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History of mobile phones

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• 1 Pioneers of radio telephony


• 2 Emergence of commercial mobile phone services
• 3 First generation: Cellular networks
• 4 Second generation: Digital networks
• 5 Third generation: High speed IP data networks
• 6 Growth of mobile broadband and the emergence of 4G
• 7 Patents
• 8 See also
• 9 Notes
• 10 References

• 11 External links

[edit] Pioneers of radio telephony


of Murray, Kentucky. He applied this patent to "cave radio" telephones and not directly
to cellular telephony as the term is currently understood.[1]

In 1910 Lars Magnus Ericsson installed a telephone in his car, although this was not a
radio telephone. While travelling across the country, he would stop at a place where
telephone lines were accessible and using a pair of long electric wires he could connect to
the national telephone network.[2]

In Europe, radio telephony was first used on the first-class passenger trains between
Berlin and Hamburg in 1926. At the same time, radio telephony was introduced on
passenger airplanes for air traffic security. Later radio telephony was introduced on a
large scale in German tanks during the Second World War. After the war German police
in the British zone of occupation first used disused tank telephony equipment to run the
first radio patrol cars.[citation needed] In all of these cases the service was confined to
specialists that were trained to use the equipment. In the early 1950s ships on the Rhine
were among the first to use radio telephony with an untrained end customer as a user.

Two-way radios (known as mobile rigs) were used in vehicles such as taxicabs, police
cruisers, and ambulances, but were not mobile phones because they were not normally
connected to the telephone network. Users could not dial phone numbers from their
vehicles. A large community of mobile radio users, known as the mobileers, popularized
the technology that would eventually give way to the mobile phone. Originally, mobile
two-way radios were permanently installed in vehicles, but later versions such as the so-
called transportables or "bag phones" were equipped with a cigarette lighter plug so that
they could also be carried, and thus could be used as either mobile or as portable two-way
radios. During the early 1940s, Motorola developed a backpacked two-way radio, the
Walkie-Talkie and later developed a large hand-held two-way radio for the US military.
This battery powered "Handie-Talkie" (HT) was about the size of a man's forearm.

In 1946 soviet engineers G. Shapiro and I. Zaharchenko successfully tested their version
of a radio mobile phone mounted inside a car. The device could connect to local
telephone network with a range of up to 20 kilometers.

Top of cellular telephone tower

In December 1947, Douglas H. Ring and W. Rae Young, Bell Labs engineers, proposed
hexagonal cells for mobile phones in vehicles.[3] Philip T. Porter, also of Bell Labs,
proposed that the cell towers be at the corners of the hexagons rather than the centers and
have directional antennas that would transmit/receive in three directions (see picture at
right) into three adjacent hexagon cells.[4] The technology did not exist then and the
frequencies had not yet been allocated. Cellular technology was undeveloped until the
1960s, when Richard H. Frenkiel and Joel S. Engel of Bell Labs developed the
electronics.

In 1957 young Soviet radio engineer Leonid Kupriyanovich from Moscow created the
portable mobile phone, named after himself as LK-1 or "radiophone".[5] This true mobile
phone consisted of a relatively small-sized handset equipped with an antenna and rotary
dial, and communicated with a base station. Kupriyanovich's "radiophone" had 3
kilogram of total weight, could operate up to 20 or 30 kilometers, and had 20 or 30 hours
of battery lifespan. LK-1 and its layout was depicted in popular Soviet magazines as
Nauka i zhizn, 8, 1957, p. 49, Yuniy technik, 7, 1957, p. 43–44. Engineer Kupriyanovich
patented his mobile phone in the same year 1957 (author's certificate (USSR Patent) #
115494, 1.11.1957). The base station of LK-1 (called ATR, or Automated Telephone
Radiostation) could connect to local telephone network and serve several customers.
In 1958, Kupriyanovich resized his "radiophone" to "pocket" version. The weight of
improved "light" handset was about 500 grams.

In 1967, each mobile phone had to stay within the cell area serviced by one base station
throughout the phone call. This did not provide continuity of automatic telephone service
to mobile phones moving through several cell areas. A patent for the first wireless phone
as we know today was issued in US Patent Number 3,449,750 to George Sweigert of
Euclid, Ohio on June 10, 1969.

The concepts of frequency reuse and handoff, as well as a number of other concepts that
formed the basis of modern cell phone technology, were described in the 1970s. In 1970
Amos E. Joel, Jr., another Bell Labs engineer,[6] invented an automatic "call handoff"
system to allow mobile phones to move through several cell areas during a single
conversation without loss of conversation. Also Fluhr and Nussbaum,[7] Hachenburg et al.
[8]
, and U.S. Patent 4,152,647, issued May 1, 1979 to Charles A. Gladden and Martin H.
Parelman, both of Las Vegas, Nevada and assigned by them to the United States
Government.

[edit] Emergence of commercial mobile phone services

Mobile car phone, 1964

During the 1950s the experiments of the pioneers started to appear as usable services
across society, both commercially and culturally. In the 1954 movie Sabrina, the
businessman Linus Larrabee (played by Humphrey Bogart) makes a call from the phone
in the back of his limousine.

In 1956, the first fully automatic mobile phone system, called MTA (Mobile Telephone
system A), was developed by Ericsson and commercially released in Sweden. This was
the first system that did not require any kind of manual control in base stations, but had
the disadvantage of a phone weight of 40 kg (90 lb). MTB, an upgraded version with
transistors, weighing 9 kg (20 lb), was introduced in 1965 and used DTMF signaling. It
had 150 customers in the beginning and 600 when it shut down in 1983.

The first person to have a mobile phone in the United Kingdom was reputedly Prince
Philip, who had a system fitted into the trunk of his Aston Martin in 1957. The Prince
could make phone calls to the Queen while driving, which was thought to be quite
amazing at the time. The Duke of Gloucester heard about the mobile phone and tried to
obtain one, but the Post Office denied his request. They were prepared to indulge the
husband of Her Majesty, but nobody else, as the system used an entire dedicated radio
frequency.

Dr. Martin Cooper of Motorola, made the first US analogue mobile phone call on a larger
prototype model in 1973. This is a reenactment in 2007

In 1958 the USSR also began to deploy the "Altay" national civil mobile phone service
specially for motorists.[9] The newly-developed mobile telephone system was based on
Soviet MRT-1327 standard. The main developers of the Altay system were the Voronezh
Science Research Institute of Communications (VNIIS) and the State Specialized Project
Institute (GSPI). In 1963 this service started in Moscow, and in 1970 the Altay service
already was deployed in 30 cities of the USSR. The last upgraded versions of the Altay
system are still in use in some places of Russia as a trunking system.

In 1959 a private telephone company located in Brewster, Kansas, USA, the S&T
Telephone Company, (still in business today) with the use of Motorola Radio Telephone
equipment and a private tower facility, offered to the public mobile telephone services in
that local area of NW Kansas. This system was a direct dial up service through their local
switchboard, and was installed in many private vehicles including grain combines, trucks,
and automobiles. For some as yet unknown reason, the system after being placed online
and operated for a very brief time period was shut down. The management of the
company was immediately changed, and the fully operable system and related equipment
was immediately dismantled in early 1960, not to be seen again.

In 1960, the world’s first partly automatic car phone system Mobile System A (MTA)|
MTA was launched in Sweden. With MTA, calls could be made and received in the car
to/from the public telephone network, and the car phone could be paged. The phone
number was dialed using a rotary dial. Calling from the car was fully automatic, while
calling to it required an operator. The person who wanted to call a mobile phone had to
know which base station the mobile phone was covered by. The system was developed
by Sture Laurén and other engineers at Televerket network operator. Ericsson provided
the switchboard while Svenska Radioaktiebolaget (SRA) owned by Ericsson and Marconi
provided the telephones and base station equipment. MTA phones were consisted of
vacuum tubes and relays, and had a weight of 40 kg. In 1962, a more modern version
called Mobile System B (MTB) was launched, which was a push-button telephone, and
which used transistors in order to enhance the telephone’s calling capacity and improve
its operational reliability. In 1971 the MTD version was launched, opening for several
different brands of equipment and gaining commercial success.[10][11]

In 1966, Bulgaria presented the pocket mobile automatic phone RAT-0,5 combined with
a base station RATZ-10 (RATC-10) on Interorgtechnika-66 international exhibition. One
base station, connected to one telephone wire line, could serve up to six customers.

Portable cellphone, 1970s

In December 1971, AT&T submitted a proposal for cellular service to the Federal
Communications Commission (FCC). After years of hearings, the FCC approved the
proposal in 1982 for Advanced Mobile Phone System (AMPS) and allocated frequencies
in the 824–894 MHz band.[12] Analog AMPS was superseded by Digital AMPS in 1990.

One of the first successful public commercial mobile phone networks was the ARP
network in Finland, launched in 1971. Posthumously, ARP is sometimes viewed as a
zero generation (0G) cellular network, being slightly above previous proprietary and
limited coverage networks.

The origin of the modern cell phone can be traced back to the year 1973 when Motorola
invented the first cellular portable telephone to be commercialised, known as Motorola
DynaTAC 8000X. Martin Cooper, a Motorola researcher and executive is considered to
be the inventor of this mobile phone for use in a non-vehicle setting. There was a long
race between Motorola and Bell Labs to produce the first such portable mobile phone.
Cooper is the first inventor named on "Radio telephone system" filed on October 17,
1973 with the US Patent Office and later issued as US Patent 3,906,166;[13] other named
contributors on the patent included Cooper's boss, John F. Mitchell, Motorola's chief of
portable communication products, who successfully pushed Motorola to develop wireless
communication products that would be small enough to use outside the home, office or
automobile and participated in the design of the cellular phone.[14][15] Using a modern, if
somewhat heavy portable handset, Cooper made the first cellular phone call on a hand-
held mobile phone on April 3, 1973 to his rival, Dr. Joel S. Engel of Bell Labs.[16].

Vodafone made the UK's first mobile call at a few minutes past midnight on 1 January
1985.[17]

[edit] First generation: Cellular networks


Main article: 1G

Man using cell phone, 1973

The main technological development that distinguished the First Generation mobile
phones from the previous generation was the use of multiple cell sites, and the ability to
transfer calls from one site to the next as the user travelled between cells during a
conversation. The first commercially automated cellular network (the 1G generation) was
launched in Japan by NTT in 1979. The initial launch network covered the full
metropolitan area of Tokyo's over 20 million inhabitants with a cellular network of 23
base stations. Within five years, the NTT network had been expanded to cover the whole
population of Japan and became the first nation-wide 1G network.
Analog Motorola DynaTAC 8000X Advanced Mobile Phone System mobile phone as of
1983

The second launch of 1G networks was the simultaneous launch of the Nordic Mobile
Telephone (NMT) system in Denmark, Finland, Norway and Sweden in 1981.[18]. NMT
was the first mobile phone network featuring international roaming. The Swedish
electrical engineer Östen Mäkitalo started to work on this vision in 1966, and is
considered as the father of the NMT system and some consider him also the father of the
cellular phone.[19][20]

Several countries were among the earliest to launch 1G networks in the early 1980s
including the UK, Mexico and Canada. The first 1G network launched in the USA was
Chicago based Ameritech in 1983 using the famous first hand-held mobile phone
Motorola DynaTAC. In 1984, Bell Labs developed modern commercial cellular
technology (based, to a large extent, on the Gladden, Parelman Patent), which employed
multiple, centrally controlled base stations (cell sites), each providing service to a small
area (a cell). The cell sites would be set up such that cells partially overlapped. In a
cellular system, a signal between a base station (cell site) and a terminal (phone) only
need be strong enough to reach between the two, so the same channel can be used
simultaneously for separate conversations in different cells.

