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Cbergui MI. Benaissa MO

University of Mascara. Sciences and Technology Faculty. University of Sciences and Technology SBA

Electrical Engineering department. Electrical Engineering department.

BP 305, Mamounia, 29000 Mascara-Algeria. 22000 SBA-Algeria

Chergui_cum@yahoo.fr omarioriquelme1 O @yahoo.fr

Ahstract- The present work aims to achieve a strategy to control components has been of interest to many researchers in recent

and optimize the solat· pumping system. Our objective is the years [3-5]. The induction motor became standard for solar

modeling and simulation of the photovoltaic performance pumping pumping applications mainly due to its simplicity, robustness

systems operating thanks to sunlight, and based on an induction and low cost compared to the DC motor. The use of PV as an

motor, which drives a centrifugal pump that draws water from a

energy source for pumping water is be considered one of the

well to a reservoir. The optimization of our system elements is based

most promising fields of application of solar energy. PV systems

on: The design and simulation of a adequate tracking system

maximum power point; design and simulation of a convenient

pumping water only require that there is sufficient sunlight

invertet· reliable and high performance by applying the best

and a source of water. The use of PV for water pumping is

technique ofPWM, the application of the technique uncomplicated appropriate because there is often a normal relationship between

and effective control of induction motOt· coupled to a centrifugal the availability of solar energy and water demand. Necessitate

pump. We present the essential information about solar energy, in for water increases during periods of hot weather where the

particular the strategy photovoltaic pumping in scattered areas. We intensity of solar radiation is high performance solar modules is

have developed two methods vector controL They are used to reduce maximal. On the other hand, the demand for water decreases

the ripples of the stator flux and the electt'omagnetic tOt'que, as they

when the weather is cool and the sun is less intense. PV

improve the signal of the stator cUlTent. We optimize not only the

systems pumping water are particularly suitable for water supply

efficiency of the photovoltaic convet'sion, using a maximum power

point tracking algorithm, but also, the losses in the induction motor

in remote areas where no electricity supply is available. The

and the quantity of water pumping. water can be pumped during the day and be stored in reservoirs

Keywords-component; photovoltaic; maximum power point tracking; to ensure water supply at night. The strategy of storing water in

induction motor; quantity o/water pumping a reservoir is more practical, useful, economic and

environmental than storing electricity in batteries [6-8].

I. INTRODUCTION

NOMENCLATURE

Solar Water Pumping Systems have a social

acceptance of rural and remote areas as an alternative of ICELL(A), is the current cell,

Water Pumping by Diesel pumping Systems. By PV water V CELL(V), is the voltage cell,

pumping system, no water shortage caused by unavailability of les (A), is the ShOli circuit current of cell,

diesel fuel and/or by repairing or maintenance of the diesel e is the electronic charge (1.6021 x 10-19 C),

pumping systems or by the absence of the operator. PV Rs (Q) is the resistance in series parameter of panel,

water pumping systems are reliable. Water is available in all Rsh (Q) is the resistance in shunt parameter of panel,

hours of the day and in all days of the year. No need for an ISAT (A) is the saturation current

operator as in the diesel pumping system. That will make the VT (V ), is the thermal voltage,

citizens life of rural and remote areas easier and permit them to K is the Boltzmann constant (1.3806504x 10-23 JK'l),

increase their income. The pump is of the base member of a n is the ideality factor,

system for removal of water. It can be centrifugal or positive T (25°C 298K) is the cell temperature,

=

solution are used to extract water, but the use of PV conversion a is the diode parameter (usually a;:::; 1.2),

of solar energy to operate the water pumps is now a T)MPPT is efficiency of a MPPT module,

developing technology, characterized by gradually decreasing Pmax is the maximum power,

costs and increasing involvement with technology. The main G (W /m2) is the irradiance,

barrier to the use of PV pumping systems continues to be their Aeff (m2) is the area of solar panel,

high initial cost. The cost of water these systems is directly p is number of pole pairs,

related to cost, performance and reliability of systems and iqs (iqs ) is the components of stator current,

components at the solar insolation. While improving rp,., rotor flux,

manufacturing techniques profitable PV module is continuously R,IR,. is the stator/rotor resistance

sought, their existence remains a clear need to develop improved LJLr, is the stator/rotor inductance,

values of reliability and performance of the sub-solar M (Msr) is the mutual inductance.

pumping systems to extract the maximum power solar

generator at any time. Thus, the adaptation of system

ICRERA 2015

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4th International Conference on Renewable Energy Research and Applications Palermo, Italy, 22-25 Nov 2015

One of the most significant developments in control of the

1M has been the field-oriented control (FOC), where partial

feedback linearization, together with a propOliional integral.

