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WATER TANKS

1. INTRODUCTION

As per Greek philosopher Thales, “Water is the source of every creation.” In day to day
life one cannot live without water. Therefore water needs to be stored for daily use.
Overhead water tank and underground water reservoir is the most effective storing
facilities used for domestic or even industrial purpose.
Depending upon the location of the tank, the tanks can be named as overhead, on ground
or underground. The tanks can be made in different shapes usually circular and
rectangular shapes are mostly used. The tanks can be made of RCC, placticor even of
steel. The overhead tanks are usually elevated from the roof top through column. In the
other hand the underground tanks are rested on the foundation.

2. BASIS OF DESIGN

For structures required to hold liquids, one of the main considerations, besides strength, is
that they should be leak does not crack on the water face. The concrete used for such
structures should be richer in cement, very well graded and thoroughly compacted, so
that the tensile strength is high and the porosity low.The risk of cracking due to shrinkage
and temperature variation can be minimized by keeping the concrete moist and filling the
tank as soon as possible.To guard against structural failure in strength calculation the
tensile strength of concrete is ignored. Reduced values of permissible stresses in steel are
adopted in design. For surfaces in contact with water, the minimum cover to steel shall be
25 mm or diameter of bars whichever is greater.

3. CIRCULAR TANK

The simplest form of water tank is circular tank for the same amount of storage the
circular tank requires lesser amount of material. More over for its circular shape it has no
corner and can be made water tight easily. It is very economical for smaller storage of
water up to 20000000 liters and with diameter in the range of 5 to 8 m. The depth of the
storage is between 3 to 4 m. The side walls are designed for hoop tension and bending
moments.
4.1 PERMISSIBLE STRESSES IN CONCRETE
To ensure impervious concrete mixture less than M 20 grade is not normally
recommended to make the walls leak proof the concretes near the water face need to such
that no crack occurs. To ensure this member thicknesses are so designed that stress in the
concrete is lesser then the permissible as given in table 1.

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Table 1 Permissible tensile stresses in concrete to control its cracking

Grade of Permissible Stress


Concrete Direct Tension σst Tension Due to bending Shear = a/bd
2 2
(N/mm )
2
σcbt(N/mm ) (N/mm )
M 15 1.1 1.5 1.5
M 20 1.2 1.7 1.7
M 25 1.3 1.8 1.9
M 30 1.5 2.0 2.2
M 35 1.6 2.2 2.5
M 40 1.7 2.4 2.7

The tensile stresses due to the combination of direct tension  ,t’ and bending tension  ,b’
should satisfy the following condition
 ,t '  ,b '
 1
 ,t  ,b
4.2 THE PERMISSIBLE STRESS IN STEEL
The stress in steel must not be allowed to exceed the following values under different
positions to prevent cracking of concrete.
• When steel is placed near the face of the members in contact with liquid 115 N/
sq mm for ms Bars and 150 N/ sq mm for HYSD bars.
• When steel is placed on face away from liquid for members less than 225 mm in
thickness same as earlier.
• When steel is placed on the face away from the liquid for members 225 mm or
more in thickness: 125 N/ sq mm for M.S. bars and 190 N/sq mm for HYSD bars.

For surfaces in contact with water, the minimum cover to steel shall be 25 mm or
diameter of bars whichever is greater.
4.3 BASE FOR FLOOR SLAB
The floor slab should be strong enough to transmit the load from the liquid and the
structure itself to the ground without subsidence. The floor slab is usually 150 to 200 mm
thick and is reinforced with nominal reinforcement, which may be provided in the form
of mesh both at top and bottom face of the slab.

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Minimum reinforcement required for 199mm thick sections is 0.3 % of the area of
concrete section which reduced linearly to 0.2% for 450 mm thick sections. In case of
floor slab for tank resting on ground the minimum reinforcement from practical
consideration should not be less than 0.3% of the gross sectional area of the floor slab.
If the thickness of the section (wall, floor or roof slab of the tank) works out to be 225 mm
and above two layers of reinforcing steel shall be placed, one near each of the section to
make up the minimum reinforcement requirements.