The first NMT installations as well as the First AMPS installations were based on the
Ericsson AXE digital exchange nodes.

Cellular systems required several leaps of technology, including handover, which allowed
a conversation to continue as a mobile phone traveled from cell to cell. This system
included variable transmission power in both the base stations and the telephones
(controlled by the base stations), which allowed range and cell size to vary. As the system
expanded and neared capacity, the ability to reduce transmission power allowed new cells
to be added, resulting in more, smaller cells and thus more capacity. The evidence of this
growth can still be seen in the many older, tall cell site towers with no antennae on the
upper parts of their towers. These sites originally created large cells, and so had their
antennae mounted atop high towers; the towers were designed so that as the system
expanded—and cell sizes shrank—the antennae could be lowered on their original masts
to reduce range.

[edit] Second generation: Digital networks


Main articles: 2G, 2.5G, and 2.75G

Two 1991 GSM mobile phones with several AC adapters

In the 1990s, the 'second generation' (2G) mobile phone systems emerged, primarily
using the GSM standard. These 2G phone systems differed from the previous generation
in their use of digital transmission instead of analog transmission, and also by the
introduction of advanced and fast phone-to-network signaling. The rise in mobile phone
usage as a result of 2G was explosive and this era also saw the advent of prepaid mobile
phones

In 1991 the first GSM network (Radiolinja) opened in Finland. In general the frequencies
used by 2G systems in Europe were higher than those in America, though with some
overlap. For example, the 900 MHz frequency range was used for both 1G and 2G
systems in Europe, so the 1G systems were rapidly closed down to make space for the 2G
systems. In America the IS-54 standard was deployed in the same band as AMPS and
displaced some of the existing analog channels.

Coinciding with the introduction of 2G systems was a trend away from the larger
"brickle" phones toward tiny 100–200g hand-held devices, which soon became the norm.
This change was possible through technological improvements such as more advanced
batteries and more energy-efficient electronics, but also was largely related to the higher
density of cellular sites caused by increasing usage levels. This decreased the demand for
high transmission powers to reach distant towers for customers to be satisfied.
Personal Handy-phone System mobiles and modems used in Japan around 1997–2003

The second generation introduced a new variant to communication, as SMS text


messaging became possible, initially on GSM networks and eventually on all digital
networks. The first machine-generated SMS message was sent in the UK in 1991. The
first person-to-person SMS text message was sent in Finland in 1993. Soon SMS became
the communication method of preference for the youth. Today in many advanced markets
the general public prefers sending text messages to placing voice calls.

2G also introduced the ability to access media content on mobile phones, when
Radiolinja (now Elisa) in Finland introduced the downloadable ring tone as paid content.
Finland was also the first country where advertising appeared on the mobile phone when
a free daily news headline service on SMS text messaging was launched in 2000,
sponsored by advertising.

The first data services appeared on mobile phones starting with person-to-person SMS
text messaging in Finland in 1993. First trial payments using a mobile phone to pay for a
Coca Cola vending machine were set in Finland in 1998. The first commercial payments
were mobile parking trialled in Sweden but first commercially launched in Norway in
1999. The first commercial payment system to mimic banks and credit cards was
launched in the Philippines in 1999 simultaneously by mobile operators Globe and Smart.
The first content sold to mobile phones was the ringing tone, first launched in 1998 in
Finland. The first full internet service on mobile phones was introduced by NTT
DoCoMo in Japan in 1999.

[edit] Third generation: High speed IP data networks


Main article: 3G

As the use of 2G phones became more widespread and people began to utilise mobile
phones in their daily lives, it became clear that demand for data services (such as access
to the internet) was growing. Furthermore, if the experience from fixed broadband
services was anything to go by, there would also be a demand for ever greater data
speeds. The 2G technology was nowhere near up to the job, so the industry began to work
on the next generation of technology known as 3G. The main technological difference
that distinguishes 3G technology from 2G technology is the use of packet-switching
rather than circuit-switching for data transmission[21]. In addition, the standardization
process focused on requirements more than technology (2 Mbit/s maximum data rate
indoors, 384 kbit/s outdoors, for example).
Inevitably this led to many competing standards with different contenders pushing their
own technologies, and the vision of a single unified worldwide standard looked far from
reality. The standard 2G CDMA networks became 3G compliant with the adoption of
Revision A to EV-DO. Revision A of EV-DO makes several additions to the protocol
while keeping it completely backwards compatible with older versions of EV-DO. These
changes included the introduction of several new forward link data rates that increase the
maximum burst rate from 2.45 Mbit/s to 3.1 Mbit/s. Also included were protocols that
would decrease connection establishment time (called enhanced access channel MAC),
the ability for more than one mobile to share the same time slot (multi-user packets) and
the introduction of QoS flags. All these were put in place to allow for low latency, low bit
rate communications such as VoIP.[22]

The first pre-commercial trial network with 3G was launched by NTT DoCoMo in Japan
in the Tokyo region in May 2001. NTT DoCoMo launched the first commercial 3G
network on October 1, 2001, using the WCDMA technology. In 2002 the first 3G
networks on the rival CDMA2000 1xEV-DO technology were launched by SK Telecom
and KTF in South Korea, and Monet in the USA. Monet has since gone bankrupt. By the
end of 2002, the second WCDMA network was launched in Japan by Vodafone KK (now
Softbank). European launches of 3G were in Italy and the UK by the Three/Hutchison
group, on WCDMA. 2003 saw a further 8 commercial launches of 3G, six more on
WCDMA and two more on the EV-DO standard.

During the development of 3G systems, 2.5G systems such as CDMA2000 1x and GPRS
were developed as extensions to existing 2G networks. These provide some of the
features of 3G without fulfilling the promised high data rates or full range of multimedia
services. CDMA2000-1X delivers theoretical maximum data speeds of up to 307 kbit/s.
Just beyond these is the EDGE system which in theory covers the requirements for 3G
system, but is so narrowly above these that any practical system would be sure to fall
short.

By the end of 2007 there were 295 Million subscribers on 3G networks worldwide, which
reflected 9% of the total worldwide subscriber base. About two thirds of these were on
the WCDMA standard and one third on the EV-DO standard. The 3G telecoms services
generated over 120 Billion dollars of revenues during 2007 and at many markets the
majority of new phones activated were 3G phones. In Japan and South Korea the market
no longer supplies phones of the second generation. Earlier in the decade there were
doubts about whether 3G might happen, and also whether 3G might become a
commercial success. By the end of 2007 it had become clear that 3G was a reality and
was clearly on the path to become a profitable venture.

The high connection speeds of 3G technology enabled a transformation in the industry:


for the first time, media streaming of radio (and even television) content to 3G handsets
became possible [2], with companies such as RealNetworks [3] and Disney [4] among the
early pioneers in this type of offering.
In the mid 2000s an evolution of 3G technology begun to be implemented, namely High-
Speed Downlink Packet Access (HSDPA). It is an enhanced 3G (third generation) mobile
telephony communications protocol in the High-Speed Packet Access (HSPA) family,
also coined 3.5G, 3G+ or turbo 3G, which allows networks based on Universal Mobile
Telecommunications System (UMTS) to have higher data transfer speeds and capacity.
Current HSDPA deployments support down-link speeds of 1.8, 3.6, 7.2 and 14.0 Mbit/s.
Further speed increases are available with HSPA+, which provides speeds of up to 42
Mbit/s downlink and 84 Mbit/s with Release 9 of the 3GPP standards.

[edit] Growth of mobile broadband and the emergence


of 4G
Main article: 4G

Although mobile phones had long had the ability to access data networks such as the
Internet, it was not until the widespread availability of good quality 3G coverage in the
mid 2000s that specialised devices appeared to access the mobile internet. The first such
devices, known as "dongles", plugged directly into a computer through the USB port.
Another new class of device appeared subsequently, the so-called "compact wireless
router" such as the Novatel MiFi, which makes 3G internet connectivity available to
multiple computers simultaneously over Wi-Fi, rather than just to a single computer via a
USB plug-in.

Such devices became especially popular for use with laptop computers due to the added
portability they bestow. Consequently, some computer manufacturers started to embed
the mobile data function directly into the laptop so a dongle or MiFi wasn't needed.
Instead, the SIM card could be inserted directly into the device itself to access the mobile
data services. Such 3G-capable laptops became commonly known as "netbooks". Other
types of data-aware devices followed in the netbooks' footsteps. By the beginning of
2010, E-readers, such as the Amazon Kindle and the Nook from Barnes & Noble, had
already become available with embedded wireless internet, and Apple Computer had
announced plans for embedded wireless internet on its iPad tablet devices beginning that
Fall.

These types of devices marked the need to consider to evolve towards the fourth
generation of the technology. By 2009, it had become clear that, at some point, 3G
networks would be overwhelmed by the growth of bandwidth-intensive applications like
streaming media[23]. Consequently, the industry began looking to data-optimized 4th-
generation technologies, with the promise of speed improvements up to 10-fold over
existing 3G technologies. The first two commercially available technologies billed as 4G
were the WiMAX standard (offered in the U.S. by Sprint) and the LTE standard, first
offered in Scandinavia by TeliaSonera.

