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November 1944

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1. The XX Bomber Command Tactical Doctrine is designed to increase the coordination and efficiency of Groups of this' Conmand , As our knowledge and experience has increased, it has been necessary to alter and supplement our tactical procedures. This practice will be continued in the future in or der to maintain and increase our proficiency and yet retain the flexibility demanded by changiqg co rd it ions .. .

2 .. In its present form, this T",ctical Doctrine incorporates the combined experiences of this Command, and th e pro cedures outlined herein will be studied and followed by all units of this Conmand , It must be kept in mind that a good plan half-heartedly followed will never equal in effectiveness a less perfect plan wh:ic h is thoroughly understood ard fcrcefully executed.

3. Group Commanders will be held responsible that all personnel concerned are familiar with the policies contained in the XX Bonuer Command Tactical Doctrine and with the revisions that w ill be nad e as new si tuatd o rs arise.

4. Only through the exper-Lence of our c ornb~t unit s can improvement s in the tactics of this Comr .. iarri be evolved. Any constmctive criticism and suggestions which will assist in improviq!; this Doct rLre will be welcomed. Such recomrrendatiore regarding new techniques and procedur es will be incorporated in the To' ctd e i t Dlctrine as soon E.S the:ir worth and desirability is concurred in by all concerned.

/ . ('

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Major General, U.3 .A.

Comman ding •

Clasatttaat10n aanoel DOD Dru.ctIB Jfo~ •. 6200.,-, etteot1ve 28 Bov. S8 12 November 1~44

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Section I ,

./i,.'., . "" General:

E. .Pc$cription of Units

. C~ , ,Mothod .of closure

D..Radar .

Section II

. : TakG;off and il.ssembl;y


Daylight take-off conditions


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N~gh~ t~~e-off conditions

C. ,. Assombly

Section III


i~.. "Basic r,equiroments

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B. i).scent .... through ovorcast

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c. : Descen~:through overcast

D.!. . Fr'9.!l ~~ .: penetration

Section IV

Section V

.i~. Befor e reaching tho IP

B, The initial point

Ci The bombing run

D. Rally

Section VI

Formution Defou.§.§

11., Defenso discipline

B, Fields of soarch and fire

Section VII


Scc;:trlOrl - VE,II

'Communicationsttnd Signal

Part I lIiii ssions from Ctrina Bases

P_nrt U .Iritcrplane comnund

Part III 'M~ssions from Indiv. Basos·-

S0ction IX

Aircraft leien tifi c ati an

J.. Distincti ve lTh1rkings

B., , Identification of lond crew £lircraft

a, Use of"Identification markings

Section X

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Radar Procodures

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(TO' boo furnishod later)

Section Xl

P ho togrcmbi Q Pro cedu Te s

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i-..~ Gene.ral;:

B. Cpme.rns'

o. Doy ~o~bo.rdmcntmissions

D.·, Night bombr rdmenf missions

.E. Reconnaissance photo "missions

Section XII

Qoncl'cl'Emergcncy Procodures

A. Lost plun,0 procedure

B. }forced landings


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30 December 1944




a. Unit commander-s must assure themselves that preparation for the mission is complete in every respect and that all participants understand before their parts therein. Responsibility for preparation of brief .. ing room and briefing materials is usua,lly delegated to 3-2, although conduct of crew briefing wi1levolve upon S-3. Both briefing and interrogation will normally be acco:(llplished as outlinsq in 'XX Bomber Command SOP.

2. Principals of formation

a, .Regardless of the methods employed by Very Heavy Bombardment forces to des troy designated 0 bj ecti vea, to succe ssfuf.Ly pen.etrate the ho stil e defenses, formation to be flown must satisfy the following requirements:

(1) BornbingPattem=

The bombing pattern required to cover any particular

type of target yghether fixed (1. e. pin point,,

and area target) or moving (L, e. surface craft) will determine to some extent the \ size and shape of the formations to be employed against the target in question.

( 2) Forma.:tion Defense:

. The dispos~tion and capabilities of enemy defenses along probable routes and in. the vicinity of the target will .largely determine the size of the formation which can be best employed against the attacking fighters. Since penetrati.on deep within an organized enemy defense system is planned, the minimum striking force to he employed in daylight operations. will be three (3)

\ a,irplane. "V" type formation., The standard formation used will be compo sed of four (4) three-airplane elements forming a twelve (12) ai.rplane flight. (see attached diagram)

( 3) .QotJ,J,.:r.o}_ :

The formation leader must know at all times the disposition of the. aircraftwitlL..n hi s OV1'l1 formation as well a s any ho stil e aircraft wi thin sight.. The formation must be adjusted as necessary to produce the most effective· defensive fire and bombing pabte rn by the rGlo cation of' individual aIrplanes Wi thin the i"ormation to replace battle losses.


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30 December 1944

(4) '1j;ase of Fl&r!g:

The expected duration of missions employing for1ations of Very Heavy Bombardment Aircraft necessitates that such formations be designed for ease of flying to parmi t accompli shment of the ·mi.ssion without an undue amourrt of fatigue for the pilots. Therefore, every advantage must se taken in the absence of hostile fighter attack to

permi t the individual pilots to relax somewhat without permitting an opportunity for surprise attack by enemy aircraft. In route to the target and on the r·.o.turn from the target, an extended formation may be flown, providing element leaders maintain their elements wtall forv.·ard

to permit quick assembly to tight formation in case of

en emy fightGr attack. Close formation will be maintclin.ed. 8ft er r €laC hing bombing al ti tude, and from IP to the target, and until well out of range of enemy fighters.

'b. The above four (4) requirements must be balanced, weighted and blended in prescribing the formation to be used on each daylight mission to obtain the highest percentage of damage inflicted upon enemy forces per unit of loss sustained by our own forces.

c. Night opera ti on s will no rmally bel conduct ed by individual airA formation of three (3) airplanes may be employed where enemy inter- ' is not probabl.e, and necessary lights may be used with relative safety.

craft. ceptd on

d. T,tVhen formation a trf.kes are conducted in such manner that the aircraft vdll return to friendly bases after dark, formations may be dispersed and ai rcraft return ind5. vi dually u pon reaching fri endly terri tory, or und er relative safety of dalxnesso

B. Qescripti9ns of Un~ ts

1. lhe. element:

B. Three (3) aircraft in a "V" with wing men nose to tail with lead airplane, and at ten (10) foot interval from wing tip to wing tip \Vi th lead airplane. Vertical distance between vdngmen and lead airplane wi.Ll. be fifty (50) feet. Direction of vertical distance ,for each wing man (L, e. up or down), will be dependent upon the position of the element in the flight; or if the element is flying individually, the low wing man will be mearest

to the sun. ~'~'he!l flying in individual elements, the element leader may shift tp.e up and downposi tions of "ving men to offer more effective defensi VB fire against attacking fighters. The leader will be designated as No.1, the rJ..ght wingman as No.2, and the left wingman as No.3.

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2. The flight

a. Twelve (12) aircraft will assume positions as outlined below.

Element leaders will maintain correct position referooce to the:;:flight leader.

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30 December 1944

(1) (2)


The lead element vtill be designated as element IIA!t.

The low centor element will be designated as elerrent nCll , The leader will occupy the slot between the low vdngmru: .. and the loader of slemeli.t·,rNAH, and will fly no se to tal.l vd th the wing m~n of the lead elemqnt when such wingmen 8.r8 flying in their proper positions. The leader of element net! will normally f::J..y in slot between Nos. land 3 of element HAt! ~ ,Vertical distance betw'een the element leader and the flight leader will be 150 feet.

The high element will be de,signated as element IIBI!. The leader will fly 150 feet vertical distance above the lead er of 81 amen t It A It, and forward on line wi tih the leader of element nC". He will !fly in close enough that 'his inside wingman vdll be above, behind, and laterally overlapping 1/2 wing span of the high wingman of the lead element. This element "viII normally be on the right side of the formation.

The 1 owol. emen t will be designated as element tiD II • The leader ii'lll fly a vertical distance of 150 feet below and well forward on line with the leader of element !lCIl, maintaining sufficient lateral distance to allow 10 feet v;ing tip clearance between hl.s low l,rdngrnan and the low vdngman of element !!C"~ This element will normally fly on the left side of the formation.


Aircraft in elements IIAII and IIC!! v'iill always be stacked away from the sun , 'within each ·element. In elements HBtland Unit" airc.raft within the element will al.xaya be stacked into the sun.

a. The bigh 81 emen t (B), "dll a.Lways fly in the high po si tion.

If, due to the position of the sun, or due to consistent fighter attacks from the right side of the formation, the leader of Element IIBt! elects to shift his position across the top of the formation to the left side,ElernentrtDII '!Jill then move over to the right , but 'lIdll rsmainin the low position. This -:.\'i11 increase the maximum number of upper turrets uncovered to fi~hter attacks from above and to the right. Element designations 'will not change. Element "B" will al\'\!E'.ys be in the high position, and Element nD" ~!il1 always be in the low po al td.on, During the shifting of elements described above,

the leader of element "O It vdll shift his position to the slot between No. 1 and No. 2 of the lead element. At this time, tbe "Wl.ngmf'n wi thin each el8Llent will revers e their vertical po si t:i,ons, high to low, and low to high.

b. When flying from the IP to the target, and during the wi thdrawul, elements lrT'lI retuin the positi.on that they he.ld on reaching the If •.

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30 December 1944

4. The Group - to be published at a later date.

5. The Combat Wing - to be published at a later date.

c. !YiethQd of Clo~

1. In any formation, the No. 2 wingman of the lead element will be designated as the deputy leader, and " assume the lead, should the leader abor-t or become a casualty.

2. In joining the flight, element sand indi vi dual air craft v,d.ll assume positions assigned prior to take-off, if it is feasible to do so.

3. Conditions such as night t.ake-of'f's _I Vii th assembly to be effected after daylight, abortives, and unfavorable weather dispersing the formation, vrl.ll frequently prevent aircraft from joining their assigned formation and

in the assigned position. The following !I~M.ethod of Closureli is forrulated

to provide two standards:

a. The position that aircraft will assume when joining a formation una or condi tion sather than the normal 12-.plan e ass embly.

b, The posi tion for each aircraft to assume when joining a formation that consists of more than 12 or Le ss than 12 air·craft.

The positions. of each aircraft are shown on the attached diagrams. In order to elearly show the f:1ovement of each aircraft as the formution increases or decreases in nutlber~ the original position number of each aircraft is maintained throughout the evolution process as shown in the diagrams.

4. The position aircraft "viII assune when joining a formation are as follows:

a. No s, 1,2, and 3 will form the conventional '''VII and ",ill be the lead element.

b. No. 4·~dll join low in the slot between the leader and the low wingman.

c. No.5 lIdll join in the high wing position on No.4.

d. No. 6 will join in the low wing position on No.4.

e. No.7 will join in the high wing position on No.5. When the 7th aircraft onters the formation, No. 6 nill move out to the side nearest to t:r the sun and will assume the lead position of the low element. No. 4 will

Dove out to occupy tho low inside wing position on No.6. No. 7 will r.l0VG

out to the' side away from the sun and will assume the lead position of the

high element. No.5 will move out to occupy the high inside 'tiling position on No.7.

f. No. 8 will join in the low wing posi tion on No. ? t.o conplete

element liB ~ . ..;..--- ...

30 December 1944


No.9 'will join in the high wing position on No. 6 to complete element t1D", and thus form the nine plane !IV".


No. 10 will join low in the slot between the leader and the low vringman of the lead el.emen t , No. 10 will then be the leader of e'l.emen't nG".

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No. 11 vall join in the low wing position on No. 10.

No. 12 ~dll J01n in the high wing position on No. lB. When the 12th aircraft enters the formation, the basic 12·plane flight will be complete ..

No. 13 will join high between the Ti\d.ngmen of element "B"



No. 14 will join low between the wingmen of element liD ",


No. 15 v-ill join low between the wingmen of element 1101i.


No. 19 ~11 join high on the outside wing of No. 13.


Who...'1 No. 16 has entered the formation, the flight leader will gi ve instructions by usa of the command radio to "r ef'orm the formnticn !I 0 At this C OIJEl and , the foroation will divide into two S plane flights in the following manner-s

(1) Eleraent IlDli will move out to the side and will be followed and joined in formation by elenent "0 ". No.6, 4, Dnd 9 TIill thaD be the lead element of the new fOrl:1otion; No. ao, 12~ and 11 i'ill form element IIBlI

of the new formation; and No. 14 and 15 will move from their farner positions to form element "DB of the new formation with No. 14 as the leader.

(2) The lead eleruent of the old formation 1.rTI.Il move out to the side, and 'I ill be followed and joined in formation by eLeraen t :lB" of the old f'or-matd on , No.1, 2, and 3 will remain the J:ead element; No.7, 8, and 5 ,..;ill forn element !~B"; No" 13 and No. 16 will I.IOVe out to form e'l.eraen't "D" with 'No. 13 as the leader.

p. When additional aircraft join an eight plane flight, the proc~ss as outlined above will be repeated.

5. When the original flight leader gives the command to "Reform fornation ", aircrRft will nove out and take up the positions as outlined under "011 above. Only after this has been ao compl.Lshed will the leader of the new Flight be changed in order to place a lead crew aircraft in the No. I position. The original Flight leader will designate the lead aircraft that is to assume the lead 'poai tion of the new flighto

6. The success of correctly fDrmli~g formationo as outlined in 4 above, will depend upon each tail gunner keeping his airplane commander

:MIl .,., l .. II"~

30 December 1944

constantly informed as to tho numbc r of ancraft in the fOl::r:tation, and when other aircrnft are about to jOin up.

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7. 'I't>e fli9;ht lender may use the commend radio to as s Lc t a ircrnft ;11 joinj,ni'" the r orma t i on , end to divide the t'orrna't t on when 16 airc..:'~;ft nove '1::<,0'1 jo Inud together. Caution must be used not to g;ivEl out Lnf ormn t i on , over 1,110 Lr , that would be of value to the enemy.

D. J.uDd Aircraft

1. 'l'he lead crew of all formations must have fully operational radar o~1.lj_rnGnt. In the event the radar of the lend aircreft becomes inoperative, the (lC'uuty le der will assume the lead. If his radar e qui.pment becomes in- 0:oer8tiv0, the No.3 wingm8.n will take the lend. Wingmen will inform the lender by USB of the Aldis lamp when their radar becomeS inoperative.


2. If it should become necossary to change formation leaders when

flying from the IP ~,() the t8r ,et, the No. 2 or T'b. 3 wingmen )wh i chever has 0J,18rF.l tional r-a drrr e qui.rmerrt will assume the lead. T~h; L.irer' ft h.l.king the lead position will increase airspeed to move oherd of the lend element. The former Lendar and the other winf!)l1Dn will then be echeloned on him. The original lendor will slide into the VAcant position when it is fensible to do so. T:lUS the remainder of the formation "Will not be disrupted.

3. I.J8Hd crew aircraft 'will join formc.tions in the following positions in their order of nrrivf.ll: Number 1 of lend e Lemerrt ; No.2 of lead element; No. 3 of the lend e 1 emon t; N ('. 1 ofelemen t lie".

4. Jr, 0.11 cases of lend aircraft jo i.n mc 0 fornwtion that does not alr-endy have n lend nircrr.ft in tho number one posi tion, the nircrnft joining the formation will IDO"I.T8 ahead and slightly above the formntion. T;-~e old formation leaoer will then drop ant of the lend position nnd will rejoin in the rec~ of the fOTI1ntion, The re~aining aircraft will retcin their relntive positions nnd closo on the new leader~

1. In or-der to mo tn tnin the requirecl concentration of fire I formations must be mn m+a.Ine d c.urir_p:: dcylif,ht miss ions. .After the t ke-off or .flfter ascent or descent maneuver-s sprs[<.ding the form(~tions, every effort must be mode to r-or orm in order to prevent streggling by single p Iune s ,

2. FliCht 1eodors will instruct the tnil gunners to search for strn.pglers beh ind the tarnation und the following mcncuvor a will be made to nllow then to close ond join:

G. If the s t;rneg1er is level nnd behind the flight, leader will make Stlcco3sive double drift dog-legs turning first to the right, until the farnation is joinEld.

b. If the strap,gler is to one side, tho flight lender will turn into the single p Lcne until the form·tion is jo me d,

c. If tho stro.g,lGr is belOW and to one Side, the lender will turn into the strn~'gler, ~.l formr~tion is joined.


