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THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN THE ENVIRONMENTAL

WORLDVIEW AND PROBLEMS

To Fullfill the Course Assignment

Dasar-Dasar Ilmu Lingkungan (Basic of Environmental Science)

Which is Guided by Mr. Dr. Sueb, M.Kes

By :

Group 1 Offering G 2017

1. Arief Hidayatullah :170342615535


2. Zunik Zuhroh F. :170342615569

Presented on, 30 Januari 2018

STATE UNIVERSITY OF MALANG


FACULTY OF MATHEMATICS AND SCIENCES
BIOLOGY DEPARTMENT
MAJOR S1 BIOLOGY
January 2018

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TABLE OF CONTENT

TABLE OF CONTENT .............................................................................................i

ABSTRACT ...............................................................................................................iii

CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION.............................................................................1
1.1 Issue Background........................................................................................1
1.2 Problem Formulation ..................................................................................3
1.3 Purpose of the Paper ...................................................................................3
CHAPTER II THEORITICAL REVIEW .............................................................4
2.1 Environmental Worldview..........................................................................4
2.1.1 Definition of Enviromental Worldview............................................4
2.1.2 Various Categories of Environmental Worldviews ..........................5
2.1.3 New Ecological Paradigm as Efforts to Reduce Enviromental
Pollution ...........................................................................................6
2.2 Environmental Problem ..............................................................................8
2.2.1 Definition of Enviromental Problems ..............................................8
2.2.2 Major Current Enviromental Problems ............................................9
2.2.3 What Makes Environmental Problems .............................................19
2.2.4 Effects of Enviromental Problems ....................................................22
2.2.5 Soutions to Solve Enviromental Problem.........................................24
2.2.6 Enviromental Problems in Indonesia ................................................24
2.2.7 Relationship of Environmental Problems and Environmental
Worldviews ......................................................................................25
CHAPTER III REMARK .......................................................................................26
3.1 Conclusion ..................................................................................................26
3.2 Suggestions .................................................................................................26
REFERENCES...........................................................................................................27

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TABLE OF CONTENT

Figure 2.1 Pollution....................................................................................................9

Figure 2.2 Global Warming .......................................................................................10

Figure 2.3 Overpopulation .........................................................................................11

Figure 2.4 Natural resource depletion ........................................................................11

Figure 2.5 Waste Disposal .........................................................................................12

Figure 2.6 Climate change .........................................................................................13

Figure 2.7 Loss of biodiversity ..................................................................................13

Figure 2.8 Deforestation.............................................................................................14

Figure 2.9 Ocean acidification ...................................................................................15

Figure 2.10 Ozone layer depletions ...........................................................................15

Figure 2.11 Acid rain effect .......................................................................................16

Figure 2.12 Water Pollution .......................................................................................17

Figure 2.13 Urban sprawl...........................................................................................17

Figure 2.14 Public health issue ..................................................................................18

Figure 2.15 Illegal Logging Activities .......................................................................24

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THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN THE ENVIRONMENTAL
WORLDVIEW AND PROBLEMS

ABSTRACT

Hidayatullah, Arief; Zuhroh, Zunik 2018. Supervisor: Dr. Sueb, M.Kes E-mail:
sueb.fmipa@um.ac.id.The Relationship Between The Environmental
Worldview and Problems. Paper Basics of Environmental Science, Offering G
S1 Biology Faculty of Mathematics and Science State University of Malang.

Environment becomes an important aspect of life. A good environment is always


sustainable environment. Humans can maintain environmental sustainability with
environmental worldview they have. The lack of environmental worldview that humans
have in protecting the environment is the background for the preparation of this paper.
With the preparation of this paper, is expected to increase human awareness in preserving
the environment by increasing their environmental worldview. The purpose of composing
this paper is to know the relationship between environmental worldview and
environmental problem. The method used in the preparation of this paper is by examining
the existing literature. From this paper can be concluded that environmental worldview
are interconnected with environmental problem. The better the quality of environmental
worldview indicators, the less likely the occurrence of environmental problems.