One of the main ways in which 4G differed technologically from 3G was in its
elimination of circuit switching, instead employing an all-IP network. Thus, 4G ushered
in a treatment of voice calls just like any other type of streaming audio media, utilizing
packet switching over internet, LAN or WAN networks via VoIP.[24]

[edit] Patents
• U.S. Patent 3,663,762: Cellular Mobile Communication System — Amos Edward
Joel (Bell Labs), filed December 21, 1970, issued May 16, 1972
• U.S. Patent 3,906,166: Radio Telephone System (Dyna-Tac) — Martin Cooper et
al. (Motorola), filed October 17, 1973, issued September 16, 1975
• U.S. Patent 4,144,411: Cellular Radiotelephone System for Different Cell Sizes —
Richard H. Frenkiel (Bell Labs), filed September 22, 1976, issued March 13, 1979
• U.S. Patent 4,399,555: Cellular Mobile Radiotelephone System — Verne
MacDonald, Philip Porter, Rae Young, (Bell Labs) filed April 28, 1980, issued
August 16, 1983
• U.S. Patent 5,129,098: Radio telephone using received signal strength in
controlling transmission power — Andrew McGirr, Barry Cassidy (Novatel),
filed September 24, 1990, issued July 7, 1992
• U.S. Patent 5,265,158: Construction of a stand alone portable telephone unit —
Jouko Tattari (Nokia), filed May 11, 1992, issued November 23, 1993
• U.S. Patent 5,722,067: Security cellular telecommunications system — Douglas
Fougnies et al. (Freedom Wireless), filed December 1994, issued February 24,
1998
• U.S. Patent 5,826,185: Cellular phone system wherein the air time use is
predetermined — Andrew Wise et al. (Banana Communications), filed November
1994, issued October 20, 1998
• U.S. Patent 5,841,856: Hands-free telephone set — Yoshiyuki Ide (NEC), filed
May 21, 1997, issued November 24, 1998
• U.S. Patent 7,324,480: Mobile communication apparatus and method including
base station and mobile station having multi-antenna: Per-User Unitary Rate
Control (PU2RC) — James S. Kim, Kwangbok Lee, Kiho Kim and Changsoon
Park, filed July 10, 2003, issued January 29, 2008

[edit] See also


• Mobile phone
• History of the prepaid mobile phone
• Cellular network
• Personal Communications Service PCS

[edit] Notes
1. ^ "Special History Issue" (PDF). Speleonics 15 IV (3). October 1990.
http://wgbush.com/splncs/splncs15.pdf.
2. ^ Agar, Jon (2003). Constant Touch: a brief history of the mobile phone. Icon. pp. 8–9.
ISBN 9781840464191.
3. ^ see external link for the 1947 memo
4. ^ article by Tom Farley "Cellular Telephone Basics"
5. ^ History of mobile telephones in the USSR (in Russian)
6. ^ See Amos Joel patent 3,663,762.
7. ^ "Switching Plan for a Cellular Mobile Telephone System:, Z. Fluhr and E. Nussbaum,
IEEE Transactions on Communications volume 21, #11 p. 1281 (1973)
8. ^ "Data signaling functions for a cellular mobile telephone system", V. Hachenburg, B.
Holm and J. Smith, IEEE Trans Vehicular Technology, volume 26, #1 p. 82 (1977)
9. ^ The first Russian mobile phone
10. ^ Mingtao Shi, Technology base of mobile cellular operators in Germany and
China, page 55
11. ^ Facts about the Mobile. A Journey through Time
12. ^ AT&T article
13. ^ Cooper, et al., "Radio Telephone System", US Patent number 3,906,166; Filing
date: Oct 17, 1973; Issue date: September 1975; Assignee Motorola
14. ^ "Motorola Executive Helped spur Cellphone Revolution, Oversaw Ill-fated
Iridium Project". The Wall Street Journal, June 20–21, 2009, p. A10.
15. ^ "John F. Mitchell, 1928-2009: Was president of Motorola from 1980 to '95,
Chicago Tribune, June 17, 2009, retrieved June 17, 2009". Chicagotribune.com.
http://www.chicagotribune.com/news/chi-hed-jmitchell-17-jun17,0,955426.story.
Retrieved 2009-07-29.
16. ^ Shiels, Maggie. "BBC interview with Martin Cooper".
http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/uk/2963619.stm.
17. ^ [1]
18. ^ "Swedish National Museum of Science and Technology". Tekniskamuseet.se.
http://www.tekniskamuseet.se/mobilen/engelska/1980_90.shtml. Retrieved 2009-07-29.
19. ^ Mobile and technology: The Basics of Mobile Phones
20. ^ The cell phone 50 years - facts and numbers
21. ^ Privateline.com: 3G and Cellular radio Information
22. ^ Gopal, Thawatt (11–15 March 2007). "EVDO Rev. A Control Channel
Bandwidth Analysis for Paging". IEEE Wireless Communications and Networking
Conference. IEEE. pp. 3262–7. doi:10.1109/WCNC.2007.601.
23. ^ Fahd Ahmad Saeed. "Capacity Limit Problem in 3G Networks". Purdue School
of Engineering. http://www.ece.iupui.edu/~dskim/Classes/ECE695MWN/2006-saeed-
Capacity_Limit_Problem_in_3G_Networks.ppt. Retrieved April 23, 2010.
24. ^ "VoIP Support in Nokia Devices".
http://www.forum.nokia.com/Technology_Topics/Mobile_Technologies/VoIP/Nokia_Vo
IP_Framework/VoIP_support_in_Nokia_devices.xhtml. Retrieved 2009-08-16.

[edit] References
• Farley, Tom (2007). "The Cell-Phone Revolution". American heritage of
invention & technology (New York: American Heritage) 22 (3): 8–19. BL
Shelfmark 0817.734000. ISSN 8756-7296. OCLC 108126426.
http://www.americanheritage.com/events/articles/web/20070110-cell-phone-att-
mobile-phone-motorola-federal-communications-commission-cdma-tdma-
gsm.shtml. Retrieved 2008-04-21.
[edit] External links
• 1947 memo by Douglas H. Ring proposing hexagonal cells
• The history of cellular telephones in the US
• Mobile Phone Museum from Europe
• Mobile Forum
• Mobile Phone Forum
• Cell Phone Basics
• Cellular Convergence: Evolution, Revolution and Speculation
• Thoughts about next generation phones: end-user applications matter, open
systems, phones based on GNU/Linux, phones serving as desktop computers.
Original draft designs of phones
• The history of mobile telephones in the USSR - in Russian
• Mobile Phone Technology Old Patents
• Mobile Phone Museum from Ireland

v•d•e
Mobile phones

General History · GSM · Features · OS · Services

Network operators · Standard comparison · Frequencies · Mobile VoIP · SIM · WAP · XHT
Networking Mobile phone signal
Generations: 0G · 1G · 2G · 3G · 4G

Devices Manufacturers · Camera phone · Smartphones


The introduction of hexagonal cells for mobile phone base stations, invented
in 1947 by Bell Labs engineers at AT&T, was further developed by Bell Labs
during the 1960s. Radiophones have a long and varied history going back to
the Second World War with military use of radio telephony links and civil
services in the 1950s, while hand-held cellular radio devices have been
available since 1983. Due to their low establishment costs and rapid
deployment, mobile phone networks have since spread rapidly throughout
the world, outstripping the growth of fixed telephony.
In 1945, the 0G generation of mobile telephones were introduced. 0G mobile
telephones, such as Mobile Telephone Service, were not officially categorized
as mobile phones, since they did not support the automatic change of
channel frequency in the middle of a call, when the user moved from one cell
(base station coverage area) to another cell, a feature called "handover".

In 1970 Amos Joel of Bell Labs invented the "call handoff" feature, which
allowed a mobile-phone user to travel through several cells during the same
conversation. Martin Cooper of Motorola is widely considered to be the
inventor of the first practical mobile phone for handheld use in a non-vehicle
setting. Using a modern, if somewhat heavy portable handset, Cooper made
the first call on a handheld mobile phone on April 3, 1973. At the time he
made his call, Cooper was working as Motorola's General Manager of its
Communications Division.

Fully automatic cellular networks were first introduced in the early to mid-
1980s (the 1G generation). The first fully automatic mobile phone system
was the 1981 Nordic Mobile Telephone (NMT) system. Until the early 1990s,
most mobile phones were too large to be carried in a jacket pocket, so they
were usually permanently installed in vehicles as car phones. With the
advance of miniaturization and smaller digital components, mobile phones
got smaller and lighter.
Manufacturers

Nokia Corporation is currently the world's largest manufacturer of


telephones, with a global market share of approximately 36% in Q
2007.Other mobile phone manufacturers include Audiovox (now U
Starcom), Benefon, BenQ-Siemens, High Tech Computer Corporat
Fujitsu, Kyocera, 3G, LG Mobile, Motorola, NEC, Panasonic (Matsu
Electric), Pantech Curitel, Philips, Research In Motion, Sagem, Sam
Sanyo, Sharp, Siemens, Sierra Wireless, SK Teletech, Sony Ericss
Alcatel,Toshiba, Verizon, and soon to be Apple Inc.. There are also
communication systems related to (but distinct from) mobile phon
Professional Mobile Radio.

Technology

Mobile phones and the network they operate under vary significan
provider to provider, and nation to nation. However, all of them co
through electromagnetic radio waves with a cell site base station,
antennas of which are usually mounted on a tower, pole or buildin

The phones have a low-power transceiver that transmits voice and


the nearest cell sites, usually not more than 5 to 8 miles (approxi
13 kilometers) away. When the mobile phone or data device is tur
registers with the mobile telephone exchange, or switch, with its u
identifiers, and will then be alerted by the mobile switch when the
incoming telephone call. The handset constantly listens for the str
signal being received from the surrounding base stations. As the u
around the network, the mobile device will "handoff" to various ce
during calls, or while waiting (idle) between calls it will reselect ce

Cell sites have relatively low-power (often only one or two watts)
transmitters which broadcast their presence and relay communica
between the mobile handsets and the switch. The switch in turn c
call to another subscriber of the same wireless service provider or
public telephone network, which includes the networks of other w
carriers. Many of these sites are camouflaged to blend with existin
environments, particularly in high-scenery areas.

The dialogue between the handset and the cell site is a stream of
that includes digitized audio (except for the first generation analog
networks). The technology that achieves this depends on the syst
the mobile phone operator has adopted. Some technologies includ
analog, and D-AMPS, CDMA2000, GSM, GPRS, EV-DO, and UMTS
communications. Each network operator has a unique radio freque

3G Technology
Here is a simple introduction to some aspects of 3G radio transmission technologies
(RTTs). You will find the subjects covered in this section useful if you later consider the
more detailed discussions in the sections on 3G Standards and 3G Spectrum.
Simplex vs. Duplex
When people use walkie-talkie radios to communicate, only one person can talk at a time
(the person doing the talking has to press a button). This is because walkie-talkie radios
only use one communication frequency - a form of communication known as simplex:

Simplex: Using a walkie-talkie you have to push a button to talk one-way.

Of course, this is not how mobile phones work. Mobile phones allow simultaneous two-
way transfer of data - a situation known as duplex (if more than two data streams can be
transmitted, it is called multiplex):

Duplex: Allows simultaneous two-way data transfers.


The communication channel from the base station to the mobile device is called the
downlink, and the communication from the mobile device back to the base station is
called the uplink. How can duplex communication be achieved? Well, there are two
possible methods which we will now consider: TDD and FDD.

TDD vs. FDD


Wireless duplexing has been traditionally implemented by dedicating two separate
frequency bands: one band for the uplink and one band for the downlink (this
arrangement of frequency bands is called paired spectrum). This technique is called
Frequency Division Duplex, or FDD. The two bands are separated by a "guard band"
which provides isolation of the two signals:

FDD: Uses paired spectrum - one frequency band for the uplink, one frequency band for
the downlink.

Duplex communications can also be achieved in time rather than by frequency. In this
approach, the uplink and the downlink operate on the same frequency, but they are
switched very rapidly: one moment the channel is sending the uplink signal, the next
moment the channel is sending the downlink signal. Because this switching is performed
very rapidly, it does appear that one channel is acting as both an uplink and a downlink
at the same time. This is called Time Division Duplex, or TDD. TDD requires a guard time
instead of a guard band between transmit and receive streams.

Symmetric Transmission vs. Asymmetric Transmission


Data transmission is symmetric if the data in the downlink and the data in the uplink is
transmitted at the same data rate. This will probably be the case for voice transmission -
the same amount of data is sent both ways. However, for internet connections or
broadcast data (e.g., streaming video), it is likely that more data will be sent from the
server to the mobile device (the downlink).