30 Decenbor 1944

3. Once a straggler has joined a formation he will remain with that f'or-matd.on , whether or not it is the formation to which he was originally

8 asi.gned,

4. Airplane eoccanders of single aircraft will instruct their tail gunners to search for formations 'or si!lgle aircraft. Upon sighting other friendly aircraft, every effort will be made to close and join as soon as praqtieable.

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C. 13 November ).944

18881t10 t" .

DQD DiRmr.;J~n cancelled by

~cr !!£l No., .!J?OO 9 "".p

• 0 .f. !g.J..:fectl Va 28 "At

-'!Iov. DA one and one-half (Ii) minutes.


. . ~ ~ . ".)

A. Daylight Take-Off Condi t tons


Take-off interval:

2 (I In all day take-of'f's and ' aaeemb t~e' pr-ocedur-e to be Itollowed will be that which is currently being used by the individual Groups ..

Be> Night Take-Off Condi tio~

1'. Take-off interval: two (2) minutes ..

2. Aircraft will take-off and proceed to the designated assembly point at altitudes specified iii the briefing prior to take-offo The following indicated airspeeds wi 11 be maintai.ned between the base and assembly po i nf in order to e,ffect arri val of all a i ne ra rt of tho 12 plane flight over the assembly po i.n.b at appr oxtmat.el.y the same time"

a. Lead at rcraffl·; 195 M.P"H. rASe
b. N'~b-~~ ,11 ~ ~. ~q.dc' ~a ir Qt ~'!:'~ ~~O 1')195 M~"IJc,I' -:-~~'r gO'
c. Numbers 5, 6, !iJ\" and 8 ai rcraft: 195 - 200 M'P~Ho lAS'
, d. Numbers 9., 10, 11; 'and 12 aircraft: 200,.... 205 MQP .. H« !ASo

3.. Assembly will normally be accomplished af:,er day l i ghb ,

c • ~~!!!.~1.:x.

1, r. All altimeters will be set on 29 ~~2 '!'fiG" except for take-off and Iand Ings ,

2. Normally, two Groups wiii' be assigned the aarae initial assembly point, but will be assigned different a saemo.Ly ~l t;ftudes 0

. .

30 a for aasemb Ly will uaua.Ll.y be designated as: Base a.lti-

tudes plus or mi nus thousand feet ... Base altitude for each mission will

be specif~;ed in the per-cfnent Field order ,

40 Just prior to' reaching the assembly point, the flight leader will lower his nose gear and circle the assembly point. with the nose gear dowl1~ The deputy leader will lower his nose gear only when he arrives over tho assembly point prior to the flight Leader-s

5 <I Upon re aoh ing the a sse.mbly point, all aircraft of each Group will circle in the direction specified below1

13 Novomber 1944

a. 40th Bombardment Group - Left
b. 444th Bombardment Group - Right
c. 462nd Bombardment Group - Left
d. 468th Bombardment Group - Right 6. The flight leader will transmit an air-to-air homing signal, and/or will shoot f'Lar es , using the Group flare colors, over the as semb Ly point.

7. The maximum amount of t tme spent over each assembly point will be specified by the Group commander, and when this time has elapsed, the formatio~ will proceed on COUTee 0 If instrument conditions prevail over anoe saemb Ly point no attempt will be made to effect a s sernbl.y , and aircraft will proceed on course.

8< The kldis Lamp will be used as an aid to assembly in the following


a. Each Group 1s assigned the following permanent colors in the curr ent S. 0.. I 0 •

( 1) 40th Bombardment Group - Red
( 2) 444th Bombardment. Group - Clear
( 3) 462nd Bombardment Group - Green
( 4) 468th Bombardment Group - Amber
-- b (I Each flight in each Group will be assigned the following codes to be flashed with the Aldis Lamp;

( 1) 1st night 'S" ., .. q
( 2) 2nd flight HSS" ~".., "1!!'~'"
(3 ) 3rd f'l ight - "SSS" "~7 "'Il"~ "7"'1'
( 4) 4th flight - "SSSS" 'SY", 'WT" ~r .. y"" c. These signals will be flashed by the flight leader when other aircraft are observBd attempting tojoin formation. straeglers from other flights will maintain sufficient aistance to w.low the flight to assemble, and will then fill in any vacant positions, or will fill in the posi td on outlined in thE; ryactical Doctrineo



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HEAD~~U J\t~'rBR3 xx BOMBEl.t CmiJI./1AND APc) /"'13,


~11l:,,"tt10 .. t!on oanoel19lf 'fiT "' , .

aD DIUCflVE .0. 0200.9. et.feot1vG ~a 'If • ..., ~

D t ' elm JlOV. UIIt

oc r me Amen ents.


1. Tl~C fol.iowin~ amandment e will be made in your cop (y) (iss) of the current .'.X .MOi.nlJer C )JfLl"anLi 'l'e,c;.,~,ca.\ 0 'ctr'l!1e ~

a , Sect Lon I, ForlOIAotion, pat'. b , 2; (a ," (4) will be cha'16od to read:

T,16 low left e ement will be designated as/€len,<,> liD" , The J_9UUo:C will fly a vertical distance of 150 feet below an/on. "newith the leader of elc.:mu.nt "C". He will 1'l~r we 11 r01,~'nurd, but wi ,mai t.ain suffi cae nt lateral distance to allow 10 feet wing tip distance b weerV is N • 2 wi ngrnan and the No. , winglIBn of ,element «c». No • ..! ~'iing ~W"";(l fly the right position, and N-'.

3 't.l11E~rli:f,n will fly the left posyt.ion. note: Diagrar:lS stLowing this change in pos.l tion will be furnished later.)

b. Sect Lon II, !]Jako-off' er.ll Assemby, will have the following added under par. lie II, As tH3i"'-,L 1;/ : 111• Esc h Group "i'i. ii dossemb)lf at the following altitudes at the initial assembly point:

(a) 40th BUrr~)D.rd.nent Grou'r): An oda tnoueend feet.

(b) (c) (d)

h44:Lh Bo!nbardm9 !It Group:
462Ild BOUlOeU'tUlItH It Gr': up:
46eth Bo!l.lhardiTe nt Group: An even t.housand feet.

An odd t noueaud fdet.

A~l even t-housand feet."


27 Novoubor 1944


Due to the distances Eovered in our missions, it is a Imo s t inevi table that instrumem t condi tiona will be encountered. ThE> fo llowing procedures are outlined wi th the purpose of a form4tion to aaf'e Iy penetrate we a the r and at the same time to permit tl18 uircruft to quickly re-ussemble in formation following the instrument period.


~aD'I1tI!!.!!f!tJII 04nC.Sl~_ _ ""'\

~"IV.I.o 520· -_

· 0.9, eff'eot1ve 28 Nov 8S a tude , (on ccmba t missions this u~titude will normully be •

specified in the Field Order).



2. If, when execut; either ascent, descent, or p-enetration" the flight Le adez' oonsiders it ns ce s s ar-y to change the base a L ti tude, he wi 11 uccomplish this by means of the command radio. As an example:

:IChange dltitude to plus 'Vo tnous and ";


1. When it becomes nece s aur y for the twelve plane flight to as cend thr.ough an over-cas t, every effort wi 11 be made to keep t.l-te three rtirplane element intact during us oen t.


2. Signals I

a , The f'o Ll.owi rig visual signals will be given: the flight leader will rock wings in attention s i.gna L and flush a series of "Ails wi th the e.Ld i s lamp. Element Leuder s will relay this s i gne.L to the wingmen.

b. In addition, the formation Ie ader will cull the formation by me ans of th·· command r dio giving them:

(:I.) "Pr-epar-e for as cen t through overcast".

(2) Base heading, _0 mi.gne ta c ,

(3) Mu.ximum (or minimum) ultitude for br eak-oub , Buse, plus

(or minus) t..l-lOus"md feet.

c. Formution will execute. the maneuver when the le~der again rocks hi swings, "lld armour cos over the commend r dio: "Bxecu te ",

3. Execution - By Elements,

c.. Element "At! will continue Rt:rrHight uhend , e Li mbd ng on course.

" "'J:.



300 to left., ho ld t..l-}i s h€lu.ding fot' :3 Element "c" 'Will turn to the origin-~l hoading ... and climb ouO se oonds end turn b8 ok

course. 0 t the right, hold this now heudin

IIBII will turn 45 0 d dIg, til

Element k to origin 1 he a ing un c imb 011 ~

I minute ,und the;p. turn b ac '




1 ft ho Ld the new heuding fo'"

"50 to the c: I •

rf" • 11 turn '".I: d- d 1

Eloment D Wl .. b 'c to the ori gin::.;.1 he a a ng an c~mo on

1 minute and then turn uC'


. . ft. If it be come s thL. t the Execution by individual alre~u .' d' t ct during ascent .. the le"dcr

t t be m' ~ntl..l.n6 1.n U '. •

3 p Lune elemen cunno . f" " ITs with the aldl slump" und

1 t ' 'ngmen~' eer i e e a ,h

will sign", Q .,11S 'lNl. . _< d r ad'i o to <.lscend individul:l.l1y",

will notify them by use ~f the comm~ . - 11 be as fo llows :

~)hen this s i gnal is r s oe i. ved, exeou a en WJ. -

Element leud6r will continue straiBht ahead.

50 to the ri c·"ht, ho Ld this hcudt ng fe)

Number 2 wingman wi Ll, turn 4 E:t,L

~5 se corids , and then return te the origintll he ding.

~!umber 3 wingmun Vi~n turn 4sO to the left, hold this heading for 15 seconds, ..nd th0n return to the original heading.

Ou'';l.g out above the 07crC1::lst, the e Iems.n t s und the flight will "'s outhned in ? "DII, 5, ... "Re-ussemb ly fo llowing pene tr-e td cn of a front. T'



6. As an clid to r 0.,.. , s aemb Iy , e Icmerrt leaders and wingmen may use the SCR-729 to home on the IFF of thE; respective leader when wi thin an ar e a where usc a f' the I'FF is p€.lrmissible.

7. If radd.o conte,ot is not feo.sible; Frior to talee-off, the flight Le.ader' wi 11 s tipull:-~ te the mux i mum .... 1 ti tude to whi eh he vii 11 c limb in event of ascent througl thE- cver cas t , If this ..... lti tude is rty ch d before breuking out of o ver cus b, e ach e Lemerrti, or individuul ircr ft if ... \.irerft· I;.\TS fly~ng Lndf v i dua l Iy , will execute stt..<nd:,rd "P!:..netr' tiS of Front" until re~Lohing thb point 0 f climb to bombing a I ti tude.

Climb to bombing <':"ltihl~e will then be executed, und upon breu.king out of over cc.s t , iJ.ssombly vall be effected as expedi tiously as po as i b I




:"then it becomo s no ce s a.u-y for the forml;...tion to descend tilr 1

ff' t '11 b o ugn t n

ovo r eus ti, fJvr:;ry e r or Wl. €J made to the three (3) L

form", tion during descent. p ne

Signals, Si;:; will be the sumo G,S those used in par- gr....Lph ItE".

with ~NO exception? I 2.


_, •. ' ", ~._r:.~"~ ~ .. "r~~ ..

. '. ~ . . - ...

• • •


, , ,


'! • I

c.'~ The letter "D" will be substi tuted for "1~1t.

._, .. c ,I

b. ThE> word "bescent" ~ll 'be sub.sti tuted for "1.scEmt" in the , .• Le ade r 's r'ud i o cllll"

. ,

3;;' 'Execution:, '

s , • ~ ,'flO • '"

lilien ths Le ude r st£\rts'·:cQ OXGcut(3 the maneuver ~ e member of th~ .fonn,u.tion unde r bake s th~ s eme ,.:,ction'1n"tl'w s me sequence and timing us specified for "ll.scent", substi tuting "Descent" for "Ascon til 0

4. In caae he hJ.8 not broken out ut the minimum suf'e t.lti tude, or tnc 0.1 ti tude speoified by the £:).i gh t Leuder- ,-,8 minimum, euch o Lome n t~ or individuu.l u.i.r p Lcne eommunde r , if the elements have spr out, will execute, tho s tundur d "Pene tr e td.o n of b. ,Front" procedure.


1. 'the~l the forlnl;l,tion Le ado r a to t1.<ke the formi_tion into and

. . ,

through a front, every effort wi 1:). be m ..... de to the 3 plane

fornu, -yion intact dur il1g the pene-tr a tion.

2. Signl..l.lss SignL\ls '~ill be the sume as those used in p:...rugruph "B~" 2 •. wi. th two exceptions,

a , The letter "P" wi~l be substi tu,ted for 11",""

h. ,The word lI?egetratj,on'1 will be substi tuted; for "i~scent" in the leaders r .... diO· cu:11.

3. Executi,o'n' by ~lemen:ts

a. Element "i:" wi.Ll, continue straight ahe ad ,

b. ' .. Element "C" will t"ilnl 30°' to the l~ft -~ hold this for

30 seconds .nd then'return to the original, he adt ng, During this maneuvcr , clement I'e" will de scend to 500 feet below flight level of lec.l.d element.

c. Element "BI! will turn 45° to the right, hold this he nd'i ng for 1 minute, 'then return to the o r ne.] he di?~ und continue on cour-se

d. Element "Dr! will turn 45° to th€l left, hold this heading for 1 minute" then return to tho origin; .. l he add ng und continue on course"

4. Execution - by Individuul ... iror(ft.

," ..


I .' r ~

. ~ . ~

" ,

, .......

d ·des thtl.t j.t is impossible to penetrate

1,;t--.c.n the () l emen t 10 uder e 01 , .... . , . th. \l;\

lOll'" . " . he wi 11 8i gmd. the Wlngmen Wl.. 0.. series

front in e ~ernen t rorm~ tJ.O~' to be gin ind~ vi due 1 penl;: tr <~ han. 'Vlhel:l, of Up'lS USH1~ the ''l.~dlS lum~.f l.iowing 'procedure will be ,stu.ndt:.rd~ thi s 81 gn.~l a s r c .. ce i, ve d the '; a

leL.'de'" wi l.l, c.ontinue level str:;.ight che adv-

Eh:mont _.

". . . '. ,.0 t tne r i gh t hold this heuding for

Number 2 wi ngnan '11111 turn -1:5 0 .. .' ' D' . .... t.h .

, . . . to the rigin~tl •.·ls

15 seconds und return.. . 0 .' . '1- It'tude of Leuder' ut

maneuver , he will descend 200 feet be OW ~ r t '

S tund.o1" d r u te 0 f de s con t.




Numb e.r 3 Vir:t ngrnan wi 11 tur n 45° to the Le £t I ho 1 d th i s he ad i, ng fa r 15 seconds «nd then return to the' origin!.;.} heading. During this maneuver he will climb to 200 feet abovs flight u I ti tude of


. t t·· 1 .... e.d tne f·.ligh-E. will assemble in the

5 ... After pener c-, a on 1S comp€: IN,

. fa llowi ng manner (SCG di,"",gr~m);

~. ElcIne.nt·s ;

( 1)

The e Ie-merrt le,:,-der.wi11 fly ~trf;;l.ight .. .he ad for 2 minutes, am Will execute a .150 turn to the .right, hold this heudf n g for

1 mi nu te , th.8n turn 90° to the left, hold this heading for

1 minu tEl 1;:Jlen turn bu ck to the ori ginc:..l he , Thos numbqr 2 aotl number 3 wi.ngmsn will j.oin formation during this mun6uve.r ..


The flight leader will as aemb Le his ·element .. and vvill then fly stf'o.ight uhe ud for .~ te s , He, will then turn 45° to the r igh t; ho Ld thi s he u.dint; for 1 minute,. tne n tur n 900 to the left? hold this he.add ng for 1 ml nu'te, ·r.l.nd then return to the origin.;..l heading. Element leaders will join him during this mLJl8Uver. ..

6. The proper use .of Rud,.;.:r e'qui.pmen b will permi t detection of thunderheads ",nd other hr::8.VY clouds. This' will enable the aircraft to .avo i.d these clouds, or once in them~ to find the shortes.t route out.

E. S T, .r-ID!.RDS

1. 1.11 turns will be one hulf' needle widt::.

c _

D.. Climb - 19 5 indicated


1.." '. '\.-'

3. BPte of descent ~ 200'feet per minute, maximum.

F •. _ Lt;'~.-DO' n ~rocedure •. , " - ' .. '

. ,


1. .A €:,;6Q£ro,phical ;point will be se Lec t.ed on the route home from the

target, [,,:c.d within rel6.tively safe territory, where the flight ~ leader may Give thb' e rdar to ·breEd.;: up, form5ti0n.. When this e rdar is' g:i,. ven , ·6<:.Ch. ~ai:rcraf-t;. will .Le ave the, f'orms.t.t o n a nd Jlfbctice En

,-,i~strum611t let .... down".pr~ce_dure to the how,;; bi, 8E;.

