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journal homepage: www.elsevier.com/locate/matdes

Short Communication

with porous materials

Li Baoyi a, Duan Yuping a,⇑, Zhang Yuefang a,b, Liu Shunhua a

a

School of Materials and Engineering, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116085, China

b

College of Materials Science and Chemical Engineering, Hainan University, Haikou, 510228, China

a r t i c l e i n f o a b s t r a c t

Article history: To solve more and more serious electromagnetic radiations, cement-based composites were prepared by

Received 10 September 2010 introducing porous materials into cement. The reﬂection losses were studied using arched testing

Accepted 4 December 2010 method in the frequency range of 1.7–18 GHz. The results showed that the absorption properties were

Available online 13 December 2010

improved obviously. The mechanisms of wave attenuation of the composites were discussed, which indi-

cated that the scattering and multi-scattering in porous beads played an important role. The ﬁlling ratio

of porous beads, the bead geometries as well as the conformation of cement all had noticeably inﬂuence

on the absorption properties. The lowest reﬂection loss of 22 dB was obtained at 5.6 GHz when the

specimen was ﬁlled with 50 vol.% expanded polystyrene, and the effective absorption bandwidth (less

than 10 dB) reached 10.6 GHz when the specimen was ﬁlled with 50 vol.% expanded polystyrene and

2 vol.% carbon black.

Ó 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

1. Introduction tilayer structures or special shapes [11]. But the complex processes

and the decrease of mechanical properties limit their application in

Nowadays, the serious electromagnetic radiations not only cement composites.

inﬂuence the normal operation of electronic devices, but also do Porous materials are complex systems involving elastic struc-

harm to the health of human beings [1–3]. Thus, the demands for tures and air cavities, with good properties such as low density

developing electromagnetic wave absorbers with wider absorbing and high speciﬁc surface. Thus they are used widely in sound

bandwidths and more effective absorption properties are ever absorbing materials. In recent researches [12], it has been reported

increasing [4]. Especially, electromagnetic interference (EMI) pre- that the absorption properties of materials can be improved with

venting for buildings is of increasing importance. Many absorbers porous structures. The main factors inﬂuencing on the absorption

[5,6] have been developed to deal with this problem, most of which properties are given such as the pore size, relative density, the

are cement-based composites. sample thickness, and so on. In our study, absorbers with strong

Cement is slightly conductive and its absorbing ability is poor, absorbing peak and broad-band were prepared by introducing por-

but it is a practical way to improve the electromagnetic absorption ous materials into cement. The absorption properties and absorp-

properties by introducing ﬁllings or loadings. Generally research- tion mechanisms of cement composites were described and

ers [7–10] develop cement absorbing composites by ﬁlling absor- analyzed, respectively. The effects on the absorbing effectiveness,

bents with large dielectric losses or magnetic losses, including such as the contents, geometrics of porous beads and the confor-

carbon, metal powders, magnetic ferrites and their ﬁbers. Ferrite mation of cement matrix, were also investigated.

material has excellent absorption performance in low frequency

ranges, and the weakness in high frequency ranges has compen- 2. Experimentation

sated for by improving the molecular composition of ferrites and

compounding with other materials. However, the weakness of The porous ﬁllings used in our work were expanded polystyrene

being heavy remains still. Dielectric absorbers have a weight (EPS), expanded perlite and porous schist. The cement and water

advantage but do not match up to the absorption effectiveness of were ﬁrst mixed in a UJZ-15 mortar mixer with the water–cement

magnetic absorbers. Besides, absorbers which can suppress the ratio of 0.35. Porous beads were gradually added into the paste

reﬂection from the frontal faces are developed by employing mul- with the designed volume fraction and mixed to uniform distribu-

tion. Then the mixture were poured into the oiled moulds with a

size of 200 200 15 mm3 and vibrated on a vibration table for

⇑ Corresponding author. Tel.: +86 411 84708446, fax: +86 411 84709284. 1 min. The specimen was smoothed with a ﬂoat and then cured

E-mail address: duanyp@dlut.edu.cn (D. Yuping). at the room temperature for 28 days.

0261-3069/$ - see front matter Ó 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

doi:10.1016/j.matdes.2010.12.017

3018 L. Baoyi et al. / Materials and Design 32 (2011) 3017–3020

The electromagnetic parameters of cement were tested by coax- Fig. 1 shows the propagation of electromagnetic wave in single

ial ﬂange method with an Agilent 8720B vector network analyzer. hollow sphere. The wave attenuation of single hollow sphere Iatt,