Keywords : environment, enviromental worldview, environmental problems,


suistainability,

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CHAPTER I

INTRODUCTION

1.1 Background

Indonesia is the largest archipelagic country with 17,000 islands filling its
territory. In addition, Indonesia stretches between two biogeographic areas,
Indomelayu and Australia that support various types of flora and fauna life in
the original wetland and rich coastal and marine areas. Around 3,305 species
of amphibians, birds, mammals and reptiles and at least 29,375 species of
vascular plants spread over these islands, estimated at 40 percent of
biodiversity in APEC (Suratmo, 1999).

But it is unfortunate that behind the abundant natural wealth of Indonesia is


still experiencing many environmental problems that can be spelled out quite
bad. These problems include clean water, air pollution, illegal logging, and so
on. This beautiful natural environment and rich resources must continue to
face the challenges of natural phenomena as well as the highly uncontrolled
human destructive activities. The increasing pressure to meet the demands of
the population and the inadequate management of the environment is a
challenge that hurts the poor and the economy in Indonesia. For example, the
total economic losses due to limited access to clean water and safe sanitation
account for at least 2 percent of GDP annually while the annual cost of air
pollution for the Indonesian economy has been calculated to be around $ 400
million per year. These costs are disproportionately borne by the poor
because the poor are likely to face pollution and find it difficult to take
actions to reduce their impact (Suratmo, 1999). The challenges of natural
resources continue to occur and become more complicated after
decentralization. For example, the forestry sector has long played a very
important role in supporting the development of the economy and the
livelihoods of rural communities and in providing environmental services.
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However, these resources have not been managed sustainably or fairly. To
remedy this situation, a new vision is being led by the government and the
community in tackling this very serious environmental problem

The environment is a combination of physical conditions that include the


state of natural resources such as land, water, solar energy, minerals, and flora
and fauna that grow and live on the land or in the oceans. The environment
can also be interpreted to be everything that is around humans and affect the
development of human life

The environment is as healthy as the needs of living beings. A healthy


environment shows the level of community awareness in environmental
management and protection of the environment in an effort to create a
healthy, harmonious and prosperous life. In the 1945 Constitution Article 28
H paragraph (1) it is stipulated that: "Everyone lives a prosperous and
spiritual life, resides and obtains a good and healthy environment and is
entitled to receive health services". Referring to these provisions can be
interpreted that the need for a healthy environment is the basic right of
everyone.

In general the living environment is defined as all things, conditions,


circumstances and influences contained in the room that we occupy, and
affect the living things including human life. Limits of environmental space
in this sense can be very broad, but for practically limited scope with factors
that can reachable by humans such as natural factors, political factors,
economic factors, social factors and others.

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1.2 Problem Formulation
Based on the background, the problems discussed can be formulated as
follows.
1. What are the categories in the environmental worldview?
2. How is the New Ecological Paradigm (NEP) as an effort to reduce
environmental pollution?
3. What are categories of environmental issues
4. What are the impacts of environmental problems?
5. What is the relationship between environmental worldview and
environmental issues?

1.3 Purpose of the paper


Based on the problems, the goals that discussed can be formulated as
follows.
1. Know the understanding of environmental worldview.
2. Know what is included in the category of environmental worldview.
3. Know the understanding of sustainable environmental worldview.
4. Know how the New Ecological Paradigm (NEP) as an effort in
reducing environmental pollution.
5. Know the understanding of environmental problems.
6. Know what are categories in environmental issues.
7. Know what the impact of environmental problems.
8. Know how the relationship between environmental worldview and
environmental issues.

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CHAPTER II
THEORITICAL REVIEW

2.1 Enviromental Worldview


2.1.1 Definition of Enviromental Worldview
The environment is everything around us. It includes theliving and the
nonliving things (air, water, and energy)with which we interact in a
complex web of relationshipsthat connect us to one another and to the
world we live in. Despite our many scientific and technological
advances,we are utterly dependent on the earth for clean airand water,
food, shelter, energy, fertile soil, and all othercomponents of the
planet’s life-support system (Miller, 2016:5). According to
Environmental Management Act No. 32/2009, the environment is the
unity of space with all things, power, circumstances, and living things,
including human beings and their behavior, which affect the viability
of human life and welfare and other creatures.