2. The geoL,:raphicaL .pod rrt ,selected will be t he one th<..t is to be used in the event t. c l instrument cond.i tions '.re expected ~t the home baso.

3. St ... nd ..... rd proc edure for the rormat ron to be disJersed will be :....s f,l)llows:

~. by the F'li~ht Leader:

(:1,.) Rook wiIl£s in the nAttentionn signGl.

(2) Fl:Jsh series of "LD'S" with the aldis l~p.

(3) C,"ll tho formation by use IiIf the command radio and ... ive the f'o LLowl ng :

(u) PreJ~re for l8t-down.

( b) B .... .sc h~b dinG 0 magnet i c.

(c) ItExecutell (Lt:t-down p roc edur'e as outlined below wiL be initl~ted bt this commund)

b. Element "A" will continue strbi~ht chead for 1 minute" The

et ement 16 der ~vill then be ... in his let-down pr oce dure , No.4 ~IJin(,.,ID'-n vvill turn 450 to tht, ri ..... ht , ho Ld this hetldill€;. for one minute, return to th~ ori:iaal headinc ,-,nd tht;n bagin his letdown pr-oc sdur e , N",. ~ -Wil.l,,:_, ..... n .;ill turn 450 to the left 1. hole: this hl,.c::...d:Lub for one mi nut o , ret.ur n to the origin~~l hoading . Lnd then be~in his lot-down 2rocodure.

c. Element "C" will e xec ut e .3 3600 turn to the left, and u on returning to the oriLin' 1 he~ding) thy' irer' ft within the element will t'o l l ow tho same lot-down procedure as Element ".8. 11.

d, EIE.:ment liB" will turn 45° to the right hold this heEldine, for 3 mi nut-cs and then r ct.urn to the or1g1n::o.1 head Lng , T··(.. ,-,ircr,;;ft v 1 thin the o Lemerit will then ro Ll.ow the s me let-down procedur-e a s el.emen t ";~""

e. Eleme t lID" Wi,ll,tt¢n-4Q.o.,to tho left. hold this hes.d m for :5 minutes. an d th n-'return to the origin' 1 h ee d ing , The

e Lemcrit lNill then follow t ho same Let=-do en procedure as e Lemci "A".

4. The let-down Drocedure outlined above i~ to be uRed for Rrbctio~ 1 et ... do wn, 0 r !_vhen the t. irCTl.ft:.:.r t J LJt-down thro ugh instrument

eondi tions to the l;lOl"!l6 It is not intend d s s t... subst i.-

tut€: for the normal 'D-'~c nt througp..oyerc&st·' L ..... ..Jutli.n d in

.l: ar ..... I!C'~ : thi s s ct ion, which v ill be used when aircraft . re to re · formati on aft'er descent is ccomplished.

, .

5,. Unless the orcer to dis2erse 'formbtion for Let=-down rocedure is given by the fUoht Leader , formbtion will be rna i nt« ine e , and the aircrClft will <:..)proach the home cuse e nd 1311d by usf.n. the SoD.P. of that _lX..rtieul.6r gr up , I~' _ircrt-ft of one trOll are in forma~i")l t itt thez c;rou1)· .. tht;)ywill :Lebve t he form2:.tion bot the 'point nearest tv the home bose.

f 1




2 ~M?, 2. Tu/?Al.j' 45"'R/&/lT; HOL£)S'

';:-OR /5 SEC.) TI.IEN .BACK" TO OR/61A/Ai. II'E40/1./0 .

3~,va.3 TORNS 4.5" L.E!'?; .tIOLPS FOR 15 SEC..1 r;tlE AI BACK To OR/G/A/AL . .4"EAO/A/G.

PcA/ETRATIOAI ;:-L.EAOeR FLIES STI2AIG,IIT Al/fAO e- NO..8 TURNS 4.5· R/G.tIT..I)./ me /,5" SEC ~ 77L/£Al BACk' TO ORlalA/AL tlEAPIA/6'. DESCENDS 2017 FT. 8ELOW Pi;r: At. r:

!J. -..(/0,.3 Tt.lRAIS 45'" LcFl; #OLO.:5' FO/'? 15.seC, 'r.4lc/v BACk' TO OR/C/A/.4L #'£40/1V6. ASCEAlLJS 200 F':' A80VE FLT ALr.

T /-4~ rUeS STRAiGHT A.4IeAO e-»: TURNS 45- RIC.t-lT"J:lOLOS /VR I MIN., THEA! 8.4(!K TO OR/CIA/AL .#fAOIAl6.

3. - C ~ TURNS .30° '- EFT" #OL41.5 rOR 30 SEC.! ThiEN 8ACK" TO ae'/C/AlAL HlEAOIAIG

"L?'" rb'RIVS 45" LeFT_, .,L/oLPS' r'OR / MIM_., r.4lEN ~AC'K TO 0I216/NAL PEACIA/6'.







srPAIC;L/T 41-1EAO ...3 M/A/.

















Rc- A..5'5cML5LY

SECTION IV - R..Jvislon


. r-loatroD eancelled by

DOD DIRECfIVE Bo. 5200.9. ef~eQt1vB 28 Bov.58

4 19 4

A ~ Clil"Jb:

1. Mc:ximwn economici.L r'cut e .·,ltltude will be detcrmtne d by at r pl.ano

leod versus po rf ozmsnoe cnurr.e r;crur0ie:.s0 In l/..Jrm...l OpeI"ations: the i nt '":,1.8.1 climb will be to Q minimum a Lt Li.udo suf'f", c i.errt to r tel.~rGin ob sbs c l es , unless otherwise epec i rt od ,

2. Bombing altitudo w i.Ll, norma Ll.y be nt tc Lned prior to t,he fin<il aaaemb Iy pot nt ,

B. R~utd

1, Que...; tho form ..... ti.:;.o.s ar o aseemb.Le d , the fH.ght to ,the IF will fle

eo nducted to employ t J t.he fUl-lest; extent both economy of .operut.Lon b' sed on load and range date known) and maxtmum def'ens i ve power pr ed Lcc.t.ed on known enemy potential! ti es ih the area.; ..

. 2. Flioht .l::u.-..o'jrs will not leLd the form~tions into we6ther thot makes

fonn&tion flying Impoas; b'l.e , rrhi.., Will a.t191y 0r.J.y ~ ft&r the fiUbl Lssembly point is reached, Prior to thbt p f.nt , the at.e: ndar d bscont or ponet.rc.t Lon ,t.'lrocedure may be used.

3. In"ic",tt;d <lir speeds to be flown from .::.ossombly point #1 to the thr[.,ct e rc 0;8 tollows:

.... Cruisu - 195 M.P.H.

~.. Strot.e.lors a)W c must, be disrec.;.:"rdod on the bomb run but effort:; will be m'de whenever else 'the sbfoty and effocti vone ss of the form:Jti on 1s not imperJ_lod to sid them hy slowiuL thE) ro rms.t ton , "S" - :lng or possibly zoduciIl£ olti'tud •

50 Wh.;,r~ it is imi)cJ;.:;sibl(; to ffie>intoin cripples with tho form"tion, the flight Lee der will designste one or more sircr;o,ft to accompvny tho cripple nome, Th~ numbe r of c.,ireri'lft to : cc ompe.ny cripples will be determined by the Locut t on of the flight in regl-lrd to e nemy def ens ea , Ace )r'lpaIlyini;,; ",irer' ft will me Lnte.Ln c l cse fOI'll'J[ltion 'loti th tho cripple. and will gi ve him !:ill possible bid.

1. Ul-lc68 ;,;ti.i0rwis0 spcc!fi0d.~1.11 withdrawals from the target will 'be in formation by makl ng a turn at 200 lvi.P.H. lAS tlilU lu.::li~.iu 1,000 foote

2. L<:.t-dCJwns wi~l be 0~Gcuted CIt 200 ].i.P.R. lAS QUU C1 "10.11.1 aWu ,jt 4.JO l"vut

c:r iilinute.

',rt tit

: , :~,:.,~;; ,i:·~:· ,',·:;!~i~:':: . .-:ri;

• .., . _ •• 'i'

3 J anUaJ:lY 194?


A. Before reaching the IF

1.. The 0-1 auto-pilot will be used by formation leaders whenever possi.ble.

I\lianual bombdng will be done only as a laet resort to accomplish the mission.

2. The ABC will be set up by j;hebombardier and may be used to indicate drift and tangent of the dropping angle for pre-setting ;for the bombing nm.

B. The lni tialPoint.

1. Selection of the approach to the IF must be given careful attention.

The ans (or axes) of attack will be plarmed with the following in mind:

8.. Obtaining. the highest probability of hits on the target that is possible with the formation :pattern.

b. Achieving the optiuum radar approach.

c, Remaining:i.r;l.· the sons Of ef-feeti ve anti... aircraft fire the shorte st possible time.

~ ;r

d. Gaining th,e element of Sttrpl.'is e,

e", Taking ac;lvan.tage of the position of the sun.

2.. Initial points about eight (8) minutes flight t.ime from the t.arget will normally be selected, Ini.tial poini{s will be selected which are! prominent enough geographically for easy identification both visually and by radar.

J. Since the standard Radar - Bombsight procedure will be used on 4~ bombing r1.ll1s,the lead airoraft Will make a oontrolled turn at the directfon of the radar operator, which will bring the formation di;rect;Ly over the I~ on the briefed axis of attack.

0, The Bombing IWn.

1. Upon leaving the IP, the lead bombardier will open bomb bay doors at

his own discretion and final adjustments of the G-l auto-pilot will be made. The lead airplane will be maintained on the axis of attack by standard controlled turns at the direction of' the radar operator until the radar operator~'

and bombardier begin rad!W-bombsight synchronizing procedure. Thi.s procedur-e will be followed throughout the entire bombing run unless the bombardier takes over fo;r a visual run. In that case, the radar operator will follow thro~gh the bombing run and will be prepared to take over anq release if so instructed by the bombardier. It is the primary duty of the bombardier to .insure th~t all bombs are released and to d.ecide when the v? eu al bombing runvdl1 begin. )

~--- ...

.. ' ...........

3 January 1945

2. All other bombardiers will open bomb bay doors with the deputy lead airplane. They will announae over interphone when doors ere open, and the navigator and a sids'gUnner will report position of doors after visual inspection through bomb bay bulkhead windows. If the deputy leader's doors have not opened at a predeterndned time prior to reaching the bomb release point, the formation Commander will direot all airplanes to open their doors. As BOon as tho tomb door handle has been plaoed in the open position all i,ombardiers vdll put the lower turret control switch in the "out" position, and fix their eyes on the bomb bay of the lead airplane. On seeing the first bombs leave the lead airplane all bombardiers will immediately actuate the electrical release toggle switQh. When the intervalometer cou'ter has reached zero, the racks will be cleared by salvo, the door s closed and the lower turret control switch p]aced in the "in" position. The bombardier will then resume his duties as nose gunner •

.3. ~n the radar-bombsight procedure there are three pos sfbl.e methods of releaae:

a. Visual - Release is made by bombardier performing visual sighting operation us~ng aiming point or offset aiming pOint.

b. Blind - Bombardier synchronizes using sighting angle check points while radar operator maintains track by directing pilot. Bombs are released by the bombardier as the bombsight indices meet. This type of release is made only if the bombardier is unable to see the aiming point or an off-set aiming point.

c. Radar - radar oper,ator performs the entire sighting operation and release. This method ;is used only in the event the bombardier

is wounded or the bombsight is put out of commission on the bombing run.

4. 'Only one run will normally be made over a targ51t.

5. Unless otherwise specified in the field order all aircraft will set intervalometers at mirrtnum train interval. The lead aircraft of the formation will sight for range and defJ,ection, and all other aircraft will drop on the leader. The deputy lead bombardier will sight for range and be prepared to take over in Case the lead a,irplane is disabled.

6. No evasive action will be taken on the bombing run.

7. The time to be over target, specified in the field order, will apply to the group bombing from the lowest altitude. The other groups wil1 fol1O"i'i' at two minute intervals in order of assigned altitudes, i.e., groups assigned lower altitudes will precede groups assigned high,altitudes.

D. Rally

1. When the bombing run is completed the pilot of the lead aircraft will resume control and remain on the axis of attack heading until strike photographs have been taken.

---_ .... _ .. _-_ .....

--=_ ... _.

• ! .r"

. . ... j; ~ :,: <.::~:~:.j~~t~: ~~

3 January 1945

2. After strike photographs have been taken, the formation leader will perform predetermined break..awaY maneuver. Direction of withdrawal will

be designed to lead the formation 'over safest route from the target. An.y increase in speed in withdrawing f~om the target vall be obtained by loss of altitude and not by increased power sett..1ngs. Every affort must be made to keep cripples in formation as long as the safety of the entire formation is not jeopardized. Each aircraft will remain in formation unless it is physically impossible to do so.

. '> ~ .... ~.:~!

. ~ ~ .


6 December 1944


A. Until further noti ce J all landing procedures wi 11 be in conf rmance with the current procedure belng used by the individual groups.

B. After lc...r.:.dir4;, L.t Cht;;ut,tu Bi....lJ6S upon cOll"ljJletion of

a combat misSion, aircraft which are not scheduled for another combat mission from forward area ~rior to return to India base~. will be reserviced immediately with 3200 gallons of burnable gasoline i necessary engine oil and oxygen. Normal return to

II di a bases ~dll be made on D .t>lus one I or as soon thereafter

as possible.

•• j "

, .

',:'part I

< •

E:5SI ors FRGrl CHINi: .. B)..3J!;S


(This ·docwnent supersedes Part I - Section VIIJ ~ Tactical Doctrine dated 7 November 1944). '

l.· ~ .. '

, \

! ;

1. GE!_I!ERAL .

.' . -

.a, CW conmun Lce td on s will be in accordance :l/.iith FI!d 24-10,· ·9or~-.

b Ine d Radio. Telegraph (-,liT) Procedure.

b. Voice coranuru c a td ons will be in ao oo r d anc e with Fr'l 24-9, d Radio Telephone (H/T) p:rocedure.

. .

... c, ,The operating signals contained in FlU 24..,.13, Air Extract, Oombined Operating Signals, w.i.LL. be used •

. d. Of necessi ty, semie details in the broad comrrurri.c a ta ons pl8....11 must ,vary ~'. These variable d e ta i I.s , such as call signs and, ,:;." frequenci GiS , have been ·omitted in this publication, and Wi~'l·· b,B, .. furnished in the llGrt~,ncnt Field Orders or in the ,SOl. '.J t-: .t.

, .'

6. The mon l toring of our radi, 0 t'a c l Ii ti e s by tile eneray rna Y pr-ov i d e h i.ra with valuable iD.tellicence information. i,.ny unn ecc asary or unusus L radio activity DigtJ.t~ endanger the success of a mis st on., Therefore, strict radio disci:plino must be obscrye4~.L':'_ Strict adherence to tho rout Ln e outlined h o nc l n viill provide~"tll-8.t

ctisci~line. '

f.. .11.1 r-c rews are cautioned not to rely upon Jap1anese radio

stations .. as ·navigation&.l aids. .',

2. J...IR-,GRO T.JND CD ·<::r.a~\1l CATIons:

.. ,

a. Grolip air-ground stations located in the Forward: AreB, will lJrovide oommum cc t.ions for aircraft assigned. each croup , For this purpose, each '(sroup will be .ae sf gned 8, num.ber of frequenofes to enable complete -frequency coverage to '08 o od , Aircraft will receive and transmit on the frequencies in usa by tho groUnd station


~a' 1"(5 Doo·44) of Section VIII - Communicc.tions - Tactical

octrino. _ .:-'~

of the Group to which the aircraft pre assigned. Group stations

will omp Loy simultaneous transm.issions on app ro pr-La te frequencies

to insure tha t full covo rage is 0 btained, and aircraft 'Ii·Jill employ that frequency vv'hi ell gives maximum resul t s , In the even t of an emergency, aircraft may establish conmun i catd on with any Group station the airplane commander desir~s to contact •

. ,

c, Ii ea dg_ uarte rs , n; Bomb er command , wi 11 ma in tain a gr ound station which will £',1"80 o per-at.e on a num bc r 01' froquencies to insure complete coverage. In the event aircraft. can no 'longer contact their ~roup station because of mel'function of ground station equipment, aircraft will establish contact with this st8tion. However,

it should be remembered that this station will operate on frequencies in the same portion of the frequency spect.r un as are assigned the Group stations, so that 10s8 of dontact with the Group stati.on.s > dUe to skip or fading will undoubtedly affoct contact vl'i th the JCC Bomber Command Station. In the event of an emergency, this station may be contacted at any time •

. c." A watch \,>lill be maintained by the o.Lr cr-ar t rad Lo 01)erator C d ur-Lng flight. This watch neod not bo continuous but it will' be

main tnined during the first arid third, fifteen (15 ~ minute quadrants

of .ea ch hour-, '.

d. To enable the aircraft radio oporator to det ennine that recei var is properly tuned, both the Group and '.:44: Bomber COd1I!1zn'd ground stations will broadcast G s c ri es or Y's, followed .by t.he stE,tion call sign., during the first minute of .ea ch fifteen rm nu t,e quadrant of the hour.