4.4 DESIGN METHOD


The design of circular tanks can be carried out by one of the following three methods:
• Mr. H Carpenter’s method
• Approximate method
• I.S. method

4.4.1 Mr. H Carpenter’s method


For a tank of given dimensions the following expressions are used:
• Maximum cantilever B.M=FwH3
• Position of maximum hoop tension = K H above base
• Maximum Hoop tension (T) = ½ wHD (1-K)

The value of coefficient k and f depend upon H/D and H/t ratio, which is tabulated in
Table 2.
DESIGN PROCEDURE:
Step 1: Dimensions
• Dimension of the tank.
Basing on the amount of water that needs to be stored the dimensions of
the tanks are calculated.
Total volume of water=ΠD2/4×H
Where, D= Diameter of the tank
H= Height of the liquid

• Thickness of the wall.


Depending upon the depth of liquid (H) the thickness of the wall is
assumed from the empirical formula
t = (30H+50) or,
t = 150 mm whichever is greater.
This thickness t is then converted in meter.

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Table 2 Coefficient of f and k for bending moment and tension
Factor F K
H/D
10 20 30 40 10 20 30 40
H/t
0.1 0.075 0.047 0.036 0.028 - - - -
0.2 0.046 0.028 0.022 0.015 - 0.50 0.45 0.40
0.3 0.032 0.019 0.014 0.010 0.55 0.43 0.38 0.33
0.4 0.024 0.014 0.010 0.007 0.50 0.39 0.35 0.30
0.5 0.020 0.012 0.009 0.006 0.45 0.37 0.32 0.27
1.0 0.012 0.006 0.005 0.003 0.37 0.28 0.24 0.21
2.0 0.006 0.003 0.002 0.002 0.30 0.22 0.19 0.16
4.0 0.004 0.002 0.002 0.001 0.27 0.20 0.17 0.14

Step 2: Determination of the value of coefficient F and k


By knowing the values of H/D and H/t from table 7.2 we can obtain the value of F and k.
Step 3:
By using the values of coefficients F and k the following dimensions are calculated
• Maximum bending moment at the base = FwH3
• Maximum circumferential or hoop tension T =½ wHD (1-K)
• Position of maximum circumferential tension h = kH

Step 4:
• The thickness provided for the wall from maximum bending moment
consideration should be checked.
• Sufficient area of steel must be provided at the height h to resist maximum
tension.
• Above height h the area of reinforcement can be uniformly decreased and below
this the area of steel is maintained constant.

4.4.2 Approximate Method


• In this method it is assumed that the cantilever effect of the wall will be present
for a height of approximately one fourth of the height of wall that is H/4 or 1 m
whichever is more.

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Figure 1: Hydrostatic Pressure Distribution

• The hydrostatic pressure distribution on the wall is shown in Figure 1 (a) the
pressure varies from zero at A to maximum value at B. This is represented by
ordinate BC of the pressure triangle ABC. Draw a horizontal line intersecting the
pressure diagram at P at a height of H/4 or 1m whichever is more. Thus the
cantilever action will be effective up to the height (h) =BP and hoop tension will
be predominant from P to A having its maximum value at P.

The bottom height of the wall i.e. h = BP will be designed as a cantilever fixed at
B and subjected to a triangular load given by area PBC of pressure triangle. The
load from cantilever action thus varies from zero at P to wH at B.

The maximum hoop tension per unit height at P

T = ½ w (H-h) D
• Reinforcement for hoop tension may be provided near both faces. The spacing
of hoop reinforcement (rings) is kept uniform from P to B. At heights above P, the
spacing of rings can be increased.

4.4.3 I.S. Code Method

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• From the capacity of the water tank the values of tank diameters (D) and depth
of water (H) are determined.

• Approximate thickness of wall: The value t is determined by the following


formula:

t = (30H +60) or,


t = 150 mm whichever is greater.
Then the value of t is converted into meters.
• Ratio tDH2 is determined and respective co-efficient values for tension, bending
moments and shears are found out from tables.