Whereas according to Miller (2016), environmental worldview is how


people think the world works and what they believe their role in the
world should be. In The Constitution of Republic of Indonesia Article
no. 28H clause (1) mentioned that “Every person has the right to live a
prosperous and spiritual life, to live, and to get a good and healthy
environment and entitled to receive health services”.

Major Enviromental Worldview :

1. Biocentric
a. Human have an ethical responsibility to not cause
premature extinction of any species.
b. Every organism has an interen right to survive and capable
through evolution of adapting to changing enviromental
condition.
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2. Ecocentric
Preserving the totality of earth’s biodiversity and the
functioning of its life-supporting system.

2.1.2. Various Categories of Environmental Worldview


According to Miller (2016:663), major environmental worldviews
differ on which is more important—human needs and wants, or the
overall health of ecosystems and the biosphere, that make the
environmental worldview more variable. The main 3 concept of
environmental worldview are.
1. Planetary Management
Attitude:
a) We are apart from the rest of nature and can manage nature
to meet our incrasing needs and wants.
b) Because of our ingenuity and technology, we will not run
out of resources
c) The potential for economic growth is essentially unlimited.
d) Our success depends on how weil we manage the earth’s
life support system mostly for our benefit.
2. Stewardship
Attitude:
a) We have an ethical responsbility to be caring managers, or
stewards, of the earth .
b) We will probably not run out of resource, but they should
not be wasted.
c) We should encourage enviromentally beneficial forms of
economic growth and discourage enviromentally harmful
forms.

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d) Our success depends on how well we manage the earth’s
life-support systems for our benefit and for the next of
nature
3. Enviromental Wisdom
Attitude :
a) We are a part of and totally dependent on nature, and
nature exists for all species
b) Resources are limited and should not be wasted.
c) We should encourage earth-sustaining forms of economic
growth and discourage earth-degrading forms.
d) Our success depends on learning how nature sustains itself
and integrating such lessons from nature into the ways we
think and act.

2.1.3 New Ecological Paradigm as Efforts to Reduce Enviromental


Pollution
The New Ecological Paradigm scale is a measure of endorsement of
a “pro-ecological” world view. It is used extensively in
environmental education, outdoor recreation, and other realms where
diff erences in behavior or attitudes are believed to be explained by
underlying values, a world view, or a paradigm. The scale is
constructed from individual responses to fifteen statements that
measure agreement or disagreement. (Anderson, 2012)

Soemartono (2007) said that one of the environment vulnerability is


the paradigm that the presence of development as a necessity for the
society and nation. The presence of development may not contribute
to the nowadays ecological damage if the paradigm for development
is seen as a relationship, not a threat or environmental issues.
However, development is interpreted as the goal of everything

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because the development can solve poverty, underdevelopment and
other socio-economic problems.

Normatively, management and utilization of natural resources and


the environment must observe the environmental balance and
preservation of function and ability. The utilization and management
of the environment and its natural resources are not only used in the
present, but also to pay attention to the lives of future generations.
Therefore, in the management and utilization of the environment and
natural resources, it is reasonable to take action or preventive action
and control over the negative impact of development through active
participation of stakeholders in development, such as community,
investors and government. Henning et al’s., (Nd) research of the
insights environmental or ecological insights present the scale of the
New Ecological Paradigm (NEP) is an accepted approach for
measuring behavior towards the environment.

According to Rider, (2005) and Sokram, (2013) regarding the


indicators of ecological paradigm as follows:
1. We are approaching the limit of the number of people the
Earth can support.
2. Humans have the right to modify the natural environment
to suit their needs.
3. When humans interfere with nature it often produces
disastrous consequences.
4. Human ingenuity will insure that we do not make the Earth
unlivable.
5. Humans are seriously abusing the environment.
6. The Earth has plenty of natural resources if we just learn
how to develop them.

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7. Plants and animals have as much right as humans to exist.
8. The balance of nature is strong enough to cope with the
impacts of modern industrial nations.
9. Despite our special abilities, humans are still subject to the
laws of nature.
10. The so-called “ecological crisis” facing humankind has
been greatly exaggerated.
11. The Earth is like a spaceship with very limited room and
resources.
12. Humans were meant to rule over the rest of nature.
13. The balance of nature is very delicate and easily upset.
14. Humans will eventually learn enough about how nature
works to be able to control it.
15. If things continue on their present course, we will soon
experience a major ecological catastrophe.
(Dunlap et al., 2000)
Fifteen indicators of this new ecological paradigm can be used to
detect whether a person is ecologically worldview or
environmentally worldview.

