, see the

figure.

It is worth noting the fact that the quadratic term is of an order of

magnitude less than the linear term (it is apparent in the figure).

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10 η (m) Stokes 2nd order wave

5

2nd order term

0

L=200 m

-5

a=10 m

d=500 m

-10 1st order term x (m)

0 50 100 150 200

u = ka sin( kx − ωt ) − ωa cos 2(kx − ωt );

ω cosh kd

4

4 sinh kd

g sinh kz 3 sinh 2kz

w = −ka cos(kx − ωt ) + ωa sin 2( kx − ωt ).

ω cosh kd

4

4 sinh kd

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It is apparent, in the expressions of the velocity components, the

existence of a second order term, i.e. depending on ka², oscillating

at a double frequency. These terms will have an important

consequence in the non linear wave action and for the fatigue

design of a platform.

It can also be shown the existence, at the second order, of a

constant term of velocity, the drift, whose expression is:

1 cosh 2kz

ud ( z ) = k a 2ω .

2 sinh 2 kd

rest is then the sum of u and ud.

This implies that the particle orbits are no longer close: there is a

mass transport, due to the drift.

The particle paths are obtained by time integration of the total

speed:

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g cosh kz 3 cosh 2kz 1 cosh 2kz

x = ka 2 cos(kx − ωt ) + a sin 2(kx − ωt ) + a ωt;

ω cosh kd

4

8 sinh kd 2 sinh2 kd

sin(kx − ωt ) − a cos 2(kx − ωt ) .

ω cosh kd

2 4

8 sinh kd

In the following figures, we can see the comparison between the

horizontal components of the particle velocity, showing the fact that

the drift is a second order phenomenon, and the path of a particle,

showing the fact that at the second order the path is open.

m/s 10 m

6

u+ud 2nd order

4 5 1st order

path

2 ud path

0

0

-2 L=200 m L=200 m

-5

a=10 m a=10 m

-4 u

d=500 m sec. d=500 m m

-10

0 2 4 6 8 10 -10 -5 0 5 10 15 20

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The drift is important for at least two reasons: first of all, it shows the

presence of a transport mass also for the case of a pure wave

motion, without superposing currents.

Then, it is responsible of a steady second order wave force, the drift

force, which is rather important, especially for compliant structures;

we will see it later in this chapter.

the Stokes’ fifth order theory (source: Sarpkaya & Isaacson),

developed by Skjelbreia & Hendrickson (1960).

The results are rather complicate and they depend upon some

functions of kd, Aij, Bij and Cij, found by the authors of the theory.

The reader is addressed to the original paper of the authors for the

expression of these functions.

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The following figure is a scheme for the wave theory selection where

two dimensionless parameters representing water depth and wave

steepness are related (HB is the height of the steepest wave, see

page 207).

H/(gT2)

Deep water waves

Intermediate depth waves

Shallow water waves

H/HB=0,25

Cnoidal

Airy’s

d/(gT2)

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Offshore structures are always bluff bodies: usually, they are

composed by several parts having a circular section.

Hence, for what we have seen before, one should consider in this

case the drag force caused by the wake separation in a flow

produced by currents and waves.

In addition, the wave flow being unsteady, an inertial force

proportional to the fluid particles acceleration and to the inertial

coefficient of the structure must be taken into account.

So, generally speaking, in the case of offshore structures the two

principal hydrodynamic forces are to be considered, along with, in

several cases, the Archimedes' force.

The only force that can be always neglected in offshore engineering

is the viscous drag, as its contribution is always of several orders of

magnitude inferior to that of the inertial and drag force.

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The presence of an obstacle, like for instance a platform leg, alters

the flow pattern of a regular train of waves.

Hence, it is questionable if the results obtained with a wave theory

(i.e. in the absence of any obstacle) can be longer used in the

computation of wave actions.

Of course, this point depends upon the importance of the

disturbance caused by the obstacle on the undisturbed wave flow.

All these points can be better investigated by the following

approach.

Let us consider a vertical circular cylinder of diameter D, in a water

depth d and, for the sake of simplicity, subjected to small amplitude

waves.

Then, the largest horizontal speed of water particles at the cylinder

axis, computed in the hypothesis that the cylinder does not alter the

undisturbed wave flow, is get at the free surface in correspondence

to the passage of a crest or of a trough:

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g ak g ak H 2πg

umax = = = .

ω g k tanh kd 2 L tanh 2πd

L

In deep waters (kd→∞), it is

πg H

umax ≅ H ≅ 3.925 .

2L L

The corresponding Reynolds’s number is

HD

Re ≈ 3 × 10 6 .

L

With the usual design values of D, H and L, Re is always much

greater than 1 (for instance, if L=200 m, H=20 m and D=1 m,

Re ≅ 4.23×106).

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Hence, the viscous effects are always negligible with respect to the

inertial ones, and the problem can be analyzed, in theory, with the

potential flow model.

This model gives only one dynamical force of interaction: the inertial

force, due, in the case of the wave motion, to the unsteadiness of

the motion.

But we have seen above that this is true only in the absence of wake

separation.

Unfortunately, as already said, offshore platforms are always bluff

bodies, and the potential flow model is not correct, in principle, to

assess wave actions on offshore platforms.

Nevertheless, it happens that the potential flow model is still valid, if

certain geometrical restrictions are satisfied, to predict with a good

approximation wave actions, but only wave actions, not wind or

current actions.

The reason of this is exclusively due to the fact that the wave motion

is an unsteady oscillating flow.

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In fact, let us consider the dimensionless ratio

umaxT

KC = .

D

It is known as the Keulegan-Carpenter number and it represents the

ratio between an overestimation of the horizontal distance traveled

by a particle during the wave period T and the cylinder diameter D.

Hence, a small KC means that the particle near the cylinder cannot

travel far from the cylinder itself, for the flow inversion during the

wave period.

In such circumstances, the wake separation, though it tends to

produce, is actually unimportant, as this phenomenon remains

confined in a small region close to the cylinder’s surface.

Outside this zone, the flow is not affected by the wake separation: it

is still a potential flow and hence this model can still be used for the

assessment of the wave actions on the cylinder.

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It is apparent that this computation scheme is strictly due to the

geometrical dimensions of the cylinder with respect to the wave

characteristics and to the oscillatory character of the wave motion:

hence, it cannot be used, for instance, for steady (or anyway not

oscillatory) flows, like those produced by wind and currents.

It is commonly considered that KC<4 is sufficient to ignore the wake

separation effects.

For the same water depth and wave, KC increases when D

decreases.

Hence, for small-diameter cylinders (slender bodies) the wake

separation cannot be neglected in the computation of wave actions,

whilst for large diameter cylinders (large bodies) the potential flow

model is correct.

This means that for traditional steel offshore platforms (jackets, jack-

up), composed of tubular beams with a diameter of about 1 m of

diameter, the computation of the wave action is made taking into

account the wake separation.

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On the contrary, for large-diameter structures (concrete gravity

platforms, TLPs, SPARs), having diameters usually greater than 10

m, the computation of the wave action is made within the theoretical

framework of the potential flow.

Using the expressions of umax, T and the dispersion equation, we get

g akT g ak a π (H/L)

KC = = 2 π 2 = 2π = .

ωD ω D D tanh kd (D/L) tanh kd

H 1 π L L

= tanh kd → KCmax = ≅ 0.45 .

L 7 7D D

essentially upon the ratio between the wave length and the cylinder

diameter.

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This ratio is also of importance in describing the disturbance of the

cylinder on the wave undisturbed flow (that can be modeled by one

of the wave theories seen above).

In fact, if the ratio D/L is small, the wave flow is substantially not

disturbed by the presence of the cylinder.

On the contrary, if D/L is large, the cylinder affects in a substantial

way the wave flow.

In this last case, it is no longer possible to compute the wave actions

upon the body as if the wave motion were undisturbed, i.e. the flow

described by the formulae seen above for the theories of Airy and

Stokes cannot be used: the wave description must take into account

for the presence of the body. The theory that is used in this case is

the diffraction theory (actually, the obstacle diffracts the waves).

In addition, if the body is large, it is meaningless to assess the

surface actions due to the pressure field as if the value of the

pressure were the same everywhere, as in the case of slender

bodies, when the wave characteristics are evaluated only in one

place: on the axis of the cylinder.

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In fact, the velocity, and pressure, field can be very different in

points of the cylinder surface that are distant one from the other and

the global wave action is very influenced by this spatial variation.

It is commonly considered that for a ratio D/L>1/5 the diffraction

effects must be considered.

In such cases, KCmax≅ 2.25; this means that whenever the diffraction

theory must be used, it is possible to use the potential flow model

and to neglect the wake separation effects (diffraction range).

On the contrary, when D/L<1/5 the diffraction effects are negligible,

the wake can still be described by an undisturbed wave (commonly,

bi-dimensional) model. Two cases are still possible in such a

situation:

D/L<1/5 and KC<4, the wake separation can be neglected and the wave

force is essentially an inertial force (inertial range);

D/L<1/5 and KC>4, the wake separation is the dominant effect and the

wave action is due to both inertial and drag terms (separation range).

In both these last two cases, the undisturbed wave motion is

evaluated on the points of the cylinder axis.

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The above considerations are summarized in the following diagram.

The shadowed zone is that where non-linear effects should be taken

into account, both for the slender and the large body cases.

10

KC

8

Separation range

Important non-linear effects

H/L=(H/L)max

6 KC = KCmax

4

H/L=0.5(H/L)max

1

KC = KCmax

2

2 Diffraction range

Inertial range

0

0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5

D/L 210

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We have seen above that in the case of slender bodies, the wake

separation effects become important and in computing the wave

action, both the inertial and the drag forces must be taken into

account.

Unfortunately, there are no theories giving the inertial force for a

turbulent flow, i.e. in the presence of wake separation. In other

words, they do not exist exact formulae giving at the same time the

drag and the inertial force.

However, we know how to calculate these two forces separately,

each one in a flow pattern quite different: the potential flow for the

inertial force, the rotational turbulent flow for the drag force.

This was the situation at the beginning of offshore engineering, in

the early ‘50s.

At that period, a semi empirical formula was proposed for the

evaluation of the wave action on slender bodies.

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This formula is the celebrated Morison’s equation (Morison, O’Brien,

Johnson & Schaaf, 1950): the in-line horizontal wave force per unit

length on a vertical cylinder is

du 1

F = CM ρ A + CD ρ D u u ;

dt 2

D: cylinder’s diameter;

A: cross sectional area of the cylinder;

ρ: water’s density;

CM: inertia coefficient: CM = 1 + C A ;

CA: added mass coefficient: C A = µ / ρA;

µ: added mass per unit length of the cylinder;

CD: drag coefficient (see Chapter 2).

This formula has not a theoretical basis: it is simply the

superposition of the inertial and drag force, calculated in two

different schemes, the potential and the separated flow.

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However, experience has shown that this formula works rather well.

In the case of a circular cylinder in an uniform accelerated current,

we have seen that the added mass per unit length is just ρ A; so, in

such a case, the one of concern in offshore platforms, it is CM= 2.

However, the wave motion is not an uniform accelerated motion; so

a wide discussion and a large mass of results concern the actual

values of CM and CD to be used in calculations. Actually, this is

mostly a way to fit a semi-empirical law with experimental results.

Experiences show that these two coefficients depends upon almost

all the parameters not directly included in the Morison’s equation,

and namely: Re, KC, roughness, water depth and also the wave

theory.

API norms suggest the values CD= 0.6 to 1.2 and CM= 1.3 to 2.0.

NTS rules suggest to get

For KC>30:

CD = 0.65 and CM = 1.6 for smooth members.

CD = 1.05 and CM = 1.2 for rough members.

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For 4<KC<30:

CD = 0.65 and CM = 2.0 for smooth members.

CD = 0.80 and CM = 2.0 for rough members.

The following experimental diagrams are due to Sarpkaya (1976),

and show CD and CM as functions of Re and for constant values of

KC.

coefficients. In particular, for small KC, CM tends towards 2.

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In the figures above, CD and CM are plotted as functions of Re and

for constant values of the relative roughness ε/D (ε: mean dimension

of the roughness, in m). The curves have been traced for KC= 50.

To consider that in the early lifetime of a platform, the cylinder

surface can be considered as smooth, but, due to marine growth, it

becomes rough after some months.

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To be remarked that the ratio between the highest drag force and

the highest inertial force is:

1

FD max CD ρ D umax

2

2 CD umax KC CD

= 22 = = .

FI max πD π CM ω D π 2 CM

CM ρ ω umax

4

Hence, for small values of KC, the inertial force prevails on drag

force, the contrary for large values of KC.

In other words, for small KC, drag force is negligible with respect to

inertial force: in this case the diffraction theory is more appropriate to

evaluate the wave force.

In the case of a current superposed to the wave motion, the

Morison’s equation is used simply adding the wave and current

velocities.

Anyway, there is a general and exact transformation that allows to

consider the presence of a current in a wave motion.

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Since the solution for the wave motion is in the absence of a mean

current, the transformation is obtained selecting a reference system

translating with the current speed U (current considered to

propagate in the same direction as the wave motion).

The problem is thus rendered in the same form as that for the

original (without current) solution; the only modification is that it is

necessary to utilize the encounter period, i.e. the period apparent to

an observer moving with the current U, as contrasted to the actual

wave period, apparent to a stationary observer.

The two periods are related by

T

Te = .

U

1−

c

This transformation is always applicable, not only for the case of

slender bodies.

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All what has been said above, refers to a stationary obstacle, and it

is the principal situation encountered in offshore engineering, where

platforms are stiff, fixed structures.

But in some cases, namely for compliant structures (semi-

submersibles, TLPs, SPARs, compliant structures, guyed towers),

the motion of the structure is important with respect to the structure’s

dimensions, and the motion of the platform can interact with the

wave flow.

Newmann (1977) has given a modified expression of the Morison’s

equation to be used when the cylinder moves (x is the actual

position of the cylinder’s axis):

1 ∂ u ∂ u

F= ρ CD D u − x& (u − x& ) + ρ CM A + (u − x& ) − µ x&&;

2 ∂t ∂ x

To be remarked that the force depends upon the cylinder velocity,

i.e. it is non linear.

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The Morison’s equation is a formula which is intended for small

amplitude waves.

In fact, all the non linear terms are neglected in it, as the inertial and

drag force are calculated in an ideal uniform current, not for a real

wave motion, CM and CD being adjusted to fit the experimental

results.

But, in a real wave motion, some phenomena should be taken into

account, like for instance the drift or the fact that the free surface is

not plane.

If the wave is a small amplitude wave, these phenomena are

negligible, and also their consequences on the wave action.

But when the wave steepness becomes important, say greater than

half its maximum theoretical value (see figure on page 210), the

wave should be modeled by a non-linear theory in order to introduce

non-linear effects in the wave action.

Here, we consider the second order wave action for the case of

slender bodies, i.e. the action that is theoretically in accordance with

the Stokes' second order wave theory. 219

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Lighthill (1979) has proposed a correction to the Morison’s formula,

to take into account the second order terms; the results are given in

the case of deep waters, for a vertical circular cylinder placed on the

bottom surface and crossing the free surface z=d (C is the cylinder

cross section contour line, b is the cylinder’s radius and θ is the

polar angle in a cylindrical frame centered on the cylinder’s axis):

F = F1 + F2 + F3 + F4 + F5 .

In the above formula, it is:

∂ ϕ1

F1 = − ρ ∫ n ds = 2 π ρ g a b 2 cos ωt .

∂Ω ∂ t

This term is exactly the inertial term in the Morison’s equation for a

vertical cylinder, with CM=2 (this force is due to the unsteadiness of

the linear wave motion).

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The second term is the drag force acting on the whole cylinder.

F2 = 1 CD ρ g a2 D sinωt sinωt .

4

The third term is:

π 0,28

F3 = − ρ ∫ w(∇ϕ1 )2ds = ρ g a 2 b 4 k 3 16 log − 3 sin 2ωt .

z =d 2 kb

This term is due to the quadratic term of the velocity potential in a

second order Stokes-like potential decomposition.

1 π

F4 = ρ ∫ (∇ϕ1 )2 cos θ ds = ρ g a 2 b 2 k sin 2ωt .

2 S 4

This term is due to the kinetic pressure, relative to the only linear

potential.

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Finally, the last term is:

2

ρ ∂ ϕ1

F5 = ∫

2g ∂ t

C

cos θ dl = 4F4 .

This term is present only if the cylinder cross the free surface and it

is due to the fact that the boundary condition is written on the actual

surface, and not on z=d, with the technique seen in the Stokes'

second order theory.

The next figure shows the case of a cylinder with D= 1m subjected

to waves with H= 20m and L= 200m.

The terms of the Lighthill’s correction are small compared to those of

the (linear) formula of Morison.

Actually, as already said, the importance of these terms increases

with the steepness of the wave (the wave considered in the example

is almost the steepest possible wave): it is sufficient to consider the

ratio between F4 and F1 to appreciate this circumstance:

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F4 π π2 H

= k a sin ωt = sin ωt .

F1 4 4 L

If one remembers that in case of deep waters the maximum

steepness of a wave is 1/7 (as tanh kd→1), then F4 is at most the

35% of F1; in such a case, F5 can be greater than F1.

tons tons

10 F5

F2

F1+F2

10 F4 F1

F3+ F4+F5

100 F3

Ftotal

sec sec

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In the case of a large body, this affects the wave motion (the

phenomenon of wave diffraction).

Commonly, it is considered that for D/L>1/5 the wave diffraction

effects cannot be neglected.

So, the solution obtained for an undisturbed wave flow must now be

modified to account for this effect: a wave diffraction theory is

necessary to this purpose.

In addition, we have seen that whenever the diffraction theory is of

concern, the mathematical model is that of a potential flow: in fact, in

the worst case, when D/L=1/5, it is, for the steepest possible wave,

KCmax≅ 2.25, i.e. KC<4: below this value of KC, it is commonly

accepted that the wave diffracted flow is a potential flow.

Hence, the problem is now the following one: to find a suitable

representation of the wave diffracted flow by a velocity potential

function ϕ: it is a typical boundary value problem that can have, in

some cases, an analytical, and even a closed form, solution.

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Before stating the diffraction problem and looking for some classical

solutions, we must remark two points.

The first one, is the fact that the drag force disappears completely: in

fact, it is linked to the wake separation, that does not happen in a

potential flow scheme.

The second one is the fact that the diffraction theory is not unique,

just like the wave theories.

Basically, the wave diffraction theory depends upon the wave theory

used to describe the undisturbed flow.

Usually, this is the Airy’s theory or the Stokes' second order theory.

Hence, we have a first order diffraction theory if the Airy’s theory is

used, and a second order diffraction theory if the Stokes' second

order wave theory is used.

The first case is that of small amplitude waves, the second one that

of steepest waves (H/L>0.5 (H/L)max≅ 0.07, see figure on page 210).

Of course, different diffractions theories can be used, according to

the wave theory used, but usually this is not done.

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In this section, we consider the linear diffraction theory (small

amplitude waves).

The undisturbed wave motion is then described by the Airy’s theory.

We use the same scheme used for the description of the

undisturbed waves, shown in the figure. The body is fixed.

The case of a diffracted train of waves is governed by the same

equations on the field, at the bottom and free surface (namely, the

linearised free surface conditions are used).

In addition, a condition is needed on the surface of the body.

As the fluid is modeled as a η

ideal, i.e. inviscid, this

condition is the same as

that at the bottom surface, L

d ∂Ω

i.e. the kinematical condition Ω

imposing the component of z n

the velocity normal to the x

body surface to be null. 0

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Finally, the following Neumann problem must be solved:

∆ϕ = 0 in Ω ,

∂ϕ

=0 for z = 0,

∂ z

∂ϕ

=0 at ∂Ω ,

∂n

∂ 2ϕ ∂ϕ

+g =0 for z = d .

