Changing Patterns - Glass Sector Pilot

Pioneering Sustainable Consumption and Production Chains

Project funded by British Glass Manufacturers’ Confederation and The Department of Trade and Industry March 2005 Peter Barden, Future Perfect Ltd

Contents
Foreword Acknowledgements Executive Summary 1
1.1 1.2

iv vi vii 1
1 3
3 4 4 1 2

Introduction
1.1.1 1.1.2 1.2.1 1.2.2 1.2.3 1.3.1 1.3.2

Background to the project

Glass sector pilot project

What is Sustainable Consumption and Production? Collaborative projects General approach Workshop outcome Project objectives and strategy Detailed methodology Indicators

1.3

Methodology

6
6 7

2
2.1 2.2 2.3 2.4 2.5 2.6 2.7 2.8

Overview of the UK Glass Industry and its Supply Chains
General overview of the sector Container Glass Sector Flat Glass Sector Fibre Glass Sector Special Glass Sector Domestic Glass Sector Industry Totals Manufacturing inputs and outputs

9
9 11 11 11 12 12 12 12

3
3.1 3.2 3.3 3.4 3.5 3.6

Overview of the Glass Recycling Industry
Background The Glass Recycling Industry The Glass Reprocessors The Bottlebank System The Packaging Waste Regulations and Compliance Schemes Local Authorities

16
16 17 18 18 19 20

4
4.1 4.2

Key Drivers and Forces for/against Change
4.2.1 4.2.2 4.2.3

22
22 22
22 22 22

Framework Political

Legislative measures Fiscal measures Voluntary schemes

i

4.3

4.4

4.3.1 4.3.2 4.3.3 4.3.4 4.3.5 4.4.1 4.4.2 4.4.3 4.4.4 4.5.1 4.5.2 4.5.3 4.5.4

Economic

Social

Process costs Process efficiency Distribution/transport Marketing issues Brand image and value Demands/Inertia of Society Resistance to change Stakeholder perception Investor demands Process efficiencies New processes New products Intellectual property

23
23 23 23 23 24

25
25 25 25 25

4.5

Technological

26
26 26 26 26

5
5.1 5.2 5.3 5.4 5.5 5.6

Benefits from the use of cullet
Reduction of materials to landfill Avoidance of quarrying Energy savings Reduction of emissions Increase of furnace life Associated environmental costs

28
28 28 28 28 28 29

6
6.1 6.2

Findings
6.2.1 6.2.2 6.2.3 6.3.1 6.3.2 6.3.3 6.3.4 6.4.1 6.4.2 6.4.3 6.4.4 6.5.1 6.5.2 6.5.3 6.5.4

30
30 31
31 31 32 33 36 39 41 42 44 45 46 47 49 49 50

Structure of findings Raw materials production & quarrying
Political Economic Social

6.3

Glass manufacture

6.4

Downstream customers
Political Economic Social Technological Political Economic Social Technological

Political Economic Social Technological

33

42

6.5

Waste stream and recycling

47

ii

1 7.2 7.4 8.4 Key issues Political Economic Social Technological 51 52 55 56 58 8 8.7 7.2 8.5 Project opportunities Project opportunity 1 (Container Glass Sector) Project opportunity 2 (Container Glass Sector) Project opportunity 3 (Container Glass Sector) Project opportunity 4 (Flat Glass Sector) Project opportunity 5 (Flat Glass Sector) 60 60 60 61 61 61 9 Appendices 62 63 Appendix 1: Text of the initial “Letter of Request” sent to stakeholders Changing Patterns Appendix 2: List of stakeholders to whom the “Letter of Request” was sent Appendix 3: List of organisations that were interviewed or visited Appendix 4: Details of significant reports reviewed 63 64 66 69 iii .3 7.3 8.1 8.

and the specific points in the product’s life-cycle where taking action will most make a difference in improving environmental and social impacts. This Framework committed DTI and DEFRA to set up collaborative projects involving particular sectors or product chains as pilots to explore practical application of the SCP approach. DTI and DEFRA jointly published in September 2003 Changing Patterns . British Glass and the Department of Trade and Industry jointly funded Future Perfect consultants to explore the practical application of the Sustainable Consumption and Production (SCP) approach within the glass sector and with a view to presenting it to the larger industry sector. pack rate and recycling. improving resource efficiency and taking a whole life-cycle of a product. environmental. social. to help reduce its effect on the environment. institutional and technological. The consultant was commissioned to follow up previous research undertaken in this area and to work with glass business sectors to identify the key actors. production. and particularly recycling. This pilot concentrated on two main areas: container manufacture and consumption.Foreword Glass has played an important part in the development of civilization. It is important that it is produced and consumed in a way which is environmentally sound. and the thermal glazing supply chain. so as to achieve smarter and more resource efficient forms of production and consumption. Through extensive investment in capital and equipment over many years the industry has also become highly efficient and the UK manufacturers’ performance stands favourable comparison with any in the world. social and economic. safe food storage and now energy producing and saving products. such as in health. This is all part of stimulating innovation in its broadest sense.UK Government Framework for Sustainable Consumption and Production which includes amongst key proposals decoupling economic growth and environmental degradation. barriers and enablers to sustainable consumption and production in a product chain . being an essential component to a wide variety of other industrial sectors. This has resulted in benefits in all key areas. This report was compiled by a consultant to British Glass. providing the means to light. iv . Their views have been incorporated in the report but they neither necessarily reflect the Government or British Glass position nor are endorsed by the DTI or other Government departments. socially responsible and economically viable so as to allow future investment and so retain glass production and employment in the UK. use and disposal. It retains a vital role in the modern world. Glass manufacturers have made significant progress in recent years in reducing their environmental impact particularly with regard to energy and CO2 through improved melting technology. insulation. Through innovative research and development world class products exist which are in themselves capable of reducing adverse impacts elsewhere within the economy. medicine and scientific research. who conducted a series of interviews with relevant stakeholders in the glass industry and supply chain. through design. transport and Climate Change.

David Workman Director General. made. used and disposed of so as to provide greater value. performance and choice for the consumer. as well as improving environmental and social impacts. We hope that future collaborative projects between different stakeholders will help move a step further in this direction. British Glass Jonathan Startup Director. DTI February 2005 v . Sustainable Development.The desired outcome of this initiative was to improve the way products and services are designed. delivered.

British Glass ♦ Michael Massey. I would like to thank all those who have assisted in the research of this pilot. DTI ♦ Aphrodite Korou. British Glass ♦ John Stockdale. Future Perfect Ltd.Acknowledgements This project report could not have been produced without the significant input and help of a large number of organisations and individuals who gave their time and shared their knowledge and experience so as to enable the information to be collated. Acknowledgement goes to the following for their assistance and advice: ♦ Andrew Hartley. The work was jointly funded by British Glass and the Department of Trade and Industry (DTI). British Glass ♦ David Workman. many are named later in the report and I apologise if I have inadvertently omitted your name. British Glass ♦ Andy Hartley. vi . DTI Peter Barden Director.

Report drafting 8. At the World Summit on Sustainable Development (WSSD) in Johannesburg in 2002 the UK Prime Minister and other world leaders committed themselves to “encourage and promote the development of a ten year framework of programmes . enablers. Presentation of preliminary findings at a workshop at the Environment Agency Conference (October 2004). The project concentrated on two specific areas. and enablers of. and that something has to be done. Food and Rural Affairs (DEFRA) and the Department of Trade and Industry (DTI) made a commitment to establish a number of collaborative projects involving particular industry sectors or product supply chains as pilots to explore the practical application of the SCP approach. As one of the first steps to delivering Sustainable Consumption and Production (SCP). particularly in developed countries is unsustainable. Contacting stakeholders by letter 4. Supply chain mapping 2. This process followed the basic steps outlined:1. vii . and to analyse them in terms of their political. DTI set up an initial SCP workshop which gave the opportunity to a wide range of stakeholders to jointly explore barriers. the principles of SCP.to accelerate the shift towards sustainable consumption and production”. It intended to identify at each point in that supply chain the key barriers to.. As part of this process the UK Government published in September of 2003 “Changing Patterns – UK Government Framework for Sustainable Consumption and Production”. namely the glass container sector and the utilization of thermally efficient glazing. The glass sector was chosen as one of these pilots.. Telephone contact with key stakeholders 5. the Department for Environment.. The workshop also provided the basis and a framework for this pilot and subsequently a methodology was developed concentrating upon the canvassing of stakeholder opinion and the soliciting of their formal input to the project. social. The project explored the structure of the glass supply chain from the point of production of the raw materials to the final disposal of the finished product at the end of its useful life. economic or technological impacts. . Literature review 7. Key stakeholder interviews and site visits 6. which sets out how the UK Government intends to translate these commitments into practical action. opportunities and priorities for action in the glass supply chain. Stakeholder mapping 3.Executive Summary Increasingly both Governments and Society at large are becoming conscious that Society’s profligate use of energy and natural resources.

reflecting relevant stakeholders’ views. General principles have then been further refined into an initial. politically and economically. but non exclusive. other than Government. identifying areas where specific action could offer opportunities for the better implementation of the principles of sustainable consumption and production.The generic findings resulting from this research have then been incorporated in the report as a set of Key Issues. viii . given the existing legislative and market environment. set of five project opportunities whose aim would be to explore and encourage further collaborative action and take up so as to take forward the practical implementation of a number of the Key Issues :- Project Opportunity 001: Glass Container Specification – Supermarket Own Label Brand Project Opportunity 002: Glass Container Specification – Wine Bottle Specification Project Opportunity 003: Glass Container Recycling – Increased recovery of container glass from licensed premises Project Opportunity 004: Flat Glass Recycling – Development of a Good Practice Case Study Project Opportunity 005: Flat Glass Recycling – Opportunities for the end of life recovery of components from the Replacement Glazing Sector It should be noted that these five project opportunities reflected what was considered practicable. They did not necessarily reflect those priority areas of concern of individual stakeholders.

Others have 1 . the Government defines the core of Sustainable Consumption and Production (SCP) as:“Continuous economic and social progress that respects the limits of the Earth’s ecosystems. more consumer needs fulfilled with less energy. which sets out how the Government intends to translate these commitments into practical action.” As part of the UK Government commitments under this process it published in September of 2003 “Changing Patterns – UK Government Framework for Sustainable Consumption and Production”. and reduce resource degradation. with less pollution and waste in the process. water and waste. more value added to a product. pollution and waste…with developed countries taking the lead.1. using less raw material.1 Introduction Background to the project At the World Summit on Sustainable Development (WSSD) in Johannesburg in 2002 the UK Prime Minister and other world leaders committed themselves to: “Encourage and promote the development of a 10-year framework of programmes in support of regional and national initiatives to accelerate the shift towards sustainable consumption and production.1 1. the only way to maintain economic progress in the long term without approaching these limits is to decouple economic growth from environmental degradation: • by ‘decoupling’ we mean ensuring environmental degradation does not automatically grow with the economy to the extent that environmental limits could be threatened in the medium term. and meets the needs and aspirations of everyone for a better quality of life.” It continues to state that:“Given that there are limits to the capacity of the Earth’s ecosystems to absorb pollution and provide natural resources. now and for future generations to come. including the notion of halving inputs whilst doubling outputs (“factor four”) and possibly more in future decades. where appropriate delinking economic growth and environmental degradation through improving efficiency and sustainability in the use of resources and production processes.” Attempts have been made to determine the scale of improvement in resource efficiency needed to achieve sustainable development. • In practical terms this means getting more for less: • • • more efficient and profitable production. by ‘environmental degradation’ we mean unsustainable use of natural resources – which embraces situations where we exceed the carrying capacity of the environment to absorb pollution. to promote social and economic developments within the carrying capacity of ecosystems by addressing and. 1.1 What is Sustainable Consumption and Production? Building on the WSSD definition.