This technique is very useful, except that it is very sensitive to

parameter variations such as rotor time constant and incorrect (3)

flux measurement or estimation at low speeds [5]. Direct torque

control (DTC) classical or using a space vector modulation are

powerful control method for motors drives. Featuring direct

control of the stator flux and torque instead of the

conventional current control technique, it provides a

systematic solution to improve operating characteristics of the

motor and the voltage invelier source. In principle, DTC method

is based on instantaneous space vector theory. By optimal

selection of the space voltage vectors in each sampling period, The method advantage is to use only reference variables that

DTC archives effective control of the stator flux and torque. The

are not noisy. Steady sets, we get:

number of space voltage vectors and switching frequency

directly influence the performance of DTC system. For a

prefixed switching strategy, the drive behavior, in terms of

torque, switching frequency and torque response, is quite * -

V ds .*

- Rs Ids _ .T

(JDS

*

OJ"l.qs

different at low and high speed. The torque is expressed in the

(dq) reference as a cross product of current or flow. *

Vqs =

* + (JD.\.

Rs I'qs .T *

OJ.,}.ds (4)

OJ OJ + M..Ir Rr

s* *

I.qs

(1) LrCPr

=

If the second product of the expression eliminates, the

reference flux c]J'r, the reference currents i'ds and i'qs we deduct:

Torque of IM emblematic to that of a DC motor. It sutlices to do

this, guide the (dq) reference to cancel the flux component in

quadrature. It has to choose the proper rotation angle Park, and .* <P *r and '* *

LrTem

Ids -- lqs (5)

the rotor flux is entirely focused on the direct axis (d) and

pM,,<Pr*

= =

the machine, the current id, and iqs steady so that these currents

(2)

are identical to the reference currents (tds and i'qs ). Therefore,

the flux and torque take their reference values. The block

diagram of figure.1 summarizes these elements and their

Should adjust the flow by acting on the component of the

regulators of the FOC applied in PV pumping system and the

stator current ids and regulates the torque acting on the

figure.2 illustrate the PV pumping system Matlab model with

component iqs. The strategy is to leave constant component idl'

DTC. The power point tracking INC-MPPT is integrated. Its

Its reference is to impose a nominal flow into the 1M and

minimum and maximum range of the DC voltage, the MPPT can

constant; it may impose variations in torque acting on the current

pick it for comparisons [5]. It is applied to the studied system.

iqs• About the transformations, we can direct conversion from

two-phase voltages in the (dq) reference to calculate the

phase voltages to impose on the 1M via the PWM inverter. The

inverse transform computes from the three line currents of the

1M, the two-phase currents in the reference control (dq) need.

These two transformations require the calculation of the angle.

We consider state variables the stator currents (ids, iq,), the rotor

flux ((jJdr, (jJqr) and speed rotation co. The model of the 1M in a

coordinate system (d,q) connected to the rotating field

synchronous at the speed COs is given by [8-9] :

Figure .1 Block diagram of a solar pumping system.

ICRERA 2015

284

4th International Conference on Renewable Energy Research and Applications Palermo, Italy, 22-25 Nov 2015

5

.!!l.-

en 0

u

.0

ro

-5

10 10.05 10.1

Temps (5)

4000 �------�-

-2000 --------�--�--

We simulated an 1M with type of Pm 1.5 kW. For sizing,

=

o 5 10 15

under the irradiance G 1000 W/m2 T 25°C with the type

= = Temps (s)

PLM-250-M-60 the total number of PVG module is 13 modules

in series with a single row, The simulation will be presented with (d) Power debited by PVG Ppv (W)

comparison between the application of the IRFOC and DTC

SVM in the PV pumping system. We study the influence of the 150

evolution of the irradiance and electrical parameters on the

100

driving performance. The curves of figure 3 illustrate the

E 50

performance drive for sudden changes in irradiance to visualize �

the behavior of the system caused by changing the G. The E 0

Ql

u

simulation of PV-IM pumping system controlled in the first by -50

IRFOC and second by DTC-SVM is illustrated with robustness

I

-100 I

tests take the example of G fall from 800 to 500 W/m2• The 0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8

studied system is modeled and simulated in the MATLAB Temps (5)

Simulink environment.

(f) Electromagnetic torque Tern or Cern (Nm)

1000

Figure 3. Comparison between DTC-SVM (blue) and IRFOC (red)

IRFOC

�

> 500 DTC-SVM

0.

:::l

IV. RESULTS AND DISCUSSIONS

0

0 5 10 15 We can interpret the results previously cited of the

Temps (s)

comparison between IRFOC and DTC-SVM applied in PV

pumping system by changing some parameters about three parts:

(a) Terminal voltage of PV G UPVG (V) Transient performance; Steady performance and optimization of

the quantity pumped.