∂t 2

∂ z

1 ∂ϕ

η ( x, t ) = − .

g ∂ t z =d

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The presence of the body is accounted for by the body’s surface

condition.

The essential point is the fact that all the equations are linear:

hence, the superposition of flows is possible.

The velocity potential ϕ is then split into two parts:

ϕ = ϕw + ϕs ;

ϕw: undisturbed wave potential;

ϕs: scattered wave potential.

different flows: an undisturbed flow, i.e. the flow that one would have

in the absence of the body, and a scattered flow, i.e. a flow of waves

emanating from and outward the body.

For what concerns ϕw, it must describe the undisturbed flow in the

framework of the linear theory, i.e. ϕw is just the Airy’s solution.

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As ϕw is harmonic and respects the bottom and free surface

conditions, also ϕs must respect these two conditions:

∆ϕs = 0 in Ω ,

∂ϕs

=0 for z = 0,

∂z

∂ 2ϕs ∂ϕ

+ g s = 0 for z = d.

∂t 2

∂z

In addition, ϕs must respect a condition at the body’s surface such

that the global potential ϕ respect the kinematical condition at that

surface; hence, it must be

∂ϕs ∂ϕ

=− w at ∂Ω .

∂n ∂n

This relation gives the dependence of ϕs on ϕw.

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To determine ϕs another condition is needed, that must state the

behaviour of the scattered waves far from the body (i.e. at an infinite

distance from it).

This condition is not needed for ϕw as the undisturbed flow is

intended to be the same everywhere.

The condition the precise the behaviour of the scattered waves far

from the body is known as the Sommerfeld radiation condition: it

states that the scattered waves departs from the body and that they

decrease to extinguish at infinity.

Physically, this means that the body produces a localised

perturbation, perturbation that decreases in intensity with the

distance r from the body.

It can be shown that, in complex form, the Sommerfeld condition is:

∂ϕ

lim r s − i k ϕ s = 0.

r →∞

∂r

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The problem being linear, the wave profile is obtained as the sum of

the wave profiles corresponding to the two flows, the undisturbed

and the scattered one:

η = ηw + ηs .

Each one of the two components is computed with the relation seen

above for η, applied to the corresponding potential.

Once the velocity potential known, the wave action F is computed by

the relation:

F = −∫ p n ds.

∂Ω

the hydrostatic term is not considered (Archimedes' force) as it does

not give a dynamical action and, coherently with a linear theory,

neglecting the quadratic velocity term (kinetic pressure) we get, see

equation on page 149 (the space constants have been included in

the potential):

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∂ϕ

p = −ρ .

∂t

Integrating the pressure over the immersed body surface, we get the

dynamical wave action on the body:

∂ϕ

F=∫ ρ n ds.

∂Ω ∂t

This is the Froude-Krylov force, already found, see page 160 (some

authors reserve this name only to the case where the potential is

evaluated on the cylinder’s axis, i.e. to the inertial term of the

Morison’s equation); once again, it is worth noting that it is due only

to the transient pressure, i.e. to the unsteadiness of the motion.

So, in the theoretical framework of the linear diffraction theory, the

whole wave action on a fixed body is entirely due to the transient

pressure, hence to the fact that the flow is not steady.

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The problem is now to find the scattered potential ϕs; in the case of

a vertical cylinder, the one of concern in offshore engineering, this

can be done analytically.

The first solution obtained in the framework of the linear diffraction

theory concerns a vertical circular cylinder of radius b placed on the

bottom surface and crossing the free surface (see the figure): it is

the solution of Mc Camy and Fuchs (1954).

As the problem has a cylindrical symmetry, it is worth to use the

cylindrical coordinates.

2b

a η

L ∂Ω

d

Ω n

z

x

0

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With these coordinates, if the subscript h reads w for the

undisturbed flow and s for the scattered one, the equations are:

∂ 2ϕ h 1 ∂ϕh 1 ∂ 2ϕ h ∂ 2ϕ h

∆ϕ h = + + + = 0 in Ω ;

∂ r 2 r ∂ r r 2 ∂ θ 2 ∂ z2

∂ϕs ∂ϕ

= − w for r=b;

∂r ∂r

∂ϕh

= 0 for z = 0;

∂ z

∂ 2ϕ h ∂ϕ

+ g h = 0 for z=d;

∂t 2

∂ z

∂ϕ

lim r s − i k ϕ s = 0.

r →∞

∂ r

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The potential ϕw is already known, it is the solution of Airy, but it is

worth to have an expression of ϕw suitable for cylindrical

coordinates.

So, we write ϕw in the complex form

g a cosh k z i ( k r cosθ −ω t )

ϕw = Re − e .

ω cosh k d

This equation can be rewritten using the identity

∞

e i k r cos θ = ∑ ε n i n Jn (kr ) cos nθ ; Jn n=0

n =0

n=1

n=2

εn: Neumann’s index; εn = 1 for n=0, n=3 n=4

n=5

εn = 2 for n≥1;

Jn(kr): Bessel’s function of the first type,

order n and argument kr; it satisfies the

Bessel’s equation

x 2 y ′′ + xy ′ + ( x 2 − n 2 )y = 0. kr

paolo.vannucci@meca.uvsq.fr

So we get:

g a cosh k z ∞

ϕw = Re − ∑ ε n i n Jn (kr ) cos nθ e −iωt .

ω cosh k d n =0

similar way: we pose

g a cosh k z

ϕ s = Re − φ (r ,θ ) e −i ω t .

ω cosh k d

In this way, the boundary conditions at the bottom and free surfaces

are automatically satisfied.

The function φ(r,θ) is expressed by a Fourier series of Hankel’s

functions:

∞

φ (r ,θ ) = ∑ ε n i n an Hn (kr ) cos nθ ;

n =0

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Hn(kr) is the Hankel’s function of the first n=0 n=1 n=2 n=3 n=4

Yn n=5

type, order n and argument kr:

Hn = Jn + i Yn ;

type, order n and argument kr; also Yn

satisfies the Bessel’s equation.

In the figures: the functions Yn and Hn for

n=0,…,5. kr

(i.e. the function is harmonic), independently on the series

coefficients, thanks to the properties of the derivatives of Hn.

In addition the function Hn admit, for r→∞, the asymptotic

representation

2 n +1

2 i (k r − π)

Hn (kr ) ≈ e 4 ∀n.

πkr

Hence, the Sommerfeld irradiation condition is also satisfied.

237

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The coefficients an are determined by imposing the last condition

that is still to be statisfied: the kinematical condition at the cylinder’s

surface; with some algebraic simple manipulations we get:

J′n (kb)

an = − .

H′n (kb)

The prime indicates the derivative with respect to the argument, kr.

To resume, Mc Camy and Fuchs have obtained a representation of

the scattered potential using the classical techniques of variable

separation, series representation and using some special functions

automatically satisfying all the conditions but that on the body’s

surface: this last has given the coefficients of the series.

Finally, the total potential is

∞

g a cosh k z J′ (kb)

ϕ = Re −

ω cosh k d

∑ ε n i n Jn (kr ) − Hn′ (kb) Hn (kr ) cos nθ e −i ω t .

n =0 n

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The Mc Camy and Fuchs solution

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The wave profile can now be easily determined:

∞

J′n (kb )

η = −a Re ∑ ε n i n +1 Jn (kr ) − Hn ( kr ) cos nθ e −i ω t .

n =0 H′n (kb )

In the figure, the diffracted wave profile (b= 20m, a=10 m, L=200 m,

d=500 m; 10 terms in the series; radius of the plotting: 20 kb).

239

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Finally, being n=(cosθ, sinθ, 0) the wave action on the cylinder (the

Froude-Krylov force) is easy to be calculated and we obtain:

2π J′ (kb )

F= ρ g a b tanh kd Re − J1( kb ) − 1 H1( kb ) e −i ω t .

k ′

H1(kb )

J′n (kb) 2i

Jn (kb ) − Hn (kb) = ,

H′n (kb ) π k b H′n (kb)

gives

4ρga i e− i ω t

F= tanh kd Re .

k2 H1′ (kb )

Then, as for real positive arguments (as in this case kr) the Bessel’s

functions of the first and second order are real valued and as

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The Mc Camy and Fuchs solution

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1 J ′ − i Y1′

= 1 ,

H1′ J1′ 2 + Y1′2

4ρga tanh kd

FMCF = cos (ω t − δ ) .

2

k J1′2 (kb ) + Y1′2 ( kb )

Y1′ (kb)

δ = − arctan

.

J1′ (kb)

The force F depends linearly upon a and it can be shown that it

tends to the Morison’s inertial term when b→0.

It is worth to give a dimensionless expression to F; to do this, we

introduce the conventional quantity

B = π ρ g a b 2.

241

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B is the Archimedes' force acting upon the cylinder for a water

height equal to the wave amplitude a; hence, B is a force

characteristic of the problem, both for the cylinder and the wave.

In this way, we introduce the dimensionless value of F as the ratio

FMCF 4 tanh λ

FMCF = = cos(ω t − δ );

B π µ2 J1′ 2 + Y1′ 2

λ=kd, µ=kb and the Bessel’s function are intended to be evaluated for

the value µ of the argument.

In a similar way one can compute the overturning moment

∂ϕ 4 ρ g a 1 + kd sinhkd − coshkd cos(ω t − δ )

MMCF = ρ ∫ ( p − o) ∧ n ds = .

∂Ω ∂t k3 coshkd J1′2 (kb) + Y1′2 (kb)

Again, we introduce the dimensionless overturning moment:

M MCF = = cos(ωt − δ ).

bB πµ 3 cosh λ J1′ + Y1′2

2

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In the following figures, the functions F (λ, µ ) and M (λ, µ ) are shown.

It is apparent that the force depends on λ only for small values of λ,

while the moment, as a consequence of this, is almost linearly

dependent upon λ.

A result a little bit surprising: the larger the cylinder, the smaller the

force! The largest structures do not experience the highest forces.

F

λ

λ

µ µ

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Let us compare now the Morison’s and the Mc Camy and Fuchs

forces.

To do this, we first calculate the whole action on the cylinder: by

integrating the unit length action over the cylinder’s length we get

FM = CM π ρ g a b 2 tanh kd cos ωt +

1 cosh kd sinh kd + kd

+ CD ρ g a 2 D sin ωt sin ωt .

2 cosh kd sinh kd

In the case of deep waters, and assuming CM=2, we find again the

terms F1 and F2 of the Lighthill correction to the Morison’s equation.

We introduce now the ratio χ between the maximum of the

Morison’s force and maximum of the Mc Camy and Fuchs formula.

For the sake of simplicity, the maximum of the Morison’s force is

computed as the sum of the inertial and drag terms; the real

maximum of Fm is slightly smaller than this value.

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With the above expressions, we obtain:

cosh λ sinh λ + λ

CM π µ tanh λ + CDα

µ cosh λ sinh λ ;

χ=

4 tanh λ

J1′ 2 ( µ ) + Y1′ 2 ( µ )

approximated by the simpler

µ

χ= (CM π µ + CDα ) J1′2 ( µ ) + Y1′2 ( µ );

4

for CM=2 and CD=0.5, a=10 m, L=200m, and then for the case of

λ=10.

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separation range

χ

inertial range

diffraction range

FM /FMCF

λ FIN /FMCF

FD /FMCF

µ

D/L=0.1

D/L=0.2

µ

The first figure shows that χ practically does not depend upon λ.

The second figure, shows that in the separation range the Mc Camy

and Fuchs solution underestimate the force.

Physically, this is because it does not consider drag, and

mathematically, because the drag is a linear function of µ while the

Mc Camy and Fuchs force (as well as the inertial force) is quadratic.

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The Mc Camy and Fuchs solution

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In the separation range, the Morison’s force becomes greater than

the Mc Camy and Fuchs force.

This is essentially due to the inertial force in the Morison’s equation,

how the two ratios FIN/FMCF and FD/FMCF, also plotted, show.

This is due to the fact that in the Morison’s equation, diffraction is

not considered and the pressure field is reduced at the only

pressure in correspondence of the cylinder axis.

When the diameter of the cylinder is large in comparison with the

wave length, this brings to a large overestimation, as the pressure

field, caused by the unsteadiness, i.e. by the oscillatory movement

of the particles, changes considerably on the cylinder’s surface.

So, this shows clearly the need to use a diffraction theory for about

D/L>0.2, i.e. for, say, µ>0.6.

In the inertial range, the two forces are practically equivalent;

however, unlike the case of the Morison’s equation, the diffraction

theory can give account, also in this case, for the wave

enhancement near the cylinder, by the function η seen above.

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Finally, the next two figures show the time variation, during the wave

period, of FM and FMCF, in the separation and diffraction range,

where

F α cosh λ sinh λ + λ

FM = M = CM tanh λ cos ωt + CD sin ωt sin ωt .

B µ cosh λ sinh λ

In both the cases, it is α=π/10, λ=π, CM=2 and CD=0.5.

FM FMCF FM

FMCF

µ=π/100 µ=3π/10

t t

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The remarks made before are confirmed by these results; in

addition, the phase angle increases with µ, and also this effect is

due to the fact that in the case of large cylinders, the pressure fields

vary so much along the cylinder’s surface that the time variation of

the force is affected too.

In conclusion, the Mc Camy and Fuchs solution must be used for

structures having values of µ greater than, say, 0.6.

This must be done to not overestimate the wave action, what

happens if the Morison’s equation is used in this range.

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The Garrett solution concerns the case of a fixed floating vertical

cylinder, i.e. not touching the bottom surface.

This is of interest in some cases: SPARs, TLPs and so on.

Garrett (1971) has given the solution for the case of a cylinder and

also for that of a torus, with rectangular section, of interest for

floating harbours; here, we are concerned only with the first case.

The reference scheme is sketched in the figure; the immersion p

and the clearance h are put in a dimensionless form as:

ν = kh; τ = kp. 2b

a η

The solution technique ∂ΩL

is the same as in the nL p

previous case: the L ∂ΩB

potential is still d nB

Ω1 h

expressed as the sum Ω2 z

of an undisturbed and a

scattered potential. x

0

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The Garrett solution

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In particular, Garrett posed

∞

ϕ = ϕw + ϕs = Re− i a ω ∑ ε m i m ψ m (r , z ) cos mθ e −iωt .

m=0

determined in such a way to satisfy the conditions on the field, at the

boundaries and at infinity (Sommerfeld condition).

The problem is much involved than the case of Mc Camy and

Fuchs.

First of all, there is a flow underneath the cylinder; to take this into

account, and to facilitate the search of suitable eigen-functions,

Garrett has subdivided the whole region Ω into two parts:

Ω1 : r < b, 0 ≤ z ≤ h;

Ω 2 : r ≥ b, 0 ≤ z ≤ d .

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In each one of the two regions, the eigen-functions are determined

in such a way they separately respect the conditions in their

respective region.

Some continuity conditions must now be imposed at the frontier

between Ω1 and Ω2: these conditions must specify the continuity of

the pressure field and of the flow across the frontier.

Mathematically, these conditions are expressed imposing that the

potential must be continuous and that it must have normal derivative

continuous at the frontier between Ω1 and Ω2, i.e. for r=b, 0<z<h.

The mathematical procedure used by Garrett, basically a method

using a “cocktail” of special functions, is very difficult and absolutely

“a matter of specialists”, so we will not give all its details here.

It is of some importance, however, to recall that, unlike the case of

the Mc Camy and Fuchs solution, the Garrett solution, though

analytical, is not in closed form, in the sense that the potential is

expressed under the form of a series of special functions.

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The Garrett solution

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In addition, and more important, as it constitutes a serious obstacle

to the use of the Garrett solution, the coefficients of the series are

found as solution of two linear equation systems, whose size is

equal to the order of truncature of the series representing ϕ.

Once the potential known, the procedure is still the same: the wave

profile and the wave force on the cylinder (actually, again the

Froude-Krylov force), are computed by the same formulae used

previously (see pages 227 and 232).

The only difference with the case of Mc Camy and Fuchs is the fact

that now the cylinder, having a bottom surface in contact with the

water, is acted upon also by a vertical dynamical force Z, besides

the horizontal one, X.

Garrett has shown that the general expression of the two forces is:

X = Re − 2 π i ω 2 ρ a b ∫ ψ 1(b, z ) dz e −i ω t e1;

d

h

Z = Re 2 π ω 2 ρ a ∫ ψ 0 (r , h ) r dr e −iω t e 3 .

b

0

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To give these forces in dimensionless form, still using the force B, it

can be shown that one gets:

−1 −

1

X 2 sinh λ − sinhν sinh λˆ − sinhνˆ −iω t

= Re − 2 iλ tanh λ Nk F1k + ∑ Nq F1q

2

e ;

B µ q

µˆ

∞

Z 1 (−1)n F0n −iω t

= Re2λ tanh λ F00 + 2 ∑ e ;

B 2 2G

n =1 n π µ 0n

ν

λˆ = qd , µˆ = qb, νˆ = qh;

the parameters q are the real positive solutions of the equation

ω 2 + q g tan qd = 0.

254

127

The Garrett solution

paolo.vannucci@meca.uvsq.fr

The different coefficients Nk, Nq, F1k, F1q, F00, F0n and G0n that

appears in the above equations are to be found by the resolution of

the two systems of linear equations introduced above.

It can be checked that if h→ 0, the horizontal force tends to the Mc

Camy and Fuchs force, while the vertical force tends to zero.

Garrett has computed also the overturning moments of the

horizontal and vertical force about the frame origin o.

Also in this case, the moment of the vertical force tends to zero for

h→ 0, while that of the horizontal force tends to the same value of

the Mc Camy and Fuchs solution.

difficult to be handled, mainly in a design phase, due to the

necessary solution of two linear equation systems.

255

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Garrett used a Galerkin-type approach to find the unknown

coefficients; in this way, he obtained a unique linear system to be

solved.

Vannucci (1994) has shown that this linear system has some

algebraic properties, by which he succeeded in obtaining a

simplification of the Garrett’s solution.

In fact, the system of concern here has the coefficients on the

diagonal of the matrix associated to the system which are, in

modulus, greater than the terms located elsewhere.

So, an approximation can be obtained if the coefficients out of the

diagonal are put to zero: in this way, the equations of the system

become uncoupled and, more important in this case, only the first

one has a solution different from zero.

The consequence of this is that all the coefficients with index q in the

expression of X/B are null, the only different from zero being those

with index k.

The expression of the wave action X/B is greatly simplified:

256

128

The simplified Garrett solution

paolo.vannucci@meca.uvsq.fr

−

1

X sinh λ − sinhν −iω t

= Re − 2 iλ tanh λ Nk F1k

2 e .

B µ

In addition, the equation giving the coefficients q does not need to

be solved anymore.

By some, rather involved, algebraic manipulations, it can be shown

that

X 4 sinh λ − sinh ν − e −i ω t

= Re .

B π µ2 cosh λ σ 1H1 − H1′

general equation:

nπ µ

I′m

4π sinh 2 ν ∞ n ν .

σ m (λ, µ,ν ) = ∑ n

ε

2λ + sinh 2λ ν 2 n =0 2 2 2 nπ µ

1 + π Im ν

n

ν 2

257

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In the above expressions H1 is the Hankel’s function of the first type

and first order and computed for the value µ of the argument; the

function Im is the modified Bessel’s function of order m, defined by

Im (ζ ) = i −m Jm (i ζ ).

expression

X 4 sinh λ − sinh ν 1

= cos (ω t − δ x );

B π µ2 cosh λ α +α2

2

1 2

α 2 (λ, µ,ν ) = σ 1(λ, µ,ν )Y1(µ ) − Y1′ (µ );

α2

δ x = − arctan .

