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CHAPTER 1

1. INTRODUCTION

1.1 INTRODUCTION ABOUT THE TRAINING

1.1.1 DEFINITION

Activities designed to facilitate the learning and development of


new and existing skills, and to improve the performance of specific tasks
or roles. Training may involve structured programs or more informal and
interactive activities such as group discussion or role playing which
promote experiential learning. A wide variety of activities, including
classroom-based courses, on-the-job training, and business or
simulation games, are used for training. Audio-visual and multimedia
aids such as videos and CD-ROMs may also be employed. Training may
be provided by an internal training officer or department, or by external
training organizations. The effectiveness of training can be maximized by
conducting a training needs analysis before hand, and following up with
evaluation of training. Training should result in individual learning and
enhanced organizational performance.

1.1.2 TYPES:

I. On-the-job Training and Lectures

The two most frequently used kinds of training are on-the-job training
and lectures, although little research exists as to the effectiveness of
either. It is usually impossible to teach someone everything she needs to
know at a location away from the workplace. Thus on-the-job training
often supplements other kinds of training, e.g., classroom or off-site
training; but on-the-job training is frequently the only form of training. It is
usually informal, which means, unfortunately, that the trainer does not
concentrate on the training as much as she should, and the trainer may
not have a well-articulated picture of what the novice needs to learn.
On-the-job training is not successful when used to avoid developing a
training program, though it can be an effective part of a well-coordinated
training program.

Lectures are used because of their low cost and their capacity to reach
many people. Lectures, which use one-way communication as opposed
to interactive learning techniques, are much criticized as a training
device.

II. Programmed Instruction (PI)

These devices systematically present information to the learner and elicit


a response; they use reinforcement principles to promote appropriate
responses. When PI was originally developed in the 1950s, it was
thought to be useful only for basic subjects. Today the method is used
for skills as diverse as air traffic control, blueprint reading, and the
analysis of tax returns.

III. Computer-Assisted Instruction (CAI)

With CAI, students can learn at their own pace, as with PI. Because the
student interacts with the computer, it is believed by many to be a more
dynamic learning device. Educational alternatives can be quickly
selected to suit the student's capabilities, and performance can be
monitored continuously. As instruction proceeds, data are gathered for
monitoring and improving performance.

IV. Audio-visual Techniques

Both television and film extend the range of skills that can be taught and
the way information may be presented. Many systems have electronic
blackboards and slide projection equipment. The use of techniques that
combine audiovisual systems such as closed circuit television and
telephones has spawned a new term for this type of training,
teletraining. The feature on “Sesame Street " illustrates the design and
evaluation of one of television's favorite children's program as a training
device.

V. Simulations

Training simulations replicate the essential characteristics of the real


world that are necessary to produce both learning and the transfer of
new knowledge and skills to application settings. Both machine and
other forms of simulators exist. Machine simulators often have
substantial degrees of physical fidelity; that is, they represent the real
world's operational equipment. The main purpose of simulation,
however, is to produce psychological fidelity, that is, to reproduce in the
training those processes that will be required on the job. We simulate for
a number of reasons, including to control the training environment, for
safety, to introduce feedback and other learning principles, and to
reduce cost.

VI. Business games

They are the direct progeny of war games that have been used to train
officers in combat techniques for hundreds of years. Almost all early
business games were designed to teach basic business skills, but more
recent games also include interpersonal skills. Monopoly might be
considered the quintessential business game for young capitalists. It is
probably the first place youngsters learned the words mortgage, taxes,
and goes to jail.

1.1.3 TRAINING METHODS:-

All training methods can be grouped into two categories:-

a] Training methods for operatives and

b] Training methods for managers

a] Training Methods for Operatives:-


Under these methods the new employee is assigned to a specific job at
a machine or workshop or laboratory. He is instructed by an experienced
employee or by a special supervisor who explains to him the method of
handling tools, operating the machines etc.

Vestibule Training: - This method involves the creation of a separate


training centre within the plant itself for the purpose of providing training
to the new employees. An experienced instructor is put in-charge of this
training. Machines and tools are also managed in the training centre, so
as to create working conditions similar to those in the workshop.

Advantage: - No interference with regular production.

Disadvantage: - Costly, adds nothing to productions during training


period.

