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Volume-6, Issue-2, March-April 2016


International Journal of Engineering and Management Research
Page Number: 36-39

Energy Harvesting through Dance Floor using Piezoelectric Device


Abhishek Gupta1, Mohd. Imran2, Resham Agarwal3, Rakesh Yadav4, Priyanka Jangir5, Rakshit Poonia6
1,2
Sr. Lecturer, Department of Electrical Engineering, Swami Keshvanand Institute of Technology, Management and
Gramothan, Jaipur, INDIA
3,4,5,6
Student, Department of Electrical Engineering, Swami Keshvanand Institute of Technology, Management and Gramothan,
Jaipur, INDIA

ABSTRACT stress[1]. The word piezoelectricity means electricity


More sustainable forms of electrical power are needed resulting from pressure. It is derived from the Greek piezo or
in order to keep costs lower and to insure a healthier piezein , which means to squeeze or press, and electric or
environment for future generation. In this paper a way to utilize electron , which means amber, an ancient source of electric
alternative forms of energy at passenger terminals like at dance charge[2]. Piezoelectricity was discovered in 1880 by French
floors across the world has been presented. Three piezoelectric
physicists Jacques and Pierre Curie.
material to be used was studied and a graph is presented. The
use of piezoelectric devices installed in terminals will enable the The piezoelectric effect is understood as the linear
capturing of kinetic energy from dance floor. This energy can electromechanical interaction between the mechanical and
then be used to offset some of the power coming from the main the electrical state in crystalline materials with no inversion
grid. Such a source of power can then be used to operate symmetry. The piezoelectric effect is a reversible process in
lighting systems. that materials exhibiting the direct piezoelectric effect (the
internal generation of electrical charge resulting from an
Keywords— Electric model, energy harvesting, piezoelectric applied mechanical force) also exhibit the reverse
material , PZT (lead zirconate titanate) , PMNPT (lead piezoelectric effect (the internal generation of a mechanical
magnesium niobate- lead titanate) , PVDF(polyvinylidene strain resulting from an applied electrical field). For example,
fluoride). lead zirconate titanate crystals will generate measurable
piezoelectricity when their static structure is deformed by
about 0.1% of the original dimension. Conversely, those
I. INTRODUCTION same crystals will change about 0.1% of their static
dimension when an external electric field is applied to the
Recent advances in energy harvesting have been material. The inverse piezoelectric effect is used in
intensified due to urgent need of portable, wireless production of ultrasonic sound waves.
electronics with extensive life span.The concept of Piezoelectricity is found in useful applications such
harvesting renewable energy in human surrounding arouses a as the production and detection of sound, generation of high
renewed interest.This project focus on one such advanced voltages, electronic frequency generation, microbalances, to
method of energy harvesting using piezoelectric material. drive an ultrasonic nozzle, and ultrafine focusing of optical
Piezoelectric materials can be used as mechanisms to transfer assemblies. It is also the basis of a number of scientific
mechanical energy, usually ambient vibration, into electrical instrumental techniques with atomic resolution, the scanning
energy that can be stored and used to power other devices. A probe microscopies such as STM, AFM, MTA, SNOM, etc.,
piezoelectric substance is one that produces an electric and everyday uses such as acting as the ignition source for
charge when a mechanical stress is applied. Conversely, a cigarette lighters, push-start propane barbecues, and quartz
mechanical deformation is produced when an electric field is watches.
applied. Piezo-film can generate enough electrical density There are multiple techniques for converting
that can be stored in a rechargeable battery for later use. vibrational energy to electrical energy. The most prevalent
three are electrostatic, electromagnetic, and piezoelectric
II. LITERATURE REVIEW conversion[3] . A majority of current research has been done
on piezoelectric conversion due to the low complexity of its
Piezoelectricity is the electric charge that analysis and fabrication.
accumulates in certain solid materials (such as crystals, This paper aims to develop a theoretical
certain ceramics, and biological matter such as bone, DNA understanding behind the harvesting of electricity using
and various proteins) in response to applied mechanical dance floor, and to recommend a direction for future research
in this area based on the conclusions.
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III. BLOCK DIAGRAM PVDF, to determine the most suitable material was done. The
criterion for selection was better output voltage for various