α1

The function σ1 needs still the computation of a series.

258

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The simplified Garrett solution

paolo.vannucci@meca.uvsq.fr

One can obtain a simpler form of the force thanks to the Mc Camy

and Fuchs solution.

In fact, it is easy to compute the force acting, in that case, between

z=p and z=d:

F 4 sinh λ − sinh ν 1

= cos (ω t − δ ).

B π µ2 cosh λ J1′2 + Y1′2

Hence, one can write the horizontal force acting upon a truncated

cylinder, of immersion p, as

= cos (ω t − δ x ).

B π µ2 cosh λ J1′2 + Y1′2

In other words, the value of the force is, to within a corrective

coefficient χx, the same as that given by the Mc Camy and Fuchs

formula (but the phase angle remains different).

259

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Nevertheless, the last formula should not be of great immportance

(in fact basically nothing has changed) if a remark concerning the

corrective coefficient is not done.

In fact, χx varies very little in the field of interest for offshore

engineering, where it can be considered as a constant: χx≅0.95, see

the following figure.

The value of χx is practically constant with µ and is always less than

one.

1

χx 0.5

0.9 0.6

1 0.7

0.8

χx 2 0.8

0.8

1.5 0.7

0.6 υ/λ=0.9 µ=0.5

1 0.6

ν/λ=0.8 µ

5

0.5 0.5

10

λ 15 0 5 10 15 λ 20

20

260

130

The simplified Garrett solution

paolo.vannucci@meca.uvsq.fr

This means that the force acting upon a truncated cylinder is always

less than that computed for an equivalent immersion of a cylinder

touching the sea bottom.

The difference between these two forces is due to the effects on the

cylinder’s bottom.

These effects are more important in shallow waters (small λ) , and,

for flat cylinders (large ν).

This result is in accordance with the fact that the wave flow is

stronger near the surface, while it decreases exponentially with the

depth. -1.4

0.5

0.6

The figure aside shows the δ

x

0.7

0.8

variation of the phase angle δx. -1.45

ν/λ =0.9

-1.5

µ=0.5

-1.55

0 5 10 15 λ 20

261

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The expression of the horizontal force can still be simplified, in some

cases, namely for µ<1.

In such cases, the following approximations of the Bessel’s functions

can be used

1 2

J1′ (µ ) ≅ , Y1′ (µ ) ≅ .

2 π µ2

By these approximations, one gets easily the following expression of

X/B:

X 8χ x sinh λ − sinh ν

= cos(ωt − δ x ).

B 16 + π µ2 4 cosh λ

The next figures show the comparison between the value of X/B

computed with the formula on page 258 for ten terms in the series,

the upper graphics, and that computed with the last approximation

hereon, the lower graphics, for χx=0.95.

262

131

The simplified Garrett solution

paolo.vannucci@meca.uvsq.fr

2

X/B ν/λ=0

1.5

0.3

2 λ=5µ

X/B 2 1

1

1.5 0.6

0 0.5

1

5 ν/λ=0.8 µ 0.9

0.5 0

10

0 2 4 6 8 10

λ 15 µ

20 a) b)

2

X/B ν/λ=0

1.5

0.3

2

0.6 λ=5µ

X/B 2 1

1

1.5

0 0.5

1 0.9

µ

5 ν/λ=0.8 0.5 0

10 0 2 4 6 8 10

15 µ

λ

c) d) 263

20

paolo.vannucci@meca.uvsq.fr

It can be noticed that the last approximation remains valid also for

µ>1, but overestimates the value of the force for large values of ν ; in

these cases, a smaller value of χx should be more appropriate, in

accordance with the remarks done above.

What has been done for the horizontal force can be done also for

the vertical one. Following the same steps one gets

Z 4 χ z (λ, µ,ν ) ξ (µ,ν ) sinh ν

= cos (ω t − δ z ).

B π µν J′02 + Y0′2 cosh λ

J′02 (µ ) + Y0′2 (µ )

χ z (λ, µ,ν ) = ;

β12 (λ, µ,ν ) + β 22 (λ, µ,ν )

β1(λ, µ,ν ) = σ 0 (λ, µ,ν )J0 (µ ) − J′0 (µ );

β 2 (λ, µ,ν ) = σ 0 (λ, µ,ν )Y0 (µ ) − Y0′ (µ );

β1

δ z = arctan .

β2

264

132

The simplified Garrett solution

paolo.vannucci@meca.uvsq.fr

The function ξ is

n π µ

∞ I1

1 2ν 1 ν .

ξ (µ,ν ) = + ∑

2 π µ n =1 n π n π µ

2 2

n1 + I0

2 ν

ν

cases of interest in offshore engineering, it can be taken equal to 1.

ν/λ=0

1χ

z 0.3

0.995

0.6

0.99

1 0.985

0.99 χz 2 0.98

1.5 0.975 0.9

0.98

µ 0.965

5

0.5

10 0 5 10 15 20

15 λ

λ

20 a) b)

265

paolo.vannucci@meca.uvsq.fr

Still repeating what done for X/B, one can obtain a simpler formula

for the vertical force if the following approximations of the Bessel’s

functions, valid for µ<1, and of the function ξ are used:

µ 2

J′0 (µ ) ≅ , Y0′ (µ ) ≅ − ;

2 πµ

ξ (µ,ν ) ≅

1

2

(

ν + e −ν . )

The above approximation for the function ξ assumes the

independence of ξ on µ; actually, the dependence of ξ on µ is

almost linear but rather weak, and it has been neglected in the

above approximation.

In this way, the following simple formula for the vertical force is

easily found

Z 4χ z sinh ν ν + e −ν

= .

B 16 + π 2 µ 4 cosh λ ν

266

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The simplified Garrett solution

paolo.vannucci@meca.uvsq.fr

1

Z/B

ν/λ=0.8 0.8

1 0.6 λ=5µ

Z/B 2

0.5

1.5 0.4

0

1 0.2

µ ν/λ=0.9

5 0.3 0.6

0.5 0

10

0 2 4 6 8 µ 10

λ 15

20 a) b)

1

Z/B

ν/λ=0.8 0.8

1 0.6 λ=5µ

Z/B 2

0.5

1.5 0.4

0

1 0.2

ν/λ=0.9

5 µ 0.3 0.6

0.5 0

10

0 2 4 6 8 µ 10

15

λ

20 c) d)

267

paolo.vannucci@meca.uvsq.fr

The previous figures show the comparison between the value of Z/B

computed with the formula on page 264 for ten terms in the series,

the upper graphics, and that computed with the last approximation

hereon, the lower graphics, for χz=0.95.

Finally, by the same procedures, one can obtain also the

approximated expressions of the moments about the origin o of the

overturning moments due to the vertical and horizontal force,

respectively M1 and M2. In dimensionless form they are:

M1 2 µ χ x ν + e −ν sinh ν

= ;

bB 16 + π 2 µ 4 ν cosh λ

= .

bB µ 16 + π 2 µ 4 cosh λ

268

134

The simplified Garrett solution

paolo.vannucci@meca.uvsq.fr

The following figures show the variation of the overturning moments

and of their sum M (the two moments are in phase with the

horizontal force), traced for χx=0.95.

d)

ν/λ=0.8 ν/λ=0.8

M1/bB M/bB

0.3 2 100

0.2 2

0.1 1.5 50 1.5

0

1 0

5 1

µ 5

10 0.5 µ

10 0.5

λ 15

b) 15

20 λ

f) 20

M/bB

ν/λ=0.8 6 ν/λ =0,0.3

5

M2/bB 0.6 λ=5µ

100 2 4

50 1.5 3

0

1 2

5 µ 0.9

10 0.5 1

15 0

λ

20 0 2 4 6 8 10

d) µ 269

paolo.vannucci@meca.uvsq.fr

All the previous solutions concern a vertical cylinder; but, in offshore

platforms, there are also cylinders which are not vertical.

In the case of horizontal cylinders perpendicular to the wave

propagation, Ogilvie (1962) has given an analytical solution for the

bi-dimensional problem (infinite cylinder).

The solution is very complicate, but the same author proposes a

simplified relation for the unit-length action in the case where the

radius or the immersion of the cylinder, or both is little compared to

the wave length, and this is often the case in offshore engineering.

The formula of the force per

a 2b

unit length of the cylinder is η

p

f = 2 π ρ g k a b 2 e −k ( p −b ) . L

d

Ω z

x

0

270

135

The Ogilvie solution

paolo.vannucci@meca.uvsq.fr

One can obtain a dimensionless form of the Ogilvie force dividing by

B/L:

fL

= 4 π e µ −τ .

B

τ =kp.

fL/ B

The variation of fL/B with µ

and τ is in the figure.

µ

τ

271

paolo.vannucci@meca.uvsq.fr

The technique used in the diffraction theory to account for non-linear

forces, is just the same used for the Stokes' wave theories: the

velocity potential and the wave profile are decomposed in two parts,

a linear and a quadratic one, and this for both the undisturbed and

the scattered wave fields:

ϕ = ε ϕ1 + ε 2ϕ 2 = ε (ϕ1w + ϕ1s ) + ε 2 (ϕ 2w + ϕ 2s );

η = ε η1 + ε 2 η 2 = ε (η1w +η1s ) + ε 2 (η 2w +η 2s ).

As usual, the linear and the quadratic potentials must be harmonic

and satisfy the conditions at the bottom surface, on the body’s

surface and at the free surface:

∆ϕ iw = ∆ϕ is = 0;

∂ϕiw ∂ϕis

= = 0; for z = 0; i = 1,2

∂z ∂z

∂ ϕ is ∂ ϕ iw

=− on ∂Ω ;

∂n ∂n 272

136

Second order wave action on large bodies

paolo.vannucci@meca.uvsq.fr

∂ 2ϕ1j ∂ϕ1j

+g = 0, for z = d ;

∂ t2 ∂ z j=s or w

∂ 2ϕ 2 j ∂ϕ2 j ∂ (∇ϕ1 j )2 2

∂ ∂ ϕ1j ∂ϕ1j

+g =− − η1 j ( +g ), for z = d .

∂ t2 ∂z ∂t ∂z ∂ t 2 ∂ z

irradiation (the Sommerfeld condition for ϕ1w, an equivalent condition

for ϕ2w).

The components of the wave profile are then calculated as usual:

1 ∂ϕ1j

η1j = − ;

g ∂t

j=s or w

1 1 2 ∂ 2ϕ1j ∂ϕ2 j

η2 j =− (∇ϕ1 j ) + η1 j + .

g 2 ∂t ∂z ∂t

273

paolo.vannucci@meca.uvsq.fr

For the computation of the force, a decomposition in a linear and

quadratic part is also used:

F = ε F1 + ε 2 F2 .

It is easy to see that the linear term is still given by the Froude-

Krylov force:

∂ϕ1

ε F1 = ρ ∫ n ds.

s ∂t

For what concerns the quadratic term, it has been shown by Molin

(1979) that it can be put in the form

2

ρ ∂ ϕ1 ρ ∂ ϕ2

2

∫ (∇ϕ1 ) 2

2 ∫∂Ω

ε F2 = − n dl + n ds + ρ ∫ n ds.

2g ∂ t

C ∂Ω ∂t

time dependence, putting, as already done,

274

137

Second order wave action on large bodies

paolo.vannucci@meca.uvsq.fr

ϕ1 = Re φ1( x, y , z ) e − i ωt ,

[

ϕ 2 = Re φ2 ( x, y , z ) e − 2 i ωt , ]

then the following expression of F2 is readily obtained:

F2 = F2C + Re (F2T e − 2 i ωt ).

In the above expression, F2C is a constant force, the drift force, FD,

and it is easy to see that

ω 2ρ ρ

F2C = FD = FD1 + FD 2 = −

4g ∫C φ1φ 1n dl + 4 ∫∂Ω ∇φ1 ⋅ ∇φ 1n ds.

So, the drift force is exclusively due to the 2nd order condition on the

free surface and to the quadratic term of the kinetic pressure due to

the first order potential (the bar indicates the complex conjugate).

275

paolo.vannucci@meca.uvsq.fr

The value of the time dependent term of F2 is given by

ω2ρ ρ 2

∫C φ1 n dl − 4 ∫∂Ω (∇φ1) n ds + 2 i ω ρ ∫∂Ω φ2 n ds.

2

F2T = −

4g

Krylov force.

Hence, the second order diffraction theory gives as a general result,

the wave force as the superposition of three forces:

the first-order Froude-Krylov force, oscillating at frequency ω;

a second-order time-dependent force oscillating at frequency 2ω;

a second-order constant force, the drift force.

For compliant structures, the second-order forces are rather

important, though of second order, hence less in magnitude than the

Froude-Krylov force, for the structure response.

In fact, it is the drift force that gives the largest displacements of the

structure and it is the second-order oscillating force that can cause

some fatigue problems.

276

138

Second order wave action on large bodies

paolo.vannucci@meca.uvsq.fr

The above second order forces can be determined analytically for

the case of a cylinder, adapting the solutions of Mc Camy and Fuchs

and of Garrett.

Let us consider first the case of a cylinder placed on the bottom

surface, i.e. the case of Mc Camy and Fuchs.

Then, see page 239, it is

g a cosh k z ∞ J′ (kb)

ϕ1 = Re − ∑ ε n i n Jn (kr ) − n Hn (kr ) cos nθ e −i ω t .

ω cosh k d n =0 H′n (kb)

So, the complex conjugate can be easily computed and with some

algebraic passages one obtains:

ω2ρ 4 ρ g a 2b ∞

FD1 = −

4g ∫C

φ1φ 1n dl = −

π µ2

∑Ψ m (µ ) e1,

m =0

where

′ Ym

Jm ′ +1 − J m

′ +1Ym

′

Ψ m (µ ) = .

′2

(J m ′ 2 )(J m

+ Ym ′2+1 + Ym

′2+1)

277

paolo.vannucci@meca.uvsq.fr

The evaluation of FD2 needs first the calculation of ∇φ1:

∇φ1(b,θ, z) = − 0; − ∑ H′ ; π µ coshλ ∑ ;

ω π µ b coshλ n=0 n n=0 H′n

Some passages give then

ρ 2 ρ g a2b ∞ m(m + 1) 2λ 2λ

FD2 =

4 ∫ ∇φ1 ⋅ ∇φ1 n ds = π µ2

∑ Ψm (µ) 2 1+

sinh2λ

+ 1− e1.

sinh2λ

∂Ω m=0 µ

Finally,

2 ρ g a 2b 2λ ∞ m(m + 1)

FD = FD1 + FD 2 = 1+ ∑

π µ 2 sinh 2λ m =0

Ψ m ( µ )

2

− 1 e1.

µ

FD 2α 2λ ∞ m( m + 1)

= 1+ ∑ Ψ m ( µ ) − 1.

B π µ sinh 2λ m =0

2 3

µ

2

278

139

Second order wave action on large bodies

paolo.vannucci@meca.uvsq.fr

The drift force is proportional to the square of the wave amplitude a;

in the next figure, the variation of FD/B is plotted as function of λ and

µ, for α= π/10, i.e. for a wave steepness close to the highest

possible value. Hence, the drift force plotted in the figure is close to

the highest possible one.

The second plot is the ratio between the drift force and the

maximum first-order force, the Froude-Krylov force of the Mc Camy

and Fuchs solution, see page 241.

FD/|FMCF|

0.15

0.1

FD/B 0.1 2 2

0.05 0.05

1.5 1.5

0 0

1 1

µ µ

5 5

0.5 0.5

10 10

λ 15 λ 15

20 c) d) 20

279

paolo.vannucci@meca.uvsq.fr

It is apparent that the drift force is of an order of magnitude less than

the first-order force (proportional to a): the drift force is always less

than the first-order force, except for λ →0, i.e. in shallow waters.

This is systematic: all the second-order forces become important in

shallow waters.

The series involved in the formula of the drift force are quickly

convergent, in practice, three terms are sufficient (the plots have

been computed with six terms).

The overturning moment of the drift force can be computed following

the same steps as for FD:

MD = ∑ m

π µ 2 k m =0

Ψ ( µ )

µ 2 sinh 2λ

+

+ e 2.

sinh 2λ

280

140

Second order wave action on large bodies

paolo.vannucci@meca.uvsq.fr

In dimensionless form one gets:

∞ m( m + 1)(1 + 2λ2 + 2λ sinh 2λ − cosh 2λ )

MD α

= ∑

bB π 2 µ 4 m =0

Ψ m ( µ )

µ 2 sinh 2λ

+

+ .

sinh 2λ

The next figure shows the variation of MD/bB and of the ratio of MD

and the first-order overturning moment (MMCF).

MD/|MMCF|

MD/bB 2 0.15

2 2

0.1

1

1.5 0.05 1.5

0 0

1 1

5 µ 5

10

0.5 0.5 µ

10

λ 15

c) d) λ 15

20 20 281

paolo.vannucci@meca.uvsq.fr

The evaluation of the second-order time-depending force (equation

on page 276) is much more complicate.

First of all, one can observe that this force can be considered as

composed of two parts: the first one, F2T1, depending upon ϕ1 and

the second one, F2T2, depending upon ϕ2.

It is still possible to develop analytically the computation for the first

component, but the passages are rather complicate, so only the

results are reported hereafter (in dimensionless form):

F2T 1(t ) 2α

=− A 2 + B 2 cos (2 ω t − δ ),

B π 2µ 3

where

∞ ∞

A B B

A= ∑ (− 1)m Cm fm ; B = ∑ (− 1)m Cm fm ; δ = arctan A ;

m =0 m m =0 m

fm = + .

sinh 2λ µ2 sinh 2λ

′ Ym′ +1 + Ym′ J m

Am = J m ′ +1; Bm = J m

′ Jm ′2 + Ym′2 J m

′ +1 − Ym′ Ym′ +1; Cm = J m (

′2+1 + Ym′2+1 . )( )

282

141

Second order wave action on large bodies

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One can observe, once )

is of an order of

magnitude less than the

first-order force. 0.4

F2T1/B 0.3 2

In fact, just as the drift 0.2

1.5

force, its dimensionless 0.1

0

form depends upon α, 1

while the dimensional form 5

0.5

µ

10

depends upon a . 2

λ 15

The computation of the d)

20

second component of F2T

is much more involved, and can be done following a technique

proposed by Haskind (1957) and based upon a dual irradiated flow.

Unfortunately, even in the simpler cases, an analytical solution

cannot be obtained; however, it can be shown that this term

corresponds to the term F3 in the Lighthill correction, see page 221,

283

paolo.vannucci@meca.uvsq.fr

valid for small diameter cylinders; so, just like the term F3, the

second term of F2T is negligible, also compared to the other second-

order forces.

The case of the truncated cylinder is much more involved than the

previous one.

Vannucci (1994) ha proposed an expression for all the second order

forces acting upon a truncated cylinder, using the same simplifying

technique already used in the case of the first-order force.

The algebraic passages are very complicate, so here only the final

results are recalled.

The most important difference with respect to the previous case is

the existence, for the truncated cylinder, of vertical second order-

forces: a vertical drift and a vertical time-dependent second-order

force.

Actually, this is due to the fact that now the cylinder has a bottom

surface in contact with water.