1. Hoop tension

Hoop tension is determined from the following formula


T = ½ wH D(coefficient determined from table 3) in kN/m
Where, w = wt of water in kN/m3

Table 3 Coefficient for moment in cylindrical tank wall (Fixed at base and free at top)
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H /Dt Coefficient at point
0.1H 0.2H 0.3H 0.4H 0.5H 0.6H 0.7H 0.8H 0.9H 1.0H
0.4 1.0005 0.0014 0.0021 0.0007 -0.0042 -0.0150 -0.0302 -0.0529 -0.0816 -0.1205
0.8 0.0011 0.0037 0.0063 0.0800 -0.0079 0.0023 -0.0068 -0.0024 -0.0465 -0.0795
1.2 0.0012 0.0042 0.0077 0.0103 0.0112 0.0090 0.0022 -0.0108 -0.0311 -0.0602
1.6 0.0011 0.0041 0.0075 0.0107 0.0121 0.0111 0.0058 -0.0051 -0.0232 -0.0505
2.0 0.0010 0.0035 0.0068 0.0099 0.0120 0.0115 0.0075 -0.0021 -0.0185 -0.0436
3.0 0.0006 0.0024 0.0047 0.0071 0.0090 0.0097 0.0077 0.0012 -0.0119 -0.0333
4.0 0.0003 0.0015 0.0028 0.0047 0.0066 0.0077 0.0069 0.0023 -0.0080 -0.0268
5.0 0.0002 0.0008 0.0016 0.0029 0.0046 0.0059 0.0059 0.0028 -0.0058 -0.0222
6.0 0.0001 0.0003 0.0008 0.0019 0.0032 0.0046 0.0051 0.0029 -0.0041 -0.0187
8.0 0.0000 0.0001 0.0002 0.0008 0.0016 0.0028 0.0038 0.0029 -0.0022 -0.0146
10.0 0.0000 0.0000 0.0001 0.0004 0.0007 0.0019 0.0029 0.0028 -0.0012 -0.0122
12.0 0.0000 -0.0001 0.0001 0.0002 0.0003 0.0013 0.0023 0.0026 -0.0005 -0.0104
14.0 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0001 0.0008 0.0019 0.0023 -0.0001 -0.0090
16.0 0.0000 0.0000 -0.0001 -0.0001 -0.0001 0.0004 0.0013 0.0019 -0.0001 -0.0079

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2. Bending Moment
Maximum bending moment is determined from the following
Formula: M= (coefficient from table 4) wH3 kN/m

Table 4 Coefficient for tension in cylindrical tank wall (Fixed at base and free at top)
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H /Dt Coefficient at point

0.0H 0.1H 0.2H 0.3H 0.4H 0.5H 0.6H 0.7H 0.8H 0.9H
0.4 0.149 0.134 0.120 0.101 0.082 0.066 0.049 0.029 0.014 0.004
0.8 0.263 0.239 0.215 0.109 0.160 0.130 0.096 0.063 0.034 0.030
1.2 0.283 0.271 0.254 0.234 0.209 0.180 0.142 0.099 0.054 0.016
1.6 0.265 0.268 0.268 0.266 0.250 0.226 0.185 0.134 0.075 0.023
2.0 0.234 0.251 0.273 0.285 0.285 0.274 0.232 0.172 0.104 0.031
3.0 0.134 0.203 0.267 0.322 0.357 0.362 0.330 0.262 0.157 0.052
4.0 0.067 0.164 0.256 0.339 0.403 0.429 0.409 0.334 0.210 0.073
5.0 0.025 0.137 0.245 0.346 0.428 0.477 0.469 0.398 0.259 0.092
6.0 0.018 0.119 0.234 0.344 0.441 0.504 0.514 0.447 0.301 0.112
8.0 -0.011 0.104 0.218 0.335 0.443 0.534 0.575 0.530 0.381 0.151
10.0 -0.001 0.098 0.208 0.323 0.437 0.542 0.608 0.589 0.410 0.179
12.0 -0.005 0.097 0.202 0.312 0.429 0.543 0.628 0.633 0.494 0.211
14.0 -0.002 0.098 0.200 0.306 0.420 0.539 0.639 0.666 0.541 0.241
16.0 0.000 0.099 0.199 0.304 0.431 0.531 0.641 0.687 0.582 0.265

