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1. INTRODUCTION

As per Greek philosopher Thales, “Water is the source of every creation.” In day to day

life one cannot live without water. Therefore water needs to be stored for daily use.

Overhead water tank and underground water reservoir is the most effective storing

facilities used for domestic or even industrial purpose.

Depending upon the location of the tank, the tanks can be named as overhead, on ground

or underground. The tanks can be made in different shapes usually circular and

rectangular shapes are mostly used. The tanks can be made of RCC, placticor even of

steel. The overhead tanks are usually elevated from the roof top through column. In the

other hand the underground tanks are rested on the foundation.

2. BASIS OF DESIGN

For structures required to hold liquids, one of the main considerations, besides strength, is

that they should be leak does not crack on the water face. The concrete used for such

structures should be richer in cement, very well graded and thoroughly compacted, so

that the tensile strength is high and the porosity low.The risk of cracking due to shrinkage

and temperature variation can be minimized by keeping the concrete moist and filling the

tank as soon as possible.To guard against structural failure in strength calculation the

tensile strength of concrete is ignored. Reduced values of permissible stresses in steel are

adopted in design. For surfaces in contact with water, the minimum cover to steel shall be

25 mm or diameter of bars whichever is greater.

3. CIRCULAR TANK

The simplest form of water tank is circular tank for the same amount of storage the

circular tank requires lesser amount of material. More over for its circular shape it has no

corner and can be made water tight easily. It is very economical for smaller storage of

water up to 20000000 liters and with diameter in the range of 5 to 8 m. The depth of the

storage is between 3 to 4 m. The side walls are designed for hoop tension and bending

moments.

4.1 PERMISSIBLE STRESSES IN CONCRETE

To ensure impervious concrete mixture less than M 20 grade is not normally

recommended to make the walls leak proof the concretes near the water face need to such

that no crack occurs. To ensure this member thicknesses are so designed that stress in the

concrete is lesser then the permissible as given in table 1.

1

Table 1 Permissible tensile stresses in concrete to control its cracking

Concrete Direct Tension σst Tension Due to bending Shear = a/bd

2 2

(N/mm )

2

σcbt(N/mm ) (N/mm )

M 15 1.1 1.5 1.5

M 20 1.2 1.7 1.7

M 25 1.3 1.8 1.9

M 30 1.5 2.0 2.2

M 35 1.6 2.2 2.5

M 40 1.7 2.4 2.7

The tensile stresses due to the combination of direct tension ,t’ and bending tension ,b’

should satisfy the following condition

,t ' ,b '

1

,t ,b

4.2 THE PERMISSIBLE STRESS IN STEEL

The stress in steel must not be allowed to exceed the following values under different

positions to prevent cracking of concrete.

• When steel is placed near the face of the members in contact with liquid 115 N/

sq mm for ms Bars and 150 N/ sq mm for HYSD bars.

• When steel is placed on face away from liquid for members less than 225 mm in

thickness same as earlier.

• When steel is placed on the face away from the liquid for members 225 mm or

more in thickness: 125 N/ sq mm for M.S. bars and 190 N/sq mm for HYSD bars.

For surfaces in contact with water, the minimum cover to steel shall be 25 mm or

diameter of bars whichever is greater.

4.3 BASE FOR FLOOR SLAB

The floor slab should be strong enough to transmit the load from the liquid and the

structure itself to the ground without subsidence. The floor slab is usually 150 to 200 mm

thick and is reinforced with nominal reinforcement, which may be provided in the form

of mesh both at top and bottom face of the slab.

2

Minimum reinforcement required for 199mm thick sections is 0.3 % of the area of

concrete section which reduced linearly to 0.2% for 450 mm thick sections. In case of

floor slab for tank resting on ground the minimum reinforcement from practical

consideration should not be less than 0.3% of the gross sectional area of the floor slab.

If the thickness of the section (wall, floor or roof slab of the tank) works out to be 225 mm

and above two layers of reinforcing steel shall be placed, one near each of the section to

make up the minimum reinforcement requirements.