284

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Second order wave action on large bodies

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The result for the horizontal drift force is:

∞

2 ρ g a 2b m(m + 1) 2λ − 2ν + sinh 2λ − sinh 2ν

FD = FD1 + FD 2 =

πµ 2 ∑ ζ m ( µ ) 2 sinh 2λ

+

m =0 µ

− 2λ + 2ν − sinh 2λ − sinh 2ν

+ e1,

sinh 2λ

M m N m +1 − N m M m +1

ζ m (λ, µ,ν ) = 2 2 2 2

,

(M m + Nm )(M m +1 + N m +1 )

′ (µ ),

285

paolo.vannucci@meca.uvsq.fr

B

=

B

+

B

= ∑

π 2 µ 3 m =0

ζ m ( µ )

2 sinh 2λ

+

µ

− 2λ + 2ν + sinh 2λ − sinh 2ν

+ .

sinh 2λ

The following figure is the analogous of that on page 279, plotted for

α= π/10 and ν = 0.8.

) )

FD/|FMCF|

FD/B

0.06 2 0.15 2

0.04 0.1

0.02 1.5 0.05 1.5

0 0

1 1

5 µ 5 µ

0.5 0.5

10 10

λ 15 λ 15

20 c) d) 20

286

143

Second order wave action on large bodies

paolo.vannucci@meca.uvsq.fr

The next figure shows the same graphics plotted for ν=0, i.e. for a

cylinder placed on the sea bottom.

Comparing this figure with the one on page 279, it is apparent that

the above formula matches almost perfectly the solution found,

without approximations, for the case of a cylinder placed on the sea

bottom; this shows the good quality of the approximation for the

case of the truncated cylinder.

FD/|FMCF|

0.15

0.1

FD/B 0.1 2 2

0.05 0.05

1.5 1.5

0 0

1 1

µ µ

5 5

0.5 0.5

10 10

λ 15 λ 15

20 c) d) 20

287

paolo.vannucci@meca.uvsq.fr

The vertical drift force is given by:

FDV = −

4 ρ g a 2d sinh 2 ν ∞

πλµ ν 2 2 sinh 2λ ∑

M 2

εm

+ N

b

2 ∫0

2

r Am 2

+ Bm dr e 3 ; ( )

m=0 m m

where

nπr

m −1 ′

Im

mr 2π ∞ n h ,

Am =

b b

+ ∑

h n =1 n 2π 2 n π b

1+ Im

ν2 h

n π r

m ∞ Im

m r n h .

B m = − + 2 ∑

r b n =1 n 2π 2 I n π b

1+

h

m

ν2

The above expression of the vertical drift shows that this force is

always directed downward.

288

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Second order wave action on large bodies

paolo.vannucci@meca.uvsq.fr

The next figure shows the vertical drift for the case α= π/10 and

ν = 0.8, along with its ratio to the highest first-order vertical force Z,

see page 264.

Also in this case it can be remarked the facts that the vertical drift is

less than the first-order vertical force and that its importance

increases in shallow waters.

FDV/|Z|

0 0

FDV/B 2 2

-0.02 -0.05

1.5 1.5

-0.04 -0.1

1 1

5 µ 5 µ

0.5 0.5

10 10

λ 15 λ 15

a) b)

20 20

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The computation of the moment of the horizontal drift force about

the point o= (0,0,0) gives (the vertical drift has null moment):

∞

MD α ζ m (µ )

=

2 4 ∑ 2

[m(m + 1)(2λ2 − 2ν 2 + 2λ sinh 2λ − 2ν sinh 2ν −

bB π µ m=0 µ sinh 2λ

The next figure is the analogous of that on page 281, for ν =0.8.

MD/|M|

MD/bB 2

2 0.1 2

1 0.05

1.5 1.5

0 0

1 1

5 µ 5 µ

0.5 0.5

10 10

λ 15 λ 15

20 c) d) 20

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Second order wave action on large bodies

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Finally, the second-order oscillating force acting upon a truncated

cylinder and due to the first order potential, F2T1, is

F2T 1(t ) 2 α 3 sinh 2λ − sinh 2ν − 2λ + 2ν

=− P12 + Q12 +

B 2 3 sinh 2 λ

π µ

sinh 2λ − sinh 2ν + 2λ − 2ν

+ P22 + Q22 cos (2 ω t − β ),

sinh 2λ

with

∞ ∞

P Q Q

P1 = ∑ (− 1)m Rm ; Q1 = ∑ (− 1)m Rm ; β = arctan 1 ;

P1

m =0 m m =0 m

∞ ∞

P Q

∑ (− 1)mm(m + 1) Rm ; Q2 = ∑ (− 1)m m(m + 1) Rm ;

)

P2 =

m =0 m m =0 m

Pm = M mNm +1 + Nm M m +1; Qm = M m Mm +1 − NmNm +1;

Rm = M m (

2 + N2 M2

m )(

2

m +1 + Nm +1 .

) 0.4

0.2

2

1.5

0

In the figure, the variation of F2T1/B as 1

10

0.5

µ

λ 15

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paolo.vannucci@meca.uvsq.fr

As in the previous case of the cylinder placed on the sea bottom,

also the second-order forces depending upon the quadratic potential

will be neglected here.

The vertical time-dependent second order force is given by the

relation

2

F2TV (t ) 4α 1 cosh 2ν − 1 3 ν 2 + π 2

=− U 2 + V 2 cos (2 ω t − βv ),

B π 2 µ 3 µ ν 2 sinh 2λ ν 2 + π 2

where

∞ ∞

U V V

U= ∑ (− 1)m m Wm ; V = ∑ (− 1)m m Wm ; βv = arctan ;

U

m =0 m m =0 m

2

Um = Mm 2

− Nm 2

; Vm = − 2 M m N m ; W m = M m 2

+ Nm . ( )2

The next figure shows is the analogous of that on page 290, i.e. the

variation of F2TV/B and its ratio to the highest value of the first-order

vertical force (α= π/10 and ν = 0.8).

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Second order wave action on large bodies

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F2TV/|Z|

F2TV/B 0 0

-0.01 2 2

-0.04

-0.02 1.5 1.5

-0.08

1 1

5 µ 5 µ

0.5 0.5

10 10

λ 15 λ 15

20 a) b) 20

Concerning this last force, the same remarks done for the vertical

drift can be done.

and we can resume as follows.

At the first order, there are only time-dependent forces, all of the

Froude-Krylov type, oscillating at the same frequency of the waves

and proportional to the wave amplitude.

At the second order, besides the same first-order forces, there are

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two other forces: a constant action, called the drift force, and a time-

dependent force oscillating at twice the wave frequency.

Both these two second-order forces, are of an order of magnitude

less than the first-order forces, and are proportional to the square of

the wave amplitude.

Though smaller in magnitude, the second-order forces can produce

important effects on structures, especially when a coupling between

these actions and the structural response is possible (for instance

due to resonance-like phenomena).

In particular, the time-dependent second-order force can be

important for fatigue, while the drift force is crucial for the

displacements of compliant structures, such as TLPs and SPARs.

Finally, for truncated cylinders the second-order forces are also

vertical; in particular, the vertical drift is always a downward force,

and this can affect the stiffness of a floating platform as it diminishes

the extra-buoyancy.

So, second-order forces are not, sometimes, forces of less

importance in offshore engineering! 294

147

Something about the case of multiple bodies

paolo.vannucci@meca.uvsq.fr

The simpler case is obviously that of a single vertical cylinder; but,

actually, this is the case only in a limited number of situations (e.g.

for SPARs).

The most part of times, an offshore structure is composed of an

array of cylinders: four large-diameter vertical columns for a TLP

and four horizontal pontoons, at least four legs for a traditional jacket

and several braces and so on.

Of course, the presence of multiple bodies produces interferences of

the wave action on the single bodies, so that the global action

results affected, i.e. it is not the sum of the actions on each body

computed when isolated.

So, it should be of great importance to dispose of a theory able to

predict the global action of waves on an array of cylinders, i.e. a

theory taking into account for the interaction among multiple bodies.

Unfortunately, general results exist only in a limited number of

cases, namely for arrays of large-diameter vertical cylinders, i.e. in

the framework of the diffraction theory.

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In particular, it does not exist a theory for the case of slender bodies,

but only experimental results, sometimes confusing and not clear.

Some indications are given in the norm ISO 13819-2 about the

coefficients to be applied to the force computed by the Morison’s

formula for each cylinder in an array having certain geometrical

characteristics.

On the contrary, in the case of the diffraction theory, linear or

quadratic, some methods are known for the assessment of the

interaction among vertical cylinders.

These methods, developed with various approaches, are based

upon the superposition of the effects inherent to the linearity of the

diffraction problems (they all are elliptic problems).

The first work in the subject is due to Spring & Monkmeyer (1974):

the potential is expressed as the sum of the undisturbed waves

potential plus the N scattered potentials from the N cylinders.

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Something about the case of multiple bodies

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Successively, Simon (1982) proposed a modified approach, based

upon the planar wave approximation: the diffracted wave is

replaced, near another cylinder, by an equivalent plane wave, plus a

non-planar correction term.

This approach does not allow a correct description of the wave field,

but for what concerns the assessment of the wave action it gives

good results, as in this case only the wave field near the cylinders is

concerned.

Of course, this approximation is better when the distances between

the cylinders is greater than the length of the incident wave;

nevertheless, the comparison with the results given by other

theories is fairly good also for small distances.

The real advantage of the Simon’s method is the fact that the flow is

expressed as function of the only isolated cylinder characteristics,

which are known (for instance, the Mc Camy and Fuchs or the

Garrett solution).

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Abul Azm & Williams (1989) have used the Simon’s approach to the

Garrett’s solution, also with the non-linear theory.

Vannucci (1994) has used the same approach with the

approximated Garrett’s solution, i.e. introducing the coefficient χx.

For instance, for the case in the figure, representing a TLP, the

forces on the cylinders are (X is the force computed on an equal

isolated cylinder): R

c

X 1 = X 4 = 1 − Re c12 + 13 X , 4 3

2

R

c

X 2 = X 3 = cos kR + Re c 21 + 24 X . 1 2

2 y

x

c − c13

X glob = 21 + cos kR + Re c 21 − c12 + 24 X.

2

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Something about the case of multiple bodies

paolo.vannucci@meca.uvsq.fr

The diffraction produces also a force on the cylinders in the y-

direction:

c

Y1 = −Y4 = − Rec14 + 13 X ,

2

c

Y2 = −Y3 = − Rec 23 + 24 X .

2

however, null; of course, this should not be the case if the wave

direction were inclined with respect to the axe x.

The complex coefficients cij are obtained numerically, solving a

linear system derived by the Simon’s method.

The next figures show the actions on the cylinders for the case

R/b= 5.

It is apparent that the variations with respect to the isolated cylinder

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are relevant, and can be in the sense of increasing as well as in that

of decreasing the force.

In some cases, for particular values of the ratio R/b, the global force

can be sensibly reduced; anyway, it is apparent that the global force

varies considerably with the wave length, which renders difficult to

assess the wave causing the highest global force: in the design

phase several waves, sharing the same HD, should be considered

(see chapter 2, page 94).

1.3 1.05

X /F

1 1.2 X /F

2

1

1.1

1

0.95

0.9

0.8 0.9

0.7

0.85

0 0.5 1 1.5 kb 2 0 0.5 1 1.5 kb 2

300

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Oscillating large bodies

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We have seen on page 218 the modification of the Morison’s

equation proposed by Newman to account for the proper

movements of a cylinder acted upon by waves.

In the case of moving large bodies, the fluid-structure interaction can

be computed by a theory taking advantage on the irrotational model,

the diffraction-radiation theory.

In this theory, the situation is modeled as the combination of two

distinct but correlated problems: the diffraction problem, seen above,

i.e. the diffraction of a regular train of waves interacting with the

fixed body, and the radiation problem, i.e. the problem of the

irradiation of waves from a body oscillating in water at rest about an

equilibrium position: the linearity of the problem, inherent to the

irrotational model, allows the superposition of the movements.

Following hence the same technique already used in the diffraction

theory, the total potential is written as

ϕ = ϕw + ϕs + ϕf ;

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paolo.vannucci@meca.uvsq.fr

ϕw: potential of the undisturbed waves;

ϕs: potential of the scattered waves;

ϕf: potential of the irradiated waves.

The first and second term are the same used in the diffraction

theory, while the third describes the flow of the waves produced by

the forced oscillation of the body in the water at rest.

The global potential must still be the solution of a Neumann

problem, where each potential above is a harmonic function

satisfying the same conditions at the sea bottom and at the free

surface seen for the diffraction theory. In particular, if the linearised

condition is used at the free surface, then one gets the linear

diffraction-radiation theory.

In addition, both the potentials ϕs and ϕw must satisfy the condition

of irradiation, prescribing the extinction of the wave motion at infinity

(the Sommerfeld condition for the linear theory).

What really changes with respect to the diffraction theory is only the

kinematical condition at the body’s surface.

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Oscillating large bodies

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This condition becomes now:

∂ϕw ∂ϕs ∂ϕf

+ + = v ⋅ n on ∂Ω t ;

∂n ∂n ∂n

v: body’s velocity;

n: external unit normal to the body’s surface;

∂Ωt: actual body’s surface at the time t.

In the case of small amplitude movements, i.e. for an oscillation

about an equilibrium position, the actual position of the body ∂Ωt can

be substituted by the position at rest ∂Ω, and hence one gets a

simpler condition at the body’s surface:

∂ ϕw ∂ ϕ s

+ = 0,

∂n ∂n on ∂Ω.

∂ ϕf

= v ⋅ n.

∂n

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paolo.vannucci@meca.uvsq.fr

In this way, the solution for ϕs and ϕw is just the one seen for the

case of fixed body, i.e. the results of the diffraction theory are still

valid, while for ϕf the problem is different form that of ϕs just for the

condition at the body’s surface.

In the case of small oscillations, some general developments can be

done.

In fact, it is known that in this case the movement of a rigid body can

be decomposed into six degrees of freedom αj as:

α j = a j e − iωt , j = 1,...,6;

The movements j=1, 2, 3 are the three components of the

displacement along the three axes, while the movements j= 4, 5, 6

are the three components of the rotation about the three axes.

The velocity of the points of the rigid body, and hence also the

velocity of the points on its surface, can then be written using the

first law of the kinematics of rigid bodies (see the figure):

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Oscillating large bodies

paolo.vannucci@meca.uvsq.fr

v p = −i ω [a j e j + a3 + j e j ∧ ( p − o )]e − i ωt .

3 is that of the point o.

The component of the velocity orthogonal to the surface at the point

p, whose coordinate with respect to the body’s frame are p=(x,y,z),

is then:

v n = (n ⊗ n) vp = −i ω a j n j e − i ω t n,

n1 = n x , n2 = n y , n3 = nz ,

n 4 = y n z − z ny , n 5 = z n x − x n z ,

n6 = x n y − y n x .

What has been done for the velocity is done also for the potential,

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which is decomposed in six parts (this is once again possible thanks

to the linearity of the irrotational problem):

6

ϕf = Re ∑ ϕf j ( x, y , z ) e − i ωt .

j =1

Hence,

∂ϕf 6

= Re− i ω ∑ ϕf j ( x, y , z ) e − i ωt .

∂t

j =1

∂ 2α j

mij + c ij α j = Fi , i = 1,...,6.

∂ t2

The terms mij are the components of the inertial matrix, whilst the

terms cij are those of the stiffness matrix.

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Oscillating large bodies

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The terms mij take into account the proper inertias of the structure.

The terms cij take into account not only the structural stiffness, but

also the hydrostatic stiffness, due to the increase in the hydrostatic

force in the direction i due to a unit displacement in the direction j.

The force Fi acting upon the body is the Froude-Krylov force,

∂ϕ

Fi = ρ ∫ n ds= i = 1,...,6.

∂Ω ∂t i

∂ (ϕw + ϕ s )

Fe i = ρ ∫ ni ds , i = 1,...,6;

∂Ω ∂t

∂ϕf 6

Ff i = ρ ∫ ni ds = −ωρ Re i ∑ ∫ ϕ f j ( x, y , z ) ni ds e − i ωt , i = 1,...,6.

∂Ω ∂ t ∂Ω

j =1

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The first one, Fe, is the exciting force acting upon the body: it is due

to the action of the undisturbed and scattered waves upon the fixed

body, that is it is the force that is computed in the diffraction theory

(for instance the solution of Mc Camy and Fuchs or that of Garrett

for the case of a cylinder and so on).

The second one, Ff, is due to the forced potential, that is to the

potential describing the wave motion produced by the forced motion

of the body in the fluid at rest, and it is linked to the dissipation of

energy caused by the creation of a wave motion by the oscillating

body.

This last term can be decomposed in the sum of two quantities, the

first in phase with the acceleration, the other with the velocity of the

body:

6 ∂ 2α j ∂α j

Ff i = − Re ∑ µ ij + λij , i = 1,...,6.

j =1 ∂ t2 ∂t

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Oscillating large bodies

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The coefficients µij and λij appearing in the last equation can be

deduced by comparison with the general expression of the Ffi: using

the condition on the body’s surface for the forced potential and the

general expression of the normal component of the velocity found

above, one gets easily

∂ϕf j

= −i ω a j n j , j = 1,...,6 on ∂Ω .

∂n

Then, after calculating the time derivatives of the αj and injecting the

results in the above expressions, one gets

∂Ω f j

parts the following expressions of the real coefficients µij and λij are

obtained:

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ρ

µ ij =

a j ω ∫∂Ω

[ j ] ni ds,

Im ϕf

j= 1,…,6.

ρ

λij = −

aj ∫∂Ω Re[ϕf j ] ni ds.

equation on the previous page

µ ij =

iρ

∫ [ ] ∂∂ϕnf i )∂Ω ds,

Im ϕ f j (

(a j ω )2 ∂Ω

j= 1,…,6.

iρ ∂ϕ

λij = − 2 ∫ Re[ϕ f j ]( f i )∂Ω ds.

aj ω ∂Ω ∂n

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Oscillating large bodies

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Being the functions ϕfj harmonic, the Green’s theorem gives:

∂ ϕf j ∂ ϕf i

∫∂Ω ϕf i

∂n

ds = ∫ ϕ f j

∂Ω ∂n

ds, i,j = 1,...,6.

Replacing these relations in the equations giving the µij and λij ,one

gets:

µ ij = µ ji ,

i, j= 1,…,6.

λij = λ ji .

of symmetric square matrices of dimension 6.

Finally, the motion equation, is, in matrix form,

∂ 2α j ∂α j

(mij + µij ) + λij

∂t

+ c ij α j = Fe i , i , j = 1,...,6.

∂ t2

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Finally, the following remarks can be done.

The undisturbed and scattered wave motions give raise to the

exciting force, Fe, that is a Froude-Krylov force computed by the

diffraction theory and it is independent on the motion of the body.

The forced potential, describing the wave motion caused by the

forced oscillation of the body in the water at rest, gives raise to two

hydrodynamic effects: an inertial effect, affecting the acceleration of

the body, and a damping effect, affecting the velocity of the body.

The first one is the added mass effect and the µij are the added

inertias of the body, while the second one is the dissipation effect

and the λij are the hydrodynamic damping coefficients of the body.

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Wave slamming

paolo.vannucci@meca.uvsq.fr

The wave slamming is the effect due to the sudden immersion of a

body during the passage of a wave.

The typical case in offshore engineering is that of horizontal braces

in jacket structures, placed near the still water level.

In such cases, the action on the horizontal member is due to the

hydrostatic force, as well as to an inertial and drag term.

In addition, all these effects are dynamics, and a dynamical analysis,

coupling the wave actions and the structural member response,

must be done, or alternatively an appropriate dynamical coefficient

must be considered in the computation of the wave actions

considered as static forces (see the next chapter).