Apprenticeship Training:-This method of training is meant to give the


trainee sufficient knowledge and skill in those trades and crafts in which
a long period of training is required for gaining complete proficiency.

Generally, the trainees work as apprentices under the direct supervision


of experts for long periods of say, two to seven years. This programme
consists of providing actual work experience in the actual job as well as
imparting theoretical knowledge through class room lectures which may
be arranged either in the plant or in the institution attached to the
concern. This method of training enables the trainees to become all-
round craftsmen. But this method is very expensive and also there is no
guarantee that a trained worker will continue to work in the same
concern after the training is completed.

Internship Training: - This method of training is generally provided to


the skilled and technical personnel. The object of this type of training is
to bring about a balance between theoretical and practical knowledge,
under this method, students from a technical institution possessing only
theoretical knowledge are sent to some business enterprise to gain
practical work experience. Simultaneously, the employees of business
enterprises are sent to technical institutions to gain the latest theoretical
knowledge on a subject.

Ex. B.E. (Prod.) - 6 months in plant training

B.E. (Mech.) - 2 days in a week during final year

b] Training Methods for Managers:-

Executive talent is the most important asset which a company can


posses. Although, it does not appear on the company's balance sheet,
but it produces more important effects on the company's progress, its
profit and the price of its stock than any other asset in its possession.

The following are the various training methods for managers.

1] Observation Assignment :-

Under this method, the newly recruited executive called "understudy" is


made an assistant to the current job holder. He learns by experience,
observation and imitation. If decisions are discussed with him, he is
informed on the policies and theories involved.

2] Position Rotation:-

Under this method, the trainee executive is rotated among different


managerial jobs. This not only broaden and enriches his experience as a
manager but also enables him to understand inter departmental relations
and the need for co-ordination and co-operation among various
departments.

3] Serving on Committees:-

Another important method of training on an executive is to make him


serve on a committee. While serving on a committee, the executive
comes to learn not only the various organizational problems, views of
senior and experienced members, but also learns how a manger should
adjust himself to the overall needs of the enterprise.

4] Assignment of special Projects:-

Sometimes, as a method of training some special project is assigned to


a trainee executive. for example, he may be ask to develop a system of
cost allocation in the production of certain goods for which an order has
been received by the company. While working on such project, the
trainee not only acquires knowledge about them, but also learns how to
work with and relate to other people holding different views.

5] Conference and Seminars :-

Often an executive is deputed to attend a conference, seminar or


workshop to receive a quick orientation in various areas of Management
with which he might be unfamiliar. One advantage of this type of training
is that all the participants coming from different organizations get an
opportunity to pool their ideas and experience in attempting to solve
mutual problems. The attitude is one of joint exploration. This
encourages cross fertilization of ideas.

6] Case Study :-

A case is a written account seeking to describe an actual situation. A


good case is the vehicle by which a chunk of realty is brought into the
class room to be discussed over by the class and the instructor.
Discussion on a case requires a capable instructor, who can evoke and
guide intelligent discussion analysis, so that meaningful learning
experiences occur. There is no "right" answer or simple explanation in
the comprehensive case. The advantages of this method are more depth
of thinking, more perception in a situation, greater respect for and
consideration for the opinion of others.

7] Incident Method :-
This method was developed at M.I.T. by Paul and Pigors, as an
outgrowth of dissatisfaction felt with the case method. In the usual case
method the entire problem is presented to the students, whereas in the
incident method only a brief incident is presented to provoke discussion
in the class. The group then puts questions to the instructor to draw out
of him the salient facts and additional information, needed to arrive at a
reasonable solution or resolution of the case. This method draws the
participants into discussion with greater emotional involvement. A unique
advantage of this method over the case method is the procedure of
obtaining information by questions, one that often must take place in
actual business situations.

8] Role Playing :-

In this method, the instructor assigns parts taken from case materials to
group members. The situation is usually one involving conflict between
people. The role players attempt to act the parts as they would behave
in a real life situation, working without a script or memorized lines and
improvising as they play the parts. The development of empathy and
sensitivity is one of the primary objectives of role playing.