The design of circular tanks can be carried out by one of the following three methods:

• Mr. H Carpenter’s method

• Approximate method

• I.S. method

For a tank of given dimensions the following expressions are used:

• Maximum cantilever B.M=FwH3

• Position of maximum hoop tension = K H above base

• Maximum Hoop tension (T) = ½ wHD (1-K)

The value of coefficient k and f depend upon H/D and H/t ratio, which is tabulated in

Table 2.

DESIGN PROCEDURE:

Step 1: Dimensions

• Dimension of the tank.

Basing on the amount of water that needs to be stored the dimensions of

the tanks are calculated.

Total volume of water=ΠD2/4×H

Where, D= Diameter of the tank

H= Height of the liquid

Depending upon the depth of liquid (H) the thickness of the wall is

assumed from the empirical formula

t = (30H+50) or,

t = 150 mm whichever is greater.

This thickness t is then converted in meter.

3

Table 2 Coefficient of f and k for bending moment and tension

Factor F K

H/D

10 20 30 40 10 20 30 40

H/t

0.1 0.075 0.047 0.036 0.028 - - - -

0.2 0.046 0.028 0.022 0.015 - 0.50 0.45 0.40

0.3 0.032 0.019 0.014 0.010 0.55 0.43 0.38 0.33

0.4 0.024 0.014 0.010 0.007 0.50 0.39 0.35 0.30

0.5 0.020 0.012 0.009 0.006 0.45 0.37 0.32 0.27

1.0 0.012 0.006 0.005 0.003 0.37 0.28 0.24 0.21

2.0 0.006 0.003 0.002 0.002 0.30 0.22 0.19 0.16

4.0 0.004 0.002 0.002 0.001 0.27 0.20 0.17 0.14

By knowing the values of H/D and H/t from table 7.2 we can obtain the value of F and k.

Step 3:

By using the values of coefficients F and k the following dimensions are calculated

• Maximum bending moment at the base = FwH3

• Maximum circumferential or hoop tension T =½ wHD (1-K)

• Position of maximum circumferential tension h = kH

Step 4:

• The thickness provided for the wall from maximum bending moment

consideration should be checked.

• Sufficient area of steel must be provided at the height h to resist maximum

tension.

• Above height h the area of reinforcement can be uniformly decreased and below

this the area of steel is maintained constant.

• In this method it is assumed that the cantilever effect of the wall will be present

for a height of approximately one fourth of the height of wall that is H/4 or 1 m

whichever is more.

4

Figure 1: Hydrostatic Pressure Distribution

• The hydrostatic pressure distribution on the wall is shown in Figure 1 (a) the

pressure varies from zero at A to maximum value at B. This is represented by

ordinate BC of the pressure triangle ABC. Draw a horizontal line intersecting the

pressure diagram at P at a height of H/4 or 1m whichever is more. Thus the

cantilever action will be effective up to the height (h) =BP and hoop tension will

be predominant from P to A having its maximum value at P.

The bottom height of the wall i.e. h = BP will be designed as a cantilever fixed at

B and subjected to a triangular load given by area PBC of pressure triangle. The

load from cantilever action thus varies from zero at P to wH at B.

T = ½ w (H-h) D

• Reinforcement for hoop tension may be provided near both faces. The spacing

of hoop reinforcement (rings) is kept uniform from P to B. At heights above P, the

spacing of rings can be increased.

5

• From the capacity of the water tank the values of tank diameters (D) and depth

of water (H) are determined.

formula:

t = 150 mm whichever is greater.

Then the value of t is converted into meters.

• Ratio tDH2 is determined and respective co-efficient values for tension, bending

moments and shears are found out from tables.

1. Hoop tension

T = ½ wH D(coefficient determined from table 3) in kN/m

Where, w = wt of water in kN/m3

Table 3 Coefficient for moment in cylindrical tank wall (Fixed at base and free at top)