These actions have not a global effect on a platform, but can be very

relevant for the local structural behaviour and verification of a single

member, especially for what concerns the fatigue design.

A good design rule is that to avoid to place horizontal braces near

the free water surface, as the wave slamming is null on vertical

members, very reduced on inclined members but maximal for

horizontal braces. 313

paolo.vannucci@meca.uvsq.fr

The wave slamming force is usually given in the form of a drag

force; for a horizontal cylinder, subjected to the slamming of a wave

propagating normal to it,

1 2

fws = Cws ρ D um ;

2

fws: wave slamming force per unit-length;

D: cylinder’s diameter;

um: maximum horizontal water particles velocity;

Cws: wave slamming coefficient.

Kaplan & Silbert (1976) have shown that fws is due to the buoyant

force plus the time-rate change of momentum:

∂µ 2

fws = ρ g Ai + ( µ + ρ Ai )η&& + η& ;

∂z θ R

Ai: immersed area;

z Ai

z: instantaneous depth of immersion η

η: instantaneous wave height; ηo Still water level

µ: added mass.

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Wave slamming

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Equating the two expressions so found, one gets the value of Cws:

g Ai µ + ρ Ai 1 ∂µ

Cws = − sin ω t + cos2 ω t .

2 2

a ω R ρRa ρ R ∂z

The expression of the added mass in the case sketched in the figure

has been given by Taylor (1930):

1 2 1 − cos θ π

µ= ρ R2 π 3 + (1 − cos θ ) + sinθ − θ .

2 3 (2π − θ )2 3

The curves in the figure show the

dependence upon θ of the ratios

of the added mass to, µ/ρAi

respectively, the total displaced

mass of the cylinder and the µ/ρπR²

actual displaced mass, that is that

corresponding to the

instantaneous immersed area.

θ (rad)

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In the case of the linear wave theory, it is (putting the centre of the

cylinder at x=0):

η (t ) = a sin ω t ;

a: wave amplitude;

ω: wave frequency.

The maximum horizontal velocity of the particles is, in deep waters:

ωa

um = ≅ ω a.

tanh kd

In addition, the immersed area Ai and the draught z are:

1 θ

Ai = R 2 θ − sinθ , z = R(1 − cos ).

2 2

The value of z can be expressed also as a function of θ or of η(t):

z

z = η (t ) − η o = a sin ω t − η o = 2 arccos 1 − .

R

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Wave slamming

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This gives θ as a function of t:

a sin ω t − η o

θ = 2 arccos 1 − .

R

Finally, one must consider that

∂µ ∂µ ∂θ

= .

∂z ∂θ ∂z

giving Cws, one obtains the time variation a=10 m

of Cws during the wave slamming; a ηo=1 m

numerical example is shown in the figure. R=0.5 m

The beginning and ending instant of the 2π g

ω = = 0.5 Hz;

wave slamming can be easily computed: L

2π

T = = 11.3 s

1 ηo 1 η o + 2R ω

t1 = arcsin , t2 = arcsin .

ω a ω a

t

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To remark that wave slamming is an impulsive vertical force, whose

highest value is attained just at the instant t1, the beginning of the

wave slamming (the instant at which the water touches the bottom of

the cylinder’s surface).

The value of Cws at that instant is easily calculated, evaluating its

expression for t=t1; as for t=t1 µ and Ai are null, one gets, scaling the

time in such a way that t1=0 (i.e. for the simplified case ηo=0),

1 ∂µ

Cwsmax = lim = π.

t →0 ρ R ∂z

So, usually the wave slamming is taken into account in the structural

design as an impulsive (i.e. instantaneous) force with Cws =π.

In this case, the dimensionless wave slamming force, obtained

dividing fws by the weight of the displaced water, πρgR², is

ω 2a 2

fws = .

gR

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Wave slamming

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In deep waters it is

2π a 2

fws ≅ .

LR

This shows that wave slamming is proportional to the wave

amplitude, to the wave steepness and to the inverse of the cylinder’s

radius: the highest effects are obtained by high and steep waves

slamming small cylinders.

In the limit case of the greatest steepness (H/L=1/ 7, see page 207)

one gets:

πa

fwsmax ≅ .

7R

In the previous example, for instance, it is fws

max

≅ 9, which means

that the wave slamming is an impulsive force, whose value is about

9 times the buoyancy on the cylinder per unit-length.

This force is periodic, with a period equal to that of the waves, and

this constitutes a severe condition for the fatigue design of a brace.

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paolo.vannucci@meca.uvsq.fr

In fact, an impulsive periodic forces produces a dynamical response

of the structural member: the dynamical amplification is a function of

the ratio of the force frequency (in this case that of the waves) and

the natural frequency of the structural member.

When the two frequencies are close, the dynamical amplification can

be very important (resonance phenomenon).

So, the stress state of a member subjected to wave slamming

should be evaluated by a dynamical analysis, taking into account the

structural response of the member to the dynamical action of the

slamming.

If, in a simplified analysis, the wave slamming is considered as a

static action, an appropriate dynamical amplification factor cdyn must

be used.

An experimental study made by Sarpkaya, indicates a value of 1.75

for cdyn; NTS rules suggest to take the value 2 for cdyn, while DNV

suggests the values 1.5 and 2, respectively for the computation of

the bending moment at the clamped edges and at the middle point.

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Wave slamming

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The above results have been obtained in the theoretical framework

of a potential flow model, hence not taking into account for the drag

force.

This force appears and becomes important when the submerged

part increases; the previous equation for fws should then be modified

as follows:

∂µ 2 θ

fws = ρ g Ai + ( µ + ρ Ai )η&& + η& + Cs (θ )ρη& η& R sin ;

∂z 2

Cs: drag coefficient for slamming, depending upon the angle θ and to be

determined only experimentally.

In this case, the slamming coefficient must be determined

experimentally.

The following figure shows the comparison between the theoretical

and experimental results (Sarpkaya, 1978).

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at the very beginning of the slamming, i.e. with the potential theory.

That is why drag normally is not considered in wave slamming

computation.

Finally, the above model is theoretical; in real situations, Cs is less

than the theoretical value as it is difficult that the wave front be

perfectly horizontal and parallel to the cylinder’s axis.

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Vortex shedding

paolo.vannucci@meca.uvsq.fr

The presence of a viscous separated

flow downstream a body causes not

Vortex shedding of a cloud cover by the Robinson Crusoe Island, near Chili (Landsat image).

only a drag force, but also pulsating

forces, in-line (i.e. in the same

direction of the flow) and cross-flow

(the lift or transversal force).

The origin of these forces is due to a

hydrodynamic phenomenon known as

vortex shedding, sketched in the

figures.

Source: www.tecplot.com

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These forces produce in-line and transversal oscillations of the body

when it is elastically supported; this is the case, e.g., of braces.

Basically, the downstream separated flow does not conserve a

symmetry about the middle longitudinal plane, so that the vortices,

produced by the adherence of the boundary layer at the body’s

surface, enter the turbulent downstream flow detaching form the

body not at the same moment at the two sides of the body.

This results in an unbalanced pressure field around the body itself,

causing a net force that oscillates according to the vortex shedding.

This phenomenon happens for a fluid velocity greater than a critical

value, and can be dangerous especially for slender members, for

which the vortex shedding frequency, and hence the frequency of

the oscillating forces, can be close to a natural frequency of the

structural member, causing dynamical amplitude of the oscillations

and eventually resonance.

So, the vortex shedding is a phenomenon to be taken into account

in the design of single members, not in the global design of the

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platform, just like the wave slamming, and especially in the fatigue

design.

Normally, the cross-flow forces are greater than the in-line forces,

and the corresponding oscillations too.

Experimental evidence shows that with a uniform stream, the flow

about a circular cylinder remains uniform until a Reynolds number,

based on the cylinder diameter, of about 4, when vortices appear,

attached to the trailing surface of the cylinder.

At a Reynolds number of about 40, the cylinder wake becomes

unstable and the characteristic Von Karman vortex street begins to

appear. The attached eddies finally shed at Reynolds numbers of

about 60, and the alternate shedding pattern continues.

Starting at Re≈150 the vortex street becomes turbulent further

downstream, and at Re≈400, the vortices themselves become

turbulent from the point of generation. For higher values of the

Reynolds number, vortices lose their regular shape and coherency,

making visualization difficult.

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For a circular cylinder, the frequency of the vortex shedding is given

by the semi-empirical formula

St

ϖD 19.7

≅ 0.198 1 − ;

V Re

D: cylinder’s diameter;

V: stream’s velocity;

VD

Re: Reynolds’ number: Re = . log10Re

ν

The dimensionless parameter

ϖ D

St = ,

V

is the Strouhal number (1878), introduced in a study on the

humming and “singing” of power and telegraph wires.

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The shedding frequency is hence a function of V and D:

V 19.7

ϖ ≅ 0.198 1 − ν .

D VD

V 5 × 10 −6

ϖ ≅ 0.198 − .

D VD

taken as the value of the highest horizontal

velocity; in deep waters and for the linear

theory, V

V = aω,

a: wave amplitude; D

ω: wave frequency.

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Then, the link between the vortex shedding and wave frequencies is

aω 5 × 10 −6

ϖ ≅ 0.198 − .

D aωD

As an example, for the wave and the cylinder of the example in the

figure on page 318, one gets ϖ ≅ 1 Hz, that is twice the wave

frequency.

(Lienhard, 1966) shows

the dependence of St

on Re according to

some experimental

results (source

Sarpkaya & Isaacson).

Re

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The action on a cylinder due to vortex shedding must be computed

taking into account for the interaction between the cylinder’s

oscillation and the flow.

Actually, experimental tests have shown that when the vortex

shedding frequency is close to a natural frequency of the cylinder,

this last takes the control of the shedding in apparent violation to

the Strouhal relationship, valid for bodies at rest.

In this case, the frequencies of the vortex shedding and of the

cylinder oscillation collapse into a single frequency close to the

natural frequency of the body: it is the so-called phenomenon of

lock-in (also called synchronisation or wake capture or lock-on).

During lock-in, the cylinder undergoes to a self-excited oscillation,

i.e. it experiences a vortex-induced oscillation in which the force

acting upon the cylinder depends non-linearly upon the interaction of

the flow and the cylinder’s motion.

What is also surprising in this phenomenon is the fact that it

happens when the natural frequency of the body belongs to the

range (1±0.25÷0.3)ϖ.

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Also surprising is the fact that the vibration locks–in the vortex

shedding and controls the shedding process.

The two fundamental parameters for the phenomenon are the

reduced velocity Vr and the stability parameter Ks:

V 2meδ

Vr = , Ks = ;

fn D ρD 2

fn: natural body’s frequency;

me: the effective mass of the body (per unit length);

δ: the logarithmic decrement of the structural damping.

unit mass.

For a not completely immersed vertical cylinder, the effective mass

is defined equating the real cylinder to an equivalent one having the

same diameter and having a length equal to the water depth; both

have the same mode shape, natural frequency and inertial

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properties, so that the total amount of kinetic energy contained in the

overall vibrating cylinder is made equal to the amount of kinetic

energy in an effective structure of the depth of the water.

The effective mass per unit length is thus given by

l 2

∫ m ζ (s ) ds ;

me = 0

d 2

∫0 ζ (s ) ds

m: mass per unit length, including the structural and added mass (so, it

is different in and out of water), and also the water eventually contained

in a hollow cylinder;

l: overall length of the cylinder;

d: water depth;

ζ: mode shape as a function of the ordinate s.

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Concerning δ, it is

δ = 2πξ ;

0.02÷0.03 for steel structures in water).

and their type (in-line or cross-flow).

In-line oscillations occur within two adjacent regions: the first is in

the range 1.0<Vr<2.15 with a maximum at Vr=2.1. This region is

characterised by symmetric vortices, shedding simultaneously.

The second region is in the range 2.25<Vr<2.9 with a maximum at

Vr=2.6. This region is characterised by vortices shedding

alternatively from either side of the cylinder.

In the next figure, the relative amplitude (ratio η of the amplitude to

the diameter) of the oscillation of a cylinder is plotted as a function of

the reduced velocity (Wotton et al, 1972; source CIRIA).

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η

Vr

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The in-line oscillation amplitude depends upon Ks in two different

ways, according to the region where it produces.

The figure shows

this dependence

η

(source: CIRIA). (for Vr=1.9)

It is apparent that

these oscillations

are small

compared to the

cylinder’s

diameter, and

that they are (for Vr=2.5)

suppressed if

Ks>1.8.

Ks

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The cross-flow oscillations happens when 3.5<Vr<10, with a

maximal amplitude in the zone 6.5<Vr<8.

This range of Vr is known as the range of capture of the body. While

the reduced velocity is in the range of capture, the shedding

frequency remains relatively constant, and as the perturbation

amplitude increases, so does the range of capture.

The amplitude of the cross-flow oscillation is a decreasing function

of Ks, as depicted in the following figure (source: CIRIA).

Ks

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It is apparent that the cross-flow oscillation is suppressed, for

circular cylinders, if Ks >10.

Comparing this graphic to the previous one, it is quickly recognised

that the in-line oscillations are smaller than ones cross-flow.

The oscillating forces are expressed as drag forces, with appropriate

drag coefficients:

1

fF = CF ρV 2D,

2

1

fL = CL ρV 2D,

2

fF: per unit length oscillating in-line force, in the direction of the flow;

fL: per unit length oscillating lift force, cross-flow;

CF: drag coefficient for the oscillating flow;

CL: lift drag coefficient.

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The two coefficients

CF and CL are CL

obtained

experimentally, and

they are given as

function of Re in the

diagrams of the

figures aside

(source: CIRIA).

Re

CF

Re

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The diagram aside (source:

CIRIA) gives the value of the Vr

vortex shedding oscillations for

the two regions of in-line

oscillation.

Ks

the onset of vortex shedding

oscillations and at the maximum

amplitude oscillations for the

cross-flow motion (source:

CIRIA). Re

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To end this part, it is worth noting that the structure can be designed

to minimize the effects of vortex shedding.

A way is to diminish Vr, namely increasing D, what acts twice on Vr,

as fn depends on the stiffness, hence on D.

Another way, is to increase Ks, i.e. the

damping and/or the mass.

Finally, the last way is to modify the flow

around the cylinder, and this can be

obtained using particular shaped spoilers

and fins, see the figure (source: Sarpkaya &

Isaacson).

Helical fins (called strakes) give a drag

coefficient CD=1.3 cylinder’s diameter

based and independent upon Re;

perforated external cylinders (called

strouds) are perhaps more effective, as CD=

0.9 based upon the inner cylinder’s

diameter.

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To end this part concerning the evaluation of wave forces on

offshore structures, it is worth to consider the case of an immersed

body of a general shape.

In fact, we have seen above some solutions for slender and large

circular cylinders, but in several cases, the shape of an offshore

platform can be different, especially for gravity based platforms, like

that in the figure.

In such cases, the computation of the wave

action on the immersed structure must be

done by numerical methods.

These methods are basically two:

the three-dimensional source distribution

method, that discretizes the body’s surface;

www.sir-robert-mcalpine.com

discretizes the whole fluid field.

We will see these two procedures in brief,

addressing the reader to the specialized

texts for a deeper insight in the matter.

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The three-dimensional source distribution method: let us

consider once again the general linear diffraction problem already

defined on pages 226 and following (for the sake of shortness, we

will consider here only this case, that is the one of an immersed

fixed body subjected to linear waves, disregarding the case of

second-order effects and of moving bodies).

As already seen, the velocity potential is decomposed into two parts:

ϕ = ϕw + ϕs .

The first one describes the undisturbed wave flow, and in the linear

context it is simply the a η

Airy’s solution.

The second one

describes the scattered L

d ∂Ω

flow, depends upon the Ω

shape of the body and z n

must satisfy the x

equations: 0

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∆ϕs = 0 in Ω,

∂ϕs

=0 for z = 0,

∂z

∂ 2ϕs ∂ϕ

+ g s = 0 for z = d ;

∂t 2 ∂z

∂ϕs ∂ϕ

=− w at ∂Ω;

∂n ∂n

∂ϕ

lim r s − i k ϕ s = 0.

r →∞ ∂r

In the linear context, the pressure is given by the only transient term:

∂ϕ

p = −ρ .

∂t

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If the body’s shape is simple, like for the case of vertical cylinders,

an analytical solution is possible for the scattered problem, but,

usually, this is impossible for generally shaped bodies.

In such cases, however, the mathematical structure of the problem

allows for a numerical procedure, which is essentially based upon

the superposition of the velocity fields, once more.

Actually, the scattered potential ϕs is expressed as the superposition

of an infinite number of elementary potentials, each one describing a

flow scattered from one point on the body’s surface.

This technique has been proposed first by Lamb (1932) who has

shown that the scattered flow can be described, in the case of a

body in an infinite fluid region, by a distribution of three-dimensional

source potentials on the body’s surface; in other words, the

scattered fluid can be always obtained as the superposition of an

infinite number of source potential flows, of different strength, each

one scattering from one point of the body’s surface.

In the case of finite fluid region, some corrective terms must be

added to the source potentials.

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This result is actually an application of the Green’s theorem:

If g is a constant, it is simply (remembering the definition of normal

derivative)

∂f

∫∂Ω ∂n ds = ∫Ω ∆f dv .

For a wave flow, as usual, the potential is expressed as, see also

page 236,

ϕ = Re[φ ( x, y , z ) e −iωt ].

1

4π ∫∂Ω

φ ( x, y , z ) = f (ξ ,η,ζ )G( x, y , z;ξ ,η,ζ ) ds;

(ξ, η, ζ) is a point on ∂Ω ;

f(ξ, η, ζ) is the unknown source distribution on ∂Ω .

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G is the Green’s function, i.e. the source potential; it must satisfy all

the boundary conditions of the problem except that on the body’s

surface and it must have a source-like behaviour; in short, G must

be of the form

1

G= + G *;

R

R= (x − ξ )2 + (y − η )2 + (z − ζ )2 ;

G* is a regular function satisfying

∆G * = 0 on ∂Ω .

been given by Wehausen & Laitone (1960) and in the case of a

wave motion with large period (as is the case usually in offshore

engineering), the expression of G can be approximated as:

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∞

1 1 1 1 1 1

G= + + ∑ + + + ;

R R1 n =1 R2 n R3 n R 4 n R5 n

R1 = (x − ξ )2 + (y − η )2 + (z + ζ )2 ;

R 2n = (x − ξ )2 + (y − η )2 + (z − 2nd − ζ )2 ;

R3 n = (x − ξ )2 + (y − η )2 + (z + 2nd + ζ )2 ;

R 4n = (x − ξ )2 + (y − η )2 + (z + 2nd − ζ )2 ;

R5 n = (x − ξ )2 + (y − η )2 + (z − 2nd + ζ )2 .

The solution of the scattered problem posed in this form

automatically satisfies the field condition (the potential to be

harmonic), the boundary conditions at the bottom and free surface

and the irradiation condition.

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The last condition, the one on the body’s surface, gives the following

integral equation:

1 ∂G

− f ( x, y , z ) +

2π ∫∂Ω

f (ξ ,η,ζ )

∂n

( x, y , z;ξ ,η,ζ ) ds = 2w n ( x, y , z ).

undisturbed flow on the immersed surface

discretization of the body’s surface in N quadrilateral patches or

panels is done.

Each panel has area Ai and a node is placed in correspondence of

each panel’s centroid, Ci=(xi, yi, zi); it is just at these points, the

panels’ centroids, that the above equation is stated.