2 . 3. the Department for Environment. 1. The UK Government states that this vision of SCP will be accomplished through: 1. The aim of these projects is to work with business sectors to identify: 1. Encouraging. and contribute to. Food and Rural Affairs (DEFRA) and the Department of Trade and Industry (DTI) committed themselves to establish a number of collaborative projects involving particular sectors or product supply chains as pilots to explore the practical application of the SCP approach.2 Collaborative projects As one of the first steps to delivering SCP. barriers and enablers to sustainable consumption and production in a product chain. Focusing policy on the most important environmental impacts associated with the use of particular resources. ‘Decoupling’ economic growth and environmental degradation.1. the approach proposed in the European Commissions Integrated Product Policy (IPP) in some selected areas. In addition. rather than on the total level of all resource use. construction and glass. This project forms the latter and has been commissioned by the British Glass Manufacturers’ Confederation (British Glass) and the DTI. but carry it through into some specific areas of consumption and production. Increasing the productivity of material and energy use. The key actors. this would be consistent with. Whilst the estimates vary substantially. 2. Initial ideas for work intended to include food and drink.argued that we need three planets’ worth of resources to sustain our current level of consumption across the globe. it is nevertheless clear that significant improvements are required to ensure sustainability into the future. as part of the broader Government commitment to increase the productivity of the nation. 4. This approach would build on work the two Departments had undertaken on ‘sector sustainability strategies’ with industry partners in some sectors. The specific points in the product’s life-cycle where taking action will most make a difference in improving environmental and social impacts. 2. and enabling active and informed individual and corporate consumers who practice more sustainable consumption.

and these were felt to most likely fall within the following areas: • • • • Political Economic Social Technological 3. or any actions taken. interests and motivations of different actors at those specific points in the product’s life cycle where taking action might potentially make most of a difference in reducing environmental impacts. It was felt to be of great importance that key issues raised. Prioritise main barriers. The development of specific proposals for business. It was felt that in some instances this might involve a formal life cycle assessment. with the aim of developing the scope and terms of reference of the project. Map out main sustainability issues facing the glass sector. 1. The associated economic or social impacts. Key barriers and enablers to reducing these impacts would then be identified. Identify barriers and enablers. Identify key actors. government and other stakeholders. 4. 3. both positive and negative. 3 . 2. should also be taken into account. Identify specific points in the life cycle where taking action would make the most difference. 1. 5. British Glass and a wide range of stakeholders contributed to this workshop.2 Glass sector pilot project The background and rationale for this glass sector pilot were developed in October 2003 at a scoping SCP workshop. The project would encompass the use of glass throughout the economy from construction to food and beverage containers.1 General approach The meeting took the following general approach: The starting point would be the identification of the most significant environmental and social impacts of the product “from cradle to grave”. any recommendations made. 2. 5. 4. The objectives of this meeting were to: 1.1. in the aftermath of the Pioneers Group conference. set up by the DTI.2. should not simply displace the problem from one part of product/consumption chain to another. Consideration would be given to the whole of production and consumption in order to identify the roles.

recycling and disposal. These were further explored to give the following project objectives. with particular reference to recycling.2. 4. 4 . The manufacture and consumption of container glass. The identification of the major environmental impacts of the container manufacture and supply chain:o o o o o o o Raw materials input. improved sustainability. The identification of barriers to. Transport. namely:1. 5. 2. areas for initial study.The manufacture and consumption of container glass • Objectives 1. A review of existing publications and information. The identification of the key elements of strategy (Government-led.3 Project objectives and strategy 1 . • Strategy 1. and enablers of. The development of key indicators. The identification and approaching of key stakeholder groups.2. Filling and packaging.2 Workshop outcome The workshop identified two primary. 1. Manufacture. utilization and consumption. Methods for encouraging the uptake of thermal glazing in both domestic and commercial buildings. industryled and consumer chain-led) that impacts upon the glass supply chain. 2. The quantification of the impacts. The identification of the different barriers to improved sustainability in the chain and the key stakeholders involved. Brand imaging with respect to environmental impacts.1. Product purchase. 3. Reuse. 6. but not exclusive. 2.

The identification of potential UK energy savings to be made by the increased uptake of thermal glazing. The encouragement of the take-up of thermal glazing in existing domestic and commercial properties. 2. 2. 3. Consumer awareness. industryled and consumer chain-led) that impacts upon the thermal glazing supply chain. including:o o o o Integration of UK climate change policies and other legislation. 5 . Environmental benefits. Government incentivisation. • Strategy 1. The identification of the key elements of strategy (Government-led. The identification of the various obstructions to this uptake and the key stakeholders involved.2 – Encouraging the uptake of thermal glazing • Objectives 1. The identification of the various obstructions to this uptake and the key stakeholders involved.

Step 1 Project Action Supply chain mapping Details The detailed mapping of the glass supply chain in order to understand its structures. are given in Appendices 1 and 2.1 Methodology Detailed methodology The project methodology originally adopted for the Glass Sector Pilot is detailed in the table below. A copy of the letter sent. addressed to all of the stakeholders identified in Step 2.3. markets and disposal channels. A dedicated e-mail address was also set up. Details of the more significant documents reviewed are given in Appendix 4. The drafting of a circular letter. The development of a stakeholder map in order to identify those stakeholders with either a direct. Key stakeholder interviews The completion of both telephone interviews and and site visits site visits to provide more detailed input into the project. raw material sources. Details of organisations visited or interviewed are given in Appendix 3. 5 6 7 Regular project reviews 6 . The conducting of project review meetings. interest in the glass industry and its supply chain. 2 Stakeholder mapping 3 Stakeholder letter 4 Telephone contact with key A detailed review of the stakeholder list to identify stakeholders key stakeholders for subsequent direct contact by telephone. either with a view to inviting comments over the telephone. or to arranging a formal interview or site visit. with a view to inviting input. in order to ensure that appropriate progress was being made with the project. who might have a view or impact upon relevant SCP issues. or indirect. suggestions and comments on the project.1.3 1. Literature review The review of existing reports and literature concerning issues applicable to the project. together with the list of organisations to which it was addressed. with both British Glass and the DTI.

Workshop (Step subsequently removed) Key stakeholders would be invited to a formal workshop to consider the draft project findings and encourage further input to the consultation. and number of households Decoupling indicators for specific sectors 8.3. Economy-wide decoupling indicators 1. where environmental impacts are directly compared with either GDP and/or household consumption. to refine the project conclusions. Water abstraction 7. Material use 6. fertiliser use. 7 . Manufacturing output. Motor vehicle kilometres and related emissions 10. 9 10 Finalisation of report This methodology was developed in collaboration between British Glass and the DTI in December 2003. Emissions from electricity generation 9. the two parties agreed that Step 9 (Workshop) would not add additional depth to the findings of the project and was provisionally removed from the project programme. Subsequently. Completion of the written report to include feedback taken from the workshop given at Step 9. methane emissions and farmland bird populations 11. and to identify the optimum way or ways forward. Agricultural output.2 Indicators The Changing Patterns Framework Document identifies a “basket of indicators” for use with SCP which is given in the table below: The Framework Document details a series of decoupling indicators. Water pollution (river water quality) 4. energy consumption and related emissions 12. Homes built on land not previously developed. 1. Greenhouse gas emissions 2. Commercial and industrial waste arisings and household waste not recycled. expenditure of energy. Resource use indicators 5. water consumption and waste generated. Household consumption.Step 8 Project Action Details Preparation of written report The preparation of a formal draft report to be (public draft) submitted for public consultation at a workshop hosted by British Glass (Step 9). Air pollution 3.

Waste production. these indicators were reviewed and further developed through literature review and stakeholder consultation to make them directly relevant and applicable to the glass sector supply chain. Ease of access to the data The base indicators used during the course of the Pilot Project are listed below:Headline SCP indicators defined and utilised during the Glass Sector Pilot Project: 1. Recycling rates.8). Relative magnitude of the environmental impact of the indicator 2. 6. 8. 8 . Energy efficiencies (see chart 1 below). Motor vehicle kilometres and related emissions. 2. Raw material usage. 4. 5.For the purposes of the Glass Sector Pilot Project. 7. Air pollution. Water pollution. Carbon emissions [both direct and indirect] (see section 2. Key issues addressed during this phase of the project were:1. Potential cost benefits associated with the indicator 4. Relative impact in socio-economic terms of the indicator 3. 3.

9 .5 billion1.15 million tonnes 0.70 million tonnes 0.1 General overview of the sector The UK glass industry currently produces an estimated 2. The industry can conveniently be divided into five sub sectors as follows (available data relates to the situation in 2002):Sub-sector 1 – Container 2 – Flat Glass 3 – Fibre 4 – Special 5 – Domestic TOTAL Annual Production (tonnes) 1. with a total saleable value of approximately £1. 2003.12 million tonnes 0.01 million tonnes 2.2 Overview of the UK Glass Industry and its Supply Chains 2.76 million tonnes 0.8 million tonnes of glass per annum from all sectors.74 million tonnes Percentage of total (approx) 61% 27% 6% 5% 1% 100% 1 Source of data in this chapter is “UK Glass Manufacture – A Mass Balance Study” published by British Glass under the Biffaward Scheme.

The map below indicates the location of the major glass manufacturers in the UK 10 .

the UK is a net importer of flat glass. mainly in the form of bottles and jars.3 Flat Glass Sector Globally the demand for flat glass has been buoyant.0 million tonnes per annum. a net importer of container glass.e.000 tonnes in 2002.000 tonnes per day (which is equivalent to approximately 2. with the majority of these imports being in the form of filled products. Thus the total container glass flow into the UK was estimated at 2.000 different applications including reinforcement of plastics and rubber. and total domestic production in 2002 was in the region of 760. operating 30 furnaces on 14 sites around the UK. but work carried out during the compilation of a recent report by British Glass suggested that the net import of container glass was in the region of 629.e. Individual furnace capacities range from under 100 tonnes per day to those with a capacity of over 650 tonnes per day. It is a component in the manufacture of wind turbines for example. and it was recently estimated by British Glass that the net inflow of flat glass into the UK was approximately 150.22 million units which suggests a net import figure of 0. accounts for over half of all glass production in the UK. The UK is. 2. quantity of product imported by the public via “duty free” and cross channel shipping. Using a typical value of 33 kg of glass per vehicle a net import of approximately 20.000 tonnes.2 Container Glass Sector Container glass. The estimated total capacity of the three manufactures is in the region of 1.000 tonnes in 2002 (i. such as bottled wines and beers.000 tonnes per annum. fuelled by the demand for both building (i. Continuous glass fibre has over 40. glazing and architectural applications) and automotive glass. total imports less exports of filled containers). As with the situation for container glass. Data from the DTI (2001) recorded UK Car production at 1.4 Fibre Glass Sector Production from this sector is estimated at 150.000 tonnes of glass is derived.63 million units compared with new registrations of 2.59 million units.5 million tonnes per annum). Over the last 20 years this sector has seen an annual increase of demand of approximately 5% year on year.2. however. No formal system exists for the collection of statistics from filled products. This element includes a large. 11 . The UK currently has three manufacturers producing flat glass with the most recent addition coming on stream in December 2003. The total (melting) capacity of this sector of the glass industry in 2002 was 7.33 million tonnes in 2002. 2. However since that date a new float line has been added to the UK capacity and it is as yet unclear what effect this will have on the mass balance flow of UK flat glass manufacture. electronic blinds and wall coverings. In 2002. but unknown. the UK container industry comprised seven manufacturers. The trade in motor vehicles is also responsible for a net in-flow of flat glass into the UK.