pressures applied. In order to understand the output
corresponding to the various forces applied, the V-I
characteristics of each material namely, PZT and PVDF were
plotted. As varying forces are applied on the Piezo material,
different voltage readings corresponding to the Maintaining
test is placed on a Piezo force sensor. Voltmeters are
connected across both of them for measuring voltages and an
ammeter is connected to measure the current. As varying
forces are applied on the Piezo material, different voltage
readings corresponding to the force is displayed. For each
such voltage reading across the force sensor, various voltage
and current readings of the Piezo test material are noted. The
voltage from PZT is around 2V where as that of PVDF is
around 0.4V.We can thus conclude that better output is
obtained from the PZT than the PVDF [5].
The simplest ceramic polymer composite is that
which consists of ceramic particles randomly dispersed in a
polymer matrix, which is well known as connectivity.
Consequently, the polymer ceramic composites, especially of
the ferroelectric ceramics such as PZT and PMN-PT and the
ferroelectric polymer PVDF (polyvinyliene fluoride), have
been the subject of a lot of research work, and detailed
studies were reported on their piezoelectric, dielectric and
IV. DESIGN AND IMPLEMENTATION pyroelectric properties[4].The composites can be easily
prepared in a form of sheets and a variety of shapes.
A. Material to be used For this the Piezo transducer material under test is
The Integrity of the Specifications force is placed on a Piezo force sensor Voltmeters are connected
displayed. The composites can be easily prepared in a form across both of them for measuring voltages and an ammeter
of sheets and a variety of shapes. They exhibit low acoustic is connected to measure the current. The composites can be
impedance, high piezoelectric voltage coefficient For this the easily prepared in a form of sheets and a variety of shapes.
Piezo transducer material under In recent years, composites They exhibit low acoustic impedance, high piezoelectric
composed of electro ceramics and ferroelectric polymer are voltage coefficient but a lower electromechanical coupling
very attractive for applications since they exhibit high factor and permittivity value in comparison with those of the
piezoelectric and pyroelectric properties, low acoustic ceramics.
impedance matching with water, and furthermore, their As varying forces are applied on the Piezo material,
properties can be tailored to various requirements[4]. As a different voltage readings corresponding to the force is
result, the ferroelectric ceramic polymer composites are the displayed. The composites can be easily prepared in a form
promising materials for applications in high-pressure sensors, of exible sheets and a variety of shapes. They exhibit low
hydrophones and shock accelerometers. Voltmeters are acoustic impedance, high piezoelectric voltage cofficient but
connected across both of them for measuring voltages and an a lower electromechanical coupling factor.
ammeter is connected to measure the current. As varying B. Study of connections
forces are applied on the Piezo material, different voltage Next to determine the kind of connection that gives
readings corresponding to the force is displayed. appreciable voltage and current necessary, three PZT are
Consequently, the polymer ceramic composites, especially of connected in series.
the ferroelectric ceramics such as PZT and PMN-PT and the A force sensor and voltmeter is connected to this
ferroelectric polymer PVDF (polyvinylidene fluoride), have series combination. As varying forces are applied on this
been the subject of a lot of research work, and detailed connection, corresponding voltages are noted.
studies were reported on their piezoelectric, dielectric and Also the voltage generated across the series
pyroelectric properties. The composites can be easily connection and the current is measured. The voltage from a
prepared in a form of exible sheets and a variety of shapes. series connection is good but the current obtained is poor,
They exhibit low acoustic impedance, high piezoelectric whereas the current from a parallel connection is good but
voltage coefficient but a lower electromechanical coupling the voltage is poor. But this problem is rectified in a series-
factor and permittivity value in comparison with those of the parallel connection where a good voltage as well as current
ceramics. can be obtained.
The main component of the project is the C. Maximum Theoretical Voltage Generated
piezoelectric material. The proper choice of the piezo When a force is applied on piezo material, a charge
material is of prime importance. For this, an analysis on the 2 is generated across it. Thus, it can be assumed to be an ideal
most commonly available piezoelectric material - PZT and capacitor. Thus, all equations governing capacitors can be