. ,_

e. Vif,/T call signs will be as assigned in SOl.

3. AIR-GROUl:ID co~:]\rlJ"NIC..'1.TION


a. Aircraft viill maintain radio discipline at 0.11 times While in flight, and will not engage in superfluous transmissions of any description. It is contemplatGd that the messages listed ber-ow will be sent using the AN/.A.RT-13 t ransmd t , and that the transmitter should not be used for other tirun smi s si ons except when r eq uoe t i ng D/F aid, when utilizing air-to-air homing, vrh on in distress·, or when in the opinion of the a.irplCtne commander, its usc is necessary_

The following mes sages will be addressed to the' Group station,. or to the XX Bomber Command s trrt i on , if tha t station is being wor-ked, Normal call-Up and answer procedure will be us cd , except whero another type of transmission is specifically directed:

Page 2 (5 Dec 44) of Section VIII - Communications - T" c tt caj Doctrine.


(1) In order to, ];)re,v;.cnt unl;1ip,Q~sq<?)!ily al~e,rting fri end l y defense installntiorus by'. air'craftreturning' from enemy held territ6ri~ it~i~ rt~b~¢~Qr~,that'ell aircraft returning to bese.tran~mit a' cQ~ed mess~g~ indicating

tha ttl1a y a re' en t er i ng f'rf'G;u ~;L7 t crrit,o 1'-y •. The massage will be sent from a distanC's"Qf aPJ.1roxiih.ately four hundred (400) mi Los from the hODe3 base 'upon' 'crossing the general lirie'of Sanyan f'34~ 38!N - 10So 56'E) - Ichang

,l30o 47'H - 1110 19'E) -'Cheno.ho'u (2So 17'N- 1100 14fE) Yuanchown (270 15'N'-109D 35'E). 'This'message wil~ consist of the three 1 cit or code' g roup ,Ityyyil and the poai tion of the aircraft. Posi tion vilill be given using false gr~d designated in SOl , and the date time group

of the messago will-indi·cate tii.ue of, crossing. If aircraft are in formation,the formation leader only will transr!1i t this message, and in addition \1'.;111 in r-

d l cate t~:e number- of aircraft accompanying him in the t'orm etri on, NUHber of accompanying aircraft will be indicated by adding a two dlgi t numbcr group to the ;!Y'IY:' position.'group. T~lG figures one (1) through

nine (9) v,;ill be preceded by the figuI-e zero (0)

to form a two digi t 6,1"oU1' when' those numbers are used .•

For ex~np1e: .

3A.3 V 671 NR5 - 061916Z - BT YYYZ.N 07 BT - K

(2) If an airc~aft enroute to the target aborts after having crossed the four hundred (~OO) nile linei tv,;il1


imr~iediately transmi. t a mec sag e encoded in CSP 1270 ( )

gi ving po ai. tion of the aircraft an d reason fo r abort. Date time group of the mes sage will indicate time of turn. U~~on recrossing the four hun.dred (400) mile line Ln bcund , aircraft will comp ly >:"d th the Ityyy:i procedure outline~ in paragraph 3 a. (1) above.

(3) If an aircraft enronte to ,the ta~gGt aborts before

he cr-o s s ed the fo ur hundred (400) nri.Le line 1. t

will Lmme dl at e1 y sen d 8.. me s sage s ta ti n g tho bas e to

\i/hi ch returning, the al ti tude and course on which returning and tho .ET .. c,., at base. Base to whi ell rct.ur-n i ng will be indi ca ted by tho control t.ovo r call and appropriate ,"(~/i vdll be us e d to convey other in-

f'crma td on , For exarnp.Lci i -:

3A3 V 671 NRI - 0614l7Z ., BT ~:,AC' eu 0JJl 4500 QTI 180 (';,}.A 1:457Z -. §! - K

. ' ,~

, '



Page 3 (5 Dec 44) of Section 'V"III ..,.. Cor uni cst.Lons - Tac.ti cal Doctrine.

(4) Aircraft will send an attack warn i ng roes sage upon being intercepted. The message 'will be sent in the clear and. b Li.nd broadcast type of transmi ss i on will be us ed-, It will contain the number and ty.Qe of

en env aircraft and tJls'date time g!10UP will indicate tirn.e of interception. The phrase "UNKNOHNII will be used if enemy aircraft qannot be identified. For the purpose of this pub Li cc td on .(r,plind broo.dcast

t yp e of t.r-an snrl s s i on ;" will be construed to menn that each group of the text is rco ea t ed twi es, that the n es sage is sent wi thout lni tial call-up and

that no receipt is exp e o't ed by the ai r c'rur t., crcund station BCY, however, ask for repeat if necessary. , If eircY' ft are flying in ro rmat.i.on only the formation leader will send the mes suge , For examp.l e:

31~3 V 671 NR2- 06l714Z - BT SIX SIX TONYS TONYS


.. ::'TT :"CKING ATT};.DKING 'BT - :ill

~ ~ -

(5) J;. bombs away n e s sage will be sen t by ea ch Qi rc ro.r t bombing individually, or if borabi ng in f.ormo.tion, by the formation leader only. In the lrtter case, the formc.tion leader' ill indi cate the number- of at r c rn r t bombing in rorraatd on 1,i·:i th him. Bombs away message will be sen t Imm ed.i a t e Ly after borrbf ng and date t uae group of me s sage viill indi ca t o tir1l6 of r-e Leae c , The

f'o l Lovr Lng code dll be used in preparing this mos sage =

(a) Target bombed:

P primary target.

S secondary tcrgGt. T - nltoTI12te target.

L - l~st resort t&rget.

o - target qf opportunity. R - primary radar target.

(b) I\·LC~thod of bombing:

i-vi sua L,

B - blind or radar.

(c) Obs~rved results:

1 ~xeellent: moaning, hits on tho ~lm~ng point 2 - Good: meaning, few hi ts on tho aiming po l rrt , 3 - Fair: mean , hits in tho t.c rgct crea.

4 - Poor: mcnning, missed tho target erGo.

5 -. Uno bs e rved ;

Page 4 (5 Dec 44) of So etion VIII - Ooiamun'i e c t Lons - Teeti oal

Doctrine. ~~~~~~ __ ~ __

3A3 V 671 NR3 - 061724Z - BT,PA308 PA 308

'.( d)

Number- of air'craft'ing will be indica ted by a two digi t nwnber designator as t he last two characters of the mes sage , The figures one .( 1) through' nine (g) will be pre ceded by the figure zero '( 01 'to :t;o rm a two digi t nun ber designator wrren those ftgures are use d ,

. " ..

( e )

The five character message thus evolved) will be repeated three times to insure reception. .Fo r Lns tance ':,'

PA308 BT - K

(Meaning: . prirl1ary target was bombed visually by 'eight aircraft. Observed resul ts were that hi ts were raad e in the target a r-ea ,

(6~ Aircraft flying over water will Immed y- r-epor-t any convoys sighted. Radar contacts, if made,

will be report~d as such. ~es8age'will be encoded in CSP 1270 ( ) and will include make-up" posi tion, true course and estimated sp e ed Ln knots; da te

time group will indicate time of sighting and message will be sent by r cr-mat.Lon leader only if' aircraft are in formation. Message will be initially transmitted to ·the XX Bomber Command ground station, and irm:!10diately-repeated on 4475

kc s , using "foxn type t.r-ansm i s ai on and addressed

to the call sign CQ¢ (C-Q-Zero). Air-sea rescue craft will be monitoring to intercep t such messages., As 4475 k o s is also used to pass distress traffic, opera tors ~ill always moni tor to ascertain that

the channel is clear before transmitting, and

will iE1illedio:~e1y stop transmission if another aircraft iq heard attempting to use the channel 0 Such a mcasage (bofo re encoding) 111i gh t be:

5X5 V 671 NR4 - 061527Z - BT CONVOY' THREE TJu'JKERS



. (7) .tiircraft in .dd s t reae , will, if distress is not imminent, send an encoded distress message indicating posi tion of airoraft, plus any

Pi GE 5 (30 DGO 44). This supersedes Page 5 (5 Dec 44) of Part I

Section VIII - Conrnilllications - Taotical Doctrine.

its.' o.istress is Lmmi.n en t ,

mossEge mey bG sent in the clear; but suc~ clear text messages sent while over enemy territory· will not contain position of aircraft" If distress occurs while over waters \Nhere air-sea roscue craft are available, aircraft will, if time aj Lows , t ransmf t d'i stress me s aag e outlined above to ground station before contacting roscue craft.

(8) i..ircraft which are forced to IF.U1cL at OthGT than :xx Bomber Commend ba s e s will contact their Group gr-o un d station or the .xx Bomber Comnand station after Ie.nding" if radio equipment can still be used (see Pa.rt B) Section XII~, Emergency Procedure). ~:..ll such conmum ca td ons will be encod ed in CSP l~ 70 ( ) and will be 1<::8pt to the absolute. mi.m.mum , .::"~irpl6J1e commandcr-a only v'!ill authorize such transmissions 0


-- .--- ... ------~-. :-

2.~ J.drcraft in distres s over wat or-s wher-e nir-so 8. res cue craft o r e avcilable will usc th~ follovJing pro ceuur-e in contacting roscue crBft~


(1) Rescue craft ret designated Lo cc td on swl Lj. guard

and tr,-1Dsmi t on 4475 kilocyclos and wi.l L also guard 500 k l Lo cyc.Le s ,

( 2)

Roscuo cr0ft will Elsa operate IFF Mark III e~uipmsrrt on codo posi tion 5, for use as a radar lu)ni11g beacon in conjunotion viii th tho SCR-729 Radio Seto Rogcue oraft will switch on IFF after ET~ of first 6ircraft over the targot has passed.

(3) If ditching is ne c es sa r y , aircraft should home on roscue craft} and d l n ch as ncar to it Q.S »os at bt o , If it is appo r en t thct di tching will not take p.lac e ill tho Lnmed i.c t e vi cini ty of tho roscue cr-ar t, 2irc ro.r t will t r-cnsml t the follovJing message on '

4475 kilocycles:

(c.) Number of miles a i r-cr-af t is distant from a geographical reference point.

(b) Call sign of rescue or-a rt.,


, .

~ . .' ~: ... ' ~

" .


, ' .. , i . ~ ~.. _

True. b.ear;i4ei".'of .al r-e rar t from. the geO'gr,aphi cal rer'eren'c,a ,:l)qin t ~. .'

e " j ..'. "

, .


,}\.S$'lliilip.g· the ca'll' sign .o.r the r,escue craft

. to be ;;8j~L:r' IL:J_~D"', such a message might be:


b. Location of reEcue craft, call sign of rescue craft and geographical reference point to ·be used in. distress message will be announced at Final Briefing .. ' .

, '

a. Air-to-a:L:r command commun l catd on s vvill be condu cted as follows:

(1) COl:.C uni cation between aircraft of the same Group

;:I • .'ill be c ond'uc t ed 'O~1 tha't·'Group's as sf.gne d primary ai r-to-eir .ccmmund frel.l.uency.

. ,

(2) 'If, the .oc caa.l on arises where c omaun.i ca ta on with aircraft c?f. another G:r;'Ol,l.l.J is neces'sary , the aircraft

wi shing to nake such contact wi L), .. retune i t e command transmitter to.the Group air-to~air cOIilmand frequency'of the air~raft it desires to contact.

(3) For 111i ssi ons utili zing indi vi dual 8.i r-c rar t , all commend . corcmun i ca tions will be conducted on the primary XX B611l.b~'r Command air -t,o-fiir command I'r equ en cy •

, "

b. During the s t r-i ke missi on, e1 ther the pilot or co-pilot of each aircraft 1",:111 tune one of the command set recei vel'S to

the ccmman d frequency being us ed , and will moni tor that frequency for the dur atd on of the mission, exc ep such intervals during which the Lnt.e rphone zrus t be used •...

c. command c ommun l cat.Lon s may be engaged in a t

any t ime the nirp12:ne COLL'118.nder: deems it aec essar-y,

d. R/T call signs will be as assigned in SOl.

6. AIR-TO ... ~uR HODUNG

-, .....

, a. When ai r craft cr e br i.e red to. us e nir-t(i-<:ir homing· to

aid in completing assembly, 'the' follo'Vring Ij'roeedure will. be used. This procedure is desi gned to keep trcn smf.s sf on s to a Ell.nimurn end for use in B. situation where 0.11 oircro.ft engLged in the rendezvous era awar-e thct homi ng transmissions will be and of the approximate time and location et wlli ell the signals will be t.ran srm tted:

PaGe ? (5 Dec 44) of Sccti on; lilT - Conr11lui ",,*ions - Tncti cc L

~. - ~ ......

~ ~ ~ :, " J

. : .. "I,· ;~:.

(1 )

Lead aircraft upon approaching the assembly point will imrnedi8.tely start tra~1smi tting hom i ng signals.

No formation call-;up c:dvi sing other at rcrur t in formation. thc,t homing signals ar e to be sent need be Hade • .i~ircraft other than the rornat i on leader, upon app r'o a cl ing the assembly 'J?oint, will tune radio compass r-e cef VE. to app rcp air-to-2,i.r homins frequency and monitor for homing t.r-an snrl s si on s ,

(2 )

Homing si gn'F'.l s will co nsi st 0 f the G:.i:oup co I L ecti ve call sign folloV10d by two (2) t-wenty (20) socond dosh e s ,. For examp Le : .. '

222 -------------------

(20 second


, (20 second dash)

(3) This t.r-an srri.s s i on will be r-cp ea continuously until ae semnLy is ac conp Lt sh ed or nir]?l,-'ne comm ande r decides tir-an sml s st ons a re no longer ne e es sa.ry ,

(4) Each Group is at present as sd.gued two (2) .... to-air homing frequencies. To avoid confusion, each of

the two ue ueL fOTmntions. within t he Group will

be' briefed to use a s ep ar-a t e a~r-to-nir homing frequency. Thus tho first fornmtiol1 of the 40th Group TIlien t transmi t horlling 8ign['ls on 1140 kilocycles an d the second formation on 1270 kilocycles.

b. T_lG 0. bovo doscri be.d procedure "vi 11- be used. only when .::.ircrc.ft are co~pleting assembly enroute to t~rg8t. ht cl~ othor times, procedures outlined ill XX Bomber eOUInE.Lnd Hvmorandmu 100-13 will be used.


a , IFF equipment (SCR:"695) ;ill be utilized. all, l11i s st.on s e s prescribed in SOl.

8. AIR-~-.:;.'tJIGATIONi1L II'J. .. CILIlJ.'IES

- --~----~ -----

'... Air-navigational facilitios at the China be8Gs are o~tlined in the ICD-.h.TO Radio Fc,ci::"ity Chart and in special mission briefing data.

b. Direction finding (p/F) station located at the bases assigned each Group in theForv 2\rd b.rea will. provido D/F ai r to craft contacting the Group air-grouno, stations.

Puga 8 (5 Dec 44) of Section VIII - conmunl cc tt on s - Tactico.l Doctrine

9. NO:tyIIJ.._!: Qt~k:.UP.~.J\fD·iit~£~~R PROPEJ?URE

a 4 Radf 0 cpo r-a toZ's, l\nen co n ta cting gra LUlU. r adi 0 s tc. t ions, 'will, unless trrn·sTu:ittiIi.{i :those··.f:1oS$,o.e;es vil1icl r cqud r-e no cn svrer

b;)T the g~'"Ound s Lon , -ue e normal:··cfuJ~.,.,u)_,:'~nd c .. nS·;,10r- procedur~·~·· This pr-o c ed ur-e , descr~t boe, be Low , ~\lil.l .p'e, 'st,ri ctly-'-udhereclto ;" ex-· .. c ep t in emez-g en oy when continuous cal'l-'ups :::lCty ;·be n~,do to contact'·.:· the ground stction:

( 1)

Ini tic 1 e t t erap t a t c.on te c ground. station will be'· Eleele usiil3 the .Long call-up r.nd the' pr-cp er ~i'('.? s i gnuL,

For eXUUIJl e: . , .