Some 2. Approximately 1. The operations are relatively labour intensive and produce high value ware.8 million tonne is domestically produced with a net import contributing to a further 800.6 Domestic Glass Sector Domestic glass production covers products such as ovenware. Production from this sector is estimated at 6. oven hobs and specialist optical.000 tonnes per annum. limestone/dolomite (CaCO3 and MgCO3) and. 2.1 million or 30% if this glass is currently being recycled either within the industry or increasingly finding alternative uses such as aggregates or in some cases more exotic and value added products e. comprises around 20 manufacturers who typically operate small pot furnaces melting a few tonnes per week. and approximately 2.000 tonnes of recycled glass cullet was actually re-melted and reused within the manufacturing process. soda ash (Na2O) are the principle virgin raw materials used by the glass industry. 2. The giftware sub-sector. and a sales value of approximately £200 million. In addition to this. 12 .g. The industry is not a large user of water. the majority of which is used to fire the high temperature furnaces.2. 2. Sand (SiO2). this sector comprised 13 operators with a combined output of around 120. however.5 Special Glass Sector The special glass group is the most diverse in terms of production processes and capacities.6 giga-watt hours (GWh) of power per annum. Glass manufacture is an energy intensive process.8 Manufacturing inputs and outputs The information detailed in this section is taken from “UK Glass Manufacture – A Mass Balance Study” published in 2003 by British Glass as part of the Biffaward Scheme.000 tonnes per year. and the UK glass industry consumes approximately 8. with average consumption being slightly in excess of 1m3 for each tonne of glass produced.6 million tonnes of glass within the UK economy. advanced filtration medium. a further 850. television tubes. medical and scientific products.000 tonnes. Approximately. Due to aggressive overseas competition the UK currently has no volume producer of domestic glass ware. drinking glasses and giftware. In 2002.5 million tonnes of these materials were used by the industry in 2002. 80% of the fuel utilised is in the form of natural gas. which includes lead crystal melters.7 Industry Totals An analysis of the total mass flows through the UK glass industry (in 2002) revealed a net flow of 3. Production capacities range from large 200 tonnes per day furnaces to specialist melters producing only a few kilograms per week. This sector encompasses products such as lighting.

In total. with some of the raw materials used containing carbon which is also liberated as carbon dioxide during the glass making process (i. very little solid waste is produced.6 million tonnes of carbon dioxide is produced directly by the glass industry (direct and process emissions). furnace rebuilds do produce a large amount of waste.Fuel Type Natural Gas Electricity Gas Oil Heavy Fuel Oil Fuel mix (delivered basis) 80% 14% 4% 2% By virtue of the industry’s ability to recycle almost all of its own rejected ware. but with a typical furnace life of between 12 to 15 years the net contribution to the waste stream from these events is relatively insignificant. 13 .000 tonnes is produced by proxy at the power stations as a result of the electricity consumption of the industry (indirect emissions) every year.e. process emissions). The combustion process converts fuel into carbon dioxide (CO2) and water vapour (combustion emissions). Air borne emissions constitute the single largest pollutant output from the industry. However. The charts below show the percent reduction in direct CO2 emission since 1990 and this is compared to the amount of the carbon dioxide allowance available to the industry under the provisional National Allocation Plan (NAP) figures available at the end of 2004. and a further 350. approximately 1. The second chart shows how the industry is decoupling carbon dioxide emission from production and also gives projected production figures and emissions into Phase 1 of the EU Emissions Trading Scheme (EUETS).

0 3.0 0.Direct CO2 Emissions.0 2. reduction on 1970 (Emissions of CO2 based on 1979 = 100) Glass Sector 100 80 60 40 2 100 77 65 54 NAP ? 20 0 1979 1991 1996 2003 NAP = National Allocation Plan 2007 PRODUCTION and Direct CO2 EMISSIONS (Fossil fuel and carbonates: decoupling) Glass Sector 4.5 0.5 1.5 3.0 1.0 Millions of tonnes 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 Production CO 2 Emissions 14 .5 2.

including: • • • • Sulphur dioxide (SOx) – 4.The glass making process also produces other airborne emissions.600 tonnes Nitrogen dioxide (NOx) – 10. 15 .600 tonnes Particulates – 1.500 tonnes Acid gases (HCl & HF) – small quantities.

our system for home delivery of milk is often cited as being one of the best ever operated. British Glass. 2003 16 . was established in Barnsley in 1977. and it was capable of delivering good rates of returns to locally based fillers.1 Overview of the Glass Recycling Industry Background Glass has always been a material that has been reused and/or recycled in the sense that bottles have been refilled and reused for generations. That said. Formal industrial reuse and recycling is also not a new concept in the UK.3 3. the current rate of recycling of container glass achieved in the UK compares very unfavourably with our European neighbours:Country Switzerland Finland Norway Belgium Germany Sweden Austria Netherlands Denmark France Italy Ireland UK Portugal Spain Greece Turkey Recycling Rate % (Container Glass) 92 91 88 88 87 84 83 78 65 55 55 40 34 34 33 27 24 Source: “UK Glass Manufacture – A Mass Balance Study”. for recycling as opposed to reuse. The first UK bottle bank. A deposit system for beers and soft drinks was in widespread use until the 1970’s.

paper. the bottle bank system. has had a significant effect upon the established industry. as a result of more centralised beverage filling and distribution chains. Glass collection is primarily confined to arrangements between the reprocessors and the local authority through either. were the sole reprocessors of post-consumer glass. the glass is effectively evenly spread across the country whilst the manufacturing plants tend to be concentrated in the north of the country which has a significant impact upon the economics of collecting in the southern half of the country. The great majority of glass currently available for recycling arises from either local authority initiatives (bottle banks. In addition.2 The Glass Recycling Industry The glass recycling industry comprises the collecting organisations (who provide the glass for reprocessing (cullet)). the processors sort and wash the glass to remove unwanted materials such as metals. The arrival of the Packaging Waste Regulations in 1997. Lack of education and awareness. One flat glass manufacturer states that they are utilising 100% of pre-consumer recycled glass and off-cuts. although some collection is carried out. At present. plastics and various stones and other ceramic materials. Although some pre-consumer flat glass cullet is recycled. The absence of statutory targets for waste collection authorities The absence of compulsory deposit scheme on beverage containers. Several. The use of mix-coloured glass for aggregates has been one of the largest 17 . 3. or through their waste disposal service kerbside collection schemes. The low density of bottle banks and other recycling facilities. The reluctance of local authorities to include glass in their kerbside collection schemes. primarily through the flat glass manufacturer. there is no systematic national recovery of container glass from licensed premises such as pubs and clubs. mainly Government.Several arguments have been and are advanced to explain the circumstances which cause the UK’s current under performance and these include:• • • • • • The demise of the returnable container. nor is there an equivalent infrastructure for the collection of recyclable flat glass. Historically the glass container manufacturing plants. and to a lesser extent the glass-fibre plants. initiatives in response to EU directives which are now in place should result in a large increase in the volume of glass collected and recycled or reused. the cullet processors (who process the recovered glass into a useable form) and the manufacturers who reprocess the materials into new product. Typically. kerbside collections) or the glass collected via the drinks trade from pubs and clubs. before finally being crushed into the desired size. with the attendant obligations to achieve target rates of recycling. cullet may well undergo some form of colour separation. In either case. some does reach the container industry.

“Stichting Promotie Glasbak”. In terms of bottle banks. container glass) and not other forms of glass waste.impacts of the regulations. Such organisations carry out the recycling and convert glass into new products.860 head of population. From these banks a total of 736. this number rising to 37 in 2003 and 43 by 2004. Since then the system has expanded to cover most of the UK – see chart below. The figure of 20. It is estimated that approximately 100. Scotland and Wales.3 The Glass Reprocessors Approximately 20 companies were registered by the Environment Agency as accredited glass reprocessors in 2002. the DTI.4 The Bottlebank System The first commercial bottle banks were introduced in Barnsley in 1977. and the devolved administrations of Wales. The 1000th bottle bank was commissioned in 1982. funded through DEFRA. which is equivalent to 34% of the volume of container manufacture.074 such sites in operation. which of itself has influenced the efficiency of glass recycling generally (i. 3. Only accredited reprocessors can issue Packaging Waste Recovery Notes (PRN). The “Waste and Resources Action Programme (WRAP)”. the UK is a poor performer when compared to our European neighbours.000 tonnes of waste glass was collected. concluded that a ratio of 1:650 constituted the optimum collection efficiency.e.796 sites equates to a density of around 1 bank per 2. 18 .000 tonnes per year of glass is currently being used as a road making aggregate substitute. 3. In 2002. The scheme further expanded to the point in 1997 that there were a total of 22. Since then the rate of expansion has slowed and the latest returns suggest a slight decline in their total number.796 bottle bank sites were established throughout England.e. Scotland and Northern Ireland has a number of projects looking at new and innovative uses for glass. A study carried out by the Dutch organisation. discriminating against other types). It must be stressed that these notes are only associated with glass used for packaging (i. and values of 1 per 1000 are not uncommon on mainland Europe. some 20.

The Scheme is designed so that to the income generated from these sales will then be used to develop the necessary collection and recycling infrastructure to encourage the process. whilst imports consist largely of wines and beers in coloured bottles. and the colour of glass that is recovered through the bottlebank system. The full potential for recovery from this source is demonstrated by the Brewers and Licensed Retailers Association Report which estimates that some 350. Evidence that obligations are being met is provided in the form of Packaging Waste Recovery Notes (PRNs) or Packaging Waste Export Recovery Notes (PERNs). the majority of this “new” material has been directed into the arguably less environmentally beneficial option of road making through the manufacture of aggregates. 19 . There is a large disparity between the colour of glass that the UK container industry manufactures. Companies are obliged under these regulations to meet statutory recovery and recycling targets.5 The Packaging Waste Regulations and Compliance Schemes The Producer Responsibility Obligations [Packaging Waste] Regulations 1997 (as amended) mandate recovery and/or recycling targets for those companies using more than 50 tonnes of packaging per annum and whose turnover exceeds £2. gardens 100% 3. UK Container Market Clear Green Amber Other TOTAL Manufacture (%) 66% 18% 15% 1% 100% Recycled (%) 41% 48% 11% Very slight use i. in order to meet their legal obligations under the Regulations. Both obligated companies and compliance schemes purchase PRNs or PERNs from accredited reprocessors and exporters respectively. As a consequence the Compliance Schemes have therefore tended to collect mixed glass. even taking account of the impact of using mined or quarried material instead of glass cullet as aggregates (Enviros 2003). such as pubs and clubs. their success has not been greeted with universal approval by all sections of the established glass recycling community.0 million per year. either through their own efforts. This market is also not colour sensitive and it therefore removes the need for colour separation. a material that cannot be easily reused by the primary melters. produce approximately 25% of the UK’s waste glass. This process reduces the level of inherent benefits generated by glass recycling.000 tonnes of glass could be recovered from their members premises alone.e. The primary reason for this mismatch is mainly due to the fact that the UK’s beverage exports tend to be in the form of clear bottles from the spirits trade. or through joining a registered “Compliance Scheme” which then takes on the company’s legal obligations. these schemes have increased the amount of glass recovered from the waste stream. and they have also been instrumental in encouraging new outlets for the collected material.Commercial organisations. However. Unarguably. Whilst some “new” glass has followed the traditional route back to the container manufacturer via the cullet reprocessors.

and have statutory obligations to meet target levels of recycling. however.000 tonnes would be collected annually through kerbside schemes. plastics and even textiles. can collect industrial waste. Local Authorities are also duty bound to prepare and publicise a waste recycling plan which details the arrangements made to recycle household and commercial waste. Most local authorities have in place a “bring” system of recycling banks collecting such items as glass. may have no incentive to go beyond their existing statutory targets. traditional. Total glass collection would thus be estimated at 880.000 tonnes. 20 . access to kerbside glass recycling. bottle or can banks and are increasingly introducing kerbside collection schemes as a method of increasing their recycling rates. metal cans. and that these schemes gave around 10% of households. and most of this waste goes to landfill. The report concluded that:“If all 21. As mentioned above Local Authorities have a duty to collect all household waste.000 tonnes per year. All waste collected by Local Authorities is collectively termed “municipal waste” and currently amounts to some 30 million tonnes each year. and also in quantifying the resultant increase in the volume of glass collected achieved by participation in such a scheme. at their discretion. paper. The study estimated that 19% of collecting authorities were operating a kerbside collection scheme that included glass.6 Local Authorities Local Authorities have a duty to collect household waste. at the same time as the Statutory Instrument on the exemption from new duty is introduced. being in the prime position to collect glass from households. those stakeholders believe that this places a constraint on their ability to meet their targets. Since 1996/7. Commencement is expected later this year. the amount of municipal waste collected has been growing at an annual rate of 3-4% per year.” The net consequence would be that glass collection from the domestic sector would equate to about half of the UK container production. Many Local Councils do recognise the limitations of these. with a further 15% from civic amenity sites. still remain the issue around colour discrepancy. A recent study commissioned by the Waste and Resources Action Programme (WRAP) aimed at both determining the number of kerbside collection schemes in operation. Bottle bank collection would be reduced but still contribute a further 230.1 million UK households were offered kerbside collection then approximately 650. with the requirement being replaced by a statutory duty for local authorities in two-tier areas to have a joint strategy for the management of their municipal waste (subject to exemptions for high-performing authorities). However because the target for the glass supply chain effectively goes beyond that of the local authorities and the fact that the local authorities. There would. They must collect commercial waste if asked to do so and. The Waste and Emissions Trading Act 2003 contains a provision to repeal the requirement for waste collection authorities to produce recycling plans. Approximately 60% of municipal waste comes from regular household collections.3.