2

H /Dt Coefficient at point

0.1H 0.2H 0.3H 0.4H 0.5H 0.6H 0.7H 0.8H 0.9H 1.0H

0.4 1.0005 0.0014 0.0021 0.0007 -0.0042 -0.0150 -0.0302 -0.0529 -0.0816 -0.1205

0.8 0.0011 0.0037 0.0063 0.0800 -0.0079 0.0023 -0.0068 -0.0024 -0.0465 -0.0795

1.2 0.0012 0.0042 0.0077 0.0103 0.0112 0.0090 0.0022 -0.0108 -0.0311 -0.0602

1.6 0.0011 0.0041 0.0075 0.0107 0.0121 0.0111 0.0058 -0.0051 -0.0232 -0.0505

2.0 0.0010 0.0035 0.0068 0.0099 0.0120 0.0115 0.0075 -0.0021 -0.0185 -0.0436

3.0 0.0006 0.0024 0.0047 0.0071 0.0090 0.0097 0.0077 0.0012 -0.0119 -0.0333

4.0 0.0003 0.0015 0.0028 0.0047 0.0066 0.0077 0.0069 0.0023 -0.0080 -0.0268

5.0 0.0002 0.0008 0.0016 0.0029 0.0046 0.0059 0.0059 0.0028 -0.0058 -0.0222

6.0 0.0001 0.0003 0.0008 0.0019 0.0032 0.0046 0.0051 0.0029 -0.0041 -0.0187

8.0 0.0000 0.0001 0.0002 0.0008 0.0016 0.0028 0.0038 0.0029 -0.0022 -0.0146

10.0 0.0000 0.0000 0.0001 0.0004 0.0007 0.0019 0.0029 0.0028 -0.0012 -0.0122

12.0 0.0000 -0.0001 0.0001 0.0002 0.0003 0.0013 0.0023 0.0026 -0.0005 -0.0104

14.0 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0001 0.0008 0.0019 0.0023 -0.0001 -0.0090

16.0 0.0000 0.0000 -0.0001 -0.0001 -0.0001 0.0004 0.0013 0.0019 -0.0001 -0.0079

6

2. Bending Moment

Maximum bending moment is determined from the following

Formula: M= (coefficient from table 4) wH3 kN/m

Table 4 Coefficient for tension in cylindrical tank wall (Fixed at base and free at top)

2

H /Dt Coefficient at point

0.0H 0.1H 0.2H 0.3H 0.4H 0.5H 0.6H 0.7H 0.8H 0.9H

0.4 0.149 0.134 0.120 0.101 0.082 0.066 0.049 0.029 0.014 0.004

0.8 0.263 0.239 0.215 0.109 0.160 0.130 0.096 0.063 0.034 0.030

1.2 0.283 0.271 0.254 0.234 0.209 0.180 0.142 0.099 0.054 0.016

1.6 0.265 0.268 0.268 0.266 0.250 0.226 0.185 0.134 0.075 0.023

2.0 0.234 0.251 0.273 0.285 0.285 0.274 0.232 0.172 0.104 0.031

3.0 0.134 0.203 0.267 0.322 0.357 0.362 0.330 0.262 0.157 0.052

4.0 0.067 0.164 0.256 0.339 0.403 0.429 0.409 0.334 0.210 0.073

5.0 0.025 0.137 0.245 0.346 0.428 0.477 0.469 0.398 0.259 0.092

6.0 0.018 0.119 0.234 0.344 0.441 0.504 0.514 0.447 0.301 0.112

8.0 -0.011 0.104 0.218 0.335 0.443 0.534 0.575 0.530 0.381 0.151

10.0 -0.001 0.098 0.208 0.323 0.437 0.542 0.608 0.589 0.410 0.179

12.0 -0.005 0.097 0.202 0.312 0.429 0.543 0.628 0.633 0.494 0.211

14.0 -0.002 0.098 0.200 0.306 0.420 0.539 0.639 0.666 0.541 0.241

16.0 0.000 0.099 0.199 0.304 0.431 0.531 0.641 0.687 0.582 0.265

3. shear force

Design shear force is found out from the following formula

T = (coefficient from table 5) wH3 kN/m

2 2

H /Dt Coefficient H /Dt Coefficient

0.40 0.436 5.00 0.213

0.80 0.374 6.00 0.197

1.20 0.339 8.00 0.174

1.60 0.317 10.00 0.158

2.00 0.299 12.00 0.145

3.00 0.262 14.00 0.135

4.00 0.236 16.00 0.127

7

Reinforcement is provided for hoop tension near both faces.

5. RECTANGULAR TANKS

In case of small amount of water storage rectangular tanks are more economical then

circular because the construction of circular tanks requires complicated and costly

formwork. Moreover uses of rectangular tanks make the full use of the space available.