3.t3 31.3 V 671 671 ~'lM K

(2) If no BnSW8r is recoi ved frcr.l this .call":up,. the rrid i o operator w~ll wui t OI;l.G minute rCj!02',t the long

ce11:"':up. ',', -- I

(3) If no cn swo r is received from tine se:c.ontl long call-up, the ro.dio onc ra tor will wait three n i.nut ee end thon transmi t. h1.[3 'mes sage using HfoXil type tl':'e.hsm.·i·ssion.

': -... l

(4) If after"hr'ving ;transmitted the i?fox:1 type'message directed c.bove ;' i t.: is desired to atrt omp t- to- c s t abl.Lah con tc c t wi th gr'ound fc.cili ties Oil ano thc r froCiuency, the radio o~Grator may do So cfter Qbt~jning ~he

nirpl8.n6 commcnucr ' s appro 1[0.1. . '_.' .. " " "


-~----. --- .

a , Fox tY-,;)8 t.r-ansmi s sd oris livid'e by' cd.rcro:ft p rtieipcting in Co. mis sian 'vlill have tiao Lorij; crAll' !up' ~rop8QtGci ,'i::t tho end of tho'

me s sago , For exemp Le : ., "! ',-

3j~3 3);,,3 V 6716'71 11R5 - F - 061722Z - BT SAl12 Sc' ... 112


11.· PROClt1HJR:I; I\,IESS:.l.G}~3

D.. 1 .. Procodure 111(;ESD.[;G is 2. snor-t Pl.a.i nd r-os s r'lesscge" the ~)UJ."j_)osc of h-hi ell is to" expod i to thd hmld·+.lng of m es sr gos. ".This

m cs sage r orm will be employed, 1:.'118 r o a~1plic·D.~olo, for 'tr8.nSIlli tting

11 ossn os durint; tho strike rri s sf.on , '. . '. ',,1' .'

b. Procedure nic s sag s consist of Ol~ol'Qtinb Sign8.1s, Qull signs, identifi cation of 111ossago's end prosigns if 11·Gccssd:i:'Y.

, .


.... + 9 (5 Dec 44) of Section VIII ... COllI1Ull'ient1ons ... ·T[.cticel Dootr inc

_ ...... "..._..0:11 ........

. ; ::.:~.;{~!~i('.·.

c. i~ group count is not used. in the heading of 8. proceduro

d. The long break (BT) is not used to' separate the Text froD

the other .compon on t.s of a .Pro'cedu~e me s exc ept vihere· D. date

time group is-assigned thc'

e, ~ Procedure message MCY carry the precedence designation considered necessary to ensure a c c cmp l Lshmen t of its p ur-po s e ,

"!· .. ll me s aage s t.r-ansn i trt ed r'r-on Gircraft w i Ll. be as sumed to .car-r y en OF prece~ence, so that unless'u higher priority is considered n e c e s sary, no precedenc e need be indi ca ted in the heading 0 f a Procodm~e messcge.

12.. CODES ~'"rm CIPHERS


G.. .....ircraft code CS:P 1270 (:) will be cc.rried in all aircraft.

a. i-l.laco wee tne r broadcasts will be mad o ever-y hour on the hour by all GraUl) Qir~gr6Ulld stations o.ncl by the .xX Bcra bc r Comuand ground station. If, in the op in i on of t he O;>orations Officer, c011O,i tiona mak o it ne c es aa ry , ./;:o.laco weather may be broadcast at any other intervcl he may direct.

14. ~· .. IRCRi .. FT REPOn'l~Ng_§yS'l'E1.1

,=,-" ~.:..11 Grou"D ai1"'- grO'und sta ti one recci ving any of the

raes sages outlined - in pc r-ag raph 3a (1) thru (8) 8. bo ve , v'li 11 Lmmedia tely relay them to the XX Bomber OODI!lanc1 CF at ESin chi ng 'by the most expeditious mGRns available, Such Bessa~os, if roceived in code need not be rcencoded, but :will be ro ed 6.8 rcc e Lved , ".:1eSS2[;eS recai ved in tllG c I ear wi Ll, b o f'orwa rd ed in the c,

hll such fo~~arding of messages done by telephone will be nade using the phonetic a Lph abe t 1j,J1:lerc applicable.

b. .h.ll Groups wi.Ll t r ansmi, t Lan d ln g and take-off reports

by the most exp edf tious means avaj La'b.l e, Reports required are as follows:

(l)_ TiYi~8 of' t.akeo rr of each ai r-o re r t , To indi cate that 11 scheduled aircraft C\rG '-ir-borne, "G18 word "end" wi Ll, be used following the five Lo t t o:r group of the last aircraft beconing airborne.

( 2)' Time of Lan cd ng of 'a borts or early returns.

(3) Tirllo of landing of each aircraft. To indicated

that all ai r-croft ha va ] an d ed , the wor-d if end" wi L), be used folIo ing the five letter ''rOU) of t:: e lost aircraft landing •

• 1>-

-~ ................... ~


. ; ·:::~~~ri(:·'·.

C. il. gro up count is not us ed , in the He1;lding of 8. 'procedure

mea s ag e ,

d. The long break (BT) is not used to seperate the Text from the othor .comuon en t.s of a Procedure mea except, wh er-e D. date

time gr-o up is- assigned the' massage. .

~~ ~ P~occdure message may carry the precedence deSignation considered necessary to ensure ac c cmp Li.ahmen t of its p ur-po ae ,

; ... 11 rues s age s t r-ansnf, tted froLl 2i rcraft vvill be as sumed to. carry an OF precedence, so that unless·ri higher priority is considered ne e es sary, no precedence n eed be indi ca t ed in tho heading of a Pr-oc ed ur-e me s aage ,


COD ES ;'..1l'"D CT PrIZES


-,,,,ircraft code CSP 1270 (;) 'will. be cc.rried in all aircraft. 0


i;{K '" TL.ER BRQ:·;.D 9 ... ·..8 TS

e , J, ... laco wea che r broadcasts will be mad o every hour on the hour by all Grou) ail~-g:r(Hmd stations and by the 1C~ Bcn bo r- COTiruand ground station. If, ill the o})inion of t:16 Operations Officer, weather condi tions Il2,1{o .it ne o es ea ry , .t:o..laco woc-tiler rHIY be broadcast at any other inteTv2l he may direct.

,:L~ ..:~l Grou:;;> air-ground stati ons recei ving any of t.h e m.essages outlined in l)(ll'"'e.grapb, 3a (1) thru (8) above, v/ill Lrimedia tely relay t.u en to the XX Bomber Command CP at Es i.n chi ng by the most expeditious moans available, Such messages, if received in code need not be r-c on coded , but 1JI1ill be fo r"vi6.rded 6.8 rocei ved , II,'Iessages recel ved in t'13 clear v\ri.ll be t'o rwar-d ed ill the clear.

All such fOI'v; of rae s 8abGs done by t.e.Lephon c will be riad e using tho phonetic 1i~~1eI'o applicable,

b. .hll Groul)s will t r-ansm i t Land in g and .talcO-Off reports

by the mos t exped i tious 1118ans ilvail.s.'ble, Reports required are as f o.l Lows :

(l)_ Tim,e of' takeoff of each aircraft. To indi ca te th at all scheduled aircraft are air-borne, the wo rd ('end~Y will be used following tho five letter group of the last aircraft becoDing airborne.

(2)' Time of Inndine:, of 'aborts or carly returns.

(3) TiLlC of landing of each aircraft. To indicated

that all aircraft have landed, t110 word i'ien(lH vnll be used following tile fi ve 1 stter 6rou) of the last aircraft 1 nding.

Page 10 (5 Doc 44) of Soc ~ Doctrine

ouraun i c _, ti ons - 'I'a c ti CEll

c , These landing take ... off renorts 'will be submi, tted immediately after ca ch aitcraft takes off or La nd s f using the following syst(~:i1:

(1) ~ five nilllber group will be used, the first three number-s baing tho 1('> st e numbers' of the aircraft serie.l nunbe r' end tLe last two numbers the number of minutes past the hour the aircraft landed or be came a i r-bo rne ,

(2) 1'J. ten Let t ar code word will be assigned each Group.

The five number group will be encoded end transmitted and sn own in the following examp Le :

(a) ",· .. ircraft numb e r 43-8446 took off at 1017. The fi VG l11.LBb or group would t hen be 44617. The

t cn, letter co do word 8.S si gned is HCORIifR',sKET.:t The five nurab cr group would. be encoded by substi tutipg the 8.)propriate letter for the corresponding number:


12345 6 789 0

(b) In this cnse the fiv~ letter group would be trans_li tted as "TN~:"CS.

(3) Ten letter code wo r d s are assigned each Group in the SOl.

15. T""JLST iiESS __ GES

a. So that a con e t.en t time ano Lys.i s rGSEl.rding the passing

of ground to air traff'i c r18.y be raai.n tained, an d So th at commun i, cations personnel raay rocol ve p re.c t Lco (under actual tacti cal c cnd.L-> tiona) in the passing of such tTaffic, nircrows nay, et any tillG While in f Li gh t during a mi s sian, exp ect to receive a mearri.n.g.l os a message, on wh no r.c t i on will be t akcn other than the proper log

entry by tho radio operator. .

b. TheSG mes sages will bo originated and h an d Led in the follow ing nannor :

(1) r~essnges ";ill be prepared by the XX Bomber Comtir.nd Oomnund c at.Lon s Offi ce r at tho Comr:lQnd post and the time of tran sIai t t'-l will be coordi nate with the Operations Section Project Officer a~signQd the mission.

puge 11 (5 De c 44) of Section VIII - Co·'.· It ications - Tactical

Doctrine _.. ..

, .,

.. ., )<~~f:-":~."~!,;

( 2)

( 3)

( 4)

.. A ~ - ~ .: ~ ', _

. . ~ ~ .

. ;,·r:~;tl :. -~::.~ ~T ; • .:.~: ,~,I _~~!:,~~ ...

The message. vVill consist of not mo r e than .ten (1.0) code g·ro ups , li;i t~l tLe wo I'd iT O_UI:lI.lyi; ins erted 8. t the begi nn i ng of the nes sace•

The ~essage, after being encoded in the aircraft code will be t r an sru tted via land-line or point-to-point radio to tho satelli te ba s e s , v.Ji t h the wo r-d s ;'EESSAGE FOR ; ... I:CCRl:~FT P~· .. SS TO GROUND P"; .. DIO STi .. TIOr: FOR IMIIEDI .. · .. T::I: TR.uJSHISSIOU;' being ins erted in the clear, immediately before the encoded text.

'Upon receipt at the aa t al.Li. te bases, such a ues sage will be directly relayed to the g rc und r8.dio station for ll.:lLlediat8 t ransmt ttal of the coded text to the aircraft. .

c. The message, vrhen t.ransnu tted to the aircraft, will n cr-naj.Ly be addressed to tlj_e Lead crew aircraft. If a lead c r ew cannot be contacted, message will be passed to dep'uty leader. If nei thaI' Lcad.; nor deputy can De con tc c't ed c indi vidual' aircraft in the flight will be called until contact is n ad.e , end the m.essage pes sod to that aircraft. If ground station finds contact with aircraft Lmpoa ed b Le ,

XX Bonber Command ground. st a ti on will be no t i.t'Led , Upon such notification, XX Bomber COLJIlQnd s t.a td on v .... ill imTIediately t rcnsnu t the

mea eage addressed to the collective cull sign of the Group to which such aircraft arc assigned, Ground stations of other GrouDs Bay

also be r equ es t ed to Lns t.r-uc t their aircraft to Q t.t.errpt pc s si ng m.essage by air-to-air relay.

d. j:..ircraft to wl ich message is addressed will o..clmowledge receipt. Renat nde r of aircraft Lrrt er-c ep t.Lng message it·Jill copy

aame en d log t.Lme of Lrrt er cep ti 011. ,,' .. ir craft to wn om n os aage is

addressed, will after acknowledging receipt, con tc o t other e i r cr nf t in forma tion on air-to-air coznnand channel GIl d escertain that 0.11 aircraft intorcepted nessoge, relaying message to. those aircraft v;hich did not intercopt. 'Ino so e i r-c rnf t rocoi ving no ss agc by relay vlTill So indi cnto when logging raee ,

e. During those nissions .whe n tr<J.nsdi tt.::l of ac tuc l tncti-

cal ground to c ir trc..ffi c t.a ~GS l)l['~co, tli us providing tl'iC n oe es ser-y statistics_ for tiue c na Lys Ls , test no s sagcs \·vill not bo t.r-an snri tted.

page 12 (5 Dec 44) of Scwti on VII 1- CO" nuui. eEL ti ons - 'I'ac tri. CELl Doctrine

----------~-- _- -


sse TIOli vr It

A. Ttl!? following signals are for use' Tai th the C-3 .Udis Lamp faT inter,:< plane communications. All messagesP::'l'ecei ved will be pro:gerly aclmOlJ~ledged., .,_


• . _,
Q. .Aborting ('wing to leader) or aborting
take- over lead' (leader to w!i1ng)
.. r r
C)J) Aborting or leaving formatto;n in dis~
tress, will ditch, bail out" or crash
FL Take formution Le ad s j,
FJ Join me in formation.,
Fe Close up formution
X Have reached altitude fo~ bomb l,'un
N Taking neW heading to alternate bose
or alternate target.
~1 Jdrspeed too slow.
IF Am. increasing power.
U Airspeed too fast.
, '
L lfuat is our locatiorr~' L Our Locat.fcn is
( 0 " ) N
( Q , ) S
( 0 , ) E
( 0 , ) 1'1
0 Are we off course-? 0 We ore off course
I nQutical
miles, north, south,
east, or west
H What ET/I.? I·
is our Our Ern"; is
(~estinntion, rendezvous, target )? H GCT.

. -

• • 4-:":

I -clt' .. _ . -, ., _" ~.b

• ( ••• " ..... '" ~ ... " ;.,...._. -.' 'I ... ~·.~;,

-.. ."" -. ,_. ~ -. ,,"f .. ; ';'"



i I ~~, ,I I •

~Tha:t is our gro'und speea?<" i.

What is wind?

,'. ~. ~'

• ~. I"'" ... ,



Our ground speed is' knots



Wind 1s -------0

______ ,.._;knots 0




Rad~r out (W~ng to le~de~) radar out, take ever load', (leader to wing) ~ ,



: -.
VC Turn off ~adar (leader to wingman)

Pr-sper .. e for descent thru overcast 0

frepare fpr ascent thru overcasto

Prepare to climb~

Prepare.fop penetration of front.

~4m trying to contact yell: on interplane frequency.

~ trying to .contact you Cor, try tc q<;mtap~ .me) on liai.son frequency

channel number- • Corcmand set

is out.



I:_; . the folloWiI).g Gorre~t?

, -

'SaY again


McsSaee acknowledged

F ,"

On course


, ;y

, . ."

·~\~·IIIitI;"...,._· -,..._. ..... ..





7 -December, 1944




a. CVJ conmun'i ca t l on s will be in acoordance wi th ]1,1 24-10, Combined Radio Telegraph (WiT) Procedure~


b. Voice communications will be in acco radance wi th FIV1 24-9, Conbined Radio IJ:1elephone l~/T\) fPocedure. '

c. The oper~ting signals c~nt~}neq. in F11 24-13, Air Extract, Combined Oper~ting Signals, wl1~ be u~ed,

, ,


d. Of neces s l ty, some deta'i;Ls in the broad c omrnunf cations plan must vary. These va~iab+e-detail~, such as call signs and frequencies, have been omitted in ~l1is pu'Olication, and will be furnished in the pertinent Field Orders or in the Sal.

e. The monito;ring of our radio facilities by the enemy may provi'tle him with valuable intelligence information. Any unnecessary or unusual radio acti vi ty might endanger the success of

a mission. Therefore, stridt radio discipline must b~ observed. Strict adherence to the routine outlined herein will provide that discipline.

f. ,Ai.rcrews are cautioned not to rely on radio


stations as navigational aids.


a. Group air-ground stations located in the Rear Area will provide comm.unication 'for aircraft aas Lgned aach Group. For this purpose, each Group will be assigned a number of frequencies to enable complete frequency coverage to be obtained. Aircraft will reoe'i ve' and transmi t on ,the frequencies in use by the ground station of the Group 'to whi ch the aircraft are assigned. Group. stations will employ simultaneous tTansmission on appropriate frequencies to insure t.ha t full coverage is obt ai ned , and aircraft will employ t.haf frequency whi cb gives maximum. r eaul. ts. In the event of an emergency, aircraft may establish cornnunication with any Group station the airplane commander desires to oontact.

otions - Tactical


b. A watch will be mainta'ined ,by the aircraft during ,flight. This wat ch need no t i be continuoust maintained during the fi:rst and ~hird fifteen (15) of each hour.

radio operator but it will be minute quadrants

c. ~o enable the aircraft radio operat.or to d e t that his receiver is properly tuned, the Group stations will broadcast a series of V's) followed by tihe. station call sign, during the first minute of e a cn fifteen 1Uim~,te quadrant of the hour.

d. WiT call signs will ,be as assigned in SOl.


a. Aircraft will maint~in r-adf,o discipline at all while in flight, and wi~l not engage in sup'orflous transmissions of any description. It is contemp·latea.-','tlje· messages listed below will,· ,',. be sent using the AN/ART-13"trunsmitter) and that the transmitter should. not be used fqr other, tr~n8Ini'$sj,OllS exc ep t when requesting D/F aid, when utilizing ai:r-to,,:,,£ll,r homi ng., when 'in distress, or when in the opinion of the ai·rplano oommande r. its use is necessary. The following messages) will be addres'sed to the Group

stction and normal call,...up nrHi anewer procedur-e will be used,

except where another type bf'.tr&nsmission is spec.ifically directed:

, . .