I I [ l]

' �l

' � l l�I I��;C

i ::: i l )�li�m111111',11l:\'II III, II: II

il

A. Transient performance

Comparing transient concerns, the settling time of the torque

in the case of a transition charge and for different values of speed

-200 for two cases: IRFOC and DTC-SVM. The results are grouped

' I

1',1 in table 1. Overall, we find that the settling time of the torque in

-400 ,

12.45 12.46 12.47 12.48 the DTC-SVM is less than that given by the IRFOC. The

Temps (s) validation is made for control with speed loop. The object is to

select the best react, which gives us a better torque setting for all

(b) Stator voltage Uabcs (V) two controls. According to the results, we note that for some time

ICRERA 2015

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4th International Conference on Renewable Energy Research and Applications Palermo, Italy, 22-25 Nov 2015

and for different values of speed (w = 300, 150 and 100rad/s), seen in the robustness testing the system remains stable

the settling time of the torque, in the case of DTC-SVM is fastest even when reduced sunlight which leads to improved robustness

more than lRFOC. We chose the results of the DTC-SVM. It with respect to parameter variations of PVG and therefore a good

provides a better response. optimization of the extraction water. Therefore, this is well suited

for techno-economic needs of the order of a PV pumping system.

Table 1. Responses of torque in IRFOC and DTC-SVM with

HMT=45m REFERENCES

Control IRFOC DTC-SVM

w (rad/s) Times responses of torque (s) [1] B. Parida, S. Iniyan, R.A. Goic: review of solar

300 0, 40 0,27 photovoltaic technologies. Renewable sustainable energy. Rev

150 0,18 0,25 15(3).1625-1636. 2011.

100 0,15 0,15 [2] N. Adil, J.C. Cutier: World environment summit: The

role of energy. Encyclopedia of energy.Vo1.6: 539-548. 2004.

B. Steady performance [3] B. Belgacem: Performance of submersible PV water

For a reasonable comparison, both orders must have the pumping systems in Tunisia. Energy for sustainable

same switching frequency of the inverter. The comparison is development.16 (4).415-420. 2012.

made at the level of the pulses of the corrugations of the stator [4] H. Sher, K E. Addoweesh: Micro-inveliers-Promising

currents (see table 2) with respect to the reference quantity. solutions in solar photovoltaic. Energy for sustainable

Remarks that we could reach is that the ripple of torque and stator development.16 (4):389-400. 2012.

current distortion in the lRFOC control differs for diverse [5] 1M. Enrique, E. Duran, M. Sidrach-de-Cardona, 1M.

applications load and speed. For example, if we take a speed of Andujar: Theoretical assessment of the maximum power point

w=100 rad/s, and T\oa= d IONm, we can say that our choice fell on tracking efficiency of photovoltaic facilities with different

the DTC-SVM, since it provides a slight reduction in the ripple converter topologies. Solar energy. 8l. 31-38. 2007.

torque of both variables and stator current. We observe good a [6] A. Mokeddem, A. Midoun, D. Kadri, S. Hiadsi, A. Raja

performance of DTC-SVM particularly at the stator current and Iftikhar: Performance of a directly coupled photovoltaic water

electromagnetic torque, which is considered as an indicator for pumping system. Energy conversion and management. 52(10).

greater accuracy in setting variables. Note that the convergence 3089-3095. 2011.

is significantly faster in the case ofTRFOC. [7] GS. Tlango, N. Rajasekar: An improved energy saving

v/f control technique for solar powered single-phase induction

motor. Energy Conversion and Management.50 (12).

1

Table 2 Current THD (%) of control

2913-2918. 2009.

I

Control 1RFOC DTC-SVM

[8] D. Prasad, BP. Panigrahi, S. SenGupta: Digital

labes 31,42 29,40

simulation and hardware implementation of a simple scheme for

direct torque control of induction motor. Energy Conversion and

C. Optimization of the quantity pumped

Management. 49(4).687-697.2008.

The following table 3 presents the variation of the amount

[9] TG. Habetler, F. Profumo, M. Pastorelli, LM. Tolbert:

of water pumped for the IRFOC and DTC-SVM applied for G=

Direct torque control of induction machines using space vector

1000W/m2 with TMH = 20, 30 and 45m. The increase in the

modulation. Trans Ind Appl IEEE 28(5):1045-52. 1992.

extraction of the water quantity when the DTC-SVM is applied.

. APPENDIX

Table 3.V;anafIOn 0f the amount 0f water pumped daily.

1M-parameters (Number of pole pairs (2))

Control IRFOC DTC-SVM

HMT[m] 20 I 30 I 45 20 I 30 I 45

Q[l/s] 3,28 1 2, 85 1 2,18 3,29 1 2,86 1 2,18 Power of 1M (P)

Rotation speed N

l.5kW

1420rpm

Voltage (V) 380V

V. CONCLUSIONS requency (f) 50Hz

Stator resistance (Rs) 4.850

Through this paper, we have developed a numerical

simulation for a PV pumping system and its command structure. Rotor resistance (Rr) 3.800

We discussed the simulation by applying vector control using Stator (Rotor) Inductance (Ls/Lr)) 274mH

both techniques lRFOC and DTC-SVM, where we noticed that Stator (Rotor) leakage inductance 0.002H

DTC-SVM technique is advantageous than lRFOC. We note Mutual Inductance 258mH

that the DTC-SVM is simpler, provides a quick and accurate

Inertia coefficient 0,031 kgm2

response of the stator flux and electromagnetic torque. This

allows a rapid response of the pumping system. And as we have Viscous friction coefficient 0,001l4Nms

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