The main components of a rectangular tank are side wall, base slab and roof slab.

5.1 DESIGN OF SIDE WALLS

Let, L = length of the tank

B = width of the tank

H = height of the tank

The design of the sidewalls is carried out by approximate method. The method is broadly

categorizes as follows:

Tank wall having ratio of L/B less than 2.

Tank wall having ratio of L/B greater than 2.

Tank wall having ratio of L/B lesser than 2:

• The tank walls are designed as horizontal slabs continuous along and subjected

to a triangular load due to the water pressure varying from zero at the top to

maximum height of h =H/4 of 1 m above the base whichever is greater.

• For the bottom portion the wall is considered as a vertical cantilever fixed at the

base and subjected to triangular loading given by the area PFG of the diagram

varying from zero at P and maximum wH at the base.

• Maximum pressure

Maximum pressure (p) for design of wall for horizontal bending per unit height at level of P = w

(H-h) per m

8

Figure 2: Pressure and Load distribution on Wall

Determination of bending moments

B.M at the end of the span = 1/12 pB2(producing tension on water force)

B.M at the center of span =1/16 pB2(producing tension on outer force)

Direct tension or pull in long walls

The water pressures on short walls are transformed into tension to the long walls.

Pressure due to water

P = w (h-H) 1 B

Direct tension or pull transformed to each long wall

T = ½ w (h-H) B

Direct tension or pull on short walls

TB=½ w (H-h) L

ℎ ℎ 1

Maximum cantilever B.M in short walls = 𝑤𝐻 = 𝑤𝐻ℎ2

2 3 6

• For rectangular tanks in which ratio of length to width is more than 2, the long walls are

treated as vertical cantilever fixed at the base while the short walls are treated as

horizontal slabs (bending horizontally) spanning between the long walls and fixed at

ends. The lower portion of the short wall for a height of h = H/4 or 1 m whichever is

greater is considered to act as vertical cantilever fixed at the base.

9

• Bending moments.

1 𝐻 1

Maximum bending moment in long walls = 2 𝑤𝐻𝐻 3 = 6 𝑤𝐻 3

For short walls the maximum bending moment at level P may be taken as follows:

B.M at ends of span

1 1

𝑝𝐵 2 = 𝑤 (𝐻 − ℎ) 𝐵 2

12 12

1 1

𝑝𝐵 2 = 𝑤 (𝐻 − ℎ) 𝐵 2

16 16

Direct tension or pull transformed to each long wall

Tl=½ w (H-h) B

TB=½ w (H-h) 1

Since the short wall as well as long walls are subjected to bending moment and direct tension or

pull (acting at center of wall) it will be necessary to design the wall section for combined effect

of these two.

10

Figure 5: Plan showing pressure causing pull in short walls

Reinforcement:

• Long wall

Long wall which act as cantilever fixed to the base reinforcement for moment is

vertical and for the direct tension or pull it is horizontal.

• Short wall

In case of short wall above (h) from base the wall bends horizontally and hence

the reinforcement for the B.M as well as tension are provided in horizontal

directions.

For lower portion of the short walls for height (h) the main reinforcement is

vertical whereas for the tension reinforcement is horizontal.

Step 1:

Area of steel for net B.M

M Tx M Tx

A

st1

leverarm stress.in.steel jd st

Notes:

Safe stress in steel in bending or σst is taken =115 N/if it is placed on the water face or

within a distance of 225 m from the water face. mm2

If steel is placed at a distance of 225 mm away from water face value of σst= 125 N/ mm2

T T

Ast 2 safe.stress.in.steel

st

Safe stress in steel for direction =115 N/mm2

Ast= Ast1 + Ast2

For tank resting on ground the base slab should be so designed that it can transfer the

load of the liquid as well as the self-weight of the structure to the ground. The floor slab

is normally made 150 mm to 250 mm thick with 3% of the gross sectional area

reinforced. The reinforcement provided as mesh at both top and bottom of the slab.

11

For overhead tanks the floor slab is designed as a one way or a two way slab based on the

length to width ratio of the tank. If L/B>2 the slab is designed as one-way slab and if

L/B,2, the floor slab is designed as two way slabs. The bending moment due to water

load

and

self-weight need to be counted for slab design. The vertical wall is also to be considered.