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applied to it. In this project, on one tile, we connect 3 piezo power other devices or it can be stored in batteries.
in series.10 such series connections are connected in parallel. Comparison between various piezo electric material
Thus when 3 piezoelectric discs are connected in series, its shows that PZT is superior in characteristics. Also, by
equivalent capacitance becomes: comparison it was found that series combination connection
1/Ceq=1/C1+1/C2+1/C3 is more suitable. The pressure applied on the dancing floor
We know, Q=C*V So, C=Q/V and corresponding voltage generated is studied and they are
Hence, Veq/Q=V1/Q+V2/Q+V3/Q Thus, Veq=V1+V2+V3 found to have linear relation. This can be used in lighting
Hence, the net voltage generated in series bulbs. It can also be used as charging ports.
connection is the sum of individual voltages generated across Use of piezoelectric crystals has being started and
each piezoelectric disc. positive results are obtained. With further advancement in
D. Analysis Done On the Piezo Tile field of electronics, better synthesized piezoelectric crystals
People whose weight varied from 40kg to 75 kg and better selection of place of installations, more electricity
were made to walk on the piezo tile to test the voltage can be generated and it can be viewed as a next promising
generating capacity of the Piezo tile. Maximum voltage is source of generating electricity.
generated when maximum weight/force is applied. Thus, The electricity created from the dance floor using
maximum voltage of 40V is generated across the tile when a piezoelectric crystal can be used to power parts of the
weight of 75 Kg is applied on the tile. nightclub such as the sound and lighting.
E. Hardware Discription A. Future Scope
In India, maximum public movements is observed
in railways stations and holy places, hence, such places can
be exploited for use of piezoelectric crystals for generation of
electricity. Gathering ranging from thousands to millions are
observed in holy places, thus installation of piezoelectric
crystals at floorings would generate enough power to light up
lights of temples as well as air circulation systems. While
studying use of piezoelectric crystals embedded in shoes and
roads, idea struck in our mind that piezoelectric crystals can
be replaced with small hydraulic pumps in heels of shoes and
large pumps in case of bridges & roads. While stepping such
hydraulic pumps at heel of our shoes would get compressed
and this compressed air can be used to rotate small electric
generators at heel of shoes. Thus our daily movement can be
used to run small electric devices. Though such generators
would be able to generate small power but on large scale i.e.
if used in bridge construction than massive energy can be
generated. Similarly by driving on such road & bridge, due to
Figure shows a typical power harvesting system. It compression the hydraulic pump can to rotate generators in
includes an external energy source (vibration of dance floor), turn generate electricity. Other idea that struck our mind
a transducer (Piezo electric crystal) to convert energy from while studying alternative source of energy was use of
external energy to electric power, a harvesting circuit to thermocouple to generate electricity. In regions where
optimize the harvesting efficiency and a storage battery or a temperature falls below zero degree, use of thermocouple can
load circuit. Much research has been focused on harvesting be implemented to generate electricity. Idea is to use human
electric power from various ambient energy sources, body as a hot junction while atmospheric temperature as cold
including solar power, thermal gradients and vibrations. junction. Thus thermocouple in form of jackets can be used
When comparing all possible energy sources, mechanical with thermal insulation between hot plate in contact with
vibration is a potential power source that can be easily human body (specifically chest and back because human
accessed through adopting micro-electro mechanical systems body emit more heat from chest compared to other part of
(MEMS) technology. Mechanical vibration energy can be body) and cold junction (exposed as external
converted into usable electrical energy through piezoelectric, surface).Though small voltage in range of millivolts could be
electromagnetic and electrostatic transducers [2]. The generated with temperature difference of 50° C by use of
piezoelectric transducer is considered a potential choice type.
when compared with electromagnetic and electrostatic T thermocouple which can be experimented to get more
transducers due to its high energy density. output. Though this is just our ideas, real implementation and
conceptualization would require some time and efforts on our
V. CONCLUSION AND FUTURE SCOPE part. Similarly by driving on such road & bridge, due to
compression the hydraulic pump can to rotate generators in
The proposed method which is used to convert turn generate electricity. In regions where temperature falls
mechanical vibrations produced in dancing floor to useful below zero degree, use of thermocouple can be implemented
electrical energy is to use a PZT material as an energy to generate electricity. Idea is to use human body as a hot
converting device. The obtained output power is utilized to junction while atmospheric temperature as cold junction.

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www.ijemr.net ISSN (ONLINE): 2250-0758, ISSN (PRINT): 2394-6962

Thus thermocouple in form of jackets can be used with


thermal insulation between hot plate in contact with human
body specifically chest and back because human body emit
more heat from chest compared to other part of body and
cold junction exposed as external surface. Other idea that
struck our mind while studying alternative source of energy
was use of thermocouple to generate electricity. In regions
where temperature falls below zero degree, use of
thermocouple can be implemented to generate electricity.
Idea is to use human body as a hot junction while
atmospheric temperature as cold junction.

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[4] “ANALYTICAL MODELS TO PREDICT POWER
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