9] Laboratory Training (or Sensitivity Training) (T group Training):-

This type of training is designed to increase the managers understanding


of himself and of his own impact on others. The training takes the form of
a group discussion, and through a leader trained in the technique is
present, the group may decide on the subject of discussion or suggest
changes in procedure. In the course of discussion, conflict, hostility,
stress and frustration may be purposely generated for they later on
become motivations for growth as well as food for learning. The
laboratory training aims at achieving behavioural, effectiveness in
transactions with ones environment.

1.1.4 RECENT TRENDS IN TRAINING:


Traditional view of lectures being able to deliver learning to a large group
of audience in a small time and at a tighter expense is being challenged,
with participants preferring a method that can value their experiences
and feedback more than what a traditional lecture system allows them
to.

Retreats are facing the challenges of cost and returns – with an


increasingly diverse and dynamic workforce, and with organizations
running on tight schedules and tighter budgets, it is becoming
increasingly difficult to bring a sufficient number of participants together
in a retreat setting, and to justify the high cost associated with the
method.

While electronic and web based learning sessions are becoming more
popular due to their relative ease of setting up, and the advances in
technology bringing virtual closer to real every day, age‐old trends of
distance education and mentoring are making a strong return in Canada,
especially in the recessionary period.

Distance education started in Canada as a concept during as early as


1860’s, and it focussed almost exclusively on participants from off‐urban
locations. However, with time and advent of technology, distance
education has evolved to various forms of online courses and sessions,
allowing participants the freedom of time, location, and learning material.

The role of mentoring and coaching is probably most important in


Canadian workforce today than ever. With an aging population,
organizations are looking at their replacement charts and succession
plans more closely than ever, and this type of learning provides an ideal
ground for organizations to retain the skills that senior employees could
potentially take along with them upon retirement. Not only does this
learning style gives senior employees an opportunity to pass their
wisdom to their potential successor in the organization, but also allows
the protégés to begin contributing to the decision making process much
earlier in their careers as they get a chance to interact with the
employees who have already been recognized in the workplace as
leaders and experts in their respective fields of work.

1.2 ADVANTAGES OF TRAINING:

1.2.1 CASE STUDY:

Traineeship Eases Finance Sector Training Load

A two-year financial services traineeship, backed by employer


incentives, is easing the path to better customer service and legislative
compliance for a Queensland company.

The Queensland Teachers Credit Union (QTCU) has around 40


financial services trainees among its 250 staff in 12 branches from
Cairns to Southport. At the successful completion of their traineeship,
they will all receive Certificate III in Financial Services.

QTCU training officer Ross Acutt says its a move that he'd
recommend to any financial services sector employer.

"From March, new Commonwealth legislation requires some


employees in our sector to meet a certain standard of competence and
the delivery of the Certificate III in Financial Services through
traineeships is making that process of compliance easier for us," he
says.

"As well, we will have better trained employees with enhanced


skills who will provide better services to our members.

"QTCU is very focused on maintaining a strong branch


infrastructure and our trainees will now have a nationally-recognised
qualification that helps us provide high service standards consistently
across all of our branches in Queensland."
Mr Acutt says providing training opportunities and a career path for
employees helps make QTCU an employer of choice in a competitive
recruitment market.

"Potential new and existing staff see this training as a great


personal development benefit, which helps us retain staff and attract a
high standard of new recruits."

Mr Acutt says the whole process of signing up, registering the


trainees and accessing suitable training was made simple by
Queensland Apprenticeship Services (QAS).

QAS is a business unit of Commerce Queensland and provides a


free service to employers and employees across the State. The service
includes advice on the most suitable training available, assistance and
advice on recruitment options, obligations of parties, assistance with
completing the paperwork and payment of Commonwealth Government
incentives.

QAS has offices throughout Queensland. QAS senior New


Apprenticeships consultant Fiona Woodhouse, who specialises in the
financial services sector, says the working partnership between QTCU
and QAS has smoothed the path for QTCU and its employees and given
them a clear understanding of the system and their obligations.

She says employers could be eligible for a range of Australian,


state and territory Government employer financial incentives for
employing trainees.