. . .. ,

If an ai reroft \ eriroute to' 'the torgel'Es aborts, it

wi11 immediately send a message encoded in CSP 1270 ( ) I giving position of aircraft and renson for abort.

'Date time group will indicate time of 'turn.

Airoraft will 'send an attack warning message upon being intercepted. The messuge will be sont .in the clear and blind broadcast type of transmission will be used. It will contain the number .and of enemy aircraft and the a.o:t{e, time group wil,l indi cat e time of in,terception. The phrase iit.)Nl'iNOWN" w!ll be used if enemy nircratt cannot .be identified. For,' the purpose of this publi CD,'ti6ti~ fiblind broadcast

type of tro.nsmission1' will . be. construed to mean .

that each group of the text: is repeated twice) thnt the message is sent without .i~1i tial call-up and that no receipt is expected by the ai,rerart .". Ground station may, ~lOWeWGr, ask fOT r epea t if necessary. If .. aircr.aft are flying in r'ormatd on , only the formation !..£ader will send the message.

For example:

" .



pago 2 (7 Do o 44:) of' Scction VIll - Commun i ca'td on s - Tactical

Do ct.rd no ,

( 3)

'. ~~".';'1II" . . ' ;"' .:~ : .. :'.' ~

A 11 bombs avvay" message wi.ll be sent. by cac., aircraft bombing individually, or if bombing is don G in f 0 rmQ tion, by the !,orl!lati o!!_ .!_.oo.c1 or only. 11Bombs away" messages will be s en t Lmmed l e ne Ly after bombs have been released and. the date time g ro up of the message wi.Ll, indicnte time' of bombing. The following code will be used in preparing the messago:

( 0.) Target bombed' ':

r primary target.

S - secondary target. T - alternate tnrgot.

L - lost resort target.

o ~ target of o?portunity.

R p r i.mery radar t.a rge t ,

( b) Hothod of

A - visual.

B - blind or radar.

(c) Observed. results:

'1 Excellent: moaning hits on al~lng point. 2 - Good: meaning few hits on the aiming


3 - FGlr: moaning hits in the target area. 4 - Poor: meaning mi s sed t.lie target area. 5 V"nobservcd.


Numbc r of aircraft bombing will bo indi eatod by 0. two digi.t nume r-Lcr.L deSignator as tho last two characters of the messnge. Tho numbers one (1) through nine (9) will be preceded by the. number zero (¢) to form n two digit group when those n~~bers are used.

( e)

The five che re c t.e r message thus ovolved will bo repented three ti lCS to insure roee,tion. For instance:

3b.3 V 671 NR3 - 061724Z - BT PA3Q8-PA308 PA308 - BT - K

(~'IOClning in'imary - target was bombed vi s ua Ll y by eight aircraft. Observed results were ~hat hits were mQ~ in the tQ~got creu.

Pago 3 (7 D 00 44) of' Scct;ion VIII - Coramuni cat ions - TD.cti cal Doctrine.


="" i.,,1 '; r 'i ... ,,,.~, ;:' ,.,' . - -

.. ,

~ •• ~. "J ~, ",.,,~~; •• 'w •

..-.~ "

(4) Indi vidual Ln bound aircraft wi Ll. t ransnf.t an encoded l.)osi tion report when f ou.r hundrod (400) rai.Le s f:rOIi1 base. If aircraft a re in ro rna t.Lon , posi·tion report -will be snu tted by f'orrrat.i.on leader only, en d number of ai nc re t't in fOrDO: tion will be ,indi ca t e.d ..

( 5) ~'Urcraft in distress, wi.Ll., if di stress is not ir.mineut, send em encoded distress mo s sugo indicating position of aircraft, plus any pertinent detoils. If distress is imminent, message

ELa.y be sent in the clear, but such clear text

ries sages sen t while over enemy terri tory w.ill

not -c oa t.a'i n position Of aircraft" If distress occurs while over wat er-s where nir-sea rescue craft are avat.Lab Le, aircraft, 'will if tine allows,

t r-ensmi t distress message outlined above to U

ground stnt:ion before Gontacting rescue craft ..

(6) .l~rcraft which a re forced to land at other than

. • XX -Borabe.r ccmaand bases wi Ll, contact their Group groWld s t.a t i 011S aft e r Ian din g if radi a eg_ u Lpm.en t can still be used.. (See part B, Section :xII, N.lergency Procedure). i~ll such comnunications will be encoded in CSP 1270 ( ) and vJill be

kept to the absolute rn.nimun • .: ... irplane COr.ITJ.and only vdll aut horize such t ran s ... :J.i s ai.ons ,

(7) If so ordered in the Field Orders, o i r c r ar t flving over wat o r iiJill ir]:mediately report any convoys sighted.. ", .. t ro rc r t V] ill usa sene mothod of raportlllc as is outlined in paragrah 33 (6),

Par-t I, Seotion VIII, Corannin tc at Ions , 'I'ac t t ca L Doct.rino,?'\7ith the oxc ap t Lon that ne s sugc s V'ill

be initially t r-ansrat tted to the Group ground ion r a t ne r tl1Jn to tho ::C;C Bombor Command ground s t a t ion 0

:i?J.G-J 4 (30 Doc 44). Tl"is supo r-sodo a Page "'1 (7 Doc 44) of PClrt III Section VIII - Commun.ioo.tions - TQcticc..l Doctrine.

- ~ -.".

'; ~.. ~.~

. ~~)

1. ~ • '. - • ~


......... , • " ,., I

, , .. _ ,.'" ., .

a. Aircraft in distres's ove-r. waters whe re' British -air-sea r,cs'cuc . ti cs. CLre' available mIl transfni t' .. di stres s tl.~affi c ' using OW and in the clear.

,~. '

. ,


. ·b:,;. Di·stress'm.essage wi1'l in-Qlude "];loBi t.Lon of ai r cr ar t , and reason for distres s io If ditching is con t.emp La t.ed , that fact should be indicated and, if po s at'b.l,e , posi tion report sent im-

med.i.c tc Ly prior .t.o ditching. ,.... , . . .


c •. Distress traffic will be 'addressed to 8YQ, (Eight-Y-Q) which is the air-groillld station ma:lntain·e.'d . .by .the Air-Sea Rosclle Unit o"f the strategic J.I.J.r Force at Calcutta. The fol19wing trec:plencics

will be used: . . . .

(1) Day frequency: 4030 kilocycles (0900 to 1900 IST} (2) Night frequency; 3195 kilocycles (1900 ~o 0900' IST~

d. Station·.8YQ upon receipt' 0-[ distress t:hiff'i c will aleTt air-sea rescue units. " .... : "

e. Posi tion of r-e s o ue craft will be announced :2.t . .Final Er.ief!... ing and aircraft in distress should attempt to ditch as close as po as i bJ..o to.' .br-Lef od pcsi tion of rescue crnf·t.

f. united States air-sea roscue facilities, if :providqd"will be anno un c od in tIl 0 Fi old 0 rde r s • Ai rcr aft wi 11. ,'.contG.:ct .: thd's~e:~ .' facilities using frequency, call sign~. procedure, etc. DS outlined in'ParagrapIi 4, part .I~ Se.ction VIII, Tsctical- Doc t.r Lnc ,' .. .

. '" ' .. .,

a .•. Air~to,; r communi co tioD. will be ac comp Li eh od as o~tllned in .pa'rag raph 5) Part 'I, : Section VIII~ Tacti cat, Do'qtrine.'

6. AIR ... TO:.-MR HOHING·.

a, Air-to-air homing will be accomplished as,.o"utli'ned-'in ..... paragraph 6" Part I., Scction VIII) Tactical Doctrine.

• ,~ • • 10



.. . . . '

, .

a, IFF equipment (SCR-695) '(~ill be utilized on miQsions as

prescribed .Ln SOl'. .. ... " ' ..

., '

. ,L. ~

~ '" ~ .0;,

Page ~' ('7 .noc 44) Of Sodti<J!J:'.· VIII Doctrine ..


' ..


. .



a. ,Air-ne._vigation-al., faQili tics in In9.ia are outlineQ. .in the ICD-ATC· Radio Fnci,li ty Chart and in epe cd af . mi ssion briefing data •

. ' {,

b. Direction finding (D/F) stations located at the base assignod, each G~oup wil;l. pTovide D/F aid to aircraft contacting Group gl'oWld, , . . .,


c. .Airplane commanders are remindcQ. that any India broadcast s ta t.Lon may be usod 2S on air-navigational aid.

, '

cit ' l~irc~C'~ft ';vill . usc normal ce.ll-up and,' answer procedure as outlined in paragraph 9, 'Part I, Scotion VIII, Tactioal Doctrine.


" .

p. Fox type trunsmissi9n~ wi],l be made :as o}ltlinod in paragraph 10, Pert :t~ Soction VIII, Tactical Dootr:i,n~ •



, "

a. il.i'rcrC1ft will use procedur'c type messages as out Li.ned -Ln 11, Part I, Section VIII, Tactical Doctrine.

12 ~ C'ODES' "Jill CIPHERs

- . ,

• • • • I.

a ..... ircraft code CSP 1270 ( ) will DO cEj.rriod·;lll ,all aircraft.

, I .


Villi .. TIlER BRO:.n C~·..sTS

'! ••

•. 1,",.· •

a,..j",lo.oo. wcat.ncr br,oo.dcasts will be made every hour. ~O1.l, the half hour by aJ,l G:t:'oup ground st at rons , If, ip. '4he qpinion.of the .. Operations dfffcer, 'weather coridf, tions make it necessary, ~~ .. Lace weather may be broadcast at any othcr intorval he ~QY··~.~r.e:o~.~ .' ~


"t .,

a. The nircr'o.ft reporting syslt'Cm. out'lined in paragraph 14, Part I, Scction VIII, Taotical Doctrino will b e omp1oy:,:?d ~:~~ng missions f'Lown from tho India Bases.


• i'_ •


0., Test messages, us outlined in parcgraph 15, Part I, Seotion VIII, Tactical- Doctrino, I'vill be ,tran~r.rltt6d d,\Jrip.g'JJ.j,.s,si.ons flown from tho India Bases. '

Page 6 (7 Dec 44) of Section VIII - 'tOInmunioations Doctrine,


a. o.t} connum cations will be in ac cordance '\lvi th Ill.! 24-10, Comb ined ·R.adio Telegrap~l {W!T}· Pr oc edur-e ,: .

b. . 'Ioloe commun.i ca tions will' be in a cco r-dan de with FI\i 24-9, Com bined Radio· Tel.ephone· (R/T)' Pro'cedure~

, .




5 December 1944

t .• "



1 • GEt~ZRAL • .

o. Th.e operating signals con taineCi in liN 24-13, .. tir EJ;rtract,

Combined 'Operating Signals will 'be us edt '.. . :.

d. Of ne ces si ty, some <letai Is . in the broad communi cations plan must vary. These v~riable~detail.S, such .. as call signs and ... :':; ' .. ".'" ,~ freq uencies, have been omi tted. in this pub.l Lc ata on , and will be

furnished in SOl.' . ..

e. - 'The moni taring of our r'ad.i o fa'ci1i ties by 'the ~-nem'Y may' provider him ,i\lith valuable intelligence' information! Any unnecessary. orl..U1u8uo.l radio activity llught endanger tne success of a missiou'~ Therefore, strict radio discipline must be observed. Strict ad-.'

her enc e to the routine outlined ITer-oin 'Vvillprov.ide· that discipline. ,

f. Aircrews arc cautioned that Japane'se re.dio stations .must

not be relied upon as navigational n:ids.·



a. .iii rc·r.e.ft 'will r enat.n . und or con tro 1 of the l..i r craft Traf fi o Control Center (.h.TCC") at lisinching from takeoff until clea~itJ.g : the Local i",rca.,·

h. Return ing air craft will, t b.TCC upon entering Local l.ron and wi.ll rcmai.n und.or'i-.TCe l, unti.l le,ncling., ,

- " ~ .



a, The. XX Bomber- Oommand station Lo oatied at Hsinching will provid~ .communicc.tions. for'wec.t·her and photogrQ.pll;ic·

• .'" 'i>


aircraft For this purpose t he st'ation' "'Nill transmit and r0cei ve

on three (3) CW frequencies simultaneously, J-drcraft wil~ normat Ly commun i cate ·.""i th this stati on only, but in the event contact is lost, aircraft may can tact any i-!!~CS, 14th .l .... ir Force or other

XX Bomber Command air-gropnd installation •.

,- J"

b. ..: .. watch will on the uo s t sui t.ab Le tho ground station.. be maintained during rents of thG hour.

be nll3.:i..n, 'by 'tpG' aircraft radio 0_ cr at orof t:L10 .. three (l3)" - fret{uoncios provided by

Tl1i,s Hatch nee¢! not be continuous, but will "t,l:G .:'irst end third fifteen (15) m.inute quad-

. '

I • ~ • . . • . '.' '. •

c. To enable t~u aircraft radio operator to,deter.m~ne th~t

his recei ver is proJ?erly t uned wh en, 'aircraft are airborne, the - ground ~_tp.tion will bro ad.cas t, a s~Jrics of V' .s-,.. followed by the station t S co.llsi&;n, during the first r.linute of. every fift-G'on,' min..:

ute quadrant of the hour. ' .

cf'. TerIilino.1" weather will be e..'vail8;b:l.e upon request to .th e .,

ground station. I·


a. .:.J.rcraft will maintain radio eli scipl'ine at all times whiie in flight, and will not engage in superfluous transrlllsst on's of' . any description •. It .I s contemplated that the. follovving messages wi.,ll bO,.sent'using the lio.'ison transmittor and that .t ran snt tt or . sho ul.d 'not be used 'for .. other trnnsmissions except: When in dis ... tross,..,},lhell r-q9,uGs.ting D/F l1id' o'r wnon in "the opinion o~ tho ai r->. pletne ·cormander its us o is n cces sar-y, These messages vi,ill be ':. adcir'os sed to t-'l e XX Bomber' ComllF:.nd gro und stati on and normaj ceIl .... : . up and an swo r pro c edur c will be usod for tho transmission of all sagcs CXCGl:lt' tihos o specifi~@.J;:ly directed .. to be transmi ~ted . using ano t.ho r mo thod ,

(1) In ordor to proV'o·nt''"Unnocossa.rily alorti'ng-·tr"iendly : defense inst.e:llntions by aircl,;'aft r e tur-ni ng from enemy held terrftory" i t Ls .l}e·cessa~y" ,that e.Ll, aircraft returning to' base· • transmit a coded message indicating that they are entering friendiy terri to ry , This message will be sent from. a distance approximately

four huno.r.ed (400) mi Lca :from tho .h9.lliG base u~on crossj,;n~ ~hG '

general lino of scnycn (34° 38'. N _ 10So. 57! E) "_ Iehang (300'

47' N - 1110 19t1~E) - Ch enchou (2eo'17'N-'110o"14'E) .. ..:. 'Yuahchown (270 15·N _ lOgo S5'E). This massage will. consist offfthree . letter code group t'o l.Lowod by the po sd.t i.on of- the. air.craft •... 'rho three letter code group ~tGGGIf will. be used by weather e Lr-c rar t

end tho throe 'le t t'or code group' tt_i=ippli will be 'Jsed by pho t.ogr-aphf c E:.ir8ratt. Positton will bo given using fnlse grid 'designated in