FDD transmission is not so well suited for asymmetric applications as it uses equal
frequency bands for the uplink and the downlink (a waste of valuable spectrum). On the
other hand, TDD does not have this fixed structure, and its flexible bandwidth allocation
is well-suited to asymmetric applications, e.g., the internet (see this PDF file for more
details). For example, TDD can be configured to provide 384kbps for the downlink (the
direction of the major data transfer), and 64kbps for the uplink (where the traffic largely
comprises requests for information and acknowledgements). See this PDF file for more
details.

Macro Cells, Micro Cells, and Pico Cells


The 3G network might be divided up in hierarchical fashion:

• Macro cell - the area of largest coverage, e.g., an entire city.


• Micro cell - the area of intermediate coverage, e.g., a city centre.
• Pico cell - the area of smallest coverage, e.g., a "hot spot" in a hotel or airport.
Why is there this sub-division of regions? It is because smaller regions (shorter ranges)
allow higher user density and faster transmission rates. This is why they are called "hot
spots".

TDD mode does not allow long range transmission (the delays incurred would cause
interference between the uplink and the downlink). For this reason, TDD mode can only
be used in environments where the propagation delay is small (pico cells). As was
explained in the previous section on symmetric transmission vs. asymmetric
transmission, TDD mode is highly efficient for transmission of internet data in pico cells.

TDMA vs. CDMA


We have considered how a mobile phone can send and receive calls at the same time (via
an uplink and a downlink). Now we will examine how many users can be multiplexed into
the same channel (i.e., share the channel) without getting interference from other users,
a capability called multiple access. For 3G technology, there are basically two competing
technologies to achieve multiple access: TDMA and CDMA.

TDMA is Time Division Multiple Access. It works by dividing a single radio frequency into
many small time slots. Each caller is assigned a specific time slot for transmission. Again,
because of the rapid switching, each caller has the impression of having exclusive use of
the channel.

CDMA is Code Division Multiple Access. CDMA works by giving each user a unique code.
The signals from all the users can then be spread over a wide frequency band. The
transmitting frequency for any one user is not fixed but is allowed to vary within the
limits of the band. The receiver has knowledge of the sender's unique code, and is
therefore able to extract the correct signal no matter what the frequency.

This technique of spreading a signal over a wide frequency band is known as spread
spectrum. The advantage of spread spectrum is that it is resistant to interference - if a
source of interference blocks one frequency, the signal can still get through on another
frequency. Spread spectrum signals are therefore difficult to jam, and it is not surprising
that this technology was developed for military uses.
Finally, let's consider another robust technology originally developed by the military
which is finding application with 3G: packet switching.

Circuit Switching vs. Packet Switching


Traditional connections for voice communications require a physical path connecting the
users at the two ends of the line, and that path stays open until the conversation ends.
This method of connecting a transmitter and receiver by giving them exclusive access to
a direct connection is called circuit switching.

Most modern networking technology is radically different from this traditional model
because it uses packet data. Packet data is information which is:

1. chopped into pieces (packets),


2. given a destination address,
3. mixed with other data from other sources,
4. transmitted over a line with all the other data,
5. reconstituted at the other end.

Packet-switched networks chop the telephone conversation into discrete "packets" of data
like pieces in a jigsaw puzzle, and those pieces are reassembled to recreate the original
conversation. Packet data was originally developed as the technology behind the
Internet.

A data packet.

The major part of a packet's contents is reserved for the data to be transmitted. This part
is called the payload. In general, the data to be transmitted is arbitrarily chopped-up into
payloads of the same size. At the start of the packet is a smaller area called a header.
The header is vital because the header contains the address of the packet's intended
recipient. This means that packets from many different phone users can be mixed into
the same transmission channel, and correctly sorted at the other end. There is no longer
a need for a constant, exclusive, direct channel between the sender and the receiver.
Packet data is added to the channel only when there is something to send, and the user
is only charged for the amount of data sent. For example, when reading a small article,
the user will only pay for what's been sent or received. However, both the sender and the
receiver get the impression of a communications channel which is "always on".

On the downside, packets can only be added to the channel where there is an empty slot
in the channel, leading to the fact that a guaranteed speed cannot be given. The
resultant delays pose a problem for voice transmission over packet networks, and is the
reason why internet pages can be slow to load.

References
1. An Introduction to Third Generation Mobile Comms
2. How Cell Phones Work
3. ITU: All About 3G Technology
4. CDMA Technology
5. TDMA Technology
6. FOMA Technology

Cellular network
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Jump to: navigation, search

Top of a cellular radio tower

A cellular network is a radio network made up of a number of cells, each served by at


least one fixed-location transceiver known as a cell site or base station. When joined
together these cells provide radio coverage over a wide geographic area. This enables a
large number of portable transceivers (mobile phones, pagers, etc) to communicate with
each other and with fixed transceivers and telephones anywhere in the network, via base
stations, even if some of the transceivers are moving through more than one cell during
transmission.

Cellular networks offer a number of advantages over alternative solutions:

• increased capacity
• reduced power usage
• larger coverage area
• reduced interference from other signals

An example of a simple non-telephone cellular system is an old taxi driver's radio system
where the taxi company has several transmitters based around a city that can
communicate directly with each taxi.

Contents
[hide]

• 1 The concept
• 2 Cell signal encoding
• 3 Frequency reuse
• 4 Directional antennas
• 5 Broadcast messages and paging
• 6 Movement from cell to cell and handover
• 7 Example of a cellular network: the mobile phone network
o 7.1 Structure of the mobile phone cellular network
o 7.2 Cellular handover in mobile phone networks
o 7.3 Cellular frequency choice in mobile phone networks
o 7.4 Coverage comparison of different frequencies
• 8 See also

• 9 References

[edit] The concept

Example of frequency reuse factor or pattern 1/4

In a cellular radio system, a land area to be supplied with radio service is divided into
regular shaped cells, which can be hexagonal, square, circular or some other irregular
shapes, although hexagonal cells are conventional. Each of these cells is assigned
multiple frequencies (f1 - f6) which have corresponding radio base stations. The group of
frequencies can be reused in other cells, provided that the same frequencies are not
reused in adjacent neighboring cells as that would cause co-channel interference.

The increased capacity in a cellular network, compared with a network with a single
transmitter, comes from the fact that the same radio frequency can be reused in a different
area for a completely different transmission. If there is a single plain transmitter, only one
transmission can be used on any given frequency. Unfortunately, there is inevitably some
level of interference from the signal from the other cells which use the same frequency.
This means that, in a standard FDMA system, there must be at least a one cell gap
between cells which reuse the same frequency.

In the simple case of the taxi company, each radio had a manually operated channel
selector knob to tune to different frequencies. As the drivers moved around, they would
change from channel to channel. The drivers know which frequency covers
approximately what area. When they do not receive a signal from the transmitter, they
will try other channels until they find one that works. The taxi drivers only speak one at a
time, when invited by the base station operator (in a sense TDMA).

[edit] Cell signal encoding


To distinguish signals from several different transmitters, frequency division multiple
access (FDMA) and code division multiple access (CDMA) were developed.

With FDMA, the transmitting and receiving frequencies used in each cell are different
from the frequencies used in each neighbouring cell. In a simple taxi system, the taxi
driver manually tuned to a frequency of a chosen cell to obtain a strong signal and to
avoid interference from signals from other cells.

The principle of CDMA is more complex, but achieves the same result; the distributed
transceivers can select one cell and listen to it.

Other available methods of multiplexing such as polarization division multiple access


(PDMA) and time division multiple access (TDMA) cannot be used to separate signals
from one cell to the next since the effects of both vary with position and this would make
signal separation practically impossible. Time division multiple access, however, is used
in combination with either FDMA or CDMA in a number of systems to give multiple
channels within the coverage area of a single cell.

[edit] Frequency reuse


The key characteristic of a cellular network is the ability to re-use frequencies to increase
both coverage and capacity. As described above, adjacent cells must utilise different
frequencies, however there is no problem with two cells sufficiently far apart operating
on the same frequency. The elements that determine frequency reuse are the reuse
distance and the reuse factor.
The reuse distance, D is calculated as

where R is the cell radius and N is the number of cells per cluster. Cells may vary in
radius in the ranges (1 km to 30 km). The boundaries of the cells can also overlap
between adjacent cells and large cells can be divided into smaller cells [1]

The frequency reuse factor is the rate at which the same frequency can be used in the
network. It is 1/K (or K according to some books) where K is the number of cells which
cannot use the same frequencies for transmission. Common values for the frequency
reuse factor are 1/3, 1/4, 1/7, 1/9 and 1/12 (or 3, 4, 7, 9 and 12 depending on notation).

In case of N sector antennas on the same base station site, each with different direction,
the base station site can serve N different sectors. N is typically 3. A reuse pattern of
N/K denotes a further division in frequency among N sector antennas per site. Some
current and historical reuse patterns are 3/7 (North American AMPS), 6/4 (Motorola
NAMPS), and 3/4 (GSM).

If the total available bandwidth is B, each cell can only utilize a number of frequency
channels corresponding to a bandwidth of B/K, and each sector can use a bandwidth of
B/NK.

Code division multiple access-based systems use a wider frequency band to achieve the
same rate of transmission as FDMA, but this is compensated for by the ability to use a
frequency reuse factor of 1, for example using a reuse pattern of 1/1. In other words,
adjacent base station sites use the same frequencies, and the different base stations and
users are separated by codes rather than frequencies. While N is shown as 1 in this
example, that does not mean the CDMA cell has only one sector, but rather that the entire
cell bandwidth is also available to each sector individually.

Depending on the size of the city, a taxi system may not have any frequency-reuse in its
own city, but certainly in other nearby cities, the same frequency can be used. In a big
city, on the other hand, frequency-reuse could certainly be in use.

[edit] Directional antennas


Cellular telephone frequency reuse pattern. See U.S. Patent 4,144,411

Although the original 2-way-radio cell towers were at the centers of the cells and were
omni-directional, a cellular map can be redrawn with the cellular telephone towers
located at the corners of the hexagons where three cells converge.[2] Each tower has three
sets of directional antennas aimed in three different directions and receiving/transmitting
into three different cells at different frequencies. This provides a minimum of three
channels for each cell. The numbers in the illustration are channel numbers, which repeat
every 3 cells. Large cells can be subdivided into smaller cells for high volume areas.[3]

[edit] Broadcast messages and paging


Practically every cellular system has some kind of broadcast mechanism. This can be
used directly for distributing information to multiple mobiles, commonly, for example in
mobile telephony systems, the most important use of broadcast information is to set up
channels for one to one communication between the mobile transceiver and the base
station. This is called paging.

The details of the process of paging vary somewhat from network to network, but
normally we know a limited number of cells where the phone is located (this group of
cells is called a Location Area in the GSM or UMTS system, or Routing Area if a data
packet session is involved). Paging takes place by sending the broadcast message to all of
those cells. Paging messages can be used for information transfer. This happens in
pagers, in CDMA systems for sending SMS messages, and in the UMTS system where it
allows for low downlink latency in packet-based connections.

[edit] Movement from cell to cell and handover


In a primitive taxi system, when the taxi moved away from a first tower and closer to a
second tower, the taxi driver manually switched from one frequency to another as
needed. If a communication was interrupted due to a loss of a signal, the taxi driver asked
the base station operator to repeat the message on a different frequency.