2.2 Enviromental Problems


2.2.1 Definition of Enviromental Problems
Our environment is constantly changing. There is no denying that.
However, as our environment changes, so does the need to become
increasingly aware of the problems that surround it. With a
massive influx of natural disasters, warming and cooling periods,
different types of weather patterns and much more, people need to
be aware of what types of environmental problems our planet is
facing.

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Global warming has become an undisputed fact about our current
livelihoods; our planet is warming up and we are definitely part of
the problem. However, this isn’t the only environmental problem
that we should be concerned about. All across the world, people
are facing a wealth of new and challenging environmental
problems every day. Some of them are small and only affect a few
ecosystems, but others are drastically changing the landscape of
what we already know. So, it can be concluded that environmental
problems are a negative aspect of human activity on the
biophysical environment. (Ghorbanpour, 2017).

2.2.2 Major Current Enviromental Problems


According to Ghorbanpour (2017), our 15 major current environmental
promblems are.
1. Pollution: Pollution of air, water and soil require millions of years
to recoup. Industry and motor vehicle exhaust are the number one
pollutants. Heavy metals, nitrates and plastic are toxins responsible
for pollution. While water pollution is caused by oil spill, acid rain,
urban runoff; air pollution is caused by various gases and toxins
released by industries and factories and combustion of fossil fuels;
soil pollution is majorly caused by industrial waste that deprives
soil from essential nutrients.

Figure 2.1 Pollution (source : www.nationlgeographic.com)


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2. Global Warming: Climate changes like global warming is the
result of human practices like emission of Greenhouse gases.
Global warming leads to rising temperatures of the oceans and the
earth’ surface causing melting of polar ice caps, rise in sea levels
and also unnatural patterns of precipitation such as flash floods,
excessive snow or desertification.

Figure 2.2 Global Warming (source : www.


worlregionsproject.wikispace.com)

3. Overpopulation: The population of the planet is reaching


unsustainable levels as it faces shortage of resources like water,
fuel and food. Population explosion in less developed and
developing countries is straining the already scarce resources.
Intensive agriculture practiced to produce food damages the
environment through use of chemical fertilizer, pesticides and
insecticides. Overpopulation is one of the crucial current
environmental problem.

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Figure 2.3 Overpopulation (source : www.mises.ca)

4. Natural Resource Depletion: Natural resource depletion is


another crucial current environmental problems. Fossil fuel
consumption results in emission of Greenhouse gases, which is
responsible for global warming and climate change. Globally,
people are taking efforts to shift to renewable sources of energy
like solar, wind, biogas and geothermal energy. The cost of
installing the infrastructure and maintaining these sources has
plummeted in the recent years.

Figure 2.4 Natural resource depletion (source :


www.unwantedguests.net)

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5. Waste Disposal: The over consumption of resources and creation
of plastics are creating a global crisis of waste disposal. Developed
countries are notorious for producing an excessive amount of waste
or garbage and dumping their waste in the oceans and, less
developed countries. Nuclear waste disposal has tremendous health
hazards associated with it. Plastic, fast food, packaging and cheap
electronic wastes threaten the well being of humans. Waste
disposal is one of urgent current environmental problem.

Figure 2.5 Waste Disposal (source : common.wikimedia.org)

6. Climate Change: Climate change is yet another environmental


problem that has surfaced in last couple of decades. It occurs due
to rise in global warming which occurs due to increase in
temperature of atmosphere by burning of fossil fuels and release of
harmful gases by industries. Climate change has various harmful
effects but not limited to melting of polar ice, change in seasons,
occurrence of new diseases, frequent occurrence of floods and
change in overall weather scenario.

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Figure 2.6 Climate change (source : www.thediagonal.com)

7. Loss of Biodiversity: Human activity is leading to the extinction


of species and habitats and and loss of bio-diversity. Eco systems,
which took millions of years to perfect, are in danger when any
species population is decimating. Balance of natural processes like
pollination is crucial to the survival of the eco-system and human
activity threatens the same. Another example is the destruction of
coral reefs in the various oceans, which support the rich marine
life.