1.3 ISSUES IN TRAINING PROGRAMME

Training versus Awareness Creation

The evaluations reviewed indicate a frequent confusion between


the concepts of training and awareness creation in the design of training
programmes. The evaluation report of a project in demographic training
in Honduras stressed this difference and explained its causes. This
explanation, which referred specifically to demography, can be
generalised to other substantive fields. According to this report,
awareness creation aims at promoting understanding and acceptance of
the significance of various population problems. It brings facts and
issues to the attention of large audiences or specific groups, such as
decision-makers and opinion leaders. On the other hand, training aims
at developing skills and in-depth knowledge on population topics in a
structured and systematic way. While awareness creation can include
among its targets a diverse audience with various profiles, training is
aimed at specific categories that meet a number of conditions. In
addition, training takes place during a limited and pre-determined time
period, follows rigorous methodological and pedagogical rules and aims
at achieving a well-defined amount of competence.

Failure to recognise this difference had resulted in projects that


were overburdened with an assortment of objectives aiming at both
technical training and awareness-raising. Being two disparate
categories, as explained above, these can generate opposing dynamics
and the steps taken to achieve one can lead away from the other. The
confusion between training and awareness creation in formulating
project objectives weakens the focus of project strategy and finally
diminishes project effectiveness.

The unclear distinction between training and awareness creation in


project design has a diminishing effect on project effectiveness. This is
because training and awareness creation have different objectives and
their achievement requires different approaches. The lack of definition,
and at the same time, reconciliation of these approaches can undermine
the coherence of the project strategy.

Needs Assessment
An important factor in designing training programmes is the
magnitude of the demand for the skills to be developed by the training. It
was often observed that the objectives of training activities, in terms of
people to be trained, were not determined on the basis of the
requirements for specific skills or projections of jobs to be created,
especially in the public sector. This can have a deleterious effect on the
sustainability of training imparted because, if trainees are not given
ample opportunity to practice their skills, eventually such skills will be
lost. An assessment of the capacity of national institutions to absorb
trained personnel is therefore critical to ensure the effectiveness of
training.

Persistent and rapid turnover of staff is a recurrent problem in


developing countries. Population programmes often suffer because of
the departure of qualified personnel for better job opportunities
elsewhere. In some regions, such as Latin America, the private sector is
a significant pole of attraction, in part because of the large salary
differentials. To address this problem, several evaluations stressed the
necessity of a national or sectoral personnel training plan based on
sound needs assessment. This plan would co-ordinate complementary
in-country and external training activities to produce the needed pool of
skilled labour in a specific time period. In addition, it could offer
alternative solutions to the turnover problem, through, for example, the
establishment of career development schemes with incentives that
would help retain trained professionals in the country programme.

The level of knowledge within the target group (s) is an additional


factor to be considered in designing and implementing training
programmes. This is important for formulating relevant curricula and
appropriate materials and for determining the length of a course. In this
connection, it was also noted that prospective trainees were often aware
of their own shortcomings and could articulate rather well the specific
areas where they require training. As a rural teacher from San Lucas
Toliman in Guatemala states: “A six grade student asked me how a
woman got pregnant and I was unable to answer his question. I told him
I would give him an answer the next day. The next day the student
appeared and asked me to do what I promised. I then told him a woman
got pregnant when she had relations, and he asked me what “having
relations” was. I just didn’t know what to answer.”

Effective training should be based on proper needs assessments.


Such assessments refer both to the demand for trained individuals in the
concerned substantive areas as well as the level of knowledge of
prospective trainees.

Selection of Trainees

A major concern observed in many training projects relates to the


selection of trainees. Evaluation findings pointed out that trainees for
long term training in specific technical topics such as demography,
statistics or family planning were generally well selected, probably
because selection requirements were usually clearly defined by the
training institutions.

On the other hand, the selection of participants for short-term


training or workshops was much less systematic. Evaluations showed
that people sent to courses, especially when these were located abroad,
often did not have the necessary substantive background. Trainees
were, in many cases, not carefully identified in terms of anticipated use
of the training. This problem became more prevalent at interregional
workshops where the reward of trip tended to overshadow the practical
reason for participation.

Selection of trainees tended to be more rigorous for long-term


training. For short-term training of workshops, criteria of selection were
less well defined or inconsistently applied. As a consequence, the
technical background of participants in the latter tended to vary quite
significantly with resulting uneveness in the assimilation of knowledge
imparted.