3. shear force
Design shear force is found out from the following formula
T = (coefficient from table 5) wH3 kN/m

Table 5 Coefficient for shear at the base


2 2
H /Dt Coefficient H /Dt Coefficient
0.40 0.436 5.00 0.213
0.80 0.374 6.00 0.197
1.20 0.339 8.00 0.174
1.60 0.317 10.00 0.158
2.00 0.299 12.00 0.145
3.00 0.262 14.00 0.135
4.00 0.236 16.00 0.127

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 Reinforcement is provided for hoop tension near both faces.

5. RECTANGULAR TANKS

In case of small amount of water storage rectangular tanks are more economical then
circular because the construction of circular tanks requires complicated and costly
formwork. Moreover uses of rectangular tanks make the full use of the space available.
The main components of a rectangular tank are side wall, base slab and roof slab.
5.1 DESIGN OF SIDE WALLS
Let, L = length of the tank
B = width of the tank
H = height of the tank
The design of the sidewalls is carried out by approximate method. The method is broadly
categorizes as follows:
 Tank wall having ratio of L/B less than 2.
 Tank wall having ratio of L/B greater than 2.
Tank wall having ratio of L/B lesser than 2:
• The tank walls are designed as horizontal slabs continuous along and subjected
to a triangular load due to the water pressure varying from zero at the top to
maximum height of h =H/4 of 1 m above the base whichever is greater.

• For the bottom portion the wall is considered as a vertical cantilever fixed at the
base and subjected to triangular loading given by the area PFG of the diagram
varying from zero at P and maximum wH at the base.

• Maximum pressure

Maximum pressure (p) for design of wall for horizontal bending per unit height at level of P = w
(H-h) per m

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Figure 2: Pressure and Load distribution on Wall
 Determination of bending moments
B.M at the end of the span = 1/12 pB2(producing tension on water force)
B.M at the center of span =1/16 pB2(producing tension on outer force)
 Direct tension or pull in long walls

The water pressures on short walls are transformed into tension to the long walls.
Pressure due to water
P = w (h-H) 1 B
Direct tension or pull transformed to each long wall
T = ½ w (h-H)  B

Figure 3& 4: Plan showing pressure-causing pull in long walls

• Direct tension or pull on short walls


Direct tension or pull on short walls
TB=½ w (H-h)  L

• Cantilever moment in short walls.


ℎ ℎ 1
Maximum cantilever B.M in short walls = 𝑤𝐻  = 𝑤𝐻ℎ2
2 3 6

Tank wall having ratio of L/B greater than 2:


• For rectangular tanks in which ratio of length to width is more than 2, the long walls are
treated as vertical cantilever fixed at the base while the short walls are treated as
horizontal slabs (bending horizontally) spanning between the long walls and fixed at
ends. The lower portion of the short wall for a height of h = H/4 or 1 m whichever is
greater is considered to act as vertical cantilever fixed at the base.

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• Bending moments.

1 𝐻 1
Maximum bending moment in long walls = 2 𝑤𝐻𝐻 3 = 6 𝑤𝐻 3

For short walls the maximum bending moment at level P may be taken as follows:
B.M at ends of span
1 1
𝑝𝐵 2 = 𝑤 (𝐻 − ℎ) 𝐵 2
12 12

B.M at center of span


1 1
𝑝𝐵 2 = 𝑤 (𝐻 − ℎ) 𝐵 2
16 16

Pull in long wall and short walls


Direct tension or pull transformed to each long wall

Tl=½ w (H-h)  B

Direct tension or pull on short walls

TB=½ w (H-h)  1

Since the short wall as well as long walls are subjected to bending moment and direct tension or
pull (acting at center of wall) it will be necessary to design the wall section for combined effect
of these two.

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Figure 5: Plan showing pressure causing pull in short walls
Reinforcement:
• Long wall
Long wall which act as cantilever fixed to the base reinforcement for moment is
vertical and for the direct tension or pull it is horizontal.