In this way, the above integral equation, to be satisfied in principle at

each point of the body’s surface, is replaced by the following N

equations, one for each panel:

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1 ∂G

− fi + ∫

2π ∂Ω

f (ξ ,η,ζ )

∂n

( x i , y i , zi ;ξ ,η,ζ ) ds = 2w n i .

integrals over the N panels and the source function f(ξ, η, ζ) can be

taken as constant over each panel, so that the previous equation

becomes (with Einstein’s notation):

− fi + α ij f j = 2 w ni , i , j = 1, 2,..., N.

1 ∂G

2π ∫Ai ∂n

α ij = ( x i , y i , zi ;ξ ,η,ζ ) ds.

Physically, αij denotes the velocity induced at the ith node point in the

direction normal to the body’s surface by a source distribution of unit

strength distributed uniformly over the jth panel.

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In matrix form, it is

f = 2(α − I) −1w n .

the potential φ on page 344 at each node as the sum of the N source

potentials

φi = β ij f j , i , j = 1, 2,..., N.

1

4π ∫Ai

β ij = G( x i , y i , zi ;ξ ,η,ζ ) ds.

simply calculating the gradient of φ:

fi ∂G ∂G ∂G

∇φ = ∫ ( x, y, z;ξ ,η,ζ ) ds; ∫ ( x, y, z;ξ ,η,ζ ) ds; ∫ ( x, y , z;ξ ,η,ζ ) ds .

4π i ∂x

A Ai ∂y Ai ∂z

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Finally, differentiating the total potential with respect to time gives

the pressure field; with the above discretization, the pressure can be

computed in correspondence of the nodes and, considering its value

as a constant over each panel, a simple numerical integration gives

the value of the Froude-Krylov force.

It must be emphasized that this approach is valid only for large

bodies, i.e. where the wake separation effects are negligible.

forces on immersed bodies is the finite element method.

The advantages of this approach over the pure boundary integral

equation techniques, like that seen above, are mainly:

the resulting linear equation system is symmetric and banded (like in all

the finite element approaches); this is not the case for the boundary

equation techniques;

it is ideally suited for deriving the coupling with the structure for which,

usually, a finite element discretization is used.

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The physical context in which the finite element method is

developed is just the same used for the boundary integral equation

techniques, i.e. the very classical one of linear diffraction.

In other words, the governing equations for the scattered potential

are just those on page 342.

For the sake of convenience, let us write the scattered potential in

the complex form

ϕ s = φ ( x , y , z ) e iω t

.

∂ϕ w

= −w n e iωt .

∂n

be easily obtained if one considers an outgoing flow through a

surface sufficiently far from the radiating body, so that the wave can

be represented by a plane wave:

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ϕ s = f (r − ct ) for r → ∞.

Noting that

∂ϕ s ∂ϕ s

= −c f ′, = f ′,

∂t ∂r

we obtain the radiation condition in the form

∂ϕ s ∂ϕ

+ c s = 0.

∂t ∂r

∆φ = 0 in Ω ,

∂φ

=0 for z = 0,

∂z

ω2 ∂φ

− φ+ = 0 for z = d ;

g ∂z

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∂φ

= wn at ∂Ω ;

∂n

∂φ iω

+ φ =0 for r → ∞.

∂r c

constant and the body’s surface is vertical; in this case, always

considered previously, it is possible to integrate exactly the

governing equations in the vertical direction z, which allows to

reduce the problem to a two-dimensional one.

Actually, this has been done more or less implicitly also when the

exact solution where sought, i.e. for the Mc Camy & Fuchs and for

the Garrett solution (see for instance page 236).

In practice, we use a variable separation technique to write the

function φ:

cosh kz

φ ( x, y , z ) = Φ ( x, y ) .

cosh kd

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This form of φ is used because it satisfies automatically to the

condition at the sea bed and at the free surface, as it is easily

recognized.

Now, the problem is a two-dimensional problem of finding the

function Φ satisfying the conditions

∂ 2Φ ∂ 2Φ

∆Φ = 0 → + + k 2Φ = 0 in Ω ;

2 2

∂x ∂y

∂Φ

= wn at ∂Ω ;

∂n

∂Φ iω

+ Φ =0 for r → ∞.

∂r c

classical equation, encountered in other domains of physics, like for

instance acoustics, in the problems of pressure waves in liquids, in

Love waves in solids and so on.

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Once the function Φ known, the pressure field of the scattered

waves is given in its complex form by

p = −ρ = − ρ i ω Φ ( x, y ) e .

∂t cosh kd

The problem is now a rather classical problem for the finite element

method: to solve an elliptic problem (the Helmoltz equation) with

Neumann-like conditions on the body’s surface but, in addition, with

the radiation condition to be satisfied at infinity.

It is just the infinity condition and the way it is dealt with that

characterizes the finite element method for wave problems.

The above problem can be cast as the variational problem of

minimizing the functional

H= ∫∫Ω L( x, y ) dx dy ,

where the Lagrangian L(x, y) is

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[ ]

1 ∂Φ

2 2

1 ∂Φ

L( x, y ) = (∇Φ ) − k Φ =

2 2 2

+ − k 2Φ 2 .

2 2 ∂x ∂y

In fact, the Euler-Lagrange equation is the Helmoltz equation

∂L ∂ ∂L ∂ ∂L ∂ 2Φ ∂ 2Φ

− − =0 → k 2Φ + + = 0.

∂Φ ∂x ∂Φ ,x ∂y ∂Φ ,y ∂x 2 ∂y 2

must be added.

This last can be taken into account by different methods.

For the sake of brevity, here we consider only the possibility of using

infinite elements.

The fluid domain is divided into two parts: the interior domain, near

the body, and the exterior domain, outside the interior.

The interior domain is discretized by finite elements, the exterior by

infinite elements, see the following figure.

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The finite elements are exterior domain

usually classical isoparametric

interior domain

6-nodes triangles or 8-nodes

quadrilateral.

Body

However, some special

elements are also introduced,

to take into account for special

situations like for instance not

perfectly reflecting walls or

walls with holes, used as

finite elements infinite elements

wave dampers.

Infinite elements are defined

in a manner

very similar to finite elements; the only difference is that their

domain extends to infinity, which implies that exponential shape

functions must be used.

These shape functions have been introduced by Zienkiewicz et alii

(1975).

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The element is parametric, the parent

shape being a rectangle which

extends to infinity in the ξ direction, ξ

and η being the reference

coordinates, see the following figure

(source: Zienkiewicz et alii).

The element has 9 points; in the ξ

direction the outer point is at large, but

finite, distance.

A new set of coordinates is set up, the

s direction, which is the same

direction as the ξ coordinate, but

distances along it are in the same

measure are those in x, y coordinates.

In the η direction, a conventional

Lagrange polynomial is used, whilst in

the s direction the following function is

used:

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s

−

p(s ) e L e iks ;

p(s): a polynomial in s;

L: a length which dictates the severity of the exponential decay.

The first term, the polynomial, allows a certain variation in the wave

envelope, the second makes the wave decay for large radii and the

third ensures a basically periodic shape.

This shape function and its nodal values are complex, and it

satisfies the radiation condition.

For the rth node the shape function can be written (the nth node is far

distant)

sr − s n −1 s − s

N r = e L e iks ∏

q

.

s − sr

q =1 q

q ≠r

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For the numerical integration in the s direction, usually a special six

point integration is used.

In the case of a body whose surface is not vertical, i.e. of general

shapes, the two dimensional approach cannot be used; in such a

case, the technique is that of using tri-dimensional elements near

the body, in the interior region, and bi-dimensional elements in the

exterior region, where the sea bed is sufficiently horizontal.

The two discretizations are matched at the interface surface, that

must be placed sufficiently far from the body (though it has been

seen numerically that it can be at a relatively small distance).

The procedure for stating the tri-dimensional problem is exactly the

same used for the two-dimensional case, but now the free surface

condition is not automatically satisfied, and it must be taken into

account in the general formulation.

Standard isoparametric bricks can be used for the discretization of

the tri-dimensional interior region, see for instance the figure on the

following page (source: Zienkiewicz et alii).

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The reader is addressed to specialist papers and books on finite

element method for a deeper insight in the matter.

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We have already introduced in Chapter 2 the wave energy spectrum

as a statistical tool to describe the sea state. In this section we will

use this tool to calculate the wave actions.

In the following, some statistical concepts are used, among them

that of spectrum. The reader is addressed to the next chapter for a

brief recall of basic concepts, and to specialized books for a deeper

insight in the matter. Here, we will consider the reader aware of the

principal concepts concerning the theory of probability.

characteristics and actions.

The most easily observed physical parameter of a wave is its period;

it can be empirically related to the generating wind speed, U: each

wind velocity produces a certain range of periods with a well-defined

maximum, which increases with U.

This empirical observation is theoretically supported by the spectrum

of the surface elevation, Sηη(ω), the most used in the stochastic

description of waves.

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Sηη(ω) represents, just like any other spectrum, the distribution of the

variance ση² of η in the frequency domain:

∞

ση2 = ∫ Sηη (ω ) dω.

0

A physical meaning is attached to the spectrum Sηη(ω). In fact, the

surface density of mechanical energy E associated with a wave

motion is defined as the sum of the average kinetic energy K and

the average potential energy V per unit horizontal area, referred to

the still water level, i.e. the energy associated with a fluid element of

height z+η, length L and unit width:

E = K +V;

1 L d +η 1 2

K= ∫ ∫ ρ u dx dz;

L 0 0 2

1 Lη

V = ∫ ∫ ρ g z dx dz.

L 0 0

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In the case of the linear wave theory, it is an easy task to calculate K

and V: using the definition of wave number, the dispersion equation

and the expression of the particle’s velocity and wave profile

obtained in the linear theory, one gets

1 L d +η 1 1 L d1

K= ∫ ∫ ρ u2dx dz ≅ ∫ ∫ ρ u2dx dz =

L 0 0 2 L 0 0 2

∫0 ∫0 [cosh

2

ρ kga L d 2

= kz sin2 (kx − ωt ) +

2L ω cosh kd

] 1

+ sinh 2 kz cos 2 (kx − ωt ) dx dz =

16

ρ g H 2;

1 Lη ρ g L a sin( kx −ωt ) 1

V = ∫ ∫ ρ g z dx dz = ρ g H 2.

L ∫0 ∫0

z dz dx =

L 0 0 16

So, in the linear theory, the kinetic energy associated with the flow is

exactly equal to the potential energy of the same flow and

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1

E= ρ g H 2.

8

From the above equations it is apparent that E, as well as V and K,

is proportional to the mean square of the surface elevation.

But, for what said above, the spectrum Sηη(ω) describes the way in

which the variance, and hence the mean square of η, which is a

variable with null mean, is distributed in the frequency domain.

So, being E proportional to the mean square of the surface

elevation, the spectrum Sηη(ω) of the surface elevation is also, to

within a numerical factor, the spectrum of the wave energy, that is, it

indicates how the wave energy is distributed in the frequency

domain.

In other words, the wave spectrum is a function of the wave

frequency giving not only the surface elevation, but also the wave

energy distribution.

An examination of the spectrum shows that the wave energy is often

concentrated in a relatively narrow band (see figure on page 367).

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The significant wave heights are related to E by the following

relations:

E

H mean = 2.5σ η = 2.5 ;

ρg

E

H1/ 3 ( = H s ) = 4σ η = 4 ;

ρg

E

H1/ 10 = 5.1σ η = 5.1 .

ρg

wind velocity by the empirical relation

H = 9 × 10 −3 U10

2 .5

.

1

E = 9 × 10 −3 ρ g U10

5 5

≅ 11.04 U10 .

8

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The most used wave spectra are the Pierson-Moskowitz and the

JONSWAP spectrum; the first one is used for fully developed sea

states and the second for sea state not yet fully developed.

In Chapter 2 we have already introduced these spectra; in particular,

the Pierson-Moskowitz spectrum is, for the fully developed sea

condition, S (m²s)

ω 4 Sηη (ω ) for

2 −β o

αg 4 U = 40 m / s.

Sηη (ω ) = e ω .

4 5

(2π ) ω

α= 0.0081 (Phillip’s empirical constant);

β= 0.74;

ωo= g/U;

U: characteristic wind speed at 19.5 m ω (1/s)

above the still water level.

It may also be written in terms of the frequency at which the energy

is a maximum, ωm:

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4

5ωm

2 −

αg 4

Sηη (ω ) = e 4ω .

(2π ) 4 ω 5

A more convenient form is the following one, which uses the

significant wave height Hs and the average mean zero-crossing

wave period Tz (see chapter 2, page 84).

16π 3

4 2 −

8π Hs

e (ωTz ) .

4

Sηη (ω ) =

ω 5Tz4

The following relationships can be useful:

ωo = 1.14 ωm ;

2π

ωz = = 1. 4 ω m ;

Tz

Sηη (f ) = 2π Sηη (ω ).

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The use of the JONSWAP (acronym for JOint North Sea WAve

Project) spectrum is more involved and it will not be treated here.

The knowledge of the spectrum allows the calculation of the wave

actions in a random sea by superposition of waves of discrete

frequency.

The spectrum is divided into either a number N of equal frequency

bands or equal area bands.

In practical applications, only the part of spectrum between ω=0 and

ω=ωmax (called also the cut-off frequency) is considered, and divided

in N= 50 bands; for most open sea states, ωmax= 1 Hz.

Then, a sea state is simulated by superposition of regular waves,

one for each band.

Each one of these regular waves has a frequency ωn equal to the

mean frequency of the band and an amplitude an related to the area

under Sηη(ω) within the frequency band; by the same definition of

the spectrum curve, if ω1n and ω2n are the lower and upper limits of

the nth frequency band, it is

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ω2n

an = 2 ∫ω1n Sηη (ω ) dω .

component waves in the simulation have a constant amplitude.

The length of each wave is computed by the dispersion relation; in

deep waters, it is

2π g

Ln = .

ωn2

wave components; in particular, for the sea surface η it is

N

η ( x, t ) = ∑ an sin(k n x + ωn t + θ n );

n =1

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The phase angles θn are randomly generated between 0 and 2π; so

a random sea state having the design spectrum is generated.

However, in doing this, discontinuities in the velocity field near the

surface are possible; these are resolved by displacing the velocity

field due to each component vertically by a distance equal to the

difference between the water surface and the component water

surface elevation.

In other words, the apparent distance zn of the water particle under

consideration from the sea bed is

zn = d + η − an sin(k n x − ωn t + θ n ).

vectorially to get the water particle velocity and acceleration of the

simulated random sea.

This velocity and this acceleration are used to calculate the wave

forces, both for slender or large bodies.

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The time is then discretized in time steps ∆t, respecting the empirical

condition

2π

∆t ≤ .

5 ωmax

Then, the wave force on the structure is computed for each time

step; this will give a force time history that can be used to compute

the force spectral density, which will be used in the next chapter to

perform the dynamical analysis of a platform.

random sea state consists in calculating the wave force spectrum

once the wave (surface elevation) spectrum known.

In the next chapter, some details of this approach will be given.

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Chapter 4

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Dynamical considerations

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Introduction 375

Response to regular waves 379

Response to an impulsive force 408

Response to irregular waves: the spectral analysis 413

The wave force spectrum 438

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Introduction

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The structural analysis of offshore structures must be usually

performed by a dynamical analysis.

In fact, the structural analysis of the structure can be done as a

static analysis only if the fundamental period is sufficiently small, say

3 seconds.

In all the other cases, the analysis of the dynamical response to the

wave action must be performed.

However, dynamic analysis of some structural members must be

equally performed in some cases, for instance for wave slamming

and vortex shedding.

We have seen in the previous chapter all the mechanisms of wave

action, and in particular the fact that, and this in both the cases of

slender or large bodies, the actions given by a regular train of waves

on a fixed or compliant structure are:

a first order force, oscillating at the wave frequency;

a second order force, oscillating at twice the wave frequency;

a second order steady force, the drift.

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It is worth noting that, although the second order forces are of

second order with respect to the first order forces, i.e. their norm is

much smaller, their effect can be very important on the dynamical

response of the structure.

In fact, the dynamical amplification of a force depends not only on its

magnitude but also upon the ratio between the oscillating force

frequency and the natural frequency of the structure.

dynamic loading and dynamic response:

a dynamic loading is a loading varying with time in magnitude and/or

direction;

The dynamic response resulting from a dynamic loading is the way the

structure responses to it, and depends upon the stiffness, just as for

static loads, but also on the mass and damping of the structure.

In structural analysis, all loading having an appreciable variation

with time is considered a dynamic loading.

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Dynamic loadings can be divided into three categories:

periodic, which repeat in all essential features after certain regular

intervals of time; it is the case, for instance, of the wave actions in a

deterministic approach, i.e. for regular sea states, but also the forces

generated by vortex shedding are periodic;

impulsive, which occur once only; the typical case is that of impact loads

on fenders due to berthing of ships;

random, which do not vary regularly with time; it is the case of the wave

actions in irregular sea states

In the figure, examples of the three cases above.

f f f

impulsive

periodic

t t random t

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Actually, all environmental loads fluctuate with time, but for many

design purposes it is adequate to consider them in terms of an

equivalent static load; the validity of this assumption depends upon

both the properties of the structure and the nature of the load.

Consideration must also be given to dynamic effects when the

fluctuating components of the applied forces are large compared

with the mean load (and this is the case of the wave forces, for

instance), especially if the design is such that the structure is

particularly sensitive to fluctuating loads (as in the case of fatigue

design, for instance), or when the response of the structure is likely

to be significant (for instance, when a natural frequency of the

structure coincides with the frequency of part of the environmental

force).

This chapter is divided into three main parts:

response to regular waves (harmonic loadings);

response to impulsive forces;

response to irregular waves (random loadings), with a recall of some

concepts of the theory of probability.

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In this section we consider the basic mechanical facts concerning a

structure acted upon by a periodic force, like those occurring in a

regular sea state, and due to the main wave action or also to the

wave slamming and vortex shedding.

The approach is hence a deterministic approach, in which the sea

state is described by a regular train of waves.

The wave actions are hence computed by one of the methods seen

in Chapter 3, and are considered here completely known and

deterministic.

The case of an impulsive force will be also considered, as a special

case of deterministic action, in the next section.

The concepts that follows are not specific to offshore engineering,

but are common to other fields of structural engineering, like for

instance seismic design, aero-elastic design, wind engineering.

In this section it is first considered the case of a single-degree of

freedom and then the case of multi-degrees of freedom systems.

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The case of a single degree of freedom system can yield useful and

general information on the likely dynamic response.

In addition, preliminary calculations can be done effectively with

simple models, sometimes depending on a single degree of

freedom.

Let us consider first the free oscillations of an undamped

(conservative) system, characterised by a stiffness K and an inertia

M (which is not, generally speaking, a mass).

The linearized Lagrange equation (that is the equation of motion of

small amplitude) is of the type

Mx&& + Kx = 0.

x=x(t) is the Lagrangian coordinate describing the system’s

configuration; it is unique as the system has only one degree of

freedom.

The above equation can be rewritten as

x&& + ωs2 x = 0.

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ωs is the structural natural frequency of the system:

K

ωs =

.

M

ωs is a circular frequency (rad/sec), related to the angular natural

frequency fs (Hz) and to the natural period Ts (sec) of the structure

by the relations:

ω 2π

fs = s , Ts = .

2π ωs

The solution of the linearized motion equation is of the type

x (t ) = A cos(ωs t + ϕ ).

and ϕ is the phase angle representing the time lag.

The fundamental observation is that the frequency ωs increases if

the stiffness increases or if the inertia decreases.

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A very simple example is that of the figure aside (a plane harmonic

oscillator); the angle θ can be taken as the only Lagrangian

coordinate.