Content of Training

Many reports criticised the widespread tendency to train personnel


without reference to their job description. This had led to irrelevant
curricula and therefore, to insufficient preparation of trainees for their
future tasks. Frequently, there were no clear guidelines to link training
content to the specific tasks that the trainees should be prepared to
perform on the job. For example, in many projects evaluated, family
welfare educators usually received very little information on family
planning during their basic training. These professionals acquired their
knowledge of family planning mostly through their work experience.
They were, however, the first point of contact for potential family
planning clients at the clinic. Their performance was, therefore, critical to
the clients’ decision to adopt family planning. This important role in
enhancing contraceptive acceptance had, however, been overlooked in
the content of their basic training.

Evaluations of demographic training and research criticised the


highly mathematical profile of the training curricula. In an otherwise
highly successful training project in Malawi, it appeared that “… the
content of courses sponsored by the project favoured the measurement
and estimation of demographic phenomena, whereas for many students,
a more substantive discussion of issues, alternatives and policies would
have more significance. Moreover, although the population courses were
optional for all undergraduate students, their technical content
apparently discouraged some of the undergraduate student body from
participating, particularly those students who were uncomfortable with
statistics and mathematics.”

Linking training content to the job descriptions of trainees is


essential to ensure that they acquire the appropriate skills.

Training of Trainers

The lack of qualified trainers is a major problem facing population


programmes. Many reports emphasised the need for preparing a cadre
of master trainers to ensure the sustainability of training efforts. The
evaluation of an interregional project on reproductive health in
adolescence advocated both the preparation of a permanent cadre of
master trainers and an emphasis on training of trainers (TOT) to
optimise the use of scarce human and financial resources. At the same
time, the widely applied strategy of successive training of trainers, or
training “in cascade”, which usually starts with a pool of instructors
trained abroad, was criticised in many evaluations. It was observed that
this approach had led to a loss in quality of training as one got further
from the starting point. The evaluation of IEC in support of MCH/FP
advocated the replacement of the training “in cascade” approach with an
itinerant team of permanent, highly competent trainers.

Another concern related to the level of competence among training staff


in population topics. Evaluations noted that, in many cases, the
personnel in charge of the training was not adequately prepared in the
population area. In a Population Communication Training Project in
Kenya, for example, the staff recruited to the Population Communication
Department, while well qualified in various aspects of communication,
lacked any substantive knowledge of population issues. This problem
also occurred in population education projects, where, in most cases,
educators in charge of the integration of population issues in various
other disciplines, were themselves not conversant with population topics.
These professionals usually had a variety of backgrounds in, for
example, health, labour, social welfare, and they were skilled neither in
population issues nor in innovative education techniques.

It is therefore essential that the competence and qualification of trainers


be ascertained beforehand. In this connection, attention should be paid
to both the substantive as well as methodological aspects of training.

Experience showed that:

a) the strategy of training a permanent cadre of trainers is preferable


to the training “in cascade” approach.

b) the competence and qualification of trainers in population topics


should be ascertained and strengthened, as necessary, before
implementing a training programme.

Training Methods

The evaluations reviewed emphasised the importance of effective and


innovative training methods that are culture sensitive and appropriate to
the subject matter. Along with traditional teaching methods, such as
formal lectures, seminars and workshops, all evaluation reports
advocated the introduction of techniques that facilitate the sharing of
ideas and thoughts among participants. Participatory learning by doing
and group-dynamic approaches were found to be particularly effective in
this regard.

The use of participatory methods of learning was described in an


evaluation report of an interregional project dealing with reproductive
health in adolescence. The training provided by this project emphasised
behavioural change through interpersonal communication by stressing
listening skills. Numerous trainees interviewed by the evaluators
commented that this approach to counselling had radically changed their
views from a process of didactic instruction to one of assisting people in
reaching their own decisions regarding behaviour. The two-way
communication aspect was apparently both eye-opening and welcomed
as a tool for improving services for adolescents.

Another example is a Population Education project in Sudan that


introduced some innovative teaching techniques and achieved a break
from the old ways of teaching. The new approach placed the student
rather than the teacher at the centre of the pedagogical process. In
addition, the project integrated population education concepts into
different subjects of the school curricula. This required an
interdisciplinary approach to population issues, reorienting the previous
strategy of teaching population topics separately.