• Short wall
In case of short wall above (h) from base the wall bends horizontally and hence
the reinforcement for the B.M as well as tension are provided in horizontal
directions.

For lower portion of the short walls for height (h) the main reinforcement is
vertical whereas for the tension reinforcement is horizontal.
Step 1:
 Area of steel for net B.M
M  Tx M  Tx
A  
st1
leverarm  stress.in.steel jd  st
Notes:
Safe stress in steel in bending or σst is taken =115 N/if it is placed on the water face or
within a distance of 225 m from the water face. mm2
If steel is placed at a distance of 225 mm away from water face value of σst= 125 N/ mm2

Area of steel for direct tension


T T
Ast 2  safe.stress.in.steel 
 st
Safe stress in steel for direction =115 N/mm2

 Total area of steel


Ast= Ast1 + Ast2

5.2 DESIGN OF BASE SLAB


For tank resting on ground the base slab should be so designed that it can transfer the
load of the liquid as well as the self-weight of the structure to the ground. The floor slab
is normally made 150 mm to 250 mm thick with 3% of the gross sectional area
reinforced. The reinforcement provided as mesh at both top and bottom of the slab.

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For overhead tanks the floor slab is designed as a one way or a two way slab based on the
length to width ratio of the tank. If L/B>2 the slab is designed as one-way slab and if
L/B,2, the floor slab is designed as two way slabs. The bending moment due to water
load
and

self-weight need to be counted for slab design. The vertical wall is also to be considered.

Figure 7: Plan and Bending Moment Diagram of Rectangular Tank

The bending moment at the mid span of base slab will comprise of the following:
• Sagging moment due to weight of water.
• Sagging moment due to weight of slab.
• Hogging moment due to water pressure on the long walls.

Let wd=weight of base slab per sqm

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And h =depth of water in the tank

∴Net Moment at mid span


1 1 1
𝑀𝑐 =𝑤ℎ𝐵 2 + 𝑤𝑑 𝐵 2 − 𝑤ℎ3
8 8 6
The value of Mcwill be maximum when
𝑑(𝑀𝑐 )
=0
𝑑(ℎ)

1 1
𝑤𝐵 2 − 𝑤ℎ2 = 0
8 6

1 2 𝐵
⟹ ℎ2 = 𝐵 ⇒ℎ=
4 2

Therefore the maximum positive B.M at mid span occurs when the depth of water in the tank
=1/2*the width of the tank.
𝑤𝐵 2 𝐵 𝑤𝑑 𝐵 2 𝑤 𝐵 3
𝑀𝑐 = × + − ( )
8 2 8 6 2

𝑤𝐵 3 𝑤𝑑 𝐵 2
𝑀𝑐 = +
24 8

1 1
The direct tension on the slab = 2 𝑤ℎ2 , ℎ𝑒𝑟𝑒, ℎ = 2 𝐵

Due to the pressure of water on long walls


1 2 1
𝑇= 𝑤ℎ = 𝑤𝐵 2
2 8

If height of tank itself is less then B/2 then the actual height of water in the tank shall be
considered for finding out the values for B.M and tension. In case of large height of tank the B.M
at mid span may be negative. In such condition tank mid span section is designed by considering
the tank full of water.

5.3 DESIGN OF ROOF


Tank roof of small capacity tank are designed as one-way slab or two-way slab basing on the
length and width ratio. For large capacity tank the roof may be supported by beam supported on
column in regular interval. Flat slab type construction is found suitable and economical for tank
roofs.

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DESIGN OF UNDERGROUND RECTANGULAR TANK
While designing an underground tank the most crucial condition of the tank need to be
kept under consideration. And that is when the empty and the soil surrounding the wall is
wet. In this case the wall has to sustain the soil pressure.

Figure 1: Soil Pressure on Tank

Design of long walls


Maximum bending moment occurs for the case tank empty and surrounding soil is water
logged. Long walls are designed as propped cantilever.