.. - r

• r


SOl, cad tho da to time g roup crossing. For exorrp'l c :

will Lnd l ca t.c time of

(V Cc~ thor [,ircreft) 5X5 V 342 - 061916Z - BT G(}GZN BT - K


(:;::l:oto aircraft) 5~\p V 742

( 2)

( 3)

( '* )



If an aircrc.ft o u t.bound on a rri s al on r-t.s ['.ftor having eros sed the four h und'r-ed (400) nti Lo lrno l t will iroTi1cdi at.o.l y t r-ansrri. t e. coded 1:1 os sa go gi ving posi tion of the p.ircraft end ree.son for abort. Dote tino grou}) of I:18SS8.go will indi co t e tiDo of turn. Upon recrossing the four hundr-ed (400) mile line inbound, ai r-c rar t 1;11111 coup'l y '''1i th the p roc od ur-e au tlined in )8.J;."G.gra:pll 4a (1) above •


If en ai r crur t outbound on a missionuborts before

having crossed the four hundred (400) nile lrncrt \i'ill iW:lGdiately send a ne s sage stating the base to \,.111i c n returnil':I.S, the ·2.1 ti.tude and course on whi ch returning arid tho ET..!' .. at bc s e 0 Base to wl1i ch returning V.Ji11 be indi ca ted by the control t.owe r- c al.L and appropriate :t C::' If s i gna.Ls will be us ad to convey other inf 0 r ... "!18 ti on. Fa r 8XDI:1P 1 e :

5X5 V· 671 NRl·_ 0514172 - "'3T ~··l.C CU Q,l .. H 4500 ~;.TI

nircr8ft viill sond an a t.tic ck war-ni.n graessage upon being intercepted.. The ~!lOssagG "viII be aon t in the c Lo ar and blind br-ocd caa t tyj)e of t.r en srai.s v'JiII

be used. It wili contain. the number 2.nd typo of en ony ei rcre.ft ['.no. the d a t o group will indicato t Im e

of Ln t er-c ep td on , 'I'h o phr-as o ;iui:rrGij"O~"ll\jll will be used

if onO::1Y c i r-cr-c.r t cannot bc i~lGntifiod. For tho

p urpo se of tl1is publication '!blind b ro ad ces t type

of trc.nsnission" will be construed to m ecn thtlt each group of the t.cxt i s rop 0 e. te d twi co and the t n os s 0.30 is s on t wtthou t initial cell-up, nor is receipt ox-p octad by thcai.rc).:·cft. Ground s t a ti on nay , howevcr , ask for r-ep ce t if no c c s anr-y , FOT cxerip Le :

5X5 5Z5 V 671 671 .., NR2 - 06 l714Z - BT SIX SIX TOL YS TONYS .. : .. TT~· .. CKING .. .,TT ... CKING BT ..,. ;,R

( 5) .nircro.;ft, wh en flying over wa tor, \I;i1l r epor t any convoys si ghtad, in,Llod.iately upon si ghting. Radar contacts if mado will be reported ~s such~ The

"(""''4'\4\ •• ~ ~#"'~·"·*1\""'''''~''4~.

. : ... : ~ . : ~ . 'II

1'13 SSIl go ma kO-'up, pas it ion, tru,e

course and astimQ.ted s pac d of tho convoy in knots, and ,w ill be oncodod in CSP 1270 ( ). Ir.nnod i'"'tc ly ufter such a message has bocn sent to tho groQ~d station~' it will bo sent, a.guin on 4475 .kilocycles and nddrossod to the onll sign CQO (C-Q- Z0ro) air-soo. r3SCUC crf.;.ft, will be monitoring to intercept such mas scgo s .. Such a mo aaage 'bcforG oncoding) miGht bo:



_....... ' . ....--


SEV!!:N SP~:i,D .c:IGHTE~N !IT. - K

l6j Wh311 en o.ircro,ft iiS in df.s t ro ss , Q, distress message w;ill bc vscnt , If' ro ss is not Imm.Lnorrt • .d t s-. tress m cs VJ ill bo anc oded in GSP 12?:O .(\ ) ,

and vdll indicQto tho position of·thO aircraft, plus any ps:rt r norrt dotui ls 0 If d Lst ro as is

Im .. ntriont , distress me s aagc may b o sont in the e13~r~ but such clc~r toxt mossQgos sont While

ovor c nony t0rritory \iii ill not tnc Ludo position

of thG ircrclft ~ If distrGss occurs ovo r- waters who ro ;.:tir-scn roscuo craft ar o nva t Lab.Ic , a i.r craft will, if t tmo o.llows 9 t ransmf t distress mess go

out Lt nc d J.bovo to ground station be rc r-o Co ntae't Lng Qir-s~o rescuo craft.

t?) 1.J. ircrc.ft which aro .forced to lund. at o t hor tho.Il :XX Bomber' C017lli1O,n d bases vlill oo ntae t th0 xx:

Bogbor COl~lQn,d Groill~d Station nftor landing

if rc,d io equipment can st ill b 0 used. (SGO Pc rt B, Soction XII, Emergoncy ProcQd.urc). All such cOl~~unic~tion will bo 8ncodod in CSP 1270 ( ) and will bo kcp t to the ab ao Iut e mfn tmum , Airpl~no COTImDnd0rS only will authorizo such

t ons (i ,


no Alrcr~ft in distress over wators whore air-son roseuc crc.ft a r o ava Ll.ab Lo will usc t.he following pr occdur-c s in

o ont ae t t ng rc sc uo crc.ft:

'1) Ro scuo c rar t o.t dosignotad loc:::t ions will guar d end t r-an sm i't on 4475 k i Loc yc Lo s Gnd will ... lso gu~rd 500 kilocyclose

p. go 4 (30 Doc 44~ This supo re ade s pn go .:1 (5 Dcc 4l~) ofpr1rt IV

Sc c t Lon VIrI - Oorarrunfcc t.Lcns - 'I'ric t Lo.i L Doctrine.


t 2) If di t ch ing is 110 C C S s'lry, o ircro.rt s ho uld "hono "on roscuc cr~ft7 und ditoh as ncar to it ~s -pos'ibloo If it is apparent that ditching will not tako

p Lc c o in tho tmmcdtc t o vic inity of tho z-o so uc

c rar t , a ircrL1ft VJ ill t r an sm I t fa lloyd n[; nos aago on 4475 kilocyclos:

'Q) Number of nilos aircraft is dist:tnt fron :J. gcogr~phicQl reforencG point.

( b) Oa Ll. sign of rCSCUG e rur t 0

(c) Truo bouring of nircroft fron tho gcogr~phic~l reference pointQ

(d) .e ssurn ng the e.i Ll. sign of thc.: r o scue or'lft to bo 11-S,d,LLY R.._U'JD", such 0. nGSS:1g{;l :might be:


b. Dur ing per iads wnon s t r t ko m i s s ions arc be ing f lawn r rom tho Oh ba so s , ro sc uo craft 1;7il1 also cpcr at;o IFF l; .. ar-k III c qu Lpnon t "ftor Erl::. of first o i r cr-cr t ovor tLlrgot ha s IUSSQd for usc 8.8 Q honing bcc oon in conjunct ion vlith SCR-729

cqu Lpmcnt; 0 • ,

c , Loc a t ton of r-e s o uo c rur t , 0::.11 sign of r3SCU8 cr;).ft

an d goo.g:r.J.phico.l r-e rcr onc o point to b c us cd in distress mcsaage will bo' o.nnouncod nt Final Briofingo

~l 0 10:. ir-to"'{lir c onnand connun rcab ions ;;\i 11 be c onduct o d c s follQ'\Js:

(1) OoranunIc nt t ons b8t~;.rcwn woat ncr o.nd/or photo .:tircr'}ft w i l.L bo c onductcd on tho XX Bonbor COIJf.1:.J.nd."",

c Ir cormaiad r z-o qucnoy,

( 2) t ions botvTJGn, wo.rt he r C'..nd/ or photo

c Lr-o rc ft end aircraft c s s Lgnc d to the various Groups will be oondudtod on the Qir-to-~ir cOTIGand froquoncy of tho Group 'tlith which c ont ac t is

dcsirodo '

b , R/T c a L 1 signs viill be ·')8 a s sLgnc d in sen ..


. ~ " ~ .

, " .;: ~~:, .,~,,: )':.: ..

7. ;.,rR-TO-_·..IR Hm,fING


a , ... .. ir-to-nir homing wh on utilized, w.ill b o c c comp Lt shcc by usinG the pro cedures outliued in XX Bombe r commend II,Ieno:rand lJr.l 10C-15.

r., IFF oqut pnen t (SCR-695) will be utili.zed 01: rai s sd.on s as proscribed in SOl.

,9. ~JR-]i; .. VIG ... TION~_L F.! .. CILITIES


Ct. _· .. ir-ni'.vigc.tionr:1 faci1i ties at the Ghine. bases ere outlined

in tile ICD- ... TC Ra.dio Fr..c.ili ty Cllr:rt and in special briefing d a t.a ,

10. NOm.: .. .'.L C",·.lL UP. ~. -D .J.' 71:;5: r:~rt P:rtO CEDU~E

- _._...----_, ... ..,...__

8." . Rftclio O~)OTCttors, when contacting ground radio stptions, ,,vill, unlcs s s p co i f'L c::'..ll.~r eli r6.ctocl othorvd SG in this pub Li. en tion, usc nornr1 c1".11 up end ['_l1SV;Cl~ pro cedur-e , s pro cedurc, descri bed below, v,;ill be.. stri ct1y edhcrcd to except in enorgoncy, when continuous c~.ll-ups nay op undo to con t.o.c t the .::;round re d Lo stu ti on:

(1) Initi,r:1 a t t onp t at con tcc td ng tho ground s natLon will be nad o using the long call-up end app r-o pr-La t e ~I (~1, 81 gria L, For exor.p.L G :

5X5 5X5 V 671 671 - rJ,ll"I - .K

(2) - If no G.I1SlVer is r e ce i vod fron till scali-up, operator v'lll wait one rri.nut.e fu'"1d repeat tho long cnll-up.

(3) If no a115v"Ol' is receivod. r rori tile e o corn Long call-up, o por-e.t.or will we.i t nhr-eo u Lnut e s and. t.hon t.ransrri t

:~is nos sage using Hfox\'~-type 't rnnsrai aai on ,


.---~ --

c. "Fox typo~t t.r-ansrrt s st ons L1S.d.o by cf r cr ar t \:1ri11 have the Lon g c111-uIJ"ropontccl a t tihc end of tho nos sago , For oX2D.!?lc:

:;X5" 5X5 V 671 671 NR'~ - F - 06191L1Z - BT FF'PZIJ FPPZN £!

5X5 5X5 V 671 671 - i~

12. PROCED1JRE' EJ',SS_ .. G~S

a. ~ procedure ~csscgo is a short Flaindrcss nossnge, tho pur-po se io r which is to cxp cd i t o trio h.:;.ndling of rae s sugua , Tlis


---_ .......... __ .... --, .. -


- • ~ • • , .,' ... ~ - J ....

. .

~1essage foI'TJ. will be used whore -app I b Le fOr transmitting messages during rtii ssd ons.,

b. Pro c ec ur-c mas ss ge s consist of O;_Jcrating Si€nals, call. signs,

identificEltion of rre s sn ge s and p ro s i.gns , if -nec es ear y,

c. I ... group count is not used in the Heading of a Procedure message.

d. TIle long break (BT) is not used to s09nrate the Text fran the other conponen t.s of E-Procedure message, exc ep t whore a date tin.e group is as si_gned the ucs sngo ,

e. .i .. Procedure message may ce.rry the pr-ccedcn o e dcsignati on considered necessary to ensure accomplishment of its ~)urpose. l~l messages t.r-ansru t t ed from m.rcrC'.ft will be as auned to car-ry an Op

- precedence, So that, unless CL higher priori ty is com~iderea. De C05So.ry, no precedenco need be indicated in the heading of 8. Procedure f.leS- .' sage.


B. i .. ircraft code CSP 1270 ( ) will be carried Ln aircraft.

b. Those ep ec.La.l codes nooded for oncoding oi: inf ormation peculiar to the purpose of the rai.asd on will be- carried as deemed nece-ssnry ..




'Ph~ out\lO~:t'tr.,oentfil' .-:plateio~· thec:i:;ing 0 ~ .:.'. ';' -,,'O.e g·utbo ar d engine nacelle is painted in squau.i'J.L.. COl0I'S~

._~.~ "r ... /\l'~~'~;l 01 ._, ~ 'J ~" .. : ~"'" : .~: ....... ," ~ ", " .... , ~

.' ,

, .

A' ~Each 0.a.1 'airo.ra.f't- 0 'f1. 6 ach:~G'l'O(lp/i'8 pain t~d w it'h the following

• p ., :diL.stin'· !1,del1t·~fi.cati·'on ~rk1ng~',;' ';". :.:-

IIIii .' • ~ .. ,_~ :~ ....

'.J. .",

.. ,t,'" ': X. t

a, 40th Bomb Gro up:

. ,

:.','- .. \ ~, :'!",. "":. j,. ".,'.~' '. ~.: ~ .... ;'~~. - ~

{l) TOp of the yertical stabilizer ,and stripes on the vertical stabilizer with individual sq~dron colors •

four (4) horizontal and ruddei is painted

.. ,

. :

I ~ ','

. ,.(:2) A .Ia rge b'Lao k le.tte.r ,is paiIt:teq,just ',belbw<tha airplane serial number. Alpnabetical letter have no consistent meaning within the s~\uad;l:9~.,:C?r~;~tQp.l?~;.::.~~~'~ "~ .. ,'. ' .... :,.~. '.~ •

, :. ~ ~ '. ,' , b. : 444th Bqmb:, GTOUP:.' '.:.-

;'-,' ... "'.

~. ,. I ,.' ~ " ,

, , .' ' .. 'to' ~" : • ", ~ ~

. ,

• k , - .. ::~


(1) A stripe two·(2) feet in width is painted around the fusel ... . " ,_ j,US"t· fQ;r'Wa.rd' 0 f: the' top'; gunner' S', 81 gh ti Dg'. s ta ti on, If6di vidual s~.;.uadron 00101'8 .are used ,. ," ," '~ .,

( 2) A 180 rge di @.!!lSi ~_d_ w i1::h 'a ll~~~~~ .. i~n . ~I;1'~:, ~~i},t-e!.;, l~: DB: tn;te d. on the vertical stabilizer above the airplane serial number •

. ,; .... :,' : .;: :'·,on silver, 81rc:raft"the ddamond is. b1ue., and the n.umber is ,,' ... ' yellow. on:Q-a,mouflagea;'ai:foraf-t.;, the diatn(}Ii.Q, is 'yell,w

.r> '::~. an.d the, numb' blu~.:· ".).'<·'~·-·i -.~;~"f'"

, " .

(3 )

('~ )

The nose wheel cover plates are painted ~OJl....(lolors.


-.:... j .. ,.: C ." ':4.62nd -Bomb. GTQU Pi" .... .: ';': "". ,;~,'.' ~'._ .. ,': '

' .

(1 )

• ~ • j " .... : I ' '"'"

~, .' ••• ,'. ,'" ".J'. - ,

The rudder on,a:j.l ·.atrc,ra~~;·is :·p§.·:i,.n~ed~.;;ol;td red color •

! ~,.,

. (2) A l.'8rge ·bl.aQ~ :le.tte.r i s pl;li·.n·t~d· On'.:veu:t;ica.1 stabilizer , , ~'B:'bQve . t,he -ai :r:mle:ne ;:;se:r ;11;111 • .t!ll:mb eI'.,·::, ": ].' '.' ",';

" .. ' '~.:' .. :" _-;.~ ):".:~.'.J' ~.: :." -, ~11;; "~~' .... :.',:,J;":t

(3) A large black number is painted underneath the airplane sertal. numc er , ,.l.ljwnb era are e1 ther 1, .2 J • or '3 J with ,all ai !'Craft of each s~uadron assigned one of these three numb er s',

13 November 1944

•• \ ...... , •• ,I

d.. 468th Bomb Group;

.... «,

.'. .~. to




A shooting comet is painted on each side of the nose, with the tail o~ the ermef pa i.nt.ed in Sc;.uad;ron colors.

Two (2) diagonal stripes along the rudder are painted

in squadron colors. ',," '. -,


( 3)

A large black: (3) digit number 1.;1 Painted ~.ove the aircra~.t serial number. The last three digits of the airplane serial number are used.