In a cellular system, as the distributed mobile transceivers move from cell to cell during
an ongoing continuous communication, switching from one cell frequency to a different
cell frequency is done electronically without interruption and without a base station
operator or manual switching. This is called the handover or handoff. Typically, a new
channel is automatically selected for the mobile unit on the new base station which will
serve it. The mobile unit then automatically switches from the current channel to the new
channel and communication continues.

The exact details of the mobile system's move from one base station to the other varies
considerably from system to system (see the example below for how a mobile phone
network manages handover).

[edit] Example of a cellular network: the mobile phone


network

GSM network architecture

The most common example of a cellular network is a mobile phone (cell phone) network.
A mobile phone is a portable telephone which receives or makes calls through a cell site
(base station), or transmitting tower. Radio waves are used to transfer signals to and from
the cell phone.

Modern mobile phone networks use cells because radio frequencies are a limited, shared
resource. Cell-sites and handsets change frequency under computer control and use low
power transmitters so that a limited number of radio frequencies can be simultaneously
used by many callers with less interference.

A cellular network is used by the mobile phone operator to achieve both coverage and
capacity for their subscribers. Large geographic areas are split into smaller cells to avoid
line-of-sight signal loss and to support a large number of active phones in that area. All of
the cell sites are connected to telephone exchanges (or switches) , which in turn connect
to the public telephone network.

In cities, each cell site may have a range of up to approximately ½ mile, while in rural
areas, the range could be as much as 5 miles. It is possible that in clear open areas, a user
may receive signals from a cell site 25 miles away.

Since almost all mobile phones use cellular technology, including GSM, CDMA, and
AMPS (analog), the term "cell phone" is in some regions, notably the US, used
interchangeably with "mobile phone". However, satellite phones are mobile phones that
do not communicate directly with a ground-based cellular tower, but may do so indirectly
by way of a satellite.

There are a number of different digital cellular technologies, including: Global System
for Mobile Communications (GSM), General Packet Radio Service (GPRS), Code
Division Multiple Access (CDMA), Evolution-Data Optimized (EV-DO), Enhanced Data
Rates for GSM Evolution (EDGE), 3GSM, Digital Enhanced Cordless
Telecommunications (DECT), Digital AMPS (IS-136/TDMA), and Integrated Digital
Enhanced Network (iDEN).

[edit] Structure of the mobile phone cellular network

Main article: GSM

Structure of a 2G cellular network

A simple view of the cellular mobile-radio network consists of the following:

• A network of Radio base stations forming the Base station subsystem.


• The core circuit switched network for handling voice calls and text
• A packet switched network for handling mobile data
• The Public switched telephone network to connect subscribers to the wider
telephony network

This network is the foundation of the GSM system network. There are many functions
that are performed by this network in order to make sure customers get the desired
service including mobility management, registration, call set up, and handover.
Any phone connects to the network via an RBS in the corresponding cell which in turn
connects to the MSC. The MSC allows the onward connection to the PSTN. The link
from a phone to the RBS is called an uplink while the other way is termed downlink.

Radio channels effectively use the transmission medium through the use of the following
multiplexing schemes: frequency division multiplex (FDM), time division multiplex
(TDM), code division multiplex (CDM), and space division multiplex (SDM).
Corresponding to these multiplexing schemes are the following access techniques:
frequency division multiple access (FDMA), time division multiple access (TDMA),
code division multiple access (CDMA), and space division multiple access (SDMA).[4]

[edit] Cellular handover in mobile phone networks

Main article: Handoff

As the phone user moves from one cell area to another cell whilst a call is in progress, the
mobile station will search for a new channel to attach to in order not to drop the call.
Once a new channel is found, the network will command the mobile unit to switch to the
new channel and at the same time switch the call onto the new channel.

With CDMA, multiple CDMA handsets share a specific radio channel. The signals are
separated by using a pseudonoise code (PN code) specific to each phone. As the user
moves from one cell to another, the handset sets up radio links with multiple cell sites (or
sectors of the same site) simultaneously. This is known as "soft handoff" because, unlike
with traditional cellular technology, there is no one defined point where the phone
switches to the new cell.

In IS-95 inter-frequency handovers and older analog systems such as NMT it will
typically be impossible to test the target channel directly while communicating. In this
case other techniques have to be used such as pilot beacons in IS-95. This means that
there is almost always a brief break in the communication while searching for the new
channel followed by the risk of an unexpected return to the old channel.

If there is no ongoing communication or the communication can be interrupted, it is


possible for the mobile unit to spontaneously move from one cell to another and then
notify the base station with the strongest signal.

[edit] Cellular frequency choice in mobile phone networks

Main article: GSM frequency bands

The effect of frequency on cell coverage means that different frequencies serve better for
different uses. Low frequencies, such as 450 MHz NMT, serve very well for countryside
coverage. GSM 900 (900 MHz) is a suitable solution for light urban coverage. GSM 1800
(1.8 GHz) starts to be limited by structural walls. UMTS, at 2.1 GHz is quite similar in
coverage to GSM 1800.
Higher frequencies are a disadvantage when it comes to coverage, but it is a decided
advantage when it comes to capacity. Pico cells, covering e.g. one floor of a building,
become possible, and the same frequency can be used for cells which are practically
neighbours.

Cell service area may also vary due to interference from transmitting systems, both
within and around that cell. This is true especially in CDMA based systems. The receiver
requires a certain signal-to-noise ratio. As the receiver moves away from the transmitter,
the power transmitted is reduced. As the interference (noise) rises above the received
power from the transmitter, and the power of the transmitter cannot be increased any
more, the signal becomes corrupted and eventually unusable. In CDMA-based systems,
the effect of interference from other mobile transmitters in the same cell on coverage area
is very marked and has a special name, cell breathing.

One can see examples of cell coverage by studying some of the coverage maps provided
by real operators on their web sites. In certain cases they may mark the site of the
transmitter, in others it can be calculated by working out the point of strongest coverage.

[edit] Coverage comparison of different frequencies

Following table shows the dependency of frequency on coverage area of one cell of a
CDMA2000 network:[5]

Frequency (MHz) Cell radius (km) Cell area (km2) Relative Cell Count
450 48.9 7521 1
950 26.9 2269 3.3
1800 14.0 618 12.2
2100 12.0 449 16.2

[edit] See also


• Cellular traffic • Cellular repeater • Spectral
• Base Station Subsystem - • Code Division efficiency
GSM radio network Multiple Access comparison table
• Cell on wheels (CDMA) • OpenBTS
• Cell site • Mobile phone
• Cellular frequencies • Multiple-input • Cellular router
o GSM frequency multiple-output
bands communications
(MIMO)
o UMTS frequency • Professional Mobile
bands Radio (PMR)
• Radio resource
management (RRM)

• Signal strength

[edit] References
1. ^ J. E. Flood. Telecommunicattions Networks. Institution of Electrical Engineers,
London, UK, 1997. chapter 12.
2. ^ Cell towers at corners of hexagon cells
3. ^ U.S. Patent 4,144,411 -- Cellular Radiotelephone System for Different Cell Sizes --
Richard H. Frenkiel (Bell Labs), filed Sep 22, 1976, issued March 13, 1979
4. ^ Bernhard H. Walke. Mobile Radio Networks: Networking, protocols and traffic
performance. John Wiley and Sons, LTD West Sussex England, 2002. Chapter 2.
5. ^ http://www.itu.int/ITU-D/imt-2000/Meetings/Slovenia/Presentations/Day
%203/3.3.1_Chandler.pdf page 17

• P. Key, D. Smith. Teletraffic Engineering in a competitive world. Elsevier


Science B.V., Amsterdam Netherlands, 1999. Chapter 1 (Plenary) and 3 (mobile).

[hide]
v•d•e
Mobile telephony standards

0G (radio MTS · MTA · MTB · MTC · IMTS · MTD · AMTS · OLT ·


telephones) Autoradiopuhelin

AMPS familyAMPS · TACS · ETACS


1G
OtherNMT · Hicap · Mobitex · DataTAC

GSM/3GPP
GSM · CSD
family

3GPP2 familyCdmaOne (IS-95)


2G
AMPS familyD-AMPS (IS-54 and IS-136)

OtherCDPD · iDEN · PDC · PHS

GSM/3GPP
HSCSD · GPRS · EDGE/EGPRS
family
2G transitional
(2.5G, 2.75G) 3GPP2 familyCDMA2000 1xRTT (IS-2000)

OtherWiDEN
UMTS (UTRAN) · WCDMA-FDD ·
3GPP familyWCDMA-TDD · UTRA-TDD LCR (TD-
3G (IMT-2000) SCDMA)

3GPP2 familyCDMA2000 1xEV-DO (IS-856)

3GPP familyHSDPA · HSUPA · HSPA+ · LTE (E-UTRA)

3G transitional 3GPP2 familyEV-DO Rev. A · EV-DO Rev. B


(3.5G, 3.9G)
Mobile WiMAX (IEEE 802.16e-2005) ·
Other
Flash-OFDM · IEEE 802.20

3GPP familyLTE Advanced


4G (IMT-Advanced)
WiMAX familyIEEE 802.16m

History · Cellular network theory · List of standards ·


Comparison of standards · Channel access methods · Spectral
Related articles efficiency comparison table · Cellular frequencies · GSM
frequency bands · UMTS frequency bands · Mobile
broadband

A mobile phone or mobile (also called cellphone and handphone[1]) is an electronic


device used for mobile telecommunications (mobile telephone, text messaging or data
transmission) over a cellular network of specialized base stations known as cell sites.
Mobile phones differ from cordless telephones, which only offer telephone service within
limited range, e.g. within a home or an office, through a fixed line and a base station
owned by the subscriber and also from satellite phones and radio telephones. As opposed
to a radio telephone, a cell phone offers full duplex communication, automates calling to
and paging from a public land mobile network (PLMN), and handoff (handover) during a
phone call when the user moves from one cell (base station coverage area) to another.
Most current cell phones connect to a cellular network consisting of switching points and
base stations (cell sites) owned by a mobile network operator. In addition to the standard
voice function, current mobile phones may support many additional services, and
accessories, such as SMS for text messaging, email, packet switching for access to the
Internet, gaming, Bluetooth, infrared, camera with video recorder and MMS for sending
and receiving photos and video, MP3 player, radio and GPS.

The International Telecommunication Union estimated that mobile cellular subscriptions


worldwide would reach approximately 4.6 billion by the end of 2009. Mobile phones
have gained increased importance in the sector of Information and communication
technologies for development in the 2000s and have effectively started to reach the
bottom of the economic pyramid.[2]

Contents
[hide]

• 1 History
o 1.1 Analog cellular telephony (1G)
o 1.2 Digital mobile communication (2G)
o 1.3 Wideband mobile communication (3G)
o 1.4 Broadband Fourth generation (4G)
• 2 Uses
o 2.1 Multiple phones
o 2.2 Sharing
• 3 Handsets
o 3.1 Features
o 3.2 Software and applications
o 3.3 Power supply
o 3.4 SIM card
o 3.5 Market share
o 3.6 Media
• 4 Privacy
• 5 Restriction on usage
o 5.1 Use while driving
o 5.2 Schools
• 6 Comparison to similar systems
• 7 See also
• 8 References
• 9 Further reading

• 10 External links

History
Mobile car phone, 1964

Portable cellphone, 1970s

Man using cell phone, 1973


Main article: History of mobile phones

Analog Motorola DynaTAC 8000X Advanced Mobile Phone System mobile phone as of
1983

In 1908, U.S. Patent 887,357 for a wireless telephone was issued to Nathan B.
Stubblefield of Murray, Kentucky. He applied this patent to "cave radio" telephones and
not directly to cellular telephony as the term is currently understood.[3] Cells for mobile
phone base stations were invented in 1947 by Bell Labs engineers at AT&T and further
developed by Bell Labs during the 1960s. Radiophones have a long and varied history
going back to Reginald Fessenden's invention and shore-to-ship demonstration of radio
telephony, through the Second World War with military use of radio telephony links and
civil services in the 1950s, while hand-held mobile radio devices have been available
since 1973. A patent for the first wireless phone as we know today was issued in US
Patent Number 3,449,750 to George Sweigert of Euclid, Ohio on June 10, 1969.