Figure 2: Moment diagram in tank walls

 Pressure exerted by wet soil


𝑤ℎ(1 − 𝑠𝑖𝑛 )
𝑃=
1 + 𝑠𝑖𝑛
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Considering 1m run in the tank wall
𝑃ℎ2
𝑇𝑒𝑛𝑠𝑖𝑜𝑛 𝑛𝑒𝑎𝑟 𝑤𝑎𝑡𝑒𝑟 𝑓𝑎𝑐𝑒, 𝑀𝑚𝑎𝑥 =
33.5

𝑃ℎ2
𝑇𝑒𝑛𝑠𝑖𝑜𝑛 𝑎𝑤𝑎𝑦 𝑓𝑟𝑜𝑚 𝑤𝑎𝑡𝑒𝑟 𝑓𝑎𝑐𝑒, 𝑀𝑚𝑎𝑥 =
15

 Thickness of wall is determined from the cracking consideration


6𝑀
𝐷=√
𝑓𝑐 𝑏
 Steel area is calculated as follows
𝑀
𝐴𝑠 =
𝑓𝑠 𝑗𝑑

Horizontal reinforcement are provided at 3% of gross area up to 100mm thick section. It


can be reduced to 0.2% up to 450 mm thick section. For 225 mm thickness provide two
layers of reinforcement.

Design of short wall


 Short walls are designed as spanning between the long walls.
 Intensity of earth pressure at bottom = P
𝑃𝐿2
𝑀𝑎𝑥𝑖𝑚𝑢𝑚 𝑚𝑜𝑚𝑒𝑛𝑡 𝑎𝑡 𝑐𝑜𝑟𝑛𝑒𝑟𝑠, 𝑀 =
12

Horizontal bars are determined as long wall. And vertical bars are provided with half spacing
of horizontal bars.

Design of slab
 The maximum moment at mid-section
𝑤𝐿2
𝑀=
3

 Distributing steel is provided usually 0.003 bt /mm2 per one meter width.
Where, t = thickness of the slab
b = unit width

Minimum reinforcement
• The percentage of reinforcement in base or floor slab resting on ground must not
be less than 0.15% of the gross section.
• Minimum cover to all reinforcement should be 25 mm or the diameter of the
main bar whichever is greater.

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Example design of a roof top water tank
Design Data:
 Six storied building with 4 houses in each story and
 3 persons per each house
Step 1:
Water requirement:
• Water consumption rate = 182liter/day per person.
• Number of persons= no of houses  3 = (4 6)  3 =72 persons
• Total water requirement=72 182=13,104 liter/day

 Daily water requirement = 13104 × 0.001 = 13.104 𝑙𝑖𝑡𝑒𝑟/𝑑𝑎𝑦 or


Step 2:
Tank dimension:
• Let inside Dimension

L=4.5 m
B=2.1 m
So L/B=4.5/2.1>2
𝟏𝟑.𝟏𝟎𝟒
• Height of water level= = 1.3565 ≈ 𝟏. 𝟑𝟔
𝟒.𝟔×𝟐.𝟏
• Free board = 0.24m

So, final height = 1.36+0.24=1.6m

Approximate Analysis:

Figure 11 :Load diagram on tank wall

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 Part 1
Here, h =H/4 or 1 m (larger height to be considered)

 Part 2
(H-H/4) or (H-1) m to be considered.
For L/B>2
We have, h = 1.6/4=0.4 m <1m
∴Take h =1 m, H-h=1.6-1= 0.6
Step 3:
 Design for long wall:
1
𝑀 = 𝑤𝐻3
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Here, w= 9.81 kN/m3
H=1.6 m

1 9.81 × 1.63
𝑀= 𝑤𝐻 3 = = 6.697 = 6.7 𝑘𝑁𝑚
6 6

 Depthrequired for crack control

C-25 fck=20,
fc = 0.42fck = 0.42 20 =8.4 Mpa

S-300 fyk=300
fs = 0.52fyk = 0.52  300=156 Mpa

280 280
𝑘= = = 0.374
280+3𝑓𝑠 280+3×156

𝑘 0.374
𝑗 =1− =1− = 0.875
3 3
1 8.4 × 0.374 × 0.875
𝑅= 𝑓𝑐 𝑘𝑗 = = 1.376
2 2

𝑀𝑚𝑎𝑥 = 𝑅𝑏𝑑 2

𝑀 6.7 × 106
𝑑=√ =√ = 87.47𝑚𝑚
𝑅𝑏 1.376 × 1000

D=87.47 +25=112.47, Take D=115

d=115-25=90

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𝑀 6.7 × 106
𝐴𝑠 = = = 545.4𝑚𝑚2
𝑓𝑠 𝑗𝑑 156 × 0.875 × 90

