KNO3 from Ammonium Nitrate and KCl

The following shows how to obtain KNO3 from Ammonium Nitrate and Potassium Chloride. Ammonium Nitrate is commonly available as a fertilizer as well as KCl which is called Muriate of Potash. The Ammonium Nitrate can be in pure form where it will have 35% nitrogen written on the bag (100% actual Ammonium Nitrate, 0% filler). It is usually mixed with an inert filler and will not be pure and may have 27% nitrogen written on the bag (77.2% actual Ammonium Nitrate, 22.8% filler). The filler is not a problem. The muriate of potash usually comes pure or fearly pure and will have 52.4% K written on the bag (100% actual KCl, 0% gunk) if using molar percent to describe the content of the bag OR it will have 0-0-63 (63% K2O) written on the bag (using percent K2O to describe what is in the bag). It may be a little less pure and will have ~50% K (or ~62% K2O) written on the bag (95.4% actual KCl, 4.6% gunk). If the KCl is not pure it should be recrystallized and then used. Another possible source of KCl is with the people who sell equipment for softening water. Sodium Chloride is usually used in theses devices but some people object to haveing any Sodium ion in their drinking water so they need to use Potassium Chloride instead, so you may be able to get a bag of Potassium Chloride in the same place as where they supply the NaCl for the water solteners

Getting a 50% solution of Ammonium Nitrate
If the Ammonium Nitrate is not pure it will have to be purified. It is difficult to recrystalize the Ammonium Nitrate as the precipitated Nitrate will be mixed with the inert filler. The best (and handiest) way to deal with the Ammonium Nitrate is to make a 50%wt solution of it and use that in the process. To make a 50% you should take about 3KG of the Ammonium Nitrate (pure or otherwise) and dissolve it in one liter of water. An Aluminium or stainless steel container is ok. It will look like an awful lot of Ammonium Nitrate but it will all dissolve. You will need to heat the water as the solution will get very cold (its uses in freezing packs after all) when the Ammonium Nitrate is dissolving and you will want to hurry it up. When all the Nitrate has dissolved (this will have happened at 50C or less) you should stop heating. The solution may be very cloudy because of the inert filler in the Ammonium Nitrate but it's ok. Let the solution settle and all inert filler will fall to the bottom. There may be some of the inert filler floating around on the top which you can lift off with a spoon. Let the solution cool slowly to one of the chosen temperatures in the table below. You should make sure that some Ammonium Nitrate has crystallize out as long pretty needles at your chosen temperature. This will happen if you have proceeded as described above. When the solution has reached your chosen temperature pour or siphon off as much of the clear(ish) liquid as possible and put into a seperate container. Sometimes the inert filler is very fine and some will still be suspended in the solution but you will be able to get rid of it later. Don't be tempted to be greedy and contaminate your clear(ish) solution with much of the solid material that is at the bottom of the container that you are

ie.5 Grams water to add per gram solution 0. As stated above. You will now have a 50% solution of Ammonium Nitrate for the next stage of the process. Dilute it with plenty of water and spread it on grass. Add 480grams of your Ammonium Nitrate solution. Take 760cc (760g) of water and heat to about 50C.31 = 518 grams of water to the solution to obtain 1670 + 518 = 2188g of solution.31 Weigh the clear(ish) solution that you have obtained by siphoning (or pouring) and for every gram of solution that you have add the amount of water that it says to add in the table.siphoning from.408 0. and you let your solution cool to 20C before siphoning off the clear(ish) liquid then you should add 1670 * 0. it will fall to the bottom after about 24 hours.364 0. The solution that you have siphoned (or poured) off will be a certain percentage of Ammonium Nitrate as shown in the table. The remainder of the Ammonium Nitrate that was left in the heating container can be discarded if your Ammonium Nitrate has inert filler in it. the more Ammonium Nitrate will come out of solution and you may feel you are wasting Ammonium Nitrate and may wish to sipnon off at one of the higher temperatures. Making the KNO3 You can scale the following up or down. before siphoning.5g Ammonium Nitrate per 100g of solution. you don't have to use it all at once. Save it in a container with a lid.5 grams) of your recrystalized and dried KCl and dissolve. make sure that Ammonium Nitrate is actually precipitating in long needles at your chosen temperature before you start to siphon. Stir and dissolve any Ammonium Nitrate that may have came out of solution.4 68. You can then siphon (or pour carefully) the now perfectly clear solution of 50% Ammonium Nitrate for the next stage of the process. if you let your solution cool to 20C it will have 65. Don't throw in drains etc. The particular temperature you choose is up to you. Temperatures. or if your Ammonium Nitrate was pure (If you are using freezer packs) you can save it for the next time you want to make up a 50% solution of Ammonium Nitrate. you can just use as is. The more you cool. To this water add 3 mole (223. For example if you have a total weight of 1670g of solution. You will now have one liter of water with 3 moles of Ammonium Nitrate and 3 moles of . %wt & amount of water per gram solution to add to get a 50%wt solution Temperature 30 25 20 Weight % 70. If you have pure Ammonium Nitrate to start with you don't have to bother with the 50% solution.2 65. Put the solution in a tallish container with a lid and if there is any suspended filler still in it.

The yield of KNO3 is about 175 grams KNO3. The KNO3 will come out of solution.KCl dissolved in it. Don't let any ice form.. The crystals should be squeezed when then are in the cloth to get rid of as much of the liquid as possible. The solution is now cooled slowly.but thats another story. The Ammonium Chloride would be useful if you were making Ammonium Perchlorate from Sodium Perchlorate.. The KNO3 can now be seperated out by filtering through a cloth. Substance Grams/mole KNO3 101. The crystals can now be washed in cold (0C) water by simple putting the cloth containing the crystals into the cold water and moving it up and down a number of times so that the water flows in through the cloth to the crystals. Note: You won't actually have a liter of SOLUTION as dissolving the salts in the water will increase the volume. All of the salts will be dissolved and if not the solution should be heated more untill they are. in fact you can improvise your own "freezer" by making a freezing mixture of Ammonium Nitrate and water and putting the container which has your solution sitting in it. still with the crystals in it.5 ..5grams KCl and 240grams solid (pure) Ammonium Nitrate. Slow cooling gets you larger crystals of KNO3 which is desirable as they wash better. 223. Below is an explaination of what is going on. If you don't have a freezer it is ok but will get much less KNO3 out. the slower the better. it taken out and squeezed so that as much of the washing water is got rid of. If you are using pure Ammonium Nitrate (you did not bother with the 50% solution above) you should take one liter of water.5 NH4Cl 53. The liquid that the KNO3 has come from will have KNO3 and Ammonium Chloride dissolved in it and this can be saved if you want to attempt to take out some Ammonium Chloride from it later. The KNO3 should be recrystallized for maximum purity.1 NH4NO3 KCl 80 74. The cloth. When the solution has cooled to room temperature it should be placed in the freezer and cooled to about -12C.