The reﬂection losses of specimens were tested by the arched test- the absorption attenuation of reﬂected wave Iref and scattering

ing method in the frequency range of 1.7–18 GHz. attenuation of scattered wave Isca should conform to the energy

conservation law, namely, I0 = Iref + Isca + Iatt. Here, I0 is the energy

3. Theoretical analysis Isca) = I0(1ﬃ eax), where a

of incident wave. Then, Iatt = I0 (Irefp+ﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ

is the attenuation constant and a ¼ 2p2 f 2 le0 e00 . It is clearly that

3.1. The impedance characteristics of cement composites at a ﬁxed frequency the higher imaginary part of permittivity e00

and permeability l, the more is Iatt. Since the e00 and l of cement

To prepare an excellent absorber, a suppressive reﬂection loss R are very low, Iatt is small. But if some conducting or magnetic ﬁll-

is the prerequisite, which is bound up with the input impedance Zin ings are introduced into cement wall, the absorption attenuation

and expressed as [13] would be enhanced a lot.

rﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ Most of effective medium theories (Maxwell Garnett, Brugg-

Z in Z 0 l0 l pﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ

R ¼ 20log10 ; Z in ¼ tanhðj2pfd l0 e0 leÞ ð1Þ eman, Looyenga, etc.) consider inhomogeneities that are much

Z in þ Z 0 e0 e smaller than the wavelength [16]. However, when radius of the

where d is the thickness, f is the frequency of the incident wave, Z0, particle is big (P 102 lm), scattering of the particle will play an

l0 and e0 are the impedance, permeability and permittivity of vac- important role in wave attenuation [17]. Because of the large size

uum, l and e are the relative permeability and permittivity of the of the hollow sphere (the average diameter is about 2.5 mm), the

absorber, respectively. For a perfect wave absorber R should be scattering attenuation should not be neglected. When electromag-

inﬁnitesimal, namely the absorber should have e equal to l with netic wave enters into the absorber along x-axis direction, the

both being as large as possible. However, the electromagnetic interface between absorber and air is deﬁned as x = 0, the energy

parameters of pure cement are almost constant, of which of scattering wave at x point Isca(x) can be expressed as follows

e1 ¼ e01 je001 ¼ 5 j0:2 and l1 ¼ l01 jl001 ¼ 1. Cement can attenu- [18]:

ate electromagnetic wave merely by the dielectric losses resulting !

4

k ðje 1j2 þ jl 1j2 Þ

from some metal oxide and minerals in cement components. There- Isca ðxÞ ¼ I0 expðnrsc xÞ ¼ I0 exp n x

6p

fore the R of cement composites can be decreased by the perfor-

mances of optimizing the electromagnetic parameters and ð2Þ

providing new attenuation approaches. In our work, the decrease

of e by ﬁlling porous beads makes the permittivity close to perme- where I0 is the energy of incident electromagnetic wave, k ¼

pﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ

ability, and the complex refraction and scattering in the porous 2pf e0 l0 el is wave number in the medium, rsc is the scattering

beads provides a new path for wave attenuation. Thus, the ﬁlling cross section, and n is the particles number in a unit volume of

of porous beads in cement leads to a marked improvement of wave the composites. From this, the scattering attenuation is closely re-

attenuation. lated to the dielectric constant, the permeability and the ﬁlling ratio

of porous beads. Therefore, the more energy of electromagnetic

3.2. The scattering and absorption in hollow spherical-shell wave is attenuated with the introducing of absorbents in cement

wall and the increase in bead content.

The scattering and absorption of electromagnetic wave by het- Fig. 2 shows the phenomenon of multiple scattering and refrac-

erogeneous materials is complex and the exact solution is impossi- tion in the composites. The interactions of incident wave and hol-

ble to ﬁnd [14,15]. In our study, following conditions are assumed low spheres are complicated. In the whole, the wave loss in the

to analyze the scattering and absorption of incident wave in ce- composites consists of the scattering loss and the absorption loss.

ment composites: (i) the porous beads are homogeneous spherical, The scattering contains anisotropic scattering in single hollow

electromagnetic transparent and isolated in composites; (ii) ce- sphere and multiple scattering among hollow spheres, between

ment is coated uniformly on the surface of porous beads; (iii) the which the latter is of great importance for wave attenuation

interaction between the porous bead and cement is assumed to [18,19]. The anisotropic scattering contributes to the increase of

be weak so that it can be neglected. Then the specimen can be multiple scattering, meanwhile the multiple scattering increases

approximated as a combination of a number of hollow spheres, the attenuation times in single hollow sphere. Thus the increase

of which the cores are porous beads and the shells are cement in the concentration of porous beads in a certain range can enhance

walls as shown in Fig. 1. The incident wave would be attenuated the scattering loss by enhancing the attenuation probabilities.

by the complex refraction and scattering as well as the dielectric

losses by cement matrix when it propagates in the specimen.

Fig. 1. Sketch of the propagation of electromagnetic wave in single hollow sphere. composites.