The diagram system. below demonstrates the flow of glass through the current 21 .

3 Voluntary schemes In some instances. This can include issues such as generic product labelling or industry specific 22 .4 4.2 4.1 Key Drivers and Forces for/against Change Framework The glass sector supply chain was reviewed using the drivers and forces for change determined during the Pilot Project Launch Meeting held in October 2003 (see section 1. Significant pieces of current legislation include:• • • • • • • Integrated Pollution Prevention and Control Directive (IPPC) Greenhouse Gas Emissions Trading Schemes (EU and UK) Packaging Waste Directives Packaging Regulations End of Life Vehicle Directive (ELV) Waste Electrical and Electronic Equipment Directive (WEEE) Building Regulations 4. the following forces for or against change were identified as the most relevant drivers and issues for the glass sector:- 4.2 above) namely:• • • • Political Economic Social Technological In particular. 4.2. Government grants.1 Political Legislative measures Legislation and related issues have a huge potential to influence the activities of the glass supply chain.2 Fiscal measures Similarly. environmental taxation and related fiscal measures have a huge potential to influence the activities of the glass sector supply chain. including:• • • • Landfill Tax. Climate Change Levy. Aggregates Tax. industry lead initiatives can have a significant impact on sector behaviour.2.2.

47 4.3 Distribution/transport Transport costs and the complexity of the distribution network can have a significant impact upon the profitability of a particular supply chain.0 3. The chart below demonstrates the reduction in specific energy consumption in the container sector since 1979. 4.3.3. organisations are continuously striving to improve process efficiencies in terms of resource usage and the reduction of waste.86 1.marketing and information campaigns. Related to this are: 4.0 1.49 1.2 Process efficiency As part of the move to drive costs out of a business.3. In some instances the two can work in opposition for example the move to centralised packaging and bottling plants has been driven by process efficiencies and economised of scale whilst having a detrimental effect upon distances the product has to be transported to reach the market place or reuse/recycling sites. Any savings made at this level have a direct impact upon the financial bottom line.1 Economic Process costs Inevitably one of the key drivers for any business is the reduction and/or control of its cost base.3 4. with a view to reducing its total unit costs in order to maximise profitability. MELTING ENERGY Container Sector – Furnace Energy Improvements 21% since 1991 .now approaching theoretical limit 4. manufacture and 23 .0 1979 1991 1996 2003 1.18 SEC (M h/tonne) W 3. design.3.0 2.4 Marketing issues Issues around the marketing of consumer products and particularly fast moving consumer goods can have a significant impact upon the specification. One of the longest standing in the glass sector is the ongoing Glasspac Campaign to encourage recycling 4. Business is therefore continuously monitoring its costs.0 0.

be it rightly or wrongly. This factor inevitably has a huge direct impact upon the supply chain. One of the most significant impacts on glass packaging over recent years has been the move to single use containers and the move away from returnable/reusable containers. or producing more enclosed volume for the same mass of materials and reducing transport impacts. be it the form of a glass bottle containing the product for example.5 Brand image and value Brand has a huge value in today’s market place. Consequently.distribution of a product. a process known as lightweighting.3. 24 . 4. In parallel to this has been the drive to reduce the weight of containers. In the main the glass element only forms a small part of the brand offering. or the flat glass in the vehicle that is purchased. in many cases the desire to maintain the brand image may work against the issues of sustainability where any attempt to improve the general sustainability of the product could potentially be seen as a threat to that brand image. and huge investment is put into maintaining the associated brand image.

are not felt directly or perceived by the individual. or otherwise.4. increasingly the insurance community is also having an impact. 4.4 4. and hence a lower potential risk. with risk premiums being potentially reduced for organisations demonstrating responsibility to environmental and social issues.4. these moves are forcing business to re-examine itself and its role in society and to respond to the stakeholder pressures that are being placed upon it. Equally. on an individual basis people are often reluctant to change. or social problems. Clearly. they may not of themselves be prepared to change their own behaviour to embrace the approach. Inevitably. 4. Conversely. and hence are not felt to be important to that individual whilst being of critical importance to society at large and for future generations to come. people will often demonstrate a dichotomy of approach. 4. as has been demonstrated by the increasing requirement being placed on industry to report on non-financial aspects of business. Environmental and social issues are becomingly increasingly important to society at large. It is quite possible for an organisation to be forced into a course of action by stakeholder pressure that it would not have otherwise taken. with financial analysts increasingly looking at non-financial information in the determination of financial risk and the identification of investment opportunities. investors can have a major influence on the behaviour of an enterprise. Whilst actively supporting new ideas and innovative solutions for society at large.1 Social Demands/Inertia of Society Increasingly society is becoming more sophisticated in the demands that it places both upon itself and also upon its suppliers. Also. of that organisation.3 Stakeholder perception The perception of an organisation by its stakeholders can have an enormous impact upon the potential for success.2 Resistance to change As mentioned. and this inertia can act against innovative ideas and forces for change.4 Investor demands A key stakeholder group that can influence the behaviour of an enterprise is the financial community. 25 . A typical example might be the potential impact on a Brand of the activities of a particular pressure group.4.4. in many instances the costs associated with environmental degradation.4.

This can either be in the manner of increasing the operational efficiencies and reducing waste from existing processes or longer term it may involve the development of new and more cost effective processes. to increase operational efficiencies and to reduce waste.2 New processes The development of new process can be driven by a number of motivations.5. and consequently competitive advantage.5 4. 4. and to develop integrated processes or new products.1 Technological Process efficiencies Organisations are continuously seeking to improve process efficiencies in order to drive costs from the business and hence improve margins and profitability. to drive costs from the business.4. to support a larger or newer product range.5. 26 .3 New products The development of new products is one of the key drivers of the market economy. 4.4 Intellectual property A significant potential block to the spread of new and/or efficient technologies can be the commercial sensitivity or property rights associated with the technology which can restrict its spread to the organisations competitors. A great deal of work is currently being carried out by Waste and Resources Action Programme (WRAP) to research potential new markets and products for recycled glass (see Table overleaf). The chief driver in any instance will be the achievement of competitive advantage. 4.5.5.

This research is looking at the inclusion of up to 10% of ground glass in manufactured clay bricks. plate. These two projects are examining the use of recovered container. for shot GLA-0013 Fluxing agent for sanitary ware. This research aims to assess whether ground glass would be a suitable replacement for good quality sands currently used in the sports turf industry. windscreen. in particular in golf courses in root zone mixtures. bunkers and fairways. lighting and fibre glass streams as alternative to both coarse and fine aggregates. This media has been put forward as potentially suitable for drinking water filtration. GLA2-008 Glass derived sand for golf courses. This research is looking at the possibility of replacing current sanitary ware fluxing agents with ground recycled bottle glass. and also the potential for reducing energy requirements and emissions for manufacture. This project is investigating the economics.Table: Some potential new uses for recycled glass Use Glass Filtration Media (AFM). including the energy and emission reduction benefits that this could deliver on a commercial scale. WRAP Project Ref. Comments Dryden Aqua has successfully developed an Advanced Filtration Media (AFM) using recycled green and brown glass. GLA2-020 ConGlassCrete. This research has been working to identify Best Practicable Environmental Options (BPEOs) for the use of cullet in construction. whole life costs and best practicable environmental option for introducing a UK foam glass production process. GLA2-006 and GLA15-007 The use of glass cullet in construction applications. and as cement replacements in the production of concrete. Foam Glass being an insulating material suitable for a wide range of construction applications. As such AFM is currently under review by the Drinking Water Inspectorate. GLA2-007 GLA2-018 Glass grit blasting. Recycled glass grit can be used as an effective abrasive media in grit blasting cleaning operations. Additives for the manufacture of bricks. GLA2-002 Foam glass GLA-0015 (Source WRAP Stakeholder Update 2003 and project reports) 27 .

including less frequent rebuilds. As a consequence. 28 . 1 tonne of landfill is avoided. Consequently. for every tonne of cullet utilised approximately 1.3 Energy savings It is estimated that the use of cullet over virgin raw materials saves the equivalent of 125kWh of energy per tonne of glass produced (i.2 tonne of virgin sand/limestone/dolomite/soda ash is saved. 5. for every tonne of glass recycled.4 Reduction of emissions It is estimated that for every tonne of cullet used 0. and hence less energy is required. approximately equivalent to the energy content of 3 gallons of oil).1 Reduction of materials to landfill Waste glass that is not destined for recycling enters the waste stream and ultimately ends up as landfill. This energy saving arises from 3 sources:• • • Cullet melts at a lower temperature than virgin raw materials. Energy of manufacture of the Soda Ash is likewise eliminated. also represent both lower direct and indirect emissions of carbon dioxide from the use of fossil fuels.2 Avoidance of quarrying Cullet directly substitutes virgin raw materials.e. 5. The 0. The energy intensive manufacture of Soda Ash is avoided.45 tonne of CO2 emissions are saved.5 Benefits from the use of cullet A significant number of environmental benefits directly accrue from the use of recycled cullet as apposed to virgin raw materials for the manufacture of glass.2 tonne discrepancy is accounted for by the release of carbon dioxide during the chemical processes occurring during glass manufacture (i. and the equivalent amount does not have to be quarried or resourced.5 Increase of furnace life The running of furnaces at lower temperatures has the related effect that their service life is extended with all the associated benefits that that brings. This saving arises from 3 sources:• • • Process emissions resulting from the use of virgin raw materials (limestone/dolomite) are eliminated. 5. 5. The energy of extraction/processing of the raw aggregates is eliminated.e. The energy saving achieved. release of CO2 from carbonate [-CO3] radicals). 5.

5. although this is significantly offset by energy savings associated with section 5.6 Associated environmental costs The main environmental costs associated with the use of cullet centre around the energy use needed to collect. 29 . On balance the environmental benefits associated with the use of cullet are considered to outweigh the costs.3 above. clean and process the cullet.

Downstream customers. they do not necessarily represent Government views. For the purposes of this report the Glass Sector Supply Chain has been broken down simplistically into the following four categories: • • • • Raw materials production and quarrying. 30 .1 Findings Structure of findings The Pilot Project findings in terms of the main barriers and enablers to Sustainable Consumption and Production (SCP) are given in the Tables that follow overleaf.6 6. Glass manufacture. These findings are based on interviews carried out by the consultant with industry and supply chain representatives. Waste stream and recycling.