The bending moment at the mid span of base slab will comprise of the following:

• Sagging moment due to weight of water.

• Sagging moment due to weight of slab.

• Hogging moment due to water pressure on the long walls.

12

And h =depth of water in the tank

1 1 1

𝑀𝑐 =𝑤ℎ𝐵 2 + 𝑤𝑑 𝐵 2 − 𝑤ℎ3

8 8 6

The value of Mcwill be maximum when

𝑑(𝑀𝑐 )

=0

𝑑(ℎ)

1 1

𝑤𝐵 2 − 𝑤ℎ2 = 0

8 6

1 2 𝐵

⟹ ℎ2 = 𝐵 ⇒ℎ=

4 2

Therefore the maximum positive B.M at mid span occurs when the depth of water in the tank

=1/2*the width of the tank.

𝑤𝐵 2 𝐵 𝑤𝑑 𝐵 2 𝑤 𝐵 3

𝑀𝑐 = × + − ( )

8 2 8 6 2

𝑤𝐵 3 𝑤𝑑 𝐵 2

𝑀𝑐 = +

24 8

1 1

The direct tension on the slab = 2 𝑤ℎ2 , ℎ𝑒𝑟𝑒, ℎ = 2 𝐵

1 2 1

𝑇= 𝑤ℎ = 𝑤𝐵 2

2 8

If height of tank itself is less then B/2 then the actual height of water in the tank shall be

considered for finding out the values for B.M and tension. In case of large height of tank the B.M

at mid span may be negative. In such condition tank mid span section is designed by considering

the tank full of water.

Tank roof of small capacity tank are designed as one-way slab or two-way slab basing on the

length and width ratio. For large capacity tank the roof may be supported by beam supported on

column in regular interval. Flat slab type construction is found suitable and economical for tank

roofs.

13

DESIGN OF UNDERGROUND RECTANGULAR TANK

While designing an underground tank the most crucial condition of the tank need to be

kept under consideration. And that is when the empty and the soil surrounding the wall is

wet. In this case the wall has to sustain the soil pressure.

Maximum bending moment occurs for the case tank empty and surrounding soil is water

logged. Long walls are designed as propped cantilever.

𝑤ℎ(1 − 𝑠𝑖𝑛 )

𝑃=

1 + 𝑠𝑖𝑛

14

Considering 1m run in the tank wall

𝑃ℎ2

𝑇𝑒𝑛𝑠𝑖𝑜𝑛 𝑛𝑒𝑎𝑟 𝑤𝑎𝑡𝑒𝑟 𝑓𝑎𝑐𝑒, 𝑀𝑚𝑎𝑥 =

33.5

𝑃ℎ2

𝑇𝑒𝑛𝑠𝑖𝑜𝑛 𝑎𝑤𝑎𝑦 𝑓𝑟𝑜𝑚 𝑤𝑎𝑡𝑒𝑟 𝑓𝑎𝑐𝑒, 𝑀𝑚𝑎𝑥 =

15

6𝑀

𝐷=√

𝑓𝑐 𝑏

Steel area is calculated as follows

𝑀

𝐴𝑠 =

𝑓𝑠 𝑗𝑑

can be reduced to 0.2% up to 450 mm thick section. For 225 mm thickness provide two

layers of reinforcement.

Short walls are designed as spanning between the long walls.

Intensity of earth pressure at bottom = P

𝑃𝐿2

𝑀𝑎𝑥𝑖𝑚𝑢𝑚 𝑚𝑜𝑚𝑒𝑛𝑡 𝑎𝑡 𝑐𝑜𝑟𝑛𝑒𝑟𝑠, 𝑀 =

12

Horizontal bars are determined as long wall. And vertical bars are provided with half spacing

of horizontal bars.

Design of slab

The maximum moment at mid-section

𝑤𝐿2

𝑀=

3

Distributing steel is provided usually 0.003 bt /mm2 per one meter width.

Where, t = thickness of the slab

b = unit width

Minimum reinforcement

• The percentage of reinforcement in base or floor slab resting on ground must not

be less than 0.15% of the gross section.

• Minimum cover to all reinforcement should be 25 mm or the diameter of the

main bar whichever is greater.