If m is the mass and µ the stiffness of the angular spring, the

Lagrangian equation of motion (here the equation is linear by itself,

linearization is not necessary) is:

L=

1

2

(ml 2θ& 2 − Kθ 2 ) →

∂ ∂L ∂L

−

∂t ∂θ& ∂θ

=0 → ml 2θ&& + Kθ = 0.

m

Hence, here it is

l

2 K 1 µ θ

M = ml , K = µ → ωs = = .

M l m

µ

The system being conservative, the motion does

not change in time: the system continues to oscillate harmonically

and the total mechanical energy conserves its value, ½ K A².

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The figure shows the variation of x with t. x

To be more realistic, the previous model

must consider damping, that is the

0

dissipation of energy by the system.

Generally speaking, energy dissipation

occurs due to hysteresis losses within t

frictional effects in joints and also due to the soil deformation.

In the case of offshore structures, a part of the total structural

damping is due to the hydrodynamic damping, that is to the

transmission of the structure’s kinetic energy to the surrounding

water (see chapter 3, page 302 and following).

For most civil engineering structures, it is convenient and realistic to

represent all the damping as a viscous damping, that is as a force

proportional to the motion velocity and opposed to the motion itself.

If we introduce the damping coefficient C, the motion equation

becomes

Mx&& + Cx& + Kx = 0.

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The previous equation can be rewritten as

x&& + 2αx& + ωs2 x = 0;

α is the attenuation:

C

α= .

2M

The characteristic equation is

λ2 + 2αλ + ωs2 = 0,

whose solutions are:

λ = −α ± α 2 − ωs2 .

So, three cases are possible: the first one is the case of the sub-

critical response, when α 2 − ωs2 < 0. Then:

λ = −α ± iϖ s ,

where

α2

ϖ s = ωs 1 − .

ωs2

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The solution of the motion equation is then

x = Ae −αt cos(ϖ s t + ϕ ).

motion amplitude. The diagram of x is limited by the two exponential

curves ± e −α,t see the figure below, and we call pseudo-period Tp the

time interval between two consecutive zero-crossing in the same

sense. Actually, Tp is a constant but as the motion is no longer

exactly periodic (as it is damped) the name pseudo-period is

preferable. It is x

1

−

2π 2π 1 α2 2

Tp = = = Ts 1 − =

ϖ s ωs 2 ω2

α s

1− 0

ωs2 t

4π M

= . τ

Tp

2

4MK − C

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We call logarithmic decrement the quantity

x (t ) Ae −αt cos(ϖ s t + ϕ ) 2π C

δ = ln = ln = αT p = .

x (t + T p ) −α (t +Tp )

Ae cos[ϖ s (t + Tp ) + ϕ ] 4MK − C 2

In this case the damping coefficient takes its critical value

C x

λ=− = −ωs = −α ,

2M

and that of the motion equation is

x (t ) = ( A + Bt )e −αt .

The oscillatory character of the motion is no

t

longer present, as apparent in the figure. 0

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The last case is that of super-critical response, when α 2 − ωs2 > 0.

The solutions of the characteristic equation are real and hence the

solution of the motion equation is

− α − α 2 −ωs2 t − α + α 2 −ωs2 t

x (t ) = A e + Be .

time interval, the second term is

negligible, so that the motion

amplitude decreases like the first

term, hence more slowly than the

critical case, see the figure.

In structural mechanics, the t

damping ratio ξ is often used: 0

C C α

ξ= = = .

Ccr 2 MK ωs

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Often, ξ is expressed as a percentage:

β = ξ × 100%.

It is worth to recall that in the case of a structural member of an

offshore platform, the inertia M is

M=Ms+Madd+Mw;

Ms: structural inertia;

Madd: added inertia, due to hydrodynamic effect (see Chapter 3);

Mw: inertia of the eventual internal water (for flooded members).

initial displacement, but by a force or some forces acting upon the

structure. We must hence consider the case of forced oscillations.

The most easy case to be dealt with is that of a harmonic force,

which is just the case of wave actions.

We consider hence a force acting upon the structure of the type

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F = F cos ωf t e.

F

x&& + 2αx& + ωs2 x = cos ωf t .

M

It is no longer homogeneous, and its solution is the sum of the

solution of the previous case, where there are no applied force, plus

a term of the type

x f (t ) = Af cos(ωf t + ϕ f ).

We have seen above that in all the cases, a damped free oscillation

decreases in amplitude; so, under the action of a periodic force, the

term x(t) becomes more and more smaller than xf(t), and after a

sufficient time interval it can be completely neglected, so that

x (t ) ≅ x f (t ) = Af cos(ω f t + ϕ f ).

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This means that the frequency of the structural motion is that of the

force.

To find the values of the amplitude Af and of the phase ϕs, the

solution xf(t) must be injected into the motion equation and then

identify the different terms; the result is

F 1 2αωf

Af = , ϕ f = arctan .

M

( 2 2 2

)

ωf − ωs + 4α ωf 2 2 ω 2

f − ω 2

s

upon that of the exciting force:

F 1

Af = .

( )

2

Mωs 2 2 4α 2 2

χ −1 + χ

ωs2

χ is the ratio of the frequencies:

ω

χ= f.

ωs

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To evaluate the variation of Af with χ, let us calculate

(

χ χ2 −1 + ) 2α 2

dAf F ωs2

= −2 .

dχ Mωs2 3

(

2 2 4α 2 2

χ −1 + 2 χ ) 2

ωs

for

ωs2 − 2α 2 α2

χ = χ* = = 1− 2 .

ωs 2

α cr

In these cases,

F F 1

Afo = Af ( χ = 0) = , Af* = Af ( χ = χ *) = .

K 2Mα ω 2 − α 2

s

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The solution χ=χ* exists only when

ωs α

α< = cr ≅ 0.7 α cr .

2 2

In this case, Afo is a minimum and Af* a maximum, while in the other

case, Afo is a maximum. This means that if the damping is not too

great, the amplitude of the dynamic oscillation is greater than the

static displacement under the same force F; the ratio

Af 1

Q= =

Afo

(χ 2 − 1)2 + 4ωα2

2

χ2

s

how much the dynamic response is greater, or smaller, than the

static response.

It is apparent that Q depends upon the mechanical characteristics of

the system, through ωs and α, and upon the frequency of the

exciting force, through χ. 392

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In particular, for undamped oscillations, α=0, when χ=1, that is when

the frequency of the exciting force is equal to that of the system, Q

tends toward infinity: it is the phenomenon of the resonance.

When α is not null, Q is not infinite but anyway it can be very much

greater than one, especially for 5 A α*=0

Q

exciting forces having a frequency

close to the natural frequency of the 4

system.

So, in order to avoid severe dangers

for the system, any structure should be 3

designed so as to have its natural

frequency sufficiently different form the 2

frequency of the exciting forces.

The figure aside shows the variation of

Q with χ for different values of 1

α*=0.7

α*=α/ωo= α/αcr .

χ

0

0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1 1.2 1.4 1.6 1.8 2

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Also the phase ϕf can be expressed as a function of χ:

2α χ

ϕ f = arctan .

ωs χ 2 − 1

different values of α*.

π

It is apparent that for small ϕf α *= 0.1

values of χ the system

follows the exciting force,

α *= 0.9

whilst for higher values of χ

the phase angle increases π/2

considerably and the

system can be also in

phase opposition with

respect to the force.

0

0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1 1.2 1.4 1.6 1.8 2

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Looking at the equation giving the amplitude of the response (page

390), the dynamical response can be divided into three regions:

low forcing frequency region, when χ<<1; in this case it is

F

x (t ) → cos ωf t when χ → 0;

K

in this region, it is mainly the stiffness K that controls the response, and

usually a static analysis combining the static and dynamic load is

sufficient, except when fatigue is important;

resonance region, when χ ≅1; in this case it is

F π

x (t ) → cos(ωf t + ) when χ → 1;

2Kξ 2

response is mainly controlled by the damping C, and a dynamic analysis

is essential;

high forcing frequency region, when χ>>1; in this case it is

F

x (t ) → cos(ωf t + π ) when χ → ∞;

Mωf2

response is mainly controlled by the inertia M and it is smaller than the

static response to F; nevertheless, a dynamical analysis is often

important for fatigue phenomena, as the frequency is important.

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Going back to the expression of Q, its maximum is obtained for

χ = 1 − 2ξ 2 .

So we get

1

Qmax = .

2ξ 1 − ξ 2

Being ξ<<1 when resonance happens, it is

1 MK

Qmax ≅ = .

2ξ C

In civil engineering structures have usually a very low damping ratio

(β ≅ 3% for steel structures) and hence they are sensitive to the

phenomenon of resonance, which is totally unacceptable for

structural and operational safety.

Hence, the structure must be designed so as to ensure that

resonance do not occur. This means that the main natural

frequencies of the structure must be sufficiently different from that of

the exciting forces, which normally cannot be modified. 396

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Type of force Typical range of f Typical range of

(Hz) T (s)

Wind turbulence 0.05÷20 0.05÷20

Unsteady velocities in tidal flow 1.0÷10 0.1÷1.0

Wave forces 0.05÷1.0 1.0÷20

Long period waves 0.001÷0.05 20÷1000

Tidal flows 0.0002 5000

The above table shows the approximate range of frequencies

encompassed by various environmental forces of interest in offshore

engineering.

through the so-called transfer function.

The theoretical background of the transfer function is well

understood just in the case of a harmonic exciting force, i.e. in the

case considered above. 397

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In fact, the motion equation in the case of forced damped

oscillations, can be rewritten as

Mx&& + Cx& + Kx = F e iωf t .

It is, of course, understood that the only real part is taken in the

above expression, and we will do the same in the following. The

solution is hence written as

x (t ) = Af e i (ωf t −ϕf ) ,

1

x (t ) = Fe iωf t .

K − Mωf2 + i (Cωf )

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The complex function H, defined by

1

H ( iωf ) = ,

K − Mωf2 + i (Cωf )

the exciting force; it is often referred to as receptance or mechanical

admittance or mobility.

The magnitude of the transfer function is

1 Q

H ( iωf ) = H (iωf ) H ( iωf ) = = .

(K − Mωf2 )2 + (Cωf )2 K

not only for periodic exciting forces:

x(t ) = H (iωf )F (t ).

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A case of interest is when the exciting force is the sum of some

periodic loadings.

This is the case for wave forces, at the second order theory, but also

of any function which is periodic of time Tf= 2π/ωf, as it can be

represented by a Fourier series, hence as a superposition of

harmonic components:

∞

F (t ) = A0 + ∑ ( Ar cos rωf t + Br sin rωf t ), with

r =1

1 Tf / 2 2 Tf / 2 2 Tf / 2

A0 =

Tf ∫−Tf / 2 F (t ) dt; Ar =

Tf ∫−Tf / 2 F (t ) cos rωf t dt; Br =

Tf ∫−Tf / 2 F (t ) sin rωf t dt.

Once again, it is better to use the complex form of the Fourier

series:

∞

1 T /2

F (t ) = ∑ c r e i r ωf t , where c r = ∫ f F (t ) e −i r ωf t dt .

Tf −Tf / 2

r = −∞

The motion equation becomes hence

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∞

Mx&& + Cx& + Kx = ∑ cr e i r ωf t .

r = −∞

superposition of the solutions to each harmonic component,

obtained multiplying the forcing term by its receptance function:

∞

x (t ) = ∑ H (i r ωf ) cr e i r ωf t .

r = −∞

What has been done above, concerned the very simple case of a

single degree of freedom system.

Real structures are modelled as multi-degree of freedom systems,

by very classical techniques like for instance finite elements.

In the case of the linear free vibrations of systems having n degrees

of freedom, the motion equations of the system are just similar to

that of a single-degree of freedom system:

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Mx&& + Cx& + Kx = F (t ).

stiffness matrix, x the vector of the Lagrangian coordinates used to

describe the dynamics of the system and F(t) the vector of the

exciting forces.

All the matrices above are n by n arrays; the inertia and stiffness

matrices are symmetric, and usually it is assumed that the damping

matrix is of the type

C = γ 1M + γ 2K ,

with γ1 and γ2 dimensional constants. In this way, C is symmetric too.

The fundamental technique to solve the above system of coupled

differential equations is to decouple the equations, so as to solve

each one of them independently from the other ones.

The first step in this process is to decouple the reduced equations

corresponding to the linear free vibrations of the same undamped

structure, that is the equations

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Mx&& + Kx = 0.

The problem is reduced to the search of the eigenvectors and

eigenvalues of M relative to K; the n roots of the characteristic

equation

det(M − ωK ) = 0,

are the n natural frequencies ωn of the discretized structure; the

spectral theorem ensures that all the ωn are real valued.

The decoupling need the search also of the eigenvectors; once

these are found, they are arranged by column in a matrix Φ; the

decoupled system is hence obtained as

the Lagrangian coordinates by

x = Φ z.

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The nth normal mode is an oscillation at frequency ωn where only the

normal coordinate zn is active, the other ones being null.

The normal modes are orthogonal, so that the energy contained in

one mode is independent of the energy contained in any other

mode.

The ith uncoupled motion equation has the form

n

M i z&&i + Ci z& i + K zi = ∑Φ ij F j (t ).

j =1

This is identical to that of a single degree of freedom system, except

that the force consists in a linear combination of the n exciting

forces, this being a result of the decoupling arithmetic.

So, each normal mode can be found independently from the other

ones and exactly in the same way used for the single degree of

freedom system.

Once the mode found, the corresponding real motion can be easily

reconstructed by the above relationship between x and z.

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Usually, the natural (normal) frequencies are numbered in

increasing order; the lowest natural frequency is called the

fundamental frequency of the structure.

decoupling the equations as done above, that is without looking for

the normal modes.

In fact, just as for the single degree of freedom case, if the forcing

function is sinusoidal, the response will also be harmonic and a

transfer function can be derived to relate input forces to output

response.

Such a transfer function will now be in the form of a complex n by n

transfer function matrix.

The system of the motion equations is rewritten as

( −Mωf2 + i C ωf + K ) x (t ) = F (t ),

where x(t)=x0eiωt.

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We define the impedance matrix as the matrix

Z ( iωf ) = ( −Mωf2 + i C ωf + K ).

In this way, it is

Z (iωf ) x (t ) = F (t ),

so that

x(t ) = H (iωf ) F (t ).

impedance matrix:

H = Z −1.

It is important to understand the physical meaning of each element

Hij of the transfer matrix: basically, Hij relates the deflection in the

degree of freedom xi on the structure due to the exciting force dual

of the degree of freedom xj when all other degrees of freedom are

unrestrained and unforced.

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Thus

x

H ij = i .

Fj

for the single degree of freedom case, and the same extensions

apply for calculating the response due to a periodic load represented

by a Fourier series of harmonics.

It is worth noting, however, that this approach based upon the

transfer matrix is convenient only for small degrees of freedom

systems, the other approach based upon the normal decomposition

being preferable, for many reasons, namely concerning the

numerical computing effort.

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Impulsive forces can be produced by many events, like for instance

the shock loading against fenders in boat-landing operations and the

wave slamming.

First of all, an impulsive force Fh(t) is a force having a constant value

Fh for a short time period ∆τ, and being null for the rest of the time:

F for τ ≤ t ≤ τ + ∆τ ; Fh(t)

Fh (t ) = h

0 elsewhere.

Fh

We define impulse the quantity

I = Fh ∆τ . τ τ+∆τ t

An elementary impulsive force is an impulsive force characterised by

the parameters τ =0, ∆τ → 0, I =1 (so that Fh →∞).

The motion equation of a system acted upon by an elementary

impulsive force, usually is indicated by h(t).

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The case of an impulsive force can be treated analytically, modelling

the impulse by a Dirac function.

δ(t)

The Dirac function δ(t) is defined as

δ (t − a ) = 0 for t ≠ a;

∞

∫− ∞ ε (t ) δ (t − a ) dt = ε (a ).

a t

An impulsive elementary force produces on the system the same

effect of an initial velocity h&(0) impressed to the system.

The value of the initial velocity is obtained equating the impulse I

and the momentum Q:

1

Q = m h&(0), I h&(0) = .

=1 →Q =I ⇒

m

Hence, the motion equation h(t) of a system subjected to an

elementary impulsive force,

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1

h&&(t ) + 2 ξ ω s h&(t ) + ωs2 h(t ) = δ (t ),

m

can be solved studying the initial value problem

1

h(0) = 0, h&(0) = .

m

For the case ξ<1, interesting in the case of structural dynamics, the

solution is named impulse response function and is

1

h(t ) = e −ξ ωs t sin ωs 1 − ξ 2 t .

m ωs 1 − ξ 2

The function h(t) can be used also to determine the response of the

system to an impulse I other than unit and applied at the instant τ.

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In fact, the linearity of the equation allows for the superposition of

the responses, giving, after a time translation, the response

x (t ) = I h(t − τ ).

of a structure subjected to a generally varying function.

In fact, a generic exciting force F(t) can be considered as the

superposition of suitable impulsive forces (see the figure):

F (t ) ≅ ∑ Fhi (t ). F(t)

Fhi(τi)=

The structural response is the F(τi)

superposition of the responses

xi(t) to the corresponding

impulsive forces Fhi(t):

τi τi+∆τi t

i i i i

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This expression is exact for a suite of infinite impulsive forces, when

the intervals ∆τi tend to zero:

t

x (t ) = ∫ F (τ ) h(t − τ ) dτ .

0

The response is hence given by the Duhamel’s integral of F(t) and

h(t), i.e. it is the convolution of F(t) and h(t):

x (t ) = F (t ) ∗ h(t ).

another technique, always leading to a Duhamel’s integral, is the

use of the Heaviside function or, always in the time domain,

numerical techniques, such as the Newmark β-method.

More known, are the techniques based upon a transformation in the

frequency domain, by the use of the Laplace or Fourier transform.

The reader is addressed to specific texts of structural dynamics for a

deeper insight in the matter.

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Generally speaking, environmental loads, such those due to waves,

turbulence or wind, cannot adequately be described by a periodic

function. In fact, the pattern of loading with time does not repeat

itself at regular intervals.

For this kind of loading, that can be assumed to be a random

process, a statistical analysis is needed, where the properties of

random loads are used. These properties are chosen such that they

remain constant or stationary over the time period for the analysis.

First of all, let us consider a single degree of freedom system. The

problem is to relate its response x(t) to the exciting force F(t) which

is a random process.

The main tool for the analysis of random vibrations is the Fourier

integral.

A quick and direct way to introduce the Fourier integral is to consider

the already introduced series

∞

1 Tf / 2

F (t ) = ∑ cr e i r ωf t , where cr =

Tf ∫−Tf / 2 F (t ) e

− i r ωf t

dt .

r = −∞

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Let us apply this rule to a system of large period T=2π/∆ωf:

∞

∆ωf π / ∆ωf F (t ) e − i r ∆ωf t dt e i r ∆ωf t .

F (t ) = ∑

2π ∫−π / ∆ωf

r = −∞

having an infinite period, i.e. with ∆ωf→0.

In this way, the above Fourier series is replaced by an integral, and

after defining the Fourier integral

∞ −i ω t

F (iω ) = ∫− ∞ F (t ) e dt

it becomes

1 ∞

F (iω ) e i ω t dω.

2π ∫− ∞

F (t ) =

The Fourier integral operates the Fourier transform and allows the

representation of a time function in the frequency domain, that is,

the function is represented by its frequency components.

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The last equation operates the inverse Fourier transform, from the

frequency domain to the time domain.

The almost total symmetry between the two transforms becomes

complete if, in place of the circular frequency ω, the angular

frequency is used, f=2π/ω:

∞ − i 2π f t dt ;

F (if ) = ∫− ∞ F (t ) e

∞ i 2π f t df .