In 1960, the world’s first partly automatic car phone system Mobile System A (MTA)|
MTA was launched in Sweden. With MTA, calls could be made and received in the car
to/from the public telephone network, and the car phone could be paged. The phone
number was dialed using a rotary dial. Calling from the car was fully automatic, while
calling to it required an operator. The person who wanted to call a mobile phone had to
know which base station the mobile phone was covered by. The system was developed
by Sture Laurén and other engineers at Televerket network operator. Ericsson provided
the switchboard while Svenska Radioaktiebolaget (SRA) owned by Ericsson and Marconi
provided the telephones and base station equipment. MTA phones were consisted of
vacuum tubes and relays, and had a weight of 40 kg. In 1962, a more modern version
called Mobile System B (MTB) was launched, which was a push-button telephone, and
which used transistors in order to enhance the telephone’s calling capacity and improve
its operational reliability. In 1971 the MTD version was launched, opening for several
different brands of equipment and gaining commercial success.[4][5]

The concepts of frequency reuse and handoff, as well as a number of other concepts that
formed the basis of modern cell phone technology, were described in the 1970s; see for
example Fluhr and Nussbaum,[6] Hachenburg et al.[7] , and U.S. Patent 4,152,647, issued
May 1, 1979 to Charles A. Gladden and Martin H. Parelman, both of Las Vegas, Nevada
and assigned by them to the United States Government.

Martin Cooper, a Motorola researcher and executive is considered to be the inventor of


the first practical mobile phone for hand-held use in a non-vehicle setting, after a long
race against Bell Labs for the first portable mobile phone. Cooper is the first inventor
named on "Radio telephone system" filed on October 17, 1973 with the US Patent Office
and later issued as US Patent 3,906,166;[8] other named contributors on the patent
included Cooper's boss, John F. Mitchell, Motorola's chief of portable communication
products, who successfully pushed Motorola to develop wireless communication products
that would be small enough to use outside the home, office or automobile and
participated in the design of the cellular phone.[9][10] Using a modern, if somewhat heavy
portable handset, Cooper made the first call on a hand-held mobile phone on April 3,
1973 to his rival, Dr. Joel S. Engel of Bell Labs.[11]

Analog cellular telephony (1G)

Main article: 1G
The first commercially automated cellular network (the 1G generation) was launched in
Japan by NTT in 1979. The initial launch network covered the full metropolitan area of
Tokyo's over 20 million inhabitants with a cellular network of 23 base stations. Within
five years, the NTT network had been expanded to cover the whole population of Japan
and became the first nation-wide 1G network.

The second launch of 1G networks was the simultaneous launch of the Nordic Mobile
Telephone (NMT) system in Denmark, Finland, Norway and Sweden in 1981.[12]. NMT
was the first mobile phone network featuring international roaming. The Swedish
electrical engineer Östen Mäkitalo started to work on this vision in 1966, and is
considered as the father of the NMT system and some consider him also the father of the
cellular phone.[13][14]

Personal Handy-phone System mobiles and modems used in Japan around 1997–2003

Several countries were among the earliest to launch 1G networks in the early 1980s
including the UK, Mexico and Canada. The first 1G network launched in the USA was
Chicago based Ameritech in 1983 using the famous first hand-held mobile phone
Motorola DynaTAC. In 1984, Bell Labs developed modern commercial cellular
technology (based, to a large extent, on the Gladden, Parelman Patent), which employed
multiple, centrally controlled base stations (cell sites), each providing service to a small
area (a cell). The cell sites would be set up such that cells partially overlapped. In a
cellular system, a signal between a base station (cell site) and a terminal (phone) only
need be strong enough to reach between the two, so the same channel can be used
simultaneously for separate conversations in different cells.

The first NMT installations as well as the First AMPS installations were based on the
Ericsson AXE digital exchange nodes.

Cellular systems required several leaps of technology, including handover, which allowed
a conversation to continue as a mobile phone traveled from cell to cell. This system
included variable transmission power in both the base stations and the telephones
(controlled by the base stations), which allowed range and cell size to vary. As the system
expanded and neared capacity, the ability to reduce transmission power allowed new cells
to be added, resulting in more, smaller cells and thus more capacity. The evidence of this
growth can still be seen in the many older, tall cell site towers with no antennae on the
upper parts of their towers. These sites originally created large cells, and so had their
antennae mounted atop high towers; the towers were designed so that as the system
expanded—and cell sizes shrank—the antennae could be lowered on their original masts
to reduce range.

A 1991 GSM mobile phone

Digital mobile communication (2G)

Main articles: 2G, 2.5G, and 2.75G

The first "modern" network technology on digital 2G (second generation) cellular


technology was launched by Radiolinja (now part of Elisa Group) in 1991 in Finland on
the GSM standard which also marked the introduction of competition in mobile telecoms
when Radiolinja challenged incumbent Telecom Finland (now part of TeliaSonera) who
ran a 1G NMT network.

The first data services appeared on mobile phones starting with person-to-person SMS
text messaging in Finland in 1993. First trial payments using a mobile phone to pay for a
Coca Cola vending machine were set in Finland in 1998. The first commercial payments
were mobile parking trialled in Sweden but first commercially launched in Norway in
1999. The first commercial payment system to mimic banks and credit cards was
launched in the Philippines in 1999 simultaneously by mobile operators Globe and Smart.
The first content sold to mobile phones was the ringing tone, first launched in 1998 in
Finland. The first full internet service on mobile phones was introduced by NTT
DoCoMo in Japan in 1999.

Wideband mobile communication (3G)


An early 3G handset
Main article: 3G

In 2001 the first commercial launch of 3G (Third Generation) was again in Japan by NTT
DoCoMo on the WCDMA standard.[15] The standard 2G CDMA networks became 3G
compliant with the adoption of Revision A to EV-DO. Revision A of EV-DO makes
several additions to the protocol while keeping it completely backwards compatible with
older versions of EV-DO.

These changes included the introduction of several new forward link data rates that
increase the maximum burst rate from 2.45 Mbit/s to 3.1 Mbit/s. Also included were
protocols that would decrease connection establishment time (called enhanced access
channel MAC), the ability for more than one mobile to share the same time slot (multi-
user packets) and the introduction of QoS flags. All these were put in place to allow for
low latency, low bit rate communications such as VoIP.[16]

One of the newest 3G technologies to be implemented is High-Speed Downlink Packet


Access (HSDPA). It is an enhanced 3G (third generation) mobile telephony
communications protocol in the High-Speed Packet Access (HSPA) family, also coined
3.5G, 3G+ or turbo 3G, which allows networks based on Universal Mobile
Telecommunications System (UMTS) to have higher data transfer speeds and capacity.
Current HSDPA deployments support down-link speeds of 1.8, 3.6, 7.2 and 14.0 Mbit/s.
Further speed increases are available with HSPA+, which provides speeds of up to 42
Mbit/s downlink and 84 Mbit/s with Release 9 of the 3GPP standards.

Broadband Fourth generation (4G)

Main article: 4G

The recently released 4th generation, also known as Beyond 3G, aims to provide
broadband wireless access with nominal data rates of 100 Mbit/s to fast moving devices,
and 1 Gbit/s to stationary devices defined by the ITU-R[17] 4G systems may be based on
the 3GPP LTE (Long Term Evolution) cellular standard, offering peak bit rates of 326.4
Mbit/s. It may perhaps also be based on WiMax or Flash-OFDM wireless metropolitan
area network technologies that promise broadband wireless access with speeds that
reaches 233 Mbit/s for mobile users. The radio interface in these systems is based on all-
IP packet switching, MIMO diversity, multi-carrier modulation schemes, dynamic
channel assignment (DCA) and channel-dependent scheduling. A 4G system should be a
complete replacement for current network infrastructure and is expected to be able to
provide a comprehensive and secure IP solution where voice, data, and streamed
multimedia can be given to users on a "Anytime, Anywhere" basis, and at much higher
data rates than previous generations. Sprint in the US has claimed its WiMax network to
be "4G network" which most cellular telecoms standardization experts dispute repeatedly
around the world. Sprint's 4G is seen as a marketing gimmick as WiMax itself is part of
the 3G air interface. The officially accepted, ITU ratified standards-based 4G networks
are not expected to be commercially launcnhed until 2011.

Uses
Mobile phones are used for a variety of purposes, including keeping in touch with family
members, conducting business, and having access to a telephone in the event of an
emergency.

Organizations that aid victims of domestic violence may offer a cell phone to potential
victims without the abuser's knowledge. These devices are often old phones that are
donated and refurbished to meet the victim's emergency needs.[18]

Child predators have taken advantage of cell phones to secretly communicate with
children without the knowledge of their parents or teachers.[19]

The advent of widespread text messaging has resulted in the cell phone novel; the first
literary genre to emerge from the cellular age via text messaging to a website that collects
the novels as a whole.[20] Paul Levinson, in Information on the Move (2004), says
"...nowadays, a writer can write just about as easily, anywhere, as a reader can read" and
they are "not only personal but portable".

Multiple phones

Individuals may have multiple cell phones for separate purposes, such as for business and
personal use. Multiple phones (or multiple SIM cards) may be used to take advantage of
the benefits of different calling plans—a particular plan might provide cheaper local
calls, long-distance calls, international calls, or roaming. A study by Motorola found that
one in ten cell phone subscribers have a second phone that often is kept secret from other
family members. These phones may be used to engage in activities including extramarital
affairs or clandestine business dealings.[21]

Sharing

Cell phone sharing is a phenomenon which exists around the world. It is prevalent in
urban India, as families and groups of friends often share one or more mobiles among
their members. Two types of sharing which exist are "conspicuous" and "stealthy"
sharing. An example of conspicuous sharing takes place when someone calls the friend of
the person they are trying to reach in hopes of being able to talk to that individual;
stealthy sharing occurs when an individual uses another's cell phone without their
knowledge. Phone sharing does not only take place because of its economic benefits, but
also often due to familial customs and traditional gender roles.[22]

Another example of cell phone sharing occurs in Burkina Faso. There it is not uncommon
for a village to only have access to one cell phone. This cell phone is typically owned by
a person who is not natively from the village, such as a teacher or missionary. Although
the cell phone is the sole property of one individual, it is the expectation that other
members of the village are allowed to use the cell phone to make necessary calls.
Although some may consider this a burden, it can actually be an opportunity to engage in
reciprocal obligations. This type of cell phone sharing is an important for the small
villages in Burkina Faso because it allows them to keep up with the expectations of the
globalizing world.[23]

Handsets

A Nokia phone with box.