2 Raw materials production & quarrying Barrier (B) or Enabler (E) Comments Whilst there is a colour imbalance in UK imports to production there may be a case for considering extending the Aggregate Levy to those colours that can beneficially be recycled back into glass production in order to encourage that recycling and reduce raw material extraction for the glass industry. E The direct substitution of virgin aggregates by Similarly to the situation with Soda Ash. the loss of market share for the supplier has a negative economic impact on the supply chain through the quarries losing volume. therefore. Conversely. It is recognised that alternative uses for glass of a specification and quality unsuitable for recycling to glass furnaces is beneficial. aggregates by cullet has a significant environmental benefit (as discussed in Chapter 5 above). The manufacturing process is very energy intensive and hence has a high potential to impact on global warming through the release of greenhouse gases (primarily carbon dioxide).6. 6. the direct substitution of virgin cullet. however. has a significant environmental benefit.2. the “Aggregates Levy” does not apply to the use of recycled glass as a substitute for quarry products used as a construction aggregate. 6.2 Economic E The direct substitution of raw materials by cullet. 31 . Soda Ash is a major manufactured raw material used in the making of glass. Any direct substitution with cullet.1 Political B/E At present.2. this would produce a negative economic impact on the supplier of the Soda Ash through loss of market. The use of clear and amber glass for aggregates use could therefore attract the levy whilst green glass would not.

the major commercial mineral companies are looking more and more at the concept of sustainability in terms of their business operations.2. A reduction of landfill opportunities. The impact of raw materials substitution will. E 32 .3 Social E Stakeholder pressure to reduce the impact of In general.Barrier (B) or Enabler (E) Comments 6. the quarrying and extractive industries are coming under ever quarrying. both in terms of their environmental impacts and their social performance. Any reduction in quarrying will de facto reduce the potential stock of future landfill sites and opportunities. As a consequence. be relatively small in relation both to the total volumes of aggregates extracted and volumes of waste produced. however. increasing criticism and pressure from stakeholder groupings. This work is on-going. with the consequential related future issues around waste disposal.

6. The benefit. E Building Regulations mandate the use of low The most recent revision of the Building Regulation (April 2002) mandated emissivity glazing systems (for both domestic the use of low-emissivity glazing for both new build and for the refurbishment of existing building stock. Approved Document L. had a major impact on both the glass and the glazing industries in terms of the operational processes employed.3 Glass manufacture Barrier (B) or Enabler (E) Comments As the costs of waste disposal to landfill increases. as a direct consequence of the commitments made in the recent Energy White Paper. however. it is unclear as to what effect. commercial properties. including both domestic and and commercial building). this review will have upon the U-values requirements for glazing systems. which details the performance requirements for glazing systems. of utilising cullet as opposed to the land-filling of waste glass. if any. is due for a further review in 2005. so the incentive to find more cost effective alternatives to it likewise increases. in financial terms.3. therefore. is therefore composed of two elements:• • Firstly. have a potentially significant impact on this equation.1 Political E Landfill tax encourages the use of cullet. The most recent review.0. 33 . The magnitude of the unit landfill tax can. Secondly. reducing U-values to 2. At present. the unit costs of putting waste glass to landfill to the waste authority.6. the unit price to the manufacturer of purchase of the cullet itself. and the related business decision making processes.

Barrier (B) or Enabler (E) Comments 6. energy efficiency in wider markets . Fibre glass used in the manufacture of Climate Change Agreements give an 80% reduction in the cost of the levy in return for industry meeting targets. or producers must find ways of producing them that energy saving products. A tension is felt by the glass industry between these policy tools in that they are perceived as being in direct conflict.) B/E The Climate Change Levy acts as a disincentive Manufacturers believe that the Climate Change Levy potentially places a to expand production of products that improve disincentive on the move to the manufacture of more energy intensive products in the UK.:• • Low emissivity glass. currently most CCA targets in the glass wind farm sails. such as the low emissivity glass. 34 .3. sector are relative (SEC – specific energy consumption). Within the Agreements “relative” targets may not discourage production increases per se Conversely some energy efficiency policies such due to possible economies of scale. However. e. may be discouraged. other energy efficiency policies.g. for example higher energy efficiency requirements in building regulations substantially increase demand for these products. minimises the additional energy required. risk management through the use of product mix algorithms may be used to mitigate such effects until 2006.1 Political (cont. However shifts to the manufacture of as the Building Regulations increase demand for products requiring more energy per unit.

emissions trading is to allow carbon dioxide emission reductions to be achieved at minimum cost to industry although this has yet to be demonstrated. concerning both the Environment and Climate Change within the EU. Consequently. production will be and is outside of the European Union. The net result is the importation of product into the EU from outside of its borders. lead to rising emissions. being switched to areas outside of the EU where both the regulatory costs and human resource costs are lower. some plants remain concerned that the EU ETS may damage the ability of the UK manufacturers to supply enough energy saving products from UK production to meet the government’s own Climate Change Programme.1 Political (cont. eventually. and in addition to which the cyclical nature of glass manufacture with major plant rebuilds ever 12-15 years encourages this possibility. 6. such as those that own many of the UK’s glass plants.3. Stakeholders recognise that the EU ETS is intended to incentivise efficiency improvements. The principle of industry as is the Climate Change Levy. However. 35 .) B Political decision making can have a direct It is suggested that as a direct consequence of the rising business costs impact on the level of importation of glass from associated with the implementation of EU regulations. Large multi-national grouping.Barrier (B) or Enabler (E) B/E Comments The EU Emissions Trading Scheme (EUETS) is Like the Climate Change Agreements. are free to switch production around the globe. Given existing technology energy efficiency improvements are limited and as such. the glass industry remains fearful that the EU Emissions Trading Scheme will place an additional burden on business. increasing production will almost inevitably. and the related export of jobs outside of the EU. the EU Emissions Trading Scheme seen as having the same impact on the glass discourages the move to more energy intensive products by requiring industry to incorporate the cost of carbon into their business plans.

e. which by definition does not need to be as robust as that used for re-use. lower weight packages are easier and hence safer to handle. i. unit production costs and hence unit price. 6.3.e. as required by Building Regulations and Approved Document L. The move to single-use packaging. The drive for the reduction in costs of transportation. • • 36 . Similarly the move towards the generation of renewable energy has increased the demand for glass reinforcing fibre for the manufacture of such items as the sails for wind turbines. has had a direct impact upon the glass industry. simplistically. result of a number of drivers:• • • The drive for savings in material costs.2 Economic E The move for ever decreasing u-values (for both new build and refurbishment) i. and hence it can be of a lighter construction. both due to the increasing costs of energy and also through the effects of global warming resulting from the combustion of fossil fuels. This impact has been both in terms of the requirements placed directly on glazing systems through the Building Regulations and also through the demand for insulation products such as fibre glass. The use of more technically efficient designs.Barrier (B) or Enabler (E) Comments The trend for increasing the thermal efficiency of buildings. The application of health and safety related issues i.e. lower weight packages cost less to transport. E The light-weighting of glass containers is an The light weighting of glass containers has been occurring for some time as a established practice.

as opposed to multiple. can be extremely demanding both in terms of colour tolerances and clarity. • • • • B Customer specification for products are high:• • • Container. as well as for the physical performance of the product. 37 . but within a wider tolerance band. Flat glass.3.Barrier (B) or Enabler (E) Comments 6. The move towards glass container light-weighting. The technical and physical performance specifications required by customers. The relative wealth of society has been steadily increasing.) B The trend towards the greater use of single-use The move to the application of single.2 Economic (Cont. use glass glass packaging. Related to this has been a loss of the infrastructure to support a re-use industry. It can be argued that in some circumstances these specifications could be technically relaxed in order to encourage the greater use of cullet in manufacture. Automotive. and yet still maintain a high level of physical performance linked with an adequate level of colour and clarity. a process that has encouraged a throw away society. containers has arisen for a number of distinct reasons:• Changes within the structure of the packer/filler industry have meant that there has been a greater centralisation of operations in order to achieve economies of scale. for both flat and container glass. A greater emphasis is now being placed on “Brand” and the perception of the quality of the container being a reflection the brand value. With the consequence that it is more difficult and costly to return a bottle for filling.

3.) B The substitution of glass by plastic packaging Glass packaging is progressively being substituted by plastic for a number of and the impact of the Packaging Waste Directive. This is due to a number of reasons including. It has been suggested that a consequence of the material specific recycling targets under the Packaging Waste Directive.2 Economic (Cont. such as milk and soft drinks. and in particular the fact that the target for plastics is lower than that for glass. might further act as an incentive to accelerate the rate of substitution of glass by plastic containers. 38 .Barrier (B) or Enabler (E) Comments 6. shock resistance properties. lightweighting. basic container uses. as well as unit costs. health and safety issues.

Glass has a “quality” image and feel. Glass is perceived by the marketing community as having a quality feel and a quality image. The solid feel and weight of the glass container is seen as a positive benefit in these circumstances.) B The physical weight of a container/packaging has The physical weight of glass as a material for container manufacture has had a a direct impact upon transport costs. Conversely.3 Social (Cont. The unit weight of a glass container is proportionately much higher than that of an equivalent plastic container and hence the transport costs associated with the container are proportionately higher as well. Conversely. 39 . potentially presenting a greater health and safety risk to the supermarket shopper than by alternative packaging materials. 6. Glass packaging is perceived as bringing brand enhancement to higher value items such as spirits and perfumes. This aspect of marketing is of key importance and needs to be handled with care. enhancing the shelf appeal of the product. there are perceived to be health and safety issues associated with glass packaging as against alternative materials. For the containers of certain higher value items such as spirits and perfumes this is seen as a significant benefit enhancing the shelf appeal and brand value of the product. The “recyclability” of glass is seen by the marketing community as a benefit. the weight and physical performance of glass packaging (in terms of its breakability) is perceived as a negative for many lower value items. such as bottles of milk. performance does not deteriorate through subsequent recycling cycles.3. but equally a recycled product can be regarded by consumers as a second rate product. For higher value goods this is not an issue but can be significant for lower value items. direct impact upon its use and the switch to plastic packaging.3 Social E The “recyclability” of glass is seen as a Glass is an infinitely recyclable commodity and one whose physical significant benefit.3.Barrier (B) or Enabler (E) Comments 6. In these products the packaging forms an integral part of the product. E B/E Glass packaging is seen as having a positive merchandising impact for a product in terms of shelf appeal and handling characteristics.

40 . Comments The variability of the inclusion of glass in kerbside collections of materials for recycling is most often attributed to concerns over the health and safety issues associated with the handling of glass.Barrier (B) or Enabler (E) B Health and safety issues associated with the handling of waste glass are cited by some as an issue restricting the collection of the material for recycling. However. it is suggested that this is no more severe than those associated with the handling of empty food cans. This perception is however a significant issue for any increase in the rate of glass recycling.

in particular. looking at the feasibility of neutralising glass colour in the furnace. Flat glass manufacture precludes the use of post Due to the high quality specification of flat glass products. require cullet to be colour separated and free from contaminants. The key issues are the potential for contamination and the potential impact that it may have on the manufacturing process and the tight quality specification of the finished product. especially those consumer cullet at present. Current local authority practice is tending to move towards the collection of mixed colour glass for recycling. The project is due to report later this year. whilst glass manufacture and container manufacture. and it is now argued that they are currently at or near to their technical optimum beyond optimum performance (see chart 1 on page 8). in term of energy consumption. destined for the automotive sector. It is felt that it will be unlikely to find a short term technical solution to this question. they are subject to commercial restrictions and intellectual property rights). decolour coloured glass (green and amber British Glass are currently working with WRAP on a project (GLA0023) primarily). Mixed colour cullet separation and colour enhancement technologies are available (however. B/E B It is not currently technically possible to At the present time it is not technically possible to decolour coloured glass.4 Technological B/E Furnace efficiencies have been progressively The thermal efficiencies of glass furnaces. increasing and are now reaching their technical have been improving progressively over the last 10 – 15 years. only pre consumer cullet is currently used in flat glass manufacture.3.Barrier or Enabler Comments 6. Advanced mixed colour separation and colour enhancement technologies are becoming available for the treatment and sorting of cullet but these are proprietary processes subject to commercial restrictions and intellectual property rights which precludes their wider use and application. B 41 . which damage to the material of the furnace will occur if insulation properties are further improved.