Figure 2.7 Loss of biodiversity (source : theconversation.com)


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8. Deforestation: Our forests are natural sinks of carbon dioxide and
produce fresh oxygen as well as helps in regulating temperature
and rainfall. At present forests cover 30% of the land but every
year tree cover is lost amounting to the country of Panama due to
growing population demand for more food, shelter and cloth.
Deforestation simply means clearing of green cover and make that
land available for residential, industrial or commercial purpose.

Figure 2.8 Deforestation (source :


biologyprojectwiki.wikispace.com)

9. Ocean Acidification: It is a direct impact of excessive production


of CO2. 25% of CO2 produced by humans. The ocean acidity has
increased by the last 250 years but by 2100, it may shoot up by
150%. The main impact is on shellfish and plankton in the same
way as human osteoporosis.

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Figure 2.9 Ocean acidification (source : http://lms.seos-project.eu)

10. Ozone Layer Depletion: The ozone layer is an invisible layer of


protection around the planet that protects us from the sun’s harmful
rays. Depletion of the crucial Ozone layer of the atmosphere is
attributed to pollution caused by Chlorine and Bromide found in
Chloro-floro carbons (CFC’s). Once these toxic gases reach the
upper atmosphere, they cause a hole in the ozone layer, the biggest
of which is above the Antarctic. The CFC’s are banned in many
industries and consumer products. Ozone layer is valuable because
it prevents harmful UV radiation from reaching the earth. This is
one of the most important current environmental problem.

Figure 2.10 Ozone layer depletions (source : flickr.com)


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11. Acid Rain: Acid rain occurs due to the presence of certain
pollutants in the atmosphere. Acid rain can be caused due to
combustion of fossil fuels or erupting volcanoes or rotting
vegetation which release sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxides into
the atmosphere. Acid rain is a known environmental problem that
can have serious effect on human health, wildlife and aquatic
species.

Figure 2.11 Acid rain effect (source :


biomessecond10.wikispace.com)

12. Water Pollution: Clean drinking water is becoming a rare


commodity. Water is becoming an economic and political issue as
the human population fights for this resource. One of the options
suggested is using the process of desalinization. Industrial
development is filling our rivers seas and oceans with toxic
pollutants which are a major threat to human health

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Figure 2.12 Water Pollution (Source : en.wikipedia.org)

13. Urban Sprawl: Urban sprawl refers to migration of population


from high density urban areas to low density rural areas which
results in spreading of city over more and more rural land. Urban
sprawl results in land degradation, increased traffic, environmental
issues and health issues. The ever growing demand of land
displaces natural environment consisting of flora and fauna instead
of being replaced.

Figure 2.13 Urban sprawl (source : notgoodenough.com)

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14. Public Health Issues: The current environmental problems pose a
lot of risk to health of humans, and animals. Dirty water is the
biggest health risk of the world and poses threat to the quality of
life and public health. Run-off to rivers carries along toxins,
chemicals and disease carrying organisms. Pollutants cause
respiratory disease like Asthma and cardiac-vascular problems.
High temperatures encourage the spread of infectious diseases like
Dengue.

Figure 2.14 Public health issue (source : globalhealthafrica.org)

15. Genetic Engineering: Genetic modification of food using


biotechnology is called genetic engineering. Genetic modification
of food results in increased toxins and diseases as genes from an
allergic plant can transfer to target plant. Genetically modified
crops can cause serious environmental problems as an engineered
gene may prove toxic to wildlife. Another drawback is that

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increased use of toxins to make insect resistant plant can cause
resultant organisms to become resistant to antibiotics