(4) The nose wheel cover plates are painted with squadron

colors. ,I "

2. Colors.

. '. : ..


a. lodi vi dual Squadron colo,rs ar~ shown on the. attached diagrams.


'. I'·


1. Each lead crew aircrai't will have tlle followillg des i gn .painted in camouflage color on the t a i.L, using renoveab.l e paint':



a. ,A, sb~lq d.i sc three (Z) feet in diam.etler,.., pa1.nted above the

aircraf~ serial number.

c •. Use of Distinotive Markings:

, . . .

1. 0 •• or b ef'o re D,n;;.y minus one"each GI'Ot;lp will inform the other

,\'f, Groups er the ipentification markings of .the Lead crew aireraft

of that Group.perticipatiJJgi.n the mission. This information will be d1 s.siminat ed to all air plane ccmmander s participating in the

.... 4 •


2. Prooedures in jOining lead crew aircraft~


(~) L~d ~rew aircraft will always assume the lead position when jOining a fa nnat ion , providing a lead crew a.i:I:craft is not a1,ready Ln the lead pos tt.i en , In such a case, he 'Will assume the position of deputy ' '


(b) Ai.rcraft flying singly or'in fOTmtionwith other than a lead crew aircraft .will expend every 'effort to join a lead crew a'ircraft pI'i or -to r-eac h Lng the target area.

" -z..



. ,

46'2 N~ BOMB OR 76"6' TI-I 8. .sQ. - Alo. / 7G9 TN Lj, SQ. - #~, 2 770 T4/ B .5Q. -/Va .5


26347 2

... .

46'8 TN BOMB 6'.0. 7.92ND B SQ, - w-,,//rE 7.9.3HtD 13. SQ.-BLUe 7.947"# B. S<7. -ORAAl6'E


40 r# 80MB 6'R

2S rll 8. 841."- RED 44r# .8. SQ. -L3LU£ 45 TN L3. 8t;). - YELLOW



4-44 TH BOMB Cp. til76' T~ ,8. St;2 - BLUe B77 TN' L3. art? _ ReO

6'78.rN LJ. St;? - YELLOW

. .. " -

~ -7>' •• ~-....£ __ ~-


. - '.


, " 0' " '. "J' I

"J C-':;'OO;}T. J' .:.L{-

, ;


It is the -Bonbardmen t Group CommandC!lr's responsiblli ty to insure that a ma.ximum number of "strikel1 'photographs sr.e .baken on all daylight combat

.. '" .. '

Illl. ssaona,

, .

b. 'Requiranents for ,n.i:ght phptographs~ w111'»e ci6signat.£ in t,h'e' :held: ~!ma.' •


Combat pernonnal are ,required to be thoroughly familiar with the photo,'!!!!"

graphic equipment they operate., ;

, :.:.

d.' Radar scope pictures will be t~ken on both day and night missions.

c ..

e" Facilities for 1I0pportunityU photographs will be provided on all dayright mssionso

J "

.m indiiridual flight log will.t 'ge B:~9mpl~~b.-,,~d. Jor _ each type', camera carried ill the air era. ft" E;Jch lO.~·~jt~~~~·a¥~~ .. ":'~~~! ~~e y?rtinent camera ~;~~Zn:~e cre'fl member leaves :~,~~_~~~.~:7~~,,,fi!evc,omp~,~t,J.on of the ",

.. ' .• ~J,

2. CAkERAS: "


a. On- daylight bombardment missions all available type K,.,lS and K-22 I cameras will be installed for strike phot ographa;

.' ~t


b. 0;'1 ~~11 6.<::_:rl::'~,",t ,.: S:1:i"o]:fj, type K-20 hand held oameras will be oarried

for opportunity photographs, one per aircraft.

Q.. On -every combat mission all available'radar scope cameras will be ear-

ried. .

d.. 'I"'hen night pho tcgraphs are required by the field order, the K.-19B caraer a will be installed" The number of cameras and photo flash bombs w;ill be . specified in the field cr der-, The K-19B camera will be tilted to photo-

'" - graph five (:;,) dc:-;roes to V1C: l'sar of the aircraft. -

e. The number and type of cameras installed in the aircraft on a photographic reoonnaissanoe mission will be determined by available installation •.

,," ....


.. ,I. _'.}1

." I'· , '" '.,

a. PILOT ... -During' opera,tion .of strike cameras, the pilot 'Ivill insure that

the aircraft maintains a constant airspeed" altitude, heading and a:tti tude •

• __ tf: .'

- -


-. ~~~ .~:;~; . ;":;;~~'L~.~·>~::~·",:~./~


-. , - -,-

-oJ I ..



( 1)

When lion eour se" is given" th~ bombardier will turn on camera master svd tch and direct radar opera tor to op~ the camera door s and to regulate the camara vacuum to four (4) Lnehe s of mercury.

Immedia.toly aftDr the bombs are released, the boobardior will press the "startlt button on tho camera intervalomotor to in sur 0 _ caner-a



. ~ .

.. ( 3) Aftor "str:i!kell, tho bombardier Will pross the Itstop" button on tho camara intcrvalomoter.

{4r ,Tho bombardier Vlil~ i\ccemplish' tho photogr~phic flight log for ~~e striko oamer-a and personally attach it to tho camera bcf'or e tho vicinity. of tho aircraft upon oomplotion of ~ssion.


c. N.t~VIG1.TOR--The navigator will take radar scope photographs, as briefed

by the Group radar officer, when, tho radar camera is at his station. Flight log w:i_ll bo accomplished and attachod to caaer a before Leaving aircraft at c.ol'ilpJ.etion of mission.

d. RADIO_Qg.ER.ATOR--The radio operabcr will taka radar scope photogrephs, end maintain flie-ht log during bombing run if the navigntor is holping , the bonbarddur Looe+o tho target.

0'. llJlAR OPEEl .. TOR


The r-adar oporator will open tho camera doors and regulntp CaIlOI:D. • VaCUUL1 to 4 inchos of r:10rcury when directod by bombardier.

( 2)

, _

Tho rndar opprctor vdll tnke r[ldnr scope photographs, as briofoo

by tho Group Ikldar Officor, when tho radar canOTa is at his station • r , Flight log will bo ccoompl.Lshod and cttachtd to caraer a befora l~nv ..

ing aircrnft at cor:Jplotion of mission. ..

f·. Sr-DE GUNNERS--The side gunnors rJill tnkc"Opportunity" photos with t.heL20 hand hold ocncrn; Flight log will bo ncconplishod and £l.ttachad" to canare. before loaving aircraft at completion of mission •





a. PILOT--During operation of strika caoorns, tho pilot will ll1surO thnt

tho aircraft rJaintoins a constant airspood, 01 ti tudo, hooding and ott! tude,

b.. BOMl1'JlDIER

(1) Whon "on cour-se" is given, tho bombardier will turn on CQIJal"n ['laste.r swi tch and diroct rndar oper-ator to open tho onnorn doors end to

r ogul.rrto tho col: ore, .vaqu\il_rJ to four (4) inchos of morcury.

, t~ .!.er:

~ .,~

....- ~" I~ .... · ... r!r .. 4~"'t-:... ' ....

" "

" .', .

~: ' ~ .

(2) After observation cf last pho to flash, the bomba:rdiar' will turn off the camera master switch;

• : "",_ ~I~' ."~:t. oj

(3) The ~bcnnbardi'ar' will: aooompl.Lsh ·.the '~1JhotCigraphib flight': log for the night camera and personally attach i'b to the camera bei'0re leav:ing the vieini ty of' the aircrafti upon completion of mi~s!pn~ ,:


c •. NAVIG.I"1TOR--The navigator will take radar scope phdtographs, .as briefed by tho Grot'· Radar 04':tC(jI';' when thej .radar camera' is at his stQtion. F.light log vdll be accomplished and attdched to camera before leaving aircraft

at complE\l.tion of mission.' .. ' ...

". ....

. - '~

, .

-d, RADAR OP~TQR..:.


The r'adur opoi:'atbr will open the camera doors and regulate camera vacuum to i'oill" (4) in'chos of mercury whon d:troct'ed by bombardier •

The radar operator will take rodor scope photographs, as briofod by tho Group rDdor operator, whElll the radar camora:is,at.'b1s· station. Flight log ~'dll be cccompl.Lshod end attached to cnmoru boforo Leaving

:,d,rcrnft at completion of mission.' ' . .


- ...


~. ,

(1) ThQ pil-ot will strictly adhere to in~strU'dti~l?s 'given him in tho

Photo Ivli s sion Ord or. . ~~ ~

;;. : ~

(2) During o::-'oration of tho c[lmer<J.s" tho, pilot will' insure that tho nircrnft mcintnins Q oons ton t airspeed, oltitudo, hoaddng and at-

td tudo , .. "

\ '

. ',-

During or upon roturn from a ml ssdon , tho pilot will comp'l.ot.o a "pilot' s trace II on a map showing the flight Ldnca ovor', .' photogrnphy i,:D.S E:ccomplishod Labo'lod "lith tho typo cameras oporntdng

" OVE>X' tho indictttbd .flight, lines •. Tho pilot will- por~onolly 00 rosponsiblo for insuring that tho "pilot's traco" is Gttinchod to one of tho roconnaissance CcIDorr.s beforo he lOQVOS tho oircrnft,upon

compl.ctd.on of't,{fo disSi0n. " , .

( 3)



":; "

.... .._ ...... , ~.'

(1) Prior to rocchfng tho torri tory to bo photcgrr.pnod, th0 bomburdior will direct -tho raCic r ' oporntor' 'to opon "tho CE.'IDOrd 'doors,' -and to' :rogulnto tho' camara .voouum to four (4) Irrchce of 1llercuTY.

, . ~ , r> ':.. I. • • .. : ;,. .' ~ 1. • • ~.

(2), Tho, bombardfcr- \I.L11: koep tho' Aircr:cft ali tho 'flight' linos dosf.gnabod in the mission ordor to secure ·tho 'dos'irGd 'photo 'coverego.

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(3) Tho bombardior will koap the oerial photographor oricmtod !.SD the area to bo pho togpaphod at all .times.

(4) Whon all photography has b~O~ a~comPlishod the bombnrdior wUl diroet tho rnqar oporatorto cl08Q ·tho ce.meta doors •

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'(I) TQ.o ,navigntor vyill-f'u,rpish tho aerial photographa.:r with information noc.ossnryto completo ,tho photo flight log,

( 2)

:If tho radar scope co.mor'~ 'is insto11~d' at his' station, the navigator will tnko radar scope photos on the appr oaeh to the targots, the targotsthemsolvos, and nnysurrounding lond llll¥"~s.. whie:h may bo. .obtained on the flight,

A fligl:J.t log. will bo a ccompli. shed, and at:ta:ched to the camero before leaving the aircraft nt complotion of mission.

(1) The r6dnr operator will. open and lock camera .doors whElll directed by bombardier.

(2) Tho radar operator will keep camara VaCuum regulated to four (4) inches of m~rcury whilo photographs are being taken.

(3) If"tha t'.D.d&1.r scope camera is installod at hi.s station, ,tho .l.'adar operator will take radar scope photos on the approach to the tar ... gets, the targets themselves, and any surrounding land. marks which may be obtained on the .fli,ght.

l4)A flight log will be accomplished and attached to the camera before leaving the aircraft ut completion of mission,


(1) The sido gunners will te.l~o IIOppo,rtuni ty". photographs with K- 20 hand hold oanorc,

H~) - A flight log \"viil be uccompld shod and attaohod to the camera. beforo leaving tho aircraft at complet"ionof mission.

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f. JJm:[, • ..L PHOTOGltlJ>}IER

(1) The ao'rial photographer wi1~ 0PQra_te the as'rial caner-as by use of tho tYP!3 ,1_1 rroll t:ip;le~ camera control. 'The interval setting on the intorvalometer dial will beset at tho roquired interval for 60% overlap in linG of flight for the ,longest focal length camera' of the

.... roconnai sean coin staI1 a t.i.on.

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(2) The aorial :.;>botographer will eovcr tho areas, as outlined on tho flight maps, using tho typo oamoras spocified for tho various portions of territory to bo photographed.

(3) The (101'101 photog.rc.phor vd11 aocomplish oornplotolya flight log for each typo r oconnafescnco camera and attoch it to .OJlO of tho roconnaissance caacrae beforo loaving tho aircraft.

:3 August 1944

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A," to,at Aircraft :Procedur,6',:. ,~.

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1. During combat missions, a.ircraft may become lost while in fo:rmati0Il, or while fJ,ying elone. ·,situations vary cons iderably" but ,these are cer-ta rn bas Lc procedures to be 'followed which will reduce to a mfn.imum the ;time' necessary, ttl' 'e'stoblish' the posI tion of the aircraft.

2. If the lead aircraft in a formation is lost, the following steps should be taken:

(a) Note exact time of last known fix, visual, radar or oe1-


(b) Compute the DR position on basis of available information (time, speed and metro winds).

(c) Request position, ldnd, and E.T.A. at next destination (Base, turning point, etc) from another aircraft of the formation by use of "Q" signQls wit!J, the 0-3 (.Aldis) lamp.

(d) If still in doubt, request No.2 aircroft in formation, using "Q," signals, to take over lend. Lead aircraft peels off and joins formation to the reer.

( e ) In case 8.ircraft No. 2 in format ion doe s not know exec t position, No.3 aircraft in form~tion'will be re~uested to take over lend, etc.

(f) If entire formation is lost, a QJ1M will be secured from Control Center. Upon receipt of this Q,DI\,~ and. depending upon the situotion, the Airplane COI!lIl1fl.nder in the lead aircraf't will decide upon

what route to folloW ... i.e., whether to return to base or to continue mission~ whether an alternate base landing is r.dvisable, etc.

3. If an individual aircraft is lost, the follovling steps should

be taken:

(a) Note exact time of last known fix, visual, radar or


(b) Compute the DR position on bQsis of available information (time, speed and metro winds).

(c) If terrain is visible or by radar attempt 'to identify position for five (5) minutes.

(d) If uncble to identify position and while over friendly territory in China, circle 0. town at low rltitude. The radio oper<ltor

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will receive .a bearing to home base from the A1rcr~t Control Center through the Chines e r u tor Con tel' in approximately, ~W'el?:t! (ao). mtnu tes.

(o) If no info!"rlllLtion is roceived, roqua~t a Q.t'M or fiilC frqm the Aircraft Control Center.

4. If it is believod that the' pircrnf.t is wi thin rncon range of' anv bnse , .,11 th rncon installed, or wi thin 50 miles o,f .ether aircraft, o:btempts will be mode to home on the rncon or the IFF of friendly aircraft', by use of the SCR-729.

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2 November 1944


Hf Fa 'cad Landin~s

l" When it becomes evident that an aircraft will he forced to land in 'riendly t.rri tory at a base other than its own , or if' a crash Land rng 'or bail lU t is inUllineilt. the following pro ced ure will gOVb:r-n:

(a) If it is possible to do so prior to landing, the foli.owing in'ormation will be sent to th.e home station:

(1) TYpe of emergency: forced Landf ug , crash Land i ng , or bail .uL

(2) Position at time message is sent.

(3) Name of field where landin .. is to be ao oompl.i shed ,

(4) Reason for c..m~rg~ncy landing.

(5) Time expected to land in GeT. ( 6) Casual ti as aboar-d', if' any;

(7) Dispos, .. tion of bomb load or car~:,O, if any vas carried.

. (b) After the landing has bean ac compl i shed, the aiI'fllan. commander

Or the senior combat crew member ,hysically able to do so i will take immediate


teps to notify either Head .uar t er-s , ]X Bomber command, APO 49.;Jj or .. )\Q.vanced Head-

T"T."T".<:! t :xx Bomber Corrunand, 1.£>0 210, whichever is nearest, Th' foii'OwinG in1'irmation j in addi tion to th£tt required in PaJ?ucraph 1 '. (i) above; will be ~i ven:

(1) Exact location Of aircraft.

(2) Exact time of Landf.n , in C{!T.

(3) l.lbdical aid needed, if any.

(4) Whether or n't airplane is r epai rab.Ls ,

(5) service, partSt or other f&ciiities needed to ~ffact repair~


what facilitil)s are available for aircraft to land n~arby ..

(7) S 1':; "6stions for future c ommunt se t i on ; 1. e.) l:,uarding oertai..[;, fre~UtlDCies at specified times.

(8) Threat, if any, from enemy a tion.

(c) No information r'e La't i ve to tria oir;lJ.ane, its course, destination, mission, per 1'or.mfi nee I nr l"M.s'n fen' the for'ted Landf.ns will be di vulged to local authori ties or to unauthori Zed _gersonnel.

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