3 million tonnes of CO2 per annum glazing (Palmer Market Research.) B 42 . the main driver for the installation of as an energy efficiency measure but rather a replacement glazing is not the energy efficiency of the product.4. is perceived as being long term as opposed to similar investments such as loft insulation and cavity wall fill.4 Downstream customers Barrier (B) or Enabler (E) Comments 6. would still be possible by installing ordinary double glazing in all of the housing stock. work carried out by BRE in 1998 suggested that a saving of 3. The payback period achieved through energy savings associated with replacement glazing. It is estimated that 70% of owner occupied Recent research suggests that approximately 70% of owner occupied houses houses already have some form of double already have some form of double glazing. In general terms. general public. Glass and mineral wool fibre by comparison if fully incorporated could produce savings of some 39 million tonnes.1 Political (cont. The decision lifestyle issue when applied to domestic housing. However. or as a lifestyle choice made at the point of moving into a new property. is taken more usually on a need to replace basis.1 Political E The BFRC (British Fenestration Rating Council) A recently established. replacement glazing is not seen According to market research.4. 2004). current estimates by British Glass suggest a saving of some 9 million tonnes could be saved per annum in the combined domestic and business stock rising to over 11 million if low emissivity glass was used.6. but little known rating system. The current target savings from the domestic sector in the government CCP is some 4 million tonnes. windows exists but is not widely known by the The scheme rates windows on a scale of A to G on performance. exists to provide an scheme for the energy efficiency rating of energy rating to windows in a similar manner to that applied to white goods. and that if non-domestic properties were included this could rise by a further 2. B/E 6.35 million tonnes. Furthermore.

2004).5 million windows are replaced annually by some 8300 FENSA registered organisations (Palmer Market Research. Increasingly. which instantly has the effect of doubling the volume of glass entering the waste stream. first generation double glazed windows and patio doors are also being replaced. This will still create a significant waste stream. the majority of which still goes to landfill. 43 . Comments It is estimated that the rate of replacement of windows will progressively decline over the next few years falling to approximately 5. Consequently.Barrier (B) or Enabler (E) B It is estimated that approximately 6. the volume of waste flat glass from this source entering the waste stream is set to increase.0 million units per annum in 2007/8.

2 Economic E The potential may exist for a lower visual The importance of the colour and clarity of glass containers could potentially This could be specification (i. The fact that a material is recyclable is said to be It has been argued that the fact that a material is recyclable has a higher brand a stronger marketing message than the fact that a value that the fact that it is recycled. The point was made that there was evidence in another material sector that the image of a product offered in a product is made from recycled raw materials. In most circumstances. packaging has a In many instances. and the perception of that brand in the consumer eye can be critical to its success. B/E B B 44 . high volume goods.Barrier (B) or Enabler (E) Comments 6. the glass container forms a very low value element in relatively low value in terms of total product proportion to the total cost of the product. Brand image and reputation are critical in many The economic value of brand can be very high indeed in today’s market place business decision making processes.4. product itself. in terms of colour and clarity) be less for customer own brand.e. own brand products. recycled package had been diminished and that from a marketing point of view this was a significant consideration. or failure. This factor is potentially less true for lower value day to day grocery items. Consequently. for the glass packaging of some supermarket particularly the case where the jar or container is covered by a printed film. the brand managers value (high value perfumes and spirits are the are often very reluctant to adjust the specification of that container for a risk of a disproportionate effect upon the brand image and marketing value of the exception).

all be it one that is changing slowly.3 Social E Empirical evidence suggests that consumers will Experience from the forest products sector suggests that. provided a product buy a recycled product if it costs the same. The return and reuse of glass packaging has all With the move to centralised packer fillers. averaging 36%. B/E B B 45 .Barrier (B) or Enabler (E) Comments 6. In many instances. and refilling of glass bottles has all but disappeared.4. gain a market position equivalent to a product made of virgin raw materials. Such a perception can have a strong influence on seen as being of second rate quality. recycled products. Currently there is a very limited recovery of A recent study of licensed premises conducted in West Oxfordshire on behalf waste container glass from licensed premises. is of equivalent performance specification to. 10% to 90% glass content. the infrastructure for the return but ceased. existing collections from pubs and clubs which could potentially be expanded. of WRAP. There are however limited. clubs and pubs. and is similarly priced then it will progressively performs as well as new virgin product. demonstrated that 67% of all such premises disposed of their glass waste in general waste. and that the composition of this waste varied from such as bars. and There is a widely held perception. are product made from recycled raw materials is of lower quality than one made from virgin raw materials. that a products made from recycled raw materials. and that is made from recycled materials is as technically sound. a consumers buying decision. There is also a related perception that the risk of contamination of the finished product is greater with reused containers.

the optical properties are poorer. as a impacts upon the glass container sector with the move to single use containers result of:as a consequence of the move away from local to centralised packer/fillers. economies of scale.e. national or even international packing.Barrier (B) or Enabler (E) Comments 6. which would impact upon the various brand owners specifications. pressure. performance properties of the container. have meant a move away from local packer fillers to regional. B B B 46 . This is particularly true of high value goods such as perfumes and spirits. specification of colour and clarity for glass packaging in support of their brand image. due to variability inherent in the use of cullet it is possible that a loss of clarity may occur and a greater virgin glass product.4. together with fewer but larger plants in order to achieve process efficiencies gained by economies of scale. however. variation in colour is likely i. The packer fillers have concentrated capacity in The inevitable demands of driving costs from a business. There has been a gradual but inexorable move According to the packer/fillers this factor has been one of the most significant away from reusable to single use containers. The drive to reduce unit costs has also meant the lightweighting of packaging to allow for lower transport costs whilst maintaining the physical • Brand image. The key issue for glass recycling is the colour The requirements of brand owners can place very high demands on the and clarity of the finished product.4 Technological E The physical performance of recycled glass The physical properties associated with recycled glass are as good as those for containers can be as good as for those made of glass produced from virgin material. The high demands of brand and brand image supported by the shelf appeal of product and the need for pristine packaging have further added to this • Economies of scale. There is potential for discussions on the tolerances allowed for lower value goods such as customer own brand goods in jars. • Light weighting.

inevitably to mean a lack of consistency and commonality of approach across the UK. The Household Waste Recycling Act makes kerbside collection of at least 2 recyclates compulsory (with a couple of exceptions) by 2010.5 Waste stream and recycling Barrier (B) or Enabler (E) Comments 6. municipal waste.6. cullet is being imported from Eire. including glass.5. This has. B/E 47 . or the rate of £2 for inert waste where it is segregated. Weight based targets are set for Local Authorities but it is Government policy to leave it up to each Authority to decide how to meet these targets. attracts the landfill tax at the standard rate of £15. Conversely. by 2005/6 they will be expected to achieve on average a 25% across all UK Local Authorities.1 Political B/E The UK Landfill Tax is amongst the lowest in Currently. as part of a mixed load of Europe.00 per tonne. policies within the constraints of the generic government imposed targets (e. where the higher rate of landfill tax together with higher gate fees renders it more cost effective to export than to dispose to landfill. There is a lack of uniform policy for the Local waste disposal authorities are free to define their own operational recycling of waste materials.g. Despite the fact that Landfill Tax will rise by at least £3/tonne per annum from April 2005 (toward a medium term level of £35/tonne). glass that is disposed of to landfill. composting/recycling rate for household waste). and will continue. these rates are some of the lowest in Europe and as such do not act as a specific disincentive to disposal to landfill.

) B/E Comments The Packaging Waste Recovery Note (PRN) The PRN System is intended to both demonstrate compliance with the System encourages the use of recycled glass for requirements of the packaging Regulations and also to generate income from the sale of PRNs that will in turn be used to develop the necessary recycling aggregates. whether companies or Local Authorities. Collectors. although it may also be more beneficial to use glass aggregate rather than freshly quarried material. As long as there is a market for glass as aggregate. 48 .Barrier (B) or Enabler (E) 6. The PRN encourages the use of recyclable glass in all markets. infrastructure. It is not intended to act as a mechanism to drive particular methods of recovery of packaging waste. Without it. will inevitably be mindful of pursuing the simplest and/or most cost effective path in order to meet their obligations.1 Political Cont.5. collection of mixed colour glass for use in the aggregates industry will be pursued. recycling would continue in the glass container industry but probably at a lower level and glass use in aggregates would no doubt cease. Whilst preferable to landfill some have argued that this is not the most desirable use of the available resource.

2 Economic B The true costs of waste disposal are not born by Experience in other European States.5. This compares very unfavourably with our European neighbours where values of 1 per 1. such an approach leads both to a dilution of the message and also confusion in the market place.3 Social E B/E 6. There are an abundance of messages on the theme of the recyclability of certain materials. message or approach.1 million households in the UK were offered kerbside collection of glass. suggests that where consumers are obliged to pay nearer the full and true costs of waste disposal directly. There are numerous public messages in the area of waste disposal.3 Social (Cont. It concluded that if all 21.000 are not uncommon. the consumer. throughout England. together with a further 230. Scotland and Wales.5.Barrier (B) or Enabler (E) Comments 6. but there is no unified theme or consistency of approach. such as Sweden and the Netherlands.000 tonnes of glass could be recovered. on recycling and on waste disposal. 49 6.796 bottlebank sites is one of lowest in Europe.000 tonnes through the existing bottlebank system.) B B . bottlebank system. The per capita density of bottle banks in the UK It is estimated that in 2002 there were some 20. a total of 650. approximately 19% of waste collecting authorities were operating a kerbside collection scheme that included glass.5. Kerbside waste recycling schemes recover Where studies have been carried out. both the level of recycling increases and volumes of materials disposed of to landfill decreases. recycling and related questions.860 head of population. and that these schemes gave access to 10% of all households. Access to domestic kerbside waste recycling A recent report published by WRAP (June 2002) estimated that schemes is variable across the UK. but there is no unified theme. Inevitably. which equates to an average density of 1 bank per 2. it has been demonstrated that the greater quantities of glass than is achieved by the volume of glass recovered from areas with access to kerbside collection schemes is approximately double that achieved through the traditional traditional bottle bank system.

economic and social issues. However. UK society is not well developed. the country. For example. The existing infrastructure for recycling is very The infrastructure required to support glass recycling is very variable around variable around the UK. 6. mainly due to historical reasons.4 Technological B/E 50 . in practice this is not happening due to a number of disparate reasons including legislative.5.Barrier (B) or Enabler (E) B Comments Cultural awareness of recycling within the UK The cultural awareness of recycling and related environmental issues within population as a whole is not widespread. there is public confusion over whether glass jars can be placed in bottle banks. although it is improving. However with the development of MRFs (Material Recycling Facilities) it should in theory be possible to provide a much more structured approach.

with suggestions for further collaborative actions. The tables overleaf detail potential areas and key issues for action. 51 . The timeframes (T/F) given in the tables below are for potential actions and are given in terms of Short Term “S” (0-2 years).7 Key issues The aim of this DTI and British Glass commissioned pilot was to explore the practical application of the principles of Sustainable Consumption and Production (SCP) to the Glass Sector and Glass Supply Chain and to identify possible areas for possible future collaborative work between different stakeholders. The following section (Chapter 8) develops a number of these key issues into specific project opportunities. Medium Term “M” (3-5 years) and Long Term “L” (5 years plus). based on discussions between the consultant and industry and supply chain representatives. The timings are indicative only and are designed to give a rough measure of the potential complexity involved in addressing the issues raised. They are organised into the four core categories of drivers determined by the initial project workshop.