2.2.3 What Makes Environmental Problems


According to Miller (2016:14), Our environmental worldviews
play a key role in determining whether we live unsustainably or
more sustainably. According to a number of environmental and
social scientists, the major causes of the environmental problems
we face are (1) population growth, (2) wasteful and unsustainable
resource use, (3) poverty, (4) failure to include the harmful
environmental and health costs of goods and services in their
market prices, (5) increasing isolation from nature, and (6) poor
waste management. The explanations are.
a. Population growth.
Exponential growth occurs when a quantity such as the human
population increases at a fixed percentage per unit of time, such
as 0.5% or 2% per year. No one knows how many people the
earth can support indefinitely, or at what level of average
resource consumption per person, without seriously degrading
the planet’s life-support system. Some scientists argue that we
could control such severe degradation by slowing population
growth with the goal of having it level off at around 8 billion by
2050.
b. Wasteful and unsustainable resource use.
The lifestyles of the world’s expanding population of consumers
are built on growing affluence as more people achieve higher
incomes. This results in higher levels of total and per capita
resource consumption along with more environmental
degradation, waste, and pollution. The problem is that providing
such resources contributes to air pollution and water pollution

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from factories and motor vehicles and land degradation from the
mining of raw materials used to make the products we consume.
Another downside to wealth is that it allows affluent consumers
to obtain their resources from almost anywhere in the world
without seeing the harmful effects of their highconsumption
lifestyles.
c. Poverty.
Poverty is a condition in which people are unable to fulfill their
basic needs for adequate food, water, shelter, health care, and
education. Poverty can cause a number of harmful
environmental and health effects. The daily lives of the world’s
poorest people are focused on getting enough food, water, and
cooking and heating fuel to survive. Desperate for shortterm
survival, these individuals do not have the luxury of worrying
about long-term environmental quality or sustainability. Thus,
collectively, they can degrade forests, topsoil, and grasslands,
and deplete fisheries and wildlife populations in order to stay
alive. However, poverty does not necessarily lead to
environmental degradation. Some of the world’s poor people
have learned how to increase their beneficial environmental
impact by planting and nurturing trees and conserving the soils
that they depend on, as a part of their long-term survival
strategy.
d. Failure to include the harmful environmental and health costs of
goods and services in their market prices Unsustainable
resources use.
Another basic cause of environmental problems has to do with
how goods and services are priced in the marketplace.
Companies using resources to provide goods for consumers
generally are not required to pay for most of the harmful

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environmental and health costs of supplying such goods. For
example, timber companies pay the cost of clear-cutting forests
but do not pay for the resulting environmental degradation and
loss of wildlife habitat. The primary goal of a company is to
maximize profits for its owners or stockholders, so it is not
inclined to add these costs to its prices voluntarily. Because the
prices of goods and services do not include most of their
harmful environmental and health costs, consumers and decision
makers have no effective way to evaluate these harmful effects.
e. Increasing isolation from nature.
Today, more than half of the world’s people (and three out of
four people in the more-developed countries) live in urban areas,
and this shift from rural to urban living is continuing at a rapid
pace. Artificial urban environments and the increasing use of
cell phones, computers, and other electronic devices are
isolating more and more people, especially children, from the
natural world. Thus, it is not surprising that many people do not
know the full story of where their food, water, and other goods
come from. Similarly, many people are unaware of the amounts
of wastes and pollutants they produce, where these wastes and
pollutants go, and how they affect the environment.
f. Poor waste management
Due to the poor management of the Domestic Waste from
households, the following are some of the effects on the
population and the environment such as solid wastes, when
improperly disposed off can be an environmental hazard in that
the surrounding environment as well as the fish are affected.
This improper damping can lead to death of fish as well as
diseases to man e.g. dysentry, cholera and so on.

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Some of these wastes can also be very harmful to the
atmosphere. These wastes when improperly dumped into the
atmosphere can lead to the destruction of the ozone layer and
may cause diseases such as cancer. As a result there is problem
in global warming. Air pollution can also lead to formation of
acidic rain which is dangerous to crop life since it fastens the
removal of soil fertility from the surface of the ground. Waste
materials like toxic if consumed by animals can be very
dangerous to life and worse still if these wastes are dumped in
water bodies. They are dangerous to aquatic life. Uncontrolled
damping of solid waste can lead to wastage of land where we
find lots of land being used as damping sites for wastes. These
same pieces of land are later on neglected by the inhabitants of
the area. Poor waste management can be a source of under
development around the societies surrounding that particular
area. This ca cause harm to tourist industries of the particular
countries.

