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Problem 1

ROCK PROPERTIES

1. Determine the influence of Compressibility on Porosity and Permeability

Given the following data from 2 rock samples, determine the behavior of the porosity and permeability
as functions of reservoir pressure.

2. Determine the rock compressibility for Use in Material Balance Calculations

Rock compressibility is normally calculated as the slope of the tangent to the pore volume versus net
overburden pressure curve. However in material balance calculations, the pressure drop is
calculated from initial pressure to current pressure conditions. Therefore, rock compressibility
can be expressed by relating the change in pore volume that occurs from initial pressure conditions

Note: The reservoir is at 15,000 feet of depth. The original reservoir pressure is 14,000 psi.
osity and permeability

re volume versus net


sure drop is
compressibility
pressure conditions
Pore Volume (cc) versus Hydrostatic Confining Pressure

Hydrostatic Confining Stress (psi)


400 1000 1500 2000
Sample 1
f init = 30.8% (@400 psi) 16.943 16.716 16.631 16.55
Sample 3
f init = 27.4% (@400 psi) 15.536 15.312 15.236 15.163

Permeability (md) versus Hydrostatic Confining Pressure

Hydrostatic Confining Stress (psi)


1500 2000 2500
Sample A K= 310 278 257
Sample B K= 71.9 64.4 59.5
Sample C K= 638 580 542
Sample D K= 1170 1107 1061
Sample E K= 2178 2009 1931
Sample F K= 400 359 332
atic Confining Pressure

ostatic Confining Stress (psi)


2500 3000 4000 6000

16.471 16.393 16.237 15.939

15.147 15.075 14.933 14.708

atic Confining Pressure

Confining Stress (psi)


3000 4000 6000
243 227 215
56.2 52.4 49.7
516 484 460
1028 986 947
1885 1810 1712
314 294 278
Hydrostatic Confining Stress (psi)
Confining stress (psi) 400 1000 1500 2000 2500
Reservoir Presure (psi) 14600 14000 13500 13000 12500
Pore Volume (cc) 16.943 16.716 16.631 16.55 16.471
Delta PV 0.227 0.312 0.393 0.472
Delta PV * .62 0.14074 0.19344 0.24366 0.29264
Adjusted PV 16.80226 16.74956 16.69934 16.65036
Cf =Delta PV/PV/Delta P 6.3E-06 6.1E-06 6.0E-06
% reduction in PV 1 0.9968635172 0.993874634 0.990959549

Sample 3
f init = 27.4% 15.536 15.312 15.236 15.163 15.147
Delta PV 0.224 0.3 0.373 0.389
Delta PV * .62 0.13888 0.186 0.23126 0.24118
Adjusted PV 15.39712 15.35 15.30474 15.29482
Cf =Delta PV/PV/Delta P 6.1E-06 6.0E-06 4.4E-06
% reduction in PV 1 0.9969396874 0.994000177 0.9933559

= given data
= pore volume that would have been measured in a Uniaxial lab test
Porosity fraction of Initial Porosity
Porosity Reduction
fining Stress (psi)
1.01
3000 4000 6000
1
12000 11000 9000 0.99
16.393 16.237 15.939 0.98

0.55 0.706 1.004 0.97


0.96
0.341 0.43772 0.62248
0.95
16.602 16.50528 16.32052 8000 9000 10000 11000 12000 13000 14000 15000
6.0E-06 5.9E-06 5.7E-06 Reservoir Pressure
0.988081365 0.982324997 0.971328857

Rock Compressibility Problem


15.075 14.933 14.708 7.0E-06
Rock Compressibility

0.461 0.603 0.828 6.0E-06

0.28582 0.37386 0.51336 5.0E-06


4.0E-06
15.25018 15.16214 15.02264
3.0E-06
4.8E-06 5.1E-06 4.9E-06 2.0E-06
0.990456657 0.984738704 0.975678568 1.0E-06
8000 9000 10000 11000 12000 13000 14000 15000
Reservoir Pressure

in a Uniaxial lab test


y Reduction

Row 14
sample 2
sample 3

12000 13000 14000 15000


essure

pressibility Problem

sample 1
sample 2
sample 3

12000 13000 14000 15000


Pressure
Permeability Data

1500 2000 2500 3000 4000


Reservoir Pressure 14000 13500 13000 12500 12000 11000
Sample A K= 342 310 278 257 243 227
Sample B K= 79.4 71.9 64.4 59.5 56.2 52.4
Sample C K= 696 638 580 542 516 484
Sample D K= 1233 1170 1107 1061 1028 986
Sample E K= 2347 2178 2009 1931 1885 1810
Sample F K= 441 400 359 332 314 294

Pressure 14000 13500 13000 12500 12000 11000


% of K at Pi Sample A 100% 91% 81% 75% 71% 66%
% of K at Pi Sample B 100% 91% 81% 75% 71% 66%
% of K at Pi Sample C 100% 92% 83% 78% 74% 70%
% of K at Pi Sample D 100% 95% 90% 86% 83% 80%
% of K at Pi Sample E 100% 93% 86% 82% 80% 77%
% of K at Pi Sample F 100% 91% 81% 75% 71% 67%
Permeability data

6000 2500
9000
215 2000
49.7
Permeability

460 1500 Row 7


947 sample B
1000 sample C
1712
sample D
278 500
sample E
sample F
9000 0
63% 9000 10000 11000 12000 13000 14000
63% Reservoir Pressure
66%
77%
73%
63% Permeability loss due to pressure reduction
100%
Permeability as a % of K at Pi

95%
90%
Sample A
85% Sample B
80% Sample C
75% Sample D
Sample E
70%
Sample F
65%
60%
9000 10000 11000 12000 13000 14000 15000
Reservoir Pressure
Row 7
sample B
sample C
sample D
sample E
sample F

Sample A
Sample B
Sample C
Sample D
Sample E
Sample F