as well as waste and use of materials.7. response to the Sustainable Buildings Task Group report ' better buildings . The universal application of such schemes and the inclusion of glass in all schemes would significantly increase the volume of waste glass entering the recycling chain. the Government gave the green light to a Code for Sustainable Buildings in its M buildings. ODPM will be leading this process with close industry and wider Government involvement and the first outline of the Code should be complete in time for the Sustainable Communities Summit in January 2005. where cost effective. The active encouragement of kerbside recycling schemes and the active inclusion of waste glass in all such schemes unless its exclusion can be justified on economic. public and non-governmental sectors pinpointed ways in which industry and Government can work together to promote sustainable buildings. environmental or technical grounds. are very patchy.better lives' (published in May).1 Political Enabler Impact T/F 1 Set high environmental standards for In July 2004. Both the level of application of kerbside collection schemes for waste recycling. in which experts from the private. However unless there is colour segregation from household waste it is probable that the majority of recovered glass will go to alternative recycling schemes as opposed to use as cullet for glass manufacture. M 2 52 . in order to take action on a national rollout by early 2006. and the inclusion of glass in such schemes where they do exist. The new Code will establish higher standards for energy and water efficiency. The Code should be complete by the end of 2005.

it would be necessary to take into account transport distances or for that matter determine the cut off point for high vs. This in turn would act as a positive incentive to stimulate and increase the uptake of such products in the market place.g. The Landfill Tax acts as a positive disincentive for the disposal of waste materials to landfill. of glass and very low benefit uses. entering the glass recycling chain and increase the availability of cullet for recycling. It may be useful to consider a differentiated PRN value based on environmental credentials not withstanding the practical difficulties of implementing such a system. should the use of recycled glass in fibreglass manufacture or as a fluxing agent on brick manufacture be considered high value. The use of a differentiated system would help to increase recycling to the remanufacture with added CO2 savings. Whilst Government agrees that closed loop recycling of packaging glass would usually be the BPEO. An increase in the escalator would have the positive effect of both discouraging the disposal of materials to landfill. L 5 L 6 A reduction in the level of VAT Such a move would effectively reduce the final market price of these products within the charged on replacement glazing. 4 An assessment of the recovery targets Supply chain stakeholders have commented that the determination of material specific waste assigned to the various links in the recycling/recovery targets for Local Authorities and their alignment with Packaging Waste Recovery Targets for industry could significantly increase the volume of waste glass waste chain. L 53 . in that both provide very significant reductions in energy and emissions together with raw material savings.Enabler 3 Impact T/F M Differentiated PRN value based on The current PRN system does not differentiate between environmentally high benefit uses environmental credentials. and also encouraging the substitution of waste glass cullet for virgin raw materials as the relative price balance shifts in favour of the use of cullet. An increase of the Landfill Tax escalator (currently set at a minimum of £3 per tonne per annum from 2005). low values e. domestic market.

Enabler 7 The development of a CO2 credit system for energy efficient products to assist in offsetting of carbon taxation charges. low emissivity glass and fibre reinforcement for the renewable energy market. whilst making no recognition of the environmental credentials or energy saving benefits associated with the products produced. Impact The absolute targets for CO2 emissions required as a consequence of both the Climate Change Levy Agreements (CCA) and the European Union Emissions Trading Scheme (EUETS) are perceived by industry as placing a brake on industrial expansion.g. T/F L 54 . The development of such a CO2 credit mechanism could potentially encourage investment and expansion in the production of energy efficient products e.

The Government has undertaken further work on practicalities of such schemes. whilst relaxing the optical properties specification.7. M 55 . The key will be the initiation of a pilot project with a supermarket chain to trial a lower specification of colour and clarity of glass packaging for an own brand product or products (see Project Opportunity 1 following). whilst maintaining the physical performance properties. T/F S 8 A review of the specification of glass containers with the aim of maintaining the physical performance characteristics of the packaging. A review of waste collection mechanisms across Europe in order to establish best practice models. A report has been published by the Strategy Unit which recommended that Local Authorities which wanted to introduce variable charging/ to provide household incentives for recycling should be enabled to do so. and identify alternative options for domestic charging for waste collection services. The aim would be to encourage and optimise waste segregation at source. The main aim would be to relax the colour and clarity specification. with a view to maximising recycling and recovery rates. uptake of replacement glazing systems in both domestic and commercial properties. In particular this would be with a view to enabling the use of a higher proportion of non-flint (coloured) glass.2 Economic Enabler Impact The aim would be to develop a specification that enables a greater utilisation of cullet in the manufacture of container glass. and differential charging could be used as a mechanism to encourage segregation. 9 S 10 A review of the impacts of various The aim would be to determine and provide grants and/or fiscal incentives for the optimum grant and tax break regimes upon the encouragement of the uptake of thermal efficient glazing systems. and is reviewing its position. of the packaging. Charging could be used as a disincentive for landfill disposal.

7.3

Social
Enabler Impact T/F S

11

A review of possible mechanisms for Currently, only a limited amount of post-consumer flat glass waste is recycled. There is a increasing the recovery of flat glass. significant potential to increase this volume, and equally to increase this further by the addition of post consumer waste flat glass e.g. from the replacement window and demolition industries. The net consequences of this would be the reduction of material going to landfill, and the consequent replacement of virgin raw materials by cullet. The key will be the initiation of a pilot programme with the replacement glazing industry to investigate both the economics and practicality of flat glass recovery (see Project Opportunity 5 following). An increase in the recovery of waste A significant proportion of container glass waste from licensed premises is currently glass from licensed premises. disposed of to landfill. There is a significant potential for increasing the recovery rate of container glass from these sources with the related reduction in materials going to landfill, and the consequent substitution of virgin raw materials. The key will be the initiation of a pilot programme with the licensed trade to investigate both the economics and practicality of container glass recovery from these sources (see Project Opportunity 3 following). The development and publication of The aim would be to develop a better and wider understanding of the benefits, both “Good Practice Guides” capturing financial and environmental, that can be accrued from good examples of recycling of glass and promoting existing best practice. products. The ultimate aim will be to increase the pool of such schemes available in order to increase the volume of glass materials entering the recycling stream (see Project Opportunity 4 following).

12

S

13

S

56

Enabler 14

Impact

T/F S

The raising of public awareness of Public awareness of issues around waste management and recycling is limited and patchy. recycling and related issues through a Ultimately the culture of the “throw away society” has to be challenged, and the most national and unified TV campaign, powerful media in today’s society for widespread public communications is the television. which would need to be on-going. The related (to enabler 14) A simple message, often repeated, has been demonstrated to be more effective than a simplification of the recycling multitude of different, but similar messages. message with the use of one universal logo.

15

S

16

The facilitation and encouragement of By increasing access to glass banks the volume of materials collected would potentially S/M an increase in the density of Bring increase, hence making more cullet available to the waste stream. Banks (Bottle Banks). The initiation of educational Evidence suggests that where early learning of issues around environmental and waste programmes for both Key Stages management is conducted, the lessons learnt will be carried forward into adult life. In addition to which, children can have a significant impact upon the behaviour of their 1&2, and older, pupils. parents. M

17

57

7.4

Technological
Enabler Impact T/F S

18

The best environmental option is to This report clearly demonstrates that the alternative uses of waste glass, as compared to its maximise the re-use of cullet within use as cullet for glass manufacture, all sub-optimise the environmental benefits achieved new glass products. by, and associated with, the recovery and recycling process.
(Glass Recycling – Life Cycle Carbon Dioxide Emissions, Enviros Consulting, November 2003)

19

The encouragement of basic research with the aim of improving the technical and economic performance of the glass sector. Such research would need to be conducted on an ongoing basis.

The aim would be to improve the technical and economic efficiencies of the use of glass as S/M a material, and the more effective use of resources in its production, through areas such as :• The development of new commercial applications and uses for recycled glass. • The development of improved technologies for the use of recycled glass e.g. colour separation, enhancement and decolouring. • The development of new glass packaging technologies (see Project Opportunity 2 following). M

20

A review of the operation of Materials The existing infrastructure of MRFs could potentially be further developed to achieve a Recycling Facilities (MRFs) across greater segregation of waste and higher efficiencies in the recovery of waste glass for UK to establish the scope for, and best recycling. practice examples of, glass recycling.

58

These represent specific project opportunities that offer both the potential for further investigation into the development of the principles of Sustainable Consumption and Production in the Glass Sector and its Supply Chain. 2. 8. Retail Supermarket Sector. and to a specification allowing for a higher variability in clarity and colour than the current specification allows. as an alternative to utilising green glass bottles as at present. Retail Supermarket Sector. and also the opportunity for the practical application of those principles. 2 All project opportunities listed in this section are either being worked on or have been undertaken by WRAP – with the exception of project no. The project would explore the concept of using ultra-violet (u/v) resistant foils and/or alternative technologies on clear glass bottles for the storage and marketing of red wine. 59 .2 Project opportunity 2 (Container Glass Sector) Project No: 002 SCP Project Area: Project Source: Project overview: Container Glass Sector and Packer Filler Sector. on which WRAP worked on 3 years ago.2 8.8 Project opportunities The tables below outline a number of specific project opportunities that have been derived from the Key Issues given in the previous section (Chapter 7).1 Project opportunity 1 (Container Glass Sector) Project No: 001 SCP Project Area: Project Source: Project overview: Container Glass Sector and Recycling Sector. The project would look at the possibility of supermarket ownlabel products being packaged in glass containers manufactured using a high proportion of recycled glass cullet.

8.5 Project opportunity 5 (Flat Glass Sector) Project No: 005 Project Area: Project Source: Project overview: Flat Glass Sector/Recycling. This project is related to (Project No: 004) in that there is considerable scope for developing this approach further. albeit geographically restricted areas.) with a view to reprocessing and possibly secondary manufacture at the point of recovery. This project would be a feasibility study to investigate further the opportunities for an integrated recycling. This would include the examination and development of existing “pilot” projects. wood etc. Much good work has been done. PVCu.3 Project opportunity 3 (Container Glass Sector) Project No: 003 SCP Project Area: Project Source: Project overview: Container Glass Sector and Recycling Sector. and case study that could be applied nationally in the UK. 60 . 8. aluminium. This experience presents the opportunity for an excellent “Good Practice Guide” or case study. The project would look at the feasibility of increasing glass container recovery rates from licensed premises in a small geographical area with a view to developing a model. to present a sound model to allow the recycling of the majority of materials removed with replacement glazing (glass. on the recycling of glass from windows removed during the replacement of single with double glazing. Replacement Window Sector. steel. and produce those materials. Replacement Window Sector. manufacturing and waste management centre. This project would investigate the work conducted. examine the possibility of developing the case study materials. Licensed Retail Sector.4 Project opportunity 4 (Flat Glass Sector) Project No: 004 SCP Project Area: Project Source: Project overview: Flat Glass Sector and Recycling Sector.8.