2.2.4 Effects of Enviromental Problems


a. Climate change
The climate of a region or city is its typical or average weather.
Earth's climate is the average of all the world's regional
climates. Climate change, therefore, is a change in the typical
or average weather of a region or city. This could be a change
in a region's average annual rainfall, for example. Or it could
be a change in a city's average temperature for a given month
or season. Climate change is also a change in Earth's overall
climate. This could be a change in Earth's average temperature,
for example. Or it could be a change in Earth's typical
precipitation patterns

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b. Decreasing biodiversity
There are many reasons why biodiversity is decreasing. We,
humans play a big part in biodiversity.We are polluting the air,
and water with so much pollution, that we are killing so many
living creatures on the planet Earth. We are being careless
about our actions. Over time the technology that we are
creating is getting better but it is also harming the Earth. We
use ways like cloning and GMO to fix this problem but some
people are building into the problem.
c. Some health problem such as an epidemic
Environmental problems cause many health problems for living
things. such as asthma, skin diseases, malnutrition, etc. Some
diseases may endanger the survival of living things.
d. Lack of proper air, water, and foodstuff
Environmental problems that cause many natural resources that
will endanger the living beings lack of needs. In addition, this
may cause ecosystem imbalances.
e. Man-caused natural disaster
Human actions in an unwise environment can harm the existing
environment. Human with the sophistication of existing
technology can freely utilize the natural resources in vain
without thinking about the negative impact that will occur. As
to examples of human actions that can destroy nature such as
illegal logging, construction of factories without waste
treatment, garbage disposal in rivers, etc.
(Miller, 2016).

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2.2.5 Soutions to Solve Enviromental Problem
The need for change in our daily lives and the movements of our
government is growing. Because so many different factors come
into play; voting, governmental issues, the desire to stick to
routine, many people don’t consider that what they do will affect
future generations. If humans continue moving forward in such a
harmful way towards the future, then there will be no future to
consider. Although it’s true that we cannot physically stop our
ozone layer from thinning (and scientists are still having trouble
figuring out what is causing it exactly,) there are still so many
things we can do to try and put a dent in what we already know. By
raising awareness in your local community and within your
families about these issues, you can help contribute to a more
environmentally conscious and friendly place for you to live.

2.2.6 Enviromental Problems in Indonesia


1. Illegal logging and deforestation that occur in our forest
especially in Kalimantan (Borneo) and Sumatera,

Figure 2.15 Illegal Logging Activities (source : WWF)


2. Water pollution from industrial and mining wastes that make
peoples in the urban area lack of usable water,
3. Air pollution in urban areas,
4. Destruction of coral reefs that caused by fish bombing and other
human activities,
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5. Dangerous waste disposal from developed countries such as
medical disposal or radioactive disposal,

2.2.7 Relationship between Environmental Problems and


Environmental Worldview
1. A person who does not have extensive environmental
worldview will cause environmental damage continuously
regardless of future risks.
2. Environmental worldview is needed to balance human behavior
in utilizing existing resources in the environment
3. If the way of thinking and acting human beings are not based
on the worldview of the environment, the natural resources will
be spent more quickly and wasted.

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CHAPTER III
REMARK

3.1 Conclusions
Based on the above discusion, it can be concluded that :
1. The various categories of environmental worldviews are planetary
management, stewardship, and enviromental wisdom.
2. Three scientific principles of suistainability are dependence on solar
energi, biodiversity, and chemical cycling while three social principles of
sustainability are full-cost pricing (from economics), win-win solutions
(from political science), and a responsibility to future generations (from
ethics)
3. The New Ecological Paradigm scale is a measure of endorsement of a
“pro-ecological” world view.
4. Various environmental problems includes deforestation, pollution,
overpopulation, etc.
5. The effects of enviromental problems are climate change, decreasing
biodiversity, some health problem such as an epidemic, lack of proper air,
water, and foodstuff, and natural disaster.
6. As for environmental worldview and environmental problem are
interconnected with each other.

3.2 Suggestions
1. We should better understand the understanding of worldview and
environmental problems.
2. We should understand what are the enviromental worldview and
environmental problems.
3. We should better understand the importance of environmental worldview
in maintaining environmental sustainability
4. We should know how to maintain the environment

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5. We should know the relationship between environmental worldview and
environmental issues.

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