0.3
𝐴𝑠,𝑚𝑖𝑛 = 0.3% × 𝑏𝐷 = × 1000 × 115 = 345𝑚𝑚2
100

Take, 𝐴𝑠 = 545.4 𝑚𝑚2

 Direct tension in the wall

Tl=½ w (H-h)  B=½ 9.81 0.6 2.1=6.18 kN

𝑇 6.18 × 103
𝐴𝑠 = = = 39.6𝑚𝑚2
𝑓𝑠 156

0.3
𝐴𝑠,𝑚𝑖𝑛 = 0.3% × 𝑏𝐷 = × 1000 × 115 = 345𝑚𝑚2
100

Take, 𝐴𝑠 = 345 𝑚𝑚2

Since steel is provided on both faces therefore steel to be provided on both faces

345
𝐴𝑠 = = 172.5 𝑚𝑚2
2

Step 5:
 Design for short wall:
o Force P=w (H-h) =9.81 x (1.6-1) = 5.89 kN/m

o Effective span in horizontally spaced slab = 2.1+1/2 two sides wall,


= 2.1 + 115/1000 = 2.21 m
 Bending moment at end,

𝑃𝐿2 5.89 × 2.212


𝑀= = = 2.4 𝑘𝑁𝑚
12 12

Reduction in moment due to tensile steel = Tx

110
𝑥= − 15 = 50𝑚𝑚 = 0.05𝑚𝑚
2

Tx = 6.81  0.05 = 0.31 kNm

o Design moment = M-Tx


= 2.4 – 0.31 = 2.1 kNm

18
𝑀 − 𝑇𝑥 2.1 × 106
𝐴𝑠 = = = 171𝑚𝑚2
𝑓𝑠 𝑗𝑑 156 × 0.875 × 90
0.3
𝐴𝑠,𝑚𝑖𝑛 = 0.3% × 𝑏𝐷 = × 1000 × 115 = 345𝑚𝑚2
100

Take, 𝐴𝑠 = 345 𝑚𝑚2

 Moment at mid-section

𝑃𝐿2 5.89 × 2.212


𝑀= = = 1.2 𝑘𝑁𝑚
24 24

𝑀 1.2 × 106
𝐴𝑠 = = = 97.7 𝑚𝑚2
𝑓𝑠 𝑗𝑑 156 × 0.875 × 90

0.3
𝐴𝑠,𝑚𝑖𝑛 = 0.3% × 𝑏𝐷 = × 1000 × 115 = 345𝑚𝑚2
100

Take, 𝐴𝑠 = 345 𝑚𝑚2

Step 6:
 Cantilever effect on short Wall:
o Maximum moment

1 2
9.81 × 1.6 × 12
𝑀𝑚𝑎𝑥 = 𝑤𝐻ℎ = = 2.62 𝑘𝑁𝑚
6 6

𝑀 2.62 × 106
𝐴𝑠 = = = 213.3 𝑚𝑚2
𝑓𝑠 𝑗𝑑 156 × 0.875 × 90

0.3
𝐴𝑠,𝑚𝑖𝑛 = 0.3% × 𝑏𝐷 = × 1000 × 115 = 345𝑚𝑚2
100

Take, 𝐴𝑠 = 345 𝑚𝑚2


Step 7:
 Design of slab
o L/B>2, so we will design for one way slab

19
Example design of underground water tank

General data:
o Volume to be stored = 30 m3
o Angle of repose,dry=300, wet=60
o Unit weight of soil, w=20 kN/m2
Step 1: Tank dimension
o Let inside dimension, L = 4.5 m.
B =2.2 m.
30
o So height of water level =4.5×2.2 = 3.03
o Free board = 0.24
o Final height = 3.03+ 0.25 = 3.28 m, Take H=3.3m