15

Example design of a roof top water tank

Design Data:

Six storied building with 4 houses in each story and

3 persons per each house

Step 1:

Water requirement:

• Water consumption rate = 182liter/day per person.

• Number of persons= no of houses 3 = (4 6) 3 =72 persons

• Total water requirement=72 182=13,104 liter/day

Step 2:

Tank dimension:

• Let inside Dimension

L=4.5 m

B=2.1 m

So L/B=4.5/2.1>2

𝟏𝟑.𝟏𝟎𝟒

• Height of water level= = 1.3565 ≈ 𝟏. 𝟑𝟔

𝟒.𝟔×𝟐.𝟏

• Free board = 0.24m

Approximate Analysis:

16

Part 1

Here, h =H/4 or 1 m (larger height to be considered)

Part 2

(H-H/4) or (H-1) m to be considered.

For L/B>2

We have, h = 1.6/4=0.4 m <1m

∴Take h =1 m, H-h=1.6-1= 0.6

Step 3:

Design for long wall:

1

𝑀 = 𝑤𝐻3

6

Here, w= 9.81 kN/m3

H=1.6 m

1 9.81 × 1.63

𝑀= 𝑤𝐻 3 = = 6.697 = 6.7 𝑘𝑁𝑚

6 6

C-25 fck=20,

fc = 0.42fck = 0.42 20 =8.4 Mpa

S-300 fyk=300

fs = 0.52fyk = 0.52 300=156 Mpa

280 280

𝑘= = = 0.374

280+3𝑓𝑠 280+3×156

𝑘 0.374

𝑗 =1− =1− = 0.875

3 3

1 8.4 × 0.374 × 0.875

𝑅= 𝑓𝑐 𝑘𝑗 = = 1.376

2 2

𝑀𝑚𝑎𝑥 = 𝑅𝑏𝑑 2

𝑀 6.7 × 106

𝑑=√ =√ = 87.47𝑚𝑚

𝑅𝑏 1.376 × 1000

d=115-25=90

17

𝑀 6.7 × 106

𝐴𝑠 = = = 545.4𝑚𝑚2

𝑓𝑠 𝑗𝑑 156 × 0.875 × 90

0.3

𝐴𝑠,𝑚𝑖𝑛 = 0.3% × 𝑏𝐷 = × 1000 × 115 = 345𝑚𝑚2

100

𝑇 6.18 × 103

𝐴𝑠 = = = 39.6𝑚𝑚2

𝑓𝑠 156

0.3

𝐴𝑠,𝑚𝑖𝑛 = 0.3% × 𝑏𝐷 = × 1000 × 115 = 345𝑚𝑚2

100

Since steel is provided on both faces therefore steel to be provided on both faces

345

𝐴𝑠 = = 172.5 𝑚𝑚2

2

Step 5:

Design for short wall:

o Force P=w (H-h) =9.81 x (1.6-1) = 5.89 kN/m

= 2.1 + 115/1000 = 2.21 m

Bending moment at end,

𝑀= = = 2.4 𝑘𝑁𝑚

12 12

110

𝑥= − 15 = 50𝑚𝑚 = 0.05𝑚𝑚

2

= 2.4 – 0.31 = 2.1 kNm

18

𝑀 − 𝑇𝑥 2.1 × 106

𝐴𝑠 = = = 171𝑚𝑚2

𝑓𝑠 𝑗𝑑 156 × 0.875 × 90

0.3

𝐴𝑠,𝑚𝑖𝑛 = 0.3% × 𝑏𝐷 = × 1000 × 115 = 345𝑚𝑚2

100

Moment at mid-section

𝑀= = = 1.2 𝑘𝑁𝑚

24 24

𝑀 1.2 × 106

𝐴𝑠 = = = 97.7 𝑚𝑚2

𝑓𝑠 𝑗𝑑 156 × 0.875 × 90

0.3

𝐴𝑠,𝑚𝑖𝑛 = 0.3% × 𝑏𝐷 = × 1000 × 115 = 345𝑚𝑚2

100

Step 6:

Cantilever effect on short Wall:

o Maximum moment

1 2

9.81 × 1.6 × 12

𝑀𝑚𝑎𝑥 = 𝑤𝐻ℎ = = 2.62 𝑘𝑁𝑚

6 6

𝑀 2.62 × 106

𝐴𝑠 = = = 213.3 𝑚𝑚2

𝑓𝑠 𝑗𝑑 156 × 0.875 × 90

0.3

𝐴𝑠,𝑚𝑖𝑛 = 0.3% × 𝑏𝐷 = × 1000 × 115 = 345𝑚𝑚2

100

Step 7:

Design of slab

o L/B>2, so we will design for one way slab

19

Example design of underground water tank

General data:

o Volume to be stored = 30 m3

o Angle of repose,dry=300, wet=60

o Unit weight of soil, w=20 kN/m2

Step 1: Tank dimension

o Let inside dimension, L = 4.5 m.

B =2.2 m.

30

o So height of water level =4.5×2.2 = 3.03

o Free board = 0.24

o Final height = 3.03+ 0.25 = 3.28 m, Take H=3.3m

20

Step 2: Design of long walls

Pressure exerted by wet soil

𝑃= = = 53.51 𝑘𝑁/𝑚2

1 + 𝑠𝑖𝑛 1 + sin 6

𝑇𝑒𝑛𝑠𝑖𝑜𝑛 𝑛𝑒𝑎𝑟 𝑤𝑎𝑡𝑒𝑟 𝑓𝑎𝑐𝑒, 𝑀𝑚𝑎𝑥 = = = 17.40 𝑘𝑁𝑚

33.5 33.5

𝑇𝑒𝑛𝑠𝑖𝑜𝑛 𝑎𝑤𝑎𝑦 𝑓𝑟𝑜𝑚 𝑤𝑎𝑡𝑒𝑟 𝑓𝑎𝑐𝑒, 𝑀𝑚𝑎𝑥 = = = 38.85 𝑘𝑁𝑚

15 15

C-25 fck=20,

fc = 0.42fck = 0.42 20 =8.4 Mpa

S-300 fyk=300

fs = 0.52fyk = 0.52 300=156 Mpa

280 280

𝑘= = = 0.374

280 + 3𝑓𝑠 280 + 3 × 156

𝑘 0.374

𝑗 =1− =1− = 0.875

3 3

𝑅= 𝑓𝑐 𝑘𝑗 = = 1.376

2 2

6𝑀 6 × 38.85

𝐷=√ = √ = 166.6 𝑚𝑚

𝑓𝑐 𝑏 8.4 1000

𝑀 17.4 × 106

𝐴𝑠 = = = 831.2 𝑚𝑚2

𝑓𝑠 𝑗𝑑 156 × 0.875 × 145

21

𝑀 38.85 × 106

𝐴𝑠 = = = 1962.9 𝑚𝑚2

𝑓𝑠 𝑗𝑑 156 × 0.875 × 145

Minimum steel requirements

0.3

𝐴𝑠,𝑚𝑖𝑛 = 0.3% × 𝑏𝐷 = × 1000 × 170 = 510 𝑚𝑚2

100

Step 5: Design of shot wall

Earth pressure at the bottom,𝑃 = 53.51 𝑘𝑁/𝑚2

o Effective span in horizontally spaced slab = 2.2 + 1/2 two sides wall,

= 2.2 + 145/1000 = 2.345 m

𝑀𝑎𝑥𝑖𝑚𝑢𝑚 𝑚𝑜𝑚𝑒𝑛𝑡 𝑎𝑡 𝑐𝑒𝑛𝑡𝑒𝑟, 𝑀𝑚𝑎𝑥 = = = 24.52 𝑘𝑁𝑚

12 12

Check depth d

𝑀 24.52 × 106

𝑑=√ =√ = 133.54𝑚𝑚 < 145 𝑚𝑚 … … 𝑂𝑘

𝑅𝑏 1.376 × 1000

𝑀 24.52 × 106

𝐴𝑠 = = = 1238.85 𝑚𝑚2

𝑓𝑠 𝑗𝑑 156 × 0.875 × 145

Minimum steel requirements

0.3

𝐴𝑠,𝑚𝑖𝑛 = 0.3% × 𝑏𝐷 = × 1000 × 170 = 510 𝑚𝑚2

100

22

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