9 Appendices Appendix: 1 2 3 4 Title: Text of the initial “Letter of Request” sent to stakeholders List of stakeholders to whom the “Letter of Request” was sent List of organisations that were interviewed or visited Details of significant reports reviewed 61 .

where possible. and we would be very grateful if you would spend a few minutes reviewing it. via the Department of Trade and Industry and DEFRA. glass is an ideal material to consider in this context. and further details are available at the following web-site addresses.co. what might be done in the longer term. through production and subsequent downstream interventions. encompass the entire life cycle of the product from raw material and energy inputs to manufacture. to canvass your views on the question of sustainability in the glass sector supply chain. barriers and enablers to sustainable consumption and production within the selected supply chains and to enter into dialogue with those players in order to develop a methodology to encourage sustainable development. To that end.Appendix 1: Text of the initial “Letter of Request” sent to stakeholders Dear Changing Patterns The UK Government. we have also included a list of consultees to whom this letter has been addressed. In many ways. I thank you for your time and look forward to receiving your comments. We would be delighted to receive your comments in writing to the above address or by email to our dedicated project address at changingpatterns@britglass. glass. is to request your comments on the aims of the project. a number of pilot projects looking at what sustainable consumption and production might in practice mean to industry. or if you prefer we would be happy to arrange a meeting with you to discuss the issues in person. and what needs to be done to make it happen – particularly the last. as a key player in the glass supply chain.dti. what you feel might be done practically now in the short term to encourage sustainable development. we are determined to make the consultation as wide and as comprehensive as feasible. and final disposal and recycling. Although the timescale for the project is extremely tight. and to ask what you see from your perspective as being the key sustainability issues.uk. together with relevant industry bodies. Three pilot sectors have been selected for this first phase. Details of the Changing Patterns Initiative and the glass sector can be found in the attached British Glass press release. in order to produce as meaningful an outcome as possible. and advise us of anyone that you feel that we have omitted. David Workman Director General British Glass 62 . being technically infinitely recyclable. construction and food.gov.defra. Yours sincerely.uk/environment/business/scp/. The experience gained will then be used in other sector initiatives. is looking at sustainability issues in supply chains. http://www. through its Changing Patterns Initiative. The reason for our writing to you. to consumer purchase and utilisation. The chief aims of these pilots are to identify the key players.uk/sustainability/scp and http://www. DTI/DEFRA are jointly funding. The project will.gov.

Biffpak Biochem (Apparatus) Ltd BOC Ltd Brewers and Licensed Retailers Association British Bottlers Institute British Glass British Institute of Inn keeping British Retail Consortium British Soft Drinks Association Building Research Establishment Caithness Glass Cleanapak Co-op Corning Dairy Industry Federation Dartington Crystal Ltd DEFRA DTI EA Edinburgh Crystal Glass Co Ltd Environmental Services Association Escol Products Ltd FBG Anchor Federation of Licensed Vitlers Association FES Food & Drink Federation Glass & Glazing Federation Global Homeware Grunden Guardian Industries Housing Associations Industry Council for Packaging & the Environment Institute of Brewing Institute of Demolition Engineers Institute of Packaging Institute of Waste Management Kingfisher Lafarge Midlands Glass Morrisons National Dairy Council National Federation of Glazers National Joint Council for the flat glass industry Nazeing Glassworks Newell Ltd NIEPA Onyxpak Owens Corning Building Products Ltd Pelican Public Relations Philips Components Pilkington Glass Ltd Pilkington Technology Management Ltd Potters Ballotini Ltd Poulten. Automotive Glazing Executive Bear & Pub Association Beatson Clark plc Bibby Sterlin Ltd Biffa Waste Services Ltd. s Save Waste & Prosper Scotch Whisky Association SEPA SLI Glass SMMT Society of Glass Technology Society of Independent brewers Society of Licensed Vitlers Somerfield St Gobain Glass UK Ltd Stolzle Flaconnage Tarmac Recycling Tecoglass Ltd Tesco TRADA UK Dairy Association United Glass Ltd Valpak Ltd. Peter Smith.Appendix 2: List of stakeholders to whom the “Letter of Request” was sent Allied Brewery Traders Association Allied Glass Containers Ltd Architecture Schools ASDA Stores Ltd. University of Leeds Public Affairs Committee Quarry Products Association. Quinn Glass Recycling Industries Alliance Rexam Glass RIBA RMC Rockware Glass Ltd Royal Brierley Crystal S Murray & Son Ltd Sainsbury' Ltd. 63 . Selfe & Lee PPG Industries (UK) Ltd Prof.

Lancaster Fibre Technology Ltd Langham Glass Lax & Shaw Local Authorities M&S Waste Watch Wastepak Waterford Crystal Ltd Wine & Spirits Association WRAP 64 .

Berryman 3. Bowater Windows 4. Future Brand 65 . London SW1H 9BP Ashdown House 123 Victoria Street London SW1E 6DE Sustainable Development Directorate 151 Buckingham Palace Road London SW1W 9SS 6 Catherine Street London WC2B 5JJ Fox Court 14 Gray’s Inn Road London WC1X 8WS 2. Food & Drinks Federation 9. Anglian Windows Address: PO Box 1013 Norwich NR6 6BR Lidgate Crescent South Kirkby West Yorkshire WF9 3NR 2 Caley Close Sweet Briar Road Norwich NR3 2BW 9 Churchill Way Chapeltown Sheffield S35 2PY Second Floor.Appendix 3: List of organisations that were interviewed or visited Organisation or individual interviewed or visited: 1. 21 Dartmouth Street. British Glass 5. British Retail Consortium 6. Department for Environment Food and Rural Affairs (DEFRA) 7. Department of Trade and Industry (DTI) 8.

17. Pilkington plc 16. 66 . Glass and Glazing Federation Address: 44-48 Borough High Street London SE1 1XB c/o AMEC Timothy’s Bridge Road Stratford-upon-Avon Warks. Local Authority Recycling Advisory Committee (LARAC) 12. Prof. CV37 9NJ Baker St London W1U 8EP James Watt Avenue Scottish Enterprise Technology Park East Kilbride Glasgow G75 0QD Vigilant House Suite 2. Helens Lancashire WA10 3TT Fibre Glass Division Leigh Road Wigan WN2 4XZ Emeritus Professor University of Leeds Headlands Lane Knottingley West Yorkshire WF11 0HP 11. Reuse Glass UK Ltd. Peter Smith 18.Organisation or individual interviewed or visited: 10. Packaging Federation 15. PPG Industries (UK) Ltd.9 120 Wilton Road London SW1V 1JZ Group Headquarters Prescot Road St. Marks and Spencer plc 13. Optimat Limited 14.

Saint-Gobain Glass (UK) Ltd. 23. Rexam Glass Barnsley Limited Address: Monk Bretton Barnsley South Yorkshire S71 2QG Headlands Lane Knottingley West Yorkshire WF11 0HP Safeway Head Office 6 Millington Rd Hayes Middlesex UB3 4AY 33 Holborn London EC1N 2HT Eggborough Plant Weeland Road Goole East Riding of Yorkshire DN14 0FD Edinburgh Way Harlow Essex CM20 2UG Doncastle Road Bracknell Berkshire RG12 8YA The Old Academy 21 Horsefair Banbury Oxfordshire OX16 0AH 20. United Glass Limited 25.Organisation or individual interviewed or visited: 19. Sainsbury’s Ltd. Waste & Resources Action Programme 67 . Waitrose 26. 24. Safeway Supermarkets 22. Rockware Glass Limited 21.

10. 4. WRAP. overcoming technical and practical barriers to recycling”. 2003. 3. September 2003. Banbury. Godalming. Banbury. Sheffield. 11. September 2003. WRAP. DTI. Banbury. Sheffield. June 2003. Banbury. WRAP. May 2003. DTI/DEFRA: “Changing Patterns – UK Government Framework for Sustainable Consumption and Production”. Banbury. 7. June 2002. 6. Environmental Resources Management: “Fiscal Incentives for Sustainable Homes”. May 2003. 68 . June 2003. Carlton Smith. WRAP. Enviros Consulting: “Glass Recycling – Life Cycle Carbon Dioxide Emissions”. 9. C: “Glass Goes Green – a project to identify the legal and commercial barriers to glass recycling in a representative sample of licensed premises within the geographical region of West Oxfordshire – Interim Report 2”. DEFRA. London. 13. Enviros Consulting: “Survey of Waste Glass Collection & Recycling Arrangements in UK Local Authorities”. DTI/DEFRA: “Sustainable Consumption and Production Indicators – Joint DEFRA/DTI consultation paper on a set of ‘decoupling’ indicators of sustainable development”. 2. Glass Technology Services: “Kerbside collection of glass”. Worldwide Fund for Nature. Hartley. May 2002. Entec: “Advanced Filtration Media (AFM): Clean Water Market Analysis”. September 2003. December 2002. J: “Glass goes green – A project to identify the legal and commercial barriers to glass recycling in a representative sample of licensed premises within the geographical region of West Oxfordshire”. WRAP. May 2003. A: “The development of a methodology for recycling lamp glass.Appendix 4: Details of significant reports reviewed 1. R & Carlton Smith. WRAP. 5. October 2003. 12. DEFRA: “The Environment in your Pocket 2003”. WRAP. November 2003. DTI: “Impacts of the Packaging (Essential Requirements) Regulations – A Brief Survey”. British Glass. British Glass. London. 8. J & Roberts. Enviros Consulting: “Recycled Glass Market Study & Standards Review – 2003 Update”. Hawkins. 14. Banbury. Glass Technology Services: “UK Glass Manufacture – A Mass Balance Study”.

Rexam. December 2003. Building Research Establishment. Watford. WWF: “Building towards Sustainability”. 2003. 2003. November 2003. October 2003. & Baker. 18. 16. November 2003. 2004. Hopkins. 30. WRAP. Secondary Glazing”. 2: The Window Market”. March 1998. UK Government (DEFRA lead Department). Rexam. Rexam plc: “The Future of Consumer Packaging”. London. Hurley. Banbury. April 2003. R: “Window Rating is here”. Facts & Insight”. L & Pout. Undated. WWF: “Building Sustainability – How to plan and construct new housing for the 21st Century”. 2003. 69 . S: “The use of glass-derived sands for sports areas”. ICER: “Materials recovery from waste cathode ray tubes (CRTs)”. Worldwide Fund for Nature. 19. 22. Banbury. WRAP: “Stakeholder Update – Glass”. High Performance Double Glazing and Advanced Glazing”. Surbiton. WRAP. Fenestra. J: “Research into waste glass. Godalming. Hurley. A & Foster. 20. C: “Potential Energy Savings from the Replacement of Single Glazing by Double Glazing. 27. Mineral Industry Research Organisation: “Determine Vortex Grinder Construction Materials for Glass Cullet Grinding Applications”. 2003. Godalming. Banbury. March 2004. 28. 23. 29. Scottish Executive. Entrance and Patio Doors. 31. and Barriers associated with the Use of Glass Waste as Aggregate in Coated Roadstone”. J: “A UK Market Survey for Foam Glass”. 2003. Worldwide Fund for Nature. Palmer Market Research: “The Market for Private Sector Home Improvements Vol. WRAP. December 2003. 25. Owen. London. 24. WRAP. Banbury. Palmer Market Research: “The Market for Private Sector Home Improvements Vol. Rexam plc: “Global Packaging Trends. Surbiton. Banbury. window and door frames from the demolition and replacement window industries”. Welsh Assembly Government and the Northern Ireland Administration: “Taking It On: Developing a UK Sustainable Development Strategy Together – A Consultation Paper”. 3: Conservatories. 26. London. WRAP. May 2003. Palmer Market research. 17. Shorrock. 21. Pontypridd. Benefits. Pira: “Packaging in the 3rd Millennium – Competitiveness Study for the Packaging Industry in the UK”.15. Banbury. A. Pira International. Palmer Market research. Arena Network. November 2003. WRAP. Kent. C: “Achieving Life Cycle Benefits through Practical Sustainable Waste Management – Opportunities.

uk http://www.dti. John Eccles House Robert Robinson Avenue The Oxford Science Park Oxford OX4 4GP Tel: +44(0) 1865 338 058 Fax: +44 (0) 1865 338 100 peter.gov.gsi.co.org.uk Department of Trade and Industry 151 Buckingham Palace Road London SW1W 9SS Tel: +44(0) 20 7215 5000 Fax: +44(0) 20 7215 51536 dti.British Glass 9 Churchill Way Chapeltown.gov.uk www.barden@fpsustainability. Sheffield S35 2PY Tel: +44 (0) 114 290 1850 Fax: +44 (0) 114 290 1851 info@britglass.enquiries@dti.uk/sustainability Future Perfect Ltd.britglass.com 70 .fpsustainability.com www.

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