A printed circuit board inside a mobile phone

There are several categories of mobile phones, from basic phones to feature phones such
as musicphones and cameraphones. There are also smartphones, the first smartphone was
the Nokia 9000 Communicator in 1996 which incorporated PDA functionality to the
basic mobile phone at the time. As miniaturisation and increased processing power of
microchips has enabled ever more features to be added to phones, the concept of the
smartphone has evolved, and what was a high-end smartphone five years ago, is a
standard phone today. Several phone series have been introduced to address a given
market segment, such as the RIM BlackBerry focusing on enterprise/corporate customer
email needs; the SonyEricsson Walkman series of musicphones and Cybershot series of
cameraphones; the Nokia Nseries of multimedia phones, the Palm Pre the HTC Dream
and the Apple iPhone.

Features

Main articles: Mobile phone features and Smartphone


Mobile phones often have features extending beyond sending text messages and making
voice calls, including call registers, GPS navigation, music (MP3) and video (MP4)
playback, RDS radio receiver, alarms, memo and document recording, personal organiser
and personal digital assistant functions, ability to watch streaming video or download
video for later viewing, video calling, built-in cameras (1.0+ Mpx) and camcorders
(video recording), with autofocus and flash, ringtones, games, PTT, memory card reader
(SD), USB (2.0), infrared, Bluetooth (2.0) and WiFi connectivity, instant messaging,
Internet e-mail and browsing and serving as a wireless modem for a PC, and soon will
also serve as a console of sorts to online games and other high quality games. Some
phones also include a touchscreen.

Nokia and the University of Cambridge are demonstrating a bendable cell phone called
the Morph.[24]

See also: Videophone, for UMTS-type mobile phones employing simultaneous


video and audio

Software and applications

A phone with touchscreen feature.

Mobile phone subscribers per 100 inhabitants 1997–2007

The most commonly used data application on mobile phones is SMS text messaging, with
74% of all mobile phone users as active users (over 2.4 billion out of 3.3 billion total
subscribers at the end of 2007). SMS text messaging was worth over 100 billion dollars
in annual revenues in 2007 and the worldwide average of messaging use is 2.6 SMS sent
per day per person across the whole mobile phone subscriber base (source Informa 2007).
The first SMS text message was sent from a computer to a mobile phone in 1992 in the
UK, while the first person-to-person SMS from phone to phone was sent in Finland in
1993.

The other non-SMS data services used by mobile phones were worth 31 billion dollars in
2007, and were led by mobile music, downloadable logos and pictures, gaming,
gambling, adult entertainment and advertising (source: Informa 2007). The first
downloadable mobile content was sold to a mobile phone in Finland in 1998, when
Radiolinja (now Elisa) introduced the downloadable ringing tone service. In 1999
Japanese mobile operator NTT DoCoMo introduced its mobile internet service, i-Mode,
which today is the world's largest mobile internet service and roughly the same size as
Google in annual revenues.

The first mobile news service, delivered via SMS, was launched in Finland in 2000.
Mobile news services are expanding with many organisations providing "on-demand"
news services by SMS. Some also provide "instant" news pushed out by SMS. Mobile
telephony also facilitates activism and public journalism being explored by Reuters and
Yahoo![25] and small independent news companies such as Jasmine News in Sri Lanka.

Companies are starting to offer mobile services such as job search and career advice.
Consumer applications are on the rise and include everything from information guides on
local activities and events to mobile coupons and discount offers one can use to save
money on purchases. Even tools for creating websites for mobile phones are increasingly
becoming available.

Mobile payments were first trialled in Finland in 1998 when two Coca-Cola vending
machines in Espoo were enabled to work with SMS payments. Eventually the idea spread
and in 1999 the Philippines launched the first commercial mobile payments systems, on
the mobile operators Globe and Smart. Today mobile payments ranging from mobile
banking to mobile credit cards to mobile commerce are very widely used in Asia and
Africa, and in selected European markets. For example in the Philippines it is not unusual
to have one's entire paycheck paid to the mobile account. In Kenya the limit of money
transfers from one mobile banking account to another is one million US dollars. In India
paying utility bills with mobile gains a 5% discount. In Estonia mobile phones are the
most popular method of paying for public parking.

Power supply

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Mobile phone charging service in Uganda

Mobile phones generally obtain power from rechargeable batteries. There are a variety of
ways used to charge cell phones, including USB, portable batteries, mains power (using
an AC adapter), cigarette lighters (using an adapter), or a dynamo. In 2009, wireless
charging became a reality, and the first wireless charger was released for consumer use.
[26]

Standardization of Micro-USB connector for charging

Starting from 2010, many mobile phone manufacturers have agreed to use the Micro-
USB connector for charging their phones.[27] The mobile phone manufacturers who have
agreed to this standard include:

• Apple
• LG
• Motorola
• Nokia
• Research In Motion
• Samsung
• Sony Ericsson

On 17 February 2009, the GSM Association announced[28] that they had agreed on a
standard charger for mobile phones. The standard connector to be adopted by 17
manufacturers in the Open Mobile Terminal Platform including Nokia, Motorola and
Samsung is to be the micro-USB connector (several media reports erroneously reported
this as the mini-USB). The new chargers will be much more efficient than existing
chargers. Having a standard charger for all phones, means that manufacturers will no
longer have to supply a charger with every new phone.

In addition, on 22 October 2009 the International Telecommunication Union (ITU)


announced that it had embraced micro-USB as the Universal Charger Solution its
"energy-efficient one-charger-fits-all new mobile phone solution", and added: "Based on
the Micro-USB interface, UCS chargers will also include a 4-star or higher efficiency
rating — up to three times more energy-efficient than an unrated charger."[29]
Charger efficiency

The world's five largest handset makers introduced a new rating system in November
2008 to help consumers more easily identify the most energy-efficient chargers

The majority of energy lost in a mobile phone charger is in its no load condition, when
the mobile phone is not connected but the charger has been left plugged in and using
power. To combat this in November 2008 the top five mobile phone manufacturers
Nokia, Samsung, LG Electronics, Sony Ericsson and Motorola set up a star rating system
to rate the efficiency of their chargers in the no-load condition. Starting at zero stars for
>0.5 W and going up to the top five star rating for <0.03 W (30 mW) no load power.

A number of semiconductor companies offering flyback controllers, such as Power


Integrations and CamSemi, now claim that the five star standard can be achieved with use
of their product.

Battery

Formerly, the most common form of mobile phone batteries were nickel metal-hydride,
as they have a low size and weight. lithium ion batteries are sometimes used, as they are
lighter and do not have the voltage depression that nickel metal-hydride batteries do.
Many mobile phone manufacturers have now switched to using lithium-polymer batteries
as opposed to the older Lithium-Ion, the main advantages of this being even lower weight
and the possibility to make the battery a shape other than strict cuboid. Mobile phone
manufacturers have been experimenting with alternative power sources, including solar
cells and Coca Cola.[30]

SIM card

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Main article: Subscriber Identity Module
Typical mobile phone SIM card

In addition to the battery, GSM mobile phones require a small microchip, called a
Subscriber Identity Module or SIM Card, to function. Approximately the size of a small
postage stamp, the SIM Card is usually placed underneath the battery in the rear of the
unit, and (when properly activated) stores the phone's configuration data, and information
about the phone itself, such as which calling plan the subscriber is using. When the
subscriber removes the SIM Card, it can be re-inserted into another phone that is
configured to accept the SIM card[31] and used as normal.

Each SIM Card is activated by use of a unique numerical identifier; once activated, the
identifier is locked down and the card is permanently locked in to the activating network.
For this reason, most retailers refuse to accept the return of an activated SIM Card.

Those cell phones that do not use a SIM Card have the data programmed in to their
memory. This data is accessed by using a special digit sequence to access the "NAM" as
in "Name" or number programming menu. From here, one can add information such as a
new number for the phone, new Service Provider numbers, new emergency numbers,
change their Authentication Key or A-Key code, and update their Preferred Roaming List
or PRL. However, to prevent someone from accidentally disabling their phone or
removing it from the network, the Service Provider puts a lock on this data called a
Master Subsidiary Lock or MSL.

The MSL also ensures that the Service Provider gets payment for the phone that was
purchased or "leased". For example, the Motorola RAZR V9C costs upwards of CAD
$500. Depending on the carrier, such a phone may be available for as little as $200. The
difference is paid by the customer in the form of a monthly bill. If the carrier did not use
an MSL, then they may lose the $300–$400 difference that is paid in the monthly bill,
since some customers would cancel their service and take the phone to another carrier.
The MSL applies to the SIM only so once the contract has been completed the MSL still
applies to the SIM. The phone however, is also initially locked by the manufacturer into
the Service Providers MSL. This lock may be disabled so that the phone can use other
Service Providers SIM cards. Most phones purchased outside the US are unlocked
phones because there are numerous Service Providers in close proximity to one another
or have overlapping coverage. The cost to unlock a phone varies but is usually very cheap
and is sometimes provided by independent phone vendors.

Having an unlocked phone is extremely useful for travelers due to the high cost of using
the MSL Service Providers access when outside the normal coverage areas. It can cost
sometimes up to 10 times as much to use a locked phone overseas as in the normal
service area, even with discounted rates. T-Mobile will provide a SIM unlock code to
account holders in good standing after 90 days according to their FAQ.

For example, in Jamaica, an AT&T subscriber might pay in excess of US$1.65 per
minute for discounted international service while a B-Mobile (Jamaican) customer would
pay US$0.20 per minute for the same international service. Some Service Providers focus
sales on international sales while others focus on regional sales. For example, the same
B-Mobile customer might pay more for local calls but less for international calls than a
subscriber to the Jamaican national phone C&W (Cable & Wireless) company. These rate
differences are mainly due to currency variations because SIM purchases are made in the
local currency. In the US, this type of service competition does not exist because some of
the major Service Providers do not offer Pay-As-You-Go services. [Needs Pay-As-You-
Go references, rumored T-Mobile, Verizon provide one, AT&T does not as of 12/2008]

Market share

The world's largest individual mobile operator is China Mobile with over 500 million
mobile phone subscribers. The world's largest mobile operator group by subscribers is
UK based Vodafone. There are over 600 mobile operators and carriers in commercial
production worldwide. Over 50 mobile operators have over 10 million subscribers each,
and over 150 mobile operators have at least one million subscribers by the end of 2009
(source wireless intelligence).

LG Sony
Source Date Nokia Samsung Motorola Others References
Electronics Ericsson

[32]
IDC Q3/2009 37.8% 21.0% 11.0% 4.9% 4.7% 20.6%

Gartne [33]
Q4/2009 36.4% 19.5% 10.1% 4.8% 4.5% 24.7%
r
In mobile phone handsets, in Q3/2009, Nokia was the world's largest manufacturer of
mobile phones, with a global device market share of 37.8%, followed by Samsung
(21.0%), LG Electronics (11.0%), Sony Ericsson (4.9%) and Motorola (4.7%). These
manufacturers accounted for over 80% of all mobile phones sold at that time.[34]

Other manufacturers include Apple Inc., Audiovox (now UTStarcom), Benefon, BenQ-
Siemens, CECT, HTC Corporation, Fujitsu, Kyocera, Mitsubishi Electric, NEC,
Neonode, Panasonic, Palm, Matsushita, Pantech Wireless Inc., Philips, Qualcomm Inc.,
Research In Motion Ltd. (RIM), Sagem, Sanyo, Sharp, Siemens, Sendo, Sierra Wireless,
SK Teletech, T&A Alcatel, Huawei, Trium, Toshiba and Vidalco. There are also
specialist communication systems related to (but distinct from) mobile phones.