Figure 2: Cross section of ground water tank

Moment diagram of tank wall

20
Step 2: Design of long walls
 Pressure exerted by wet soil

𝑤ℎ(1 − 𝑠𝑖𝑛 ) 20 × 3.3 × (1 − sin 6)


𝑃= = = 53.51 𝑘𝑁/𝑚2
1 + 𝑠𝑖𝑛 1 + sin 6

𝑃ℎ2 53.51 × 3.32


𝑇𝑒𝑛𝑠𝑖𝑜𝑛 𝑛𝑒𝑎𝑟 𝑤𝑎𝑡𝑒𝑟 𝑓𝑎𝑐𝑒, 𝑀𝑚𝑎𝑥 = = = 17.40 𝑘𝑁𝑚
33.5 33.5

𝑃ℎ2 53.51 × 3.32


𝑇𝑒𝑛𝑠𝑖𝑜𝑛 𝑎𝑤𝑎𝑦 𝑓𝑟𝑜𝑚 𝑤𝑎𝑡𝑒𝑟 𝑓𝑎𝑐𝑒, 𝑀𝑚𝑎𝑥 = = = 38.85 𝑘𝑁𝑚
15 15

 Depth required for crack control

C-25 fck=20,
fc = 0.42fck = 0.42 20 =8.4 Mpa

S-300 fyk=300
fs = 0.52fyk = 0.52  300=156 Mpa

280 280
𝑘= = = 0.374
280 + 3𝑓𝑠 280 + 3 × 156

𝑘 0.374
𝑗 =1− =1− = 0.875
3 3

1 8.4 × 0.374 × 0.875


𝑅= 𝑓𝑐 𝑘𝑗 = = 1.376
2 2

6𝑀 6 × 38.85
𝐷=√ = √ = 166.6 𝑚𝑚
𝑓𝑐 𝑏 8.4  1000

Take, D = 170 mm, and d = 145 mm

Step 3: Vertical reinforcement (long walls)

𝑀 17.4 × 106
𝐴𝑠 = = = 831.2 𝑚𝑚2
𝑓𝑠 𝑗𝑑 156 × 0.875 × 145

21
𝑀 38.85 × 106
𝐴𝑠 = = = 1962.9 𝑚𝑚2
𝑓𝑠 𝑗𝑑 156 × 0.875 × 145

Step 4: Horizontal reinforcement (long walls)


 Minimum steel requirements

0.3
𝐴𝑠,𝑚𝑖𝑛 = 0.3% × 𝑏𝐷 = × 1000 × 170 = 510 𝑚𝑚2
100
Step 5: Design of shot wall
 Earth pressure at the bottom,𝑃 = 53.51 𝑘𝑁/𝑚2

o Effective span in horizontally spaced slab = 2.2 + 1/2 two sides wall,
= 2.2 + 145/1000 = 2.345 m

𝑃𝐿2 53.51 × 2.3452


𝑀𝑎𝑥𝑖𝑚𝑢𝑚 𝑚𝑜𝑚𝑒𝑛𝑡 𝑎𝑡 𝑐𝑒𝑛𝑡𝑒𝑟, 𝑀𝑚𝑎𝑥 = = = 24.52 𝑘𝑁𝑚
12 12

Check depth d

𝑀 24.52 × 106
𝑑=√ =√ = 133.54𝑚𝑚 < 145 𝑚𝑚 … … 𝑂𝑘
𝑅𝑏 1.376 × 1000

Step 6: Vertical reinforcement (shot wall)

𝑀 24.52 × 106
𝐴𝑠 = = = 1238.85 𝑚𝑚2
𝑓𝑠 𝑗𝑑 156 × 0.875 × 145

Step 7: Horizontal reinforcement (shot wall)


 Minimum steel requirements

0.3
𝐴𝑠,𝑚𝑖𝑛 = 0.3% × 𝑏𝐷 = × 1000 × 170 = 510 𝑚𝑚2
100

Step 8: Design of slab

22