L. Baoyi et al. / Materials and Design 32 (2011) 3017–3020 3019

due to the weak absorption effectiveness of single hollow sphere

caused by the thinning of cement wall.

and the ﬁlling ratio of porous beads; the ﬁllings in (a) and (b) are

perlite and EPS, respectively. In general, the reﬂection losses of dif-

ferent compositions give very similar proﬁle in the curves. Three or

four obviously absorption peaks are seen in each curve, whose val-

ues decrease and the corresponding frequencies shift toward lower

regions as the increasing in the ﬁlling ratio of porous beads. As ana-

lyzed, the ﬁlling of porous beads can improve the impedance char- Fig. 4. The reﬂection losses of composites employing porous beads with different

acteristics of cement composites. In other words, the impedance of geometries; EPS, schist and perlite are spherical, lamellar and random-shaped,

cement composite is closer to the impedance of air, resulting in the respectively. The average diameters of ﬁlling beads are 2 mm.

decrease of peak values. The shift of matching frequency is possibly

due to the inverse relationship between the matching thickness dm average radius of 2 mm when they are equated to spheres. It can

pﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ

and frequency fm, which is expressed as dm ¼ c=4f m el [20]. The be seen that EPS improves the absorption properties most,

propagation length of incident wave in the absorber increases by followed by schist and perlite. The possible reason is discussed as

the multiple scattering and refraction, and it equates the increase follows. The beads with asymmetric geometries make the propaga-

of absorber thickness. So the matching frequency shifts toward tion and absorption of incident wave much more complex [15]. On

lower regions ﬁnally, although the decrease of l and e obstructs the one hand, the phase interference between the incident wave

this change. and scattered wave also contributes to the electromagnetic atten-

uation [12]. When the geometries of porous beads are uniform and

4.2. Inﬂuence of the geometries of porous beads symmetrical, such interference losses are enhanced by the higher

probability of interference. On the other hand, additional pores

Fig. 4 shows the reﬂection losses of composites employing are introduced into cement matrix as the ﬁlling of porous beads,

porous beads with different geometries. EPS, schist and perlite whose content increases when the beads are spherical and smooth.

are spherical, lamellar and random-shaped, respectively, with an The pores can further improve the impedance matching character-

istics and leads to the lower reﬂection losses sequentially. So from

this we can conclude that the symmetric geometries of porous

beads are beneﬁcial to wave absorption.

tration of carbon black (CB) in cement composites. As discussed in

Section 3.2, the conducting or magnetic ﬁllings can enhance the

absorption attenuation of refracted wave and scattering attenua-

tion of scattered wave, thus the absorption properties can be im-

proved by ﬁlling CB. When the specimen is ﬁlled with 50 vol.%

EPS and 2 vol.% CB, the effective absorption bandwidth (less than

10 dB) reached 10.6 GHz and the lowest reﬂection loss of

22 dB was obtained at 5.6 GHz when the specimen was ﬁlled

Fig. 3. Inﬂuence of the ﬁlling ratio of porous beads on reﬂection losses; the ﬁllings Fig. 5. The variation of reﬂection losses versus the concentration of carbon black

in (a) and (b) are perlite and EPS with an average diameter of 2 mm, respectively. (CB) in cement composites; the average diameters of EPS beads are 3 mm.

3020 L. Baoyi et al. / Materials and Design 32 (2011) 3017–3020

with 50 vol.% expanded polystyrene. However, it has a negative ef- [2] Motojima S, Hoshiya S, Hishikawa Y. Electromagnetic wave absorption

properties of carbon microcoils/PMMA composite beads in W bands. Carbon

fect when the concentration of CB is too high. The skin depth D of

2003;41:2658–60.

incident wave decreases as the increases in permittivity and per-

pﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ [3] Abbas SM, Dixit AK, Chatterjee R, Goel TC. Complex permittivity, complex

meability of cement wall, according to D ¼ 2=-2 ll0 e0 e00 [21]. permeability and microwave absorption properties of ferrite–polymer

When the concentration of CB is too high, the skin depth will be composites. J Magn Magn Mater 2007;309:20–4.

[4] Zhang SQ, Huang CG, Zhou ZY, Li Z. Investigation of the microwave absorbing

less than the thickness of cement wall. Then the incident wave properties of carbon aerogels. Mater Sci Eng B-Adv 2002;90:38–41.

could not transmit into the porous beads, resulting in the poor [5] Guan Hongtao, Liu Shunhua, Yuping Duan, Ji Cheng. Cement based

absorption properties. electromagnetic shielding and absorbing building materials. Cem Concr

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[6] Dai Yawen, Sun Mingqing, Liu Chenguo, Li Zhuoqiu. Electromagnetic wave

absorbing characteristics of carbon black cement-based composites. Cem

5. Conclusion

Concr Comp 2010;32:508–13.

[7] Cao J, Chung DDL. Coke powder as an admixture in cement for electromagnetic

The electromagnetic absorption properties of cement-based interference shielding. Carbon 2003;41:2433–6.

composites have been greatly improved by introducing porous [8] Atis Cengiz Duran, Karahan Okan. Properties of steel ﬁber reinforced ﬂy ash

concrete. Constr Build Mater 2009;23:392–9.

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[10] Chung DDL. Cement reinforced with short carbon ﬁbers: a multifunctional

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absorption. The conformation of cement matrix inﬂuences the layered radar absorbing structures of MWNT-ﬁlled glass/epoxy plain-weave

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