Media

The mobile phone became a mass media channel in 1998 when the first ringtones were
sold to mobile phones by Radiolinja in Finland. Soon other media content appeared such
as news, videogames, jokes, horoscopes, TV content and advertising. In 2006 the total
value of mobile phone paid media content exceeded internet paid media content and was
worth 31 Billion dollars (source Informa 2007). The value of music on phones was worth
9.3 Billion dollars in 2007 and gaming was worth over 5 billion dollars in 2007.[35]

The mobile phone is often called the Fourth Screen (if counting cinema, TV and PC
screens as the first three) or Third Screen (counting only TV and PC screens).[weasel words] It
is also called the Seventh of the Mass Media (with Print, Recordings, Cinema, Radio, TV
and Internet the first six). Most early content for mobile tended to be copies of legacy
media, such as the banner advertisement or the TV news highlight video clip. Recently
unique content for mobile has been emerging, from the ringing tones and ringback tones
in music to "mobisodes," video content that has been produced exclusively for mobile
phones.

The advent of media on the mobile phone has also produced the opportunity to identify
and track Alpha Users or Hubs, the most influential members of any social community.
AMF Ventures measured in 2007 the relative accuracy of three mass media, and found
that audience measures on mobile were nine times more accurate than on the internet and
90 times more accurate than on TV.[original research?]

Privacy
Cell phones have numerous privacy issues associated with them, and are regularly used
by governments to perform surveillance.

Law enforcement and intelligence services in the UK and the US possess technology to
remotely activate the microphones in cell phones in order to listen to conversations that
take place nearby the person who holds the phone.[36][37]
Mobile phones are also commonly used to collect location data. The geographical
location of a mobile phone can be determined easily (whether it is being used or not),
using a technique known multilateration to calculate the differences in time for a signal to
travel from the cell phone to each of several cell towers near the owner of the phone.[38][39]

Restriction on usage
Main article: Mobile phones on aircraft
This section does not cite any references or sources.
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challenged and removed. (January 2010)

There exists a growing body within the scientific community which believes mobile
phone use represents a long-term health risk, particularly to young children. Certain
countries, including France, restrict the use and sale of cell phones to minors for this
reason. The telecommunications insdustry rejects such claims, claming there is no proof
of long-term adverse health effects. Groups of scientists, however, such as the U.S. -
based group "Bioinitiative (see www.bioinitiative.org) argue that because mobile phone
use is recently-introduced technology, long-term 'proof' has been impossible - and use
should be restricted, or monitored closely, while the technology is still new. The very
first generation of cell-phone users, for example, are only now entering middle-age.
Studies in Europe, for example, are only now emerging which link long-term cell phone
use to brain tumours. Other studies link cell-phone use to child-diabetes, concentration
difficulty, and sleep disorders.

Use while driving

Main article: Mobile phones and driving safety

Mobile phone use while driving is common but controversial. Being distracted while
operating a motor vehicle has been shown to increase the risk of accident. Because of
this, many jurisdictions prohibit the use of mobile phones while driving. Egypt, Israel,
Japan, Portugal and Singapore ban both hand-held and hands-free use of a mobile phone
whilst many other countries –including the UK, France, and many US states– ban hand-
held phone use only, allowing hands-free use.

Due to the increasing complexity of mobile phones –often more like mobile computers in
their available uses– it has introduced additional difficulties for law enforcement officials
in being able to tell one usage from another as drivers use their devices. This is more
apparent in those countries who ban both hand-held and hands-free usage, rather those
who have banned hand-held use only, as officials cannot easily tell which function of the
mobile phone is being used simply by visually looking at the driver. This can mean that
drivers may be stopped for using their device illegally on a phone call, when in fact they
were not; instead using the device for a legal purpose such as the phones' incorporated
controls for car stereo or satnav usage – either as part of the cars' own device or directly
on the mobile phone itself.
Cases like these can often only be proved otherwise by a check of the mobile operators
phone call records to see if a call was taking place during the journey concerned.
Although in many countries the law enforcement official may have stopped the driver for
a differing offence, for example, for lack of due care and attention in relation to their
driving.

Schools

Some schools limit or restrict the use of mobile phones. Schools set restrictions on the
use of mobile phones because of the use of cell phones for cheating on tests, harassment
and bullying, causing threats to the schools security, distractions to the students and
facilitating gossip and other social activity in school. Many mobile phones are banned in
school locker room facilities, public restrooms and swimming pools due to the built-in
cameras that most phones now feature.

A recently published study has reviewed the incidence of mobile phone use while cycling
and its effects on behaviour and safety.[40]

Comparison to similar systems


Car phone
A type of telephone permanently mounted in a vehicle, these often have more
powerful transmitters, an external antenna and loudspeaker for hands free use.
They usually connect to the same networks as regular mobile phones.
Cordless telephone (portable phone)
Cordless phones are telephones which use one or more radio handsets in place of
a wired handset. The handsets connect wirelessly to a base station, which in turn
connects to a conventional land line for calling. Unlike mobile phones, cordless
phones use private base stations (belonging to the land-line subscriber), which are
not shared.
Professional Mobile Radio
Advanced professional mobile radio systems can be very similar to mobile phone
systems. Notably, the IDEN standard has been used as both a private trunked
radio system as well as the technology for several large public providers. Similar
attempts have even been made to use TETRA, the European digital PMR
standard, to implement public mobile networks.
Radio phone
This is a term which covers radios which could connect into the telephone
network. These phones may not be mobile; for example, they may require a mains
power supply, or they may require the assistance of a human operator to set up a
PSTN phone call.
Satellite phone
This type of phone communicates directly with an artificial satellite, which in turn
relays calls to a base station or another satellite phone. A single satellite can
provide coverage to a much greater area than terrestrial base stations. Since
satellite phones are costly, their use is typically limited to people in remote areas
where no mobile phone coverage exists, such as mountain climbers, mariners in
the open sea, and news reporters at disaster sites.
IP Phone
This type of phone delivers or receives calls over internet, LAN or WAN
networks using VoIP as opposed to traditional CDMA and GSM networks. In
business, the majority of these IP Phones tend to be connected via wired Ethernet,
however wireless varieties do exist. Several vendors have developed standalone
WiFi phones. Additionally, some cellular mobile phones include the ability to
place VoIP calls over cellular high speed data networks and/or wireless internet.
[41]

See also

Best Answer - Chosen by Voters


Ok ok - here are the definitions:
A mobile phone is the type of cellular phone that is installed in a motor vehicle. There are
three main types of cellular phones mobile, transportable, and portable. A mobile unit is
attached to the vehicle, draws its power from the vehicles battery and has an external
antenna.

A satellite phone or satphone is a mobile phone that communicates directly with orbiting
satellites. Depending on the architecture of a particular system, coverage may include the
entire planet, or only specific

Cellular: A type of wireless communication that is most familiar to mobile phones


users. It's called 'cellular' because the system uses many base stations to divide a
service area into multiple 'cells'. Cellular calls are transferred from base station to
base station as a user travels from cell to cell. - definition from the Wireless Advisor
Glossary.

The basic concept of cellular phones began in 1947, when researchers looked at
crude mobile (car) phones and realized that by using small cells (range of service
area) with frequency reuse they could increase the traffic capacity of mobile phones
substantially. However at that time, the technology to do so was nonexistent.

Anything to do with broadcasting and sending a radio or television message out over
the airwaves comes under Federal Communications Commission (FCC) regulation. A
cell phone is a type of two-way radio. In 1947, AT&T proposed that the FCC allocate
a large number of radio-spectrum frequencies so that widespread mobile telephone
service would become feasible and AT&T would have a incentive to research the new
technology. We can partially blame the FCC for the gap between the initial concept of
cellular service and its availability to the public. The FCC decided to limit the amount
of frequencies available in 1947, the limits made only twenty-three phone
conversations possible simultaneously in the same service area - not a market
incentive for research.

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The FCC reconsidered its position in 1968, stating "if the technology to build a better
mobile service works, we will increase the frequencies allocation, freeing the
airwaves for more mobile phones." AT&T and Bell Labs proposed a cellular system to
the FCC of many small, low-powered, broadcast towers, each covering a 'cell' a few
miles in radius and collectively covering a larger area. Each tower would use only a
few of the total frequencies allocated to the system. As the phones traveled across
the area, calls would be passed from tower to tower.

Individual Inventors & Mobile Phone Patents

Dr. Martin Cooper for Motorola.


US03906166
09/16/1975
Radio telephone system
Inventors: Martin Cooper, Richard W. Dronsuth, ; Albert J. Mikulski, Charles N. Lynk
Jr., James J. Mikulski, John F. Mitchell, Roy A. Richardson, John H. Sangster

Dr Martin Cooper, a former general manager for the systems division at Motorola, is
considered the inventor of the first modern portable handset. Cooper made the first
call on a portable cell phone in April 1973. He made the call to his rival, Joel Engel,
Bell Labs head of research. Bell Laboratories introduced the idea of cellular
communications in 1947 with the police car technology. However, Motorola was the
first to incorporate the technology into portable device that was designed for outside
of a automobile use. Cooper and his co-inventors are listed above.

By 1977, AT&T and Bell Labs had constructed a prototype cellular system. A year
later, public trials of the new system were started in Chicago with over 2000 trial
customers. In 1979, in a separate venture, the first commercial cellular telephone
system began operation in Tokyo. In 1981, Motorola and American Radio telephone
started a second U.S. cellular radio-telephone system test in the
Washington/Baltimore area. By 1982, the slow-moving FCC finally authorized
commercial cellular service for the USA. A year later, the first American commercial
analog cellular service or AMPS (Advanced Mobile Phone Service) was made available
in Chicago by Ameritech.

Despite the incredible demand, it took cellular phone service 37 years to become
commercially available in the United States. Consumer demand quickly outstripped
the 1982 system standards. By 1987, cellular telephone subscribers exceeded one
million and the airways were crowded.

Three ways of improving services existed:

• one - increase frequencies allocation


• two - split existing cells
• three - improve the technology

The FCC did not want to handout any more bandwidth, and building/splitting cells
would have been expensive and would have added bulk to the network. To stimulate
the growth of new technology, the FCC declared in 1987 that cellular licensees could
employ alternative cellular technologies in the 800 MHz band. The cellular industry
began to research new transmission technology as an alternative.

Editor's Note: African American Inventor Henry Sampson did not invent the cell
phone. Sampson is a brilliant and accomplished inventor who invented a Gamma-
Electrical Cell and not a phone cell. Sampson's patent (US 3,591,860) can be viewed
online or in person at the United States Patent and Trademark Office.

Continue with>>> Selling The Cell Phone - Wireless Cellular Technology

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