F (t ) = ∫− ∞ F (if ) e

From the last equation, it can be shown that

∞ 2 (t ) dt = ∞ F ( if ) 2 df .

∫− ∞ F −∞∫

In order to avoid negative frequencies, the limits of integration may

be changed and the last equation rewritten as

∞ 2 (t ) dt = 2 ∞ F (if ) 2 df .

∫− ∞ F 0 ∫

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These results are not yet applicable, in this form, to random

processes: this is because the fact that the random signal must

continue over an infinite time, means that the Fourier integrals do

not converge to a steady value.

To overcome these convergence difficulties, we consider a signal

identical to the random signal over the time interval –T/2<t<T/2 and

zero elsewhere, see the figure (source: CIRIA).

1 T /2 2

σ F2 (t ) =

T ∫−T / 2

F (t ) dt .

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So, thanks to the previous relationship, we get

∞2 2

σ F2 (t ) = ∫ F (if ) df .

0 T

The quantity

2 2

SFF (f ) = F (if ) .

T

is the single-sided spectral density function. It does not have the

convergence difficulties of the Fourier transforms of a random

process and indicates the manner of the distribution of the harmonic

content of the signal with frequency.

The mean square value of F(t) is related to the spectral density by

∞

σ F2 (t ) = ∫ SFF (f ) df .

0

So, the mean square value of F(t) is just represented by the area

under the curve of SFF(f).

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Using the Duhamel (convolution) integral, it can be shown that the

spectral density of the response, which is also a random process, as

caused by another random process, is given by

2

S xx (f ) = H (if ) SFF (f ).

after replacing ω with 2π f :

1

H ( if ) = .

2 2

K − 4π f M + i ( 2π f C )

So,

1

S xx (f ) = SFF (f ).

(K − 4π 2f 2M )2 + 4π 2 f 2 C 2

So, the link between the spectral density of the force and that of the

response is provided by the square of the transfer function; in a

sense, the structure behaves like a filter between the input and

output signals. 418

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So, the transfer function operates directly between the force and the

response for the case of a periodic (deterministic) function, see page

399, and indirectly in the case of random loadings, in this case being

the link between the spectral densities of the exciting force and of

the response.

Using the above relationships, one gets immediately that the mean

square of the response is given by:

∞ ∞

σ x2 (t ) = ∫ S xx (f ) df = ∫ H (if ) 2 SFF (f ) df .

0 0

To calculate the other probabilistic properties of the response, some

other assumptions are needed.

Usually, and with a wide generality, the input, that is the force, is

modelled as a normal random process (i.e. the probability density

function of the force is assumed to be a Gaussian) and the transfer

is assumed to be linear.

The physical implications of the last equation hereon deserve a

deeper attention.

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In fact, we can give to this

relationship a graphical

interpretation, like in the figure

aside (source: CIRIA), where

the spectral density of the force

and the transfer function of the

system are known and plotted

as functions of the frequency.

If the logarithmic scales are

used, the multiplication of the

two graphics is simply obtained

by adding the two curves.

The mean square of the

response can be computed

calculating the area under the

curve Sxx(f); this can be done

numerically.

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The previous results are not restricted to a single-degree of freedom

system: generally speaking, they concern all the cases with one

input force and when one output response is sought for.

The only important thing is that the transfer function must really

concern the link between the input and the output.

For instance, for the case of a two degrees of freedom like the one

in the figure (source: CIRIA) one gets:

∞

σ x2 (t ) = ∫ H (if ) 2 SFF (f ) df .

2 0

with

{( )(

H(if ) = K1 − 4π 2f 2M1 K2 − 4π 2f 2M2 − )

− 4π 2f 2 (K2M2 + C1C2 ) +

[

+ i 2π f K1C2 + K2C1 − 4π 2f 2M2(C1 + C2 ) × ]}

[

× K1 + K2 − 4π 2f 2M1 + i 2π f (C1 + C2 ) . ]−1

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In the above discussion, we have considered only the case where

the output is a displacement, but this is not needed.

In fact, the above results concern any kind of response (e.g.

stresses), that can be specified by an appropriate transfer function

between input (the force) and output (the response sought for).

Nevertheless, there is an important restriction in all this theory: the

mechanical relationship between the force and the response must

be linear. Mechanically speaking, the structure must be in the linear

elastic range.

In the case of offshore structures subjected to irregular sea states,

and hence to random wave loadings, the input is not given in the

form of a spectrum of the force, but rather in the form of a spectrum

of the surface elevation (e.g. the Pierson-Moskowitz spectrum, see

Chapters 2 and 3).

We have already seen in Chapter 3 how to compute the wave forces

once the wave spectrum known; in the next section, we will see in

detail how to relate the wave spectrum to the wave response.

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Before going on to analyse the response of a multi-degree of

freedom systems, we must consider some other properties of

random signals.

An important property is the so-called auto-correlation function

1 T

T ∫0

Rh (τ ) = h(t ) h(t + τ ) dt = < h(t ), h(t + τ ) > .

That is, the value of the random signal h(t) at time t is multiplied by

the value at a later time, h(t + τ), for all values of t and then the

mean of all such products is taken, see the figure (source: CIRIA).

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The auto-correlation function gives a measure of how much the

signal at different instants are correlated, i.e. statistically linked in

some, more or less hidden, way.

For τ =0, it is of course Rh(0)=<h²(t)>; the signals are perfectly

correlated (they are identical).

But, when τ increases, generally speaking the relationship between

the signal at the time t and that at the time t+τ tends to become

evanescent, so that the two signals become more and more

unrelated.

Of course, if the signal has some periodic structure, the correlation

is greater than for a completely random signal. In the limit case of a

perfectly harmonic signal (like a sinusoidal one) the auto-correlation

function has also a harmonic variation.

The results are usually represented by plotting Rh(τ) versus τ ; some

typical cases and comparisons between spectral density and auto

correlation functions are shown for some random signals in the next

figure (source: CIRIA).

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It can be shown that the spectral density and auto correlation

functions are related by the following Fourier transform pair

equations:

∞

Shh (f ) = 4 ∫ Rh (τ ) cos( 2π f τ ) dτ ,

0

∞

Rh (τ ) = ∫0 Shh (f ) cos(2π f τ ) df .

These relationships allows for the calculation of the spectral density

function via the auto-correlation function.

the cross-correlation function (or co-variance):

1 T

T ∫0

Rh1h2 (τ ) = h1(t ) h2 (t + τ ) dt = < h1(t ), h2 (t + τ ) > .

of information of the auto-correlation function, but this for a signal

with respect to the other.

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Roughly speaking, the cross-correlation function describes the

statistical dependence of a random signal on the other one.

The cross-correlation function may be either positive or negative; for

instance, the waves at two points may be generally out of phase, so

that an increase in water level at one point, is more usually

associated with a decrease at the other.

When the cross-correlation function is null for all τ, the two signals

are unrelated, but when it is not null there is some statistical

dependence between them.

For example, in a random sea, the waves do not travel along a

single front, but there is some variation in space of all the properties.

This can be described by cross correlation functions.

Associated with the cross-correlation function, the cross-spectral

density function can be defined:

∞

Sh1h2 (f ) = 4 ∫ Rh1h2 (τ ) cos( 2π f τ ) dτ .

0

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Finally, it is necessary, in some cases, to express the sum of some

random processes:

g (t ) = ∑ c i hi (t ).

i

cross-spectral densities of the component signals by

n n

Sgg (f ) = ∑ ∑ cr cs Shr hs (f ).

r =1s =1

while when r≠s, Shrhs(f) is the cross-spectral density of the signals r

and s.

response.

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Actually, once the spectrum of the response has been calculated,

some other statistic parameters concerning the response can be

calculated.

To do this, two assumptions are usually made:

the random sea state is described by a zero-mean Gaussian

distribution;

the system has a linear response.

The consequence of these assumptions on the structural response

is that it is also a random process described by a zero-mean

Gaussian distribution.

Hence, it is statistically completely described by its root mean

square:

∞

σ xx = ∫0 S xx (f ) df .

This value is the square root of the area under the diagram of the

response spectrum Sxx(f), and can be calculated by numerical

methods.

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The maximum expected value of the response, i.e. the mean peak

value xmax, in a sea state of duration T (in seconds) is given by

γ

xmax = σ xx 2 ln(νT ) + ;

2 ln(νT )

ν: frequency at which the energy at all higher frequencies is equal to

energy at all lower frequencies (it is also the frequency at which most of

the energy of a single-peaked spectrum is concentrated):

∞ 2

ν =

∫0 f S xx (f ) df

;

∞

∫ S (f ) df

0 xx

if the spectrum of the response is narrow, ν tends to ωs/2π.

that the response will exceed a given value xo is given by

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xo2

−

2

N ( x ) = ν T e 2σ xx .

sea state of duration T (in seconds) is given by

prob( x > xo ) = 1 − e N (x ) .

mean normal (Gaussian) distribution of the water surface elevation,

is the fact that the significant wave height Hs (=H1/3, the mean of the

higher third of the waves distribution; see chapter 2, page 86) is

related to the wave spectrum by the simple relationship

∞

H s = 4σηη = 4 ∫0 Sηη (f ) df .

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Let us consider now the case of a multi-degree of freedom system.

In this case, the methods seen for the single-degree of freedom can

be used, via some modification.

First of all, a transfer function (or modal receptance) is introduced for

each mode:

1

H i ( if ) = .

K i − 4π 2f 2M i + i 2π f Ci

the right-hand side of the ith uncoupled motion (and modal) equation

(see page 404)

n

M i z&&i + Ci z& i + K zi = ∑Φ ij F j (t ),

j =1

can be found by application of the equation in the previous page:

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n n

Sfi f j (f ) = ∑ ∑Φ ir Φ js SFr Fs (f ), i , j = 1,..., n.

r =1s =1

For i=j, the above equation gives the direct spectral density of the

generalised force and for i≠j it gives the cross spectral densities.

In this way, the spatial variation and phase differences of the

exciting forces are accommodated in the analysis. It should be noted

that whereas direct spectral densities are real numbers, cross

spectral densities are complex.

The spectral densities of the generalised modal co-ordinates are

found by an equation analogous to that for single degree of freedom

systems:

Szi z j (f ) = H i H j Sfi f j (f ).

The generalised modal spectral densities can be transformed back

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into the original Lagrangian co-ordinates x by the general

relationship (see page 403)

x = Φ z.

Finally, it is

n n

S x i xi ( f ) = ∑ ∑Φ ir Φ is Szr zs (f ), i = 1,..., n.

r =1s =1

Once the response spectral densities have been found, then the

mean square value may be calculated and statistical statements

regarding probability, etc. can be made in exactly the same way as

for a single degree of freedom system.

It is sometimes convenient to make use of the fact that

Szr zs (f ) = Szs zr (f ) for r ≠ s.

In this way the last equation can be rewritten with only real

quantities:

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n n n −1

S x i xi ( f ) = ∑Φ ir2 Szi zi (f ) + 2 ∑ ∑Φ r Φ s Re[Szr zs (f )], i = 1,..., n.

r =1 r = 2 s =1

that

n

S x i xi ( f ) ≅ ∑Φ ir2 Szi zi (f ), i = 1,..., n.

r =1

transfer function matrix can be used.

The response in each of the n degrees of freedom can be calculated

by an equation similar to that concerning a single-degree of freedom

system:

n n

S xi xi ( f ) = ∑ ∑ H ir H is SFr Fs (f ), i = 1,..., n.

r =1s =1

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His is the complex element of the transfer matrix relating the

response in the degree of freedom i to a harmonic force in the

degree of freedom s.

When all the n forces are unrelated (that is, when they are

statistically independent), the cross-correlation functions and hence

the cross-spectral densities are zero and the last equation simplifies

to:

n

S xi xi ( f ) = ∑ H ir 2 SFr Fr (f ), i = 1,..., n.

r =1

single random force.

In the marine environment where the many forces on the structure

are caused by the same basic wave action, the cross-correlation

functions will not be zero and it is conservative to superimpose

responses in the manner of the last equation.

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Finding the spectral density, and hence the mean square value of

the response at each of the n freedoms, may not be sufficient in

many calculations.

If further analysis is required, (to find the stresses due to the

dynamic deflections, for example) a knowledge of the response

cross spectral densities will also be required.

These may be calculated by the following equation

n n

S xi x j (f ) = ∑ ∑ H ir H js SFr Fs (f ), i , j = 1,..., n.

r =1s =1

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So far, we have seen how to calculate the spectral response of a

structure acted upon by a wave force whose spectrum is known.

As already said, in offshore engineering, it is the surface elevation

spectrum which is usually the input of the problem, not the wave

force spectrum.

Hence, we consider now the way the wave force spectrum can be

derived from the surface elevation spectrum.

We consider first the case of slender cylinders, for which the

Morison’s equation is valid.

To apply the Morison’s equation in irregular sea states, we need a

statistical description of the fluid velocities and accelerations.

It is assumed that the free surface elevation has a Gaussian

probability distribution and that the results of linear wave theory are

valid.

It may then be shown (Borgman, 1967) that the horizontal particle

velocity u and acceleration a are statistically independent and that

each possesses a Gaussian probability distribution.

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Their spectral densities may readily be expressed in terms of the

wave spectrum.

The horizontal velocity u(t) and acceleration a(t) of a component

wave train are given in complex form and in the framework of the

linear wave theory as follows

u(t ) = Hu (f )η (t ),

a(t ) = H a (f )η (t ),

with

cosh kz

Hu (f ) = 2π f ,

sinh kd

cosh kz

H a (f ) = −i 4π 2f 2 ,

sinh kd

H

η (t ) = e − i 2π f t .

2

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Hu(f) and Ha(f) are complex

receptances (transfer functions);

it is worth noting that the wave

number k influences their

frequency dependence through

the linear dispersion equation.

Taking into account what we have

seen before about the spectra,

the corresponding velocity and

acceleration spectra are given as

2

Suu (f ) = Hu (f ) Sηη (f ),

2

Saa (f ) = H a (f ) Sηη (f ).

particular point which derive from

a particular wave spectrum is

given in the figure aside (source:

Sarpkaya and Isaacson). 440

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Similar formulae can be found for other characteristics, for instance

the vertical velocity and acceleration.

It must be emphasized that the above relationships are valid in the

framework of the linear wave theory.

Once the probabilistic and spectral properties of u and a are known,

the Morison’s equation can be used to obtain the statistical

properties of the random wave force acting upon a slender cylinder,

namely its spectrum.

Borgman, 1967, has derived a suitable expression of the wave force

spectrum:

cosh 2 kz 8 2 2 2 2 2

SFF (f ) = Sηη (f )4π 2f 2 k

π d σ u + 4π f k i ;

2

sinh kd

1 π D2

k d = ρ CD D, k i = ρ CM ;

2 4

σ²u: mean square value of u:

∞ ∞

σ u2 = ∫ Suu (f ) df = ∫ Hu (f ) 2 Sηη (f ) df .

0 0

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Actually, the above expression of the wave force spectrum is a

linearized version of the spectrum, whose derivation is very

complicate, equivalent to assume the following linearized expression

of the Morison’s formula (a is the particles acceleration):

8

F= σ k u + k i a.

π u d

This linearization of the drag force ensures that the velocity

component at one frequency affects only the drag component at that

same frequency and thus a transfer function can be used in the

usual way.

This is in contrast to the complete Morison equation, in which a

sinusoidal velocity results in a drag force which contains

components at odd multiples of the fundamental frequency.

According to Borgman, 1969, the drag force in the equation above

can be considered as a single term approximation to a complete

power series representation of u|u|; he suggests also that the

linearized approximation is reasonable over the range IuI<2σu.

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The wave force spectrum

paolo.vannucci@meca.uvsq.fr

It can be noticed that if the drag forces are negligible over the range

of frequencies of the wave spectrum, then the response is in any

case linear and is easy to calculate.

In addition, when the waves so concerned also lie in the deep water

range over the complete spectrum, then the force on a single

vertical circular cylinder subjected to a sinusoidal wave within this

frequency range is

π

F (t ) = ρ g D 2CM H sin ω t .

8

As a consequence, the wave force spectrum is simply

2

π

SFF (f ) = ρ g D 2CM Sηη (f ).

4

is independent on the frequency.

443

paolo.vannucci@meca.uvsq.fr

The previous results concern the force per unit length; when the

total force or overturning moment acting on a vertical cylinder is

needed, an integration along the cylinder’s axis must be performed.

For the case of a single cylinder extending from the sea bed and

piercing the free surface, the total force and overturning moment

spectra are given by:

2 2

2 4π

32π f kd d 2 2

SFFtot (f ) = Sηη (f ) ∫ σ u ( z ) cosh f 2z dz +

g

2 4π f 2d

2 0

sinh

g

4π 2 2

4π 2 2 f d

2 2 2 g

+ 2π f g ki tanh f d + ,

g π 2

sinh 4

2

f d

2

g

444

222

The wave force spectrum

paolo.vannucci@meca.uvsq.fr

Sηη (f ) 2 2 d 2 2 4π

2

SMM (f ) = 32π f k ∫ zσ u ( z ) cosh f 2z dz +

4π 2 2 d 0 g

sinh2 f d

g

g k i2 2 2 4π 2 2 2

+ 8π f g d cosh f d sinh 4π f 2d +

16π 2f 2 g g

4π 2 2

+ g 2 + 16π 4f 4d 2 − g 2 cosh2 f d .

g

445

paolo.vannucci@meca.uvsq.fr

Let us now consider the case of large bodies, i.e. the case where

the diffraction theory must be used.

The random loads on large offshore structures are considerably

simpler to treat than those on slender elements, and this because no

appreciable (nonlinear) drag forces are present (in the diffraction

theory, the force is inertial).

We have seen in Chapter 3 that the wave force on a body, in the

framework of the linear diffraction theory, is proportional to the wave

amplitude.

It may be written in complex form in terms of the free surface

elevation η as (a is the wave amplitude)

F (t ) = H ( kb ) a e − i 2π f t = H (kb )η (t ).

(the radius for a cylinder) and H(kb) is a complex receptance

function which depends on k, and hence on f through the dispersion

equation.

446

223

The wave force spectrum

paolo.vannucci@meca.uvsq.fr

So, as always in the calculation of a spectrum, the spectrum of the

force is given as a function of the wave spectrum by the relationship

2

SFF (f ) = H (kb ) Sηη (f ).

For a given body and water depth, H(kb) is a known function. For

example, for a large vertical cylinder it is

4 ρ gχ x tanh kd 8 π ρ gχ x tanh kd

H ( kb ) = ≅ (kb )2 .

k2 J1′2 (kb ) + Y1′2 ( kb ) k2 16 + π 2 ( kb ) 4

the sea bed (Mc Camy and Fuchs solution), while it is less than 1 for

a truncated cylinder (χx ≅0.9÷0.95), see chapter 3, page 259.

Putting

Fmax

CM ( kb ) = ,

π ρ g a b2

447

paolo.vannucci@meca.uvsq.fr

which for a vertical cylinder is equal to

4χ x tanh kd tanh kd

CM ( kb ) = ≅ 8χ x ,

π (kb )2 J′2 (kb ) + Y ′2 (kb ) 16 + π 2 ( kb ) 4

1 1

we get the transfer function in the general form

H ( kb )

2

[

= π ρ g b 2CM (kb ) . ]2

The figure shows the

transfer function for the

case of two cylinders,

having different ratios

depth to radius

(respectively indicated

by d and a in the figure;

source: Sarpkaya and

Isaacson).

448

224

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