Participatory methodologies can also be used for training in


population and development planning. In many UNFPA-supported
projects in this area, training techniques requiring role-playing and
simulation games were used to simulate planning and policy formulation
processes. In addition, case studies were used to familiarise students
with the use of planning models for policy analysis and offered
opportunities for empirical work within a theoretical, conceptual
framework.

The effectiveness of training depends to a large extent on the


quality of the methodology should take into account both the socio-
cultural characteristics of trainees and the specificities of the subject
matter. The use of participatory approaches should be explored, where
feasible, especially with regard to training that aims ultimately to effect
behavioural changes.

Training Materials

Manuals, guidelines and IEC materials for population training were the
weakest component in all projects evaluated. In demographic training,
use of appropriate materials including microcomputer simulation
programmes to illustrate population dynamics was found to be
infrequent, although a wide array of such materials had been produced
by an interregional project that supplies them free of charge.
Unfortunately, the outputs of this project did not appear to be well known
at the country level.

The evaluation findings pointed out that training in population and


development made extensive use of demo-economic models. In most
cases, however, these models had not been designed for training
purposes, but for use by planners. Therefore, when used in training
programmes, their complexity should be reduced to a few meaningful
relationships to avoid confusing trainees whose educational background
may n for a thorough understanding of complicated planning issues.

The absence or inadequate supply of relevant material in medical and


paramedical schools imposes a heavy burden on training in MCH/FP.
Practically all evaluation reports reviewed in this sector emphasised the
lack of or inadequate dissemination of manuals and guidelines at all
levels of the service delivery system. In addition, the reports pointed out
the low incidence of pre and post testing of materials despite the general
acknowledgement that these are critical steps towards qualitative
improvement of services.

The quality of materials used was stressed by almost all the evaluation
reports as a decisive contributor to training effectiveness. An example is
the evaluation of quality of family planning services which recommend
support for the development of culturally appropriate and
understandable materials for training service providers in MCH/FP.
Innovative and effective teaching methods need appropriate teaching
materials for better impact.

Impact of Training
Impact evaluation is important for assessing the effectiveness of
training. Such evaluations should examine, inter alia the appropriateness
of both training curriculum and teaching methodology. Various reports
stressed that the quality of an impact evaluation depends greatly on its
being planned for in the original design of the project or programme.
Thus, evaluations of impact should not be viewed as periodic events:
continuous, in built evaluation mechanisms should form part of the
strategies for project execution to gather data for eventual impact
assessment.

The reports reviewed for this paper, however, rarely refer to this
type of exercise. In most cases, only the impact of short-term training
was assessed. For long-term training, as in demography or in-school
population education, evaluation of impact rarely occurred.

An exception was the evaluation of a population education project


in Morocco. Based on an experimental type of design, using both
quantitative and qualitative methods, the evaluation of this training
reached some unexpected findings. For example, it showed a
discrepancy between the knowledge of population issues among
students and their attitudes concerning population problems. Although
students were very interested in rather complex subjects, such as
“population and development” and “population and alternatives for the
future”, they did not change their attitudes on everyday life concerns,
such as the number of children desired. The evaluation pointed out the
influence of traditional and cultural norms on the attitudes and beliefs of
the students and highlighted the inappropriateness of the teaching
methodology used by the project.

A concern stressed by many reports and by the UNFPA


publication “Population Policies and Programmes. Lessons Learned
from two Decades of Experience” was the infrequent use of evaluations
findings. In most training programmes, no follow up system was
implemented that would allow trainers to collaborate with and help the
trainees in their undertakings after the training. A general conclusion of
the reports reviewed was that evaluation findings infrequently entered
the decision making process and that they were not used systematically
for reorienting or designing training programmes.

An impact evaluation provides significant information on the extent


to which the training content and methodology and should be integrated
in the project design.

Institutional Environment

Implementation of training is often influenced by external factors


such as political stability, economic conditions, institutional capacity in
the field of population and stability of training institutions and staff
retention. Attention to these factors is important for the
institutionalization of training systems within countries, to ensure a
continuous supply of qualified personnel.

The influence of the institutional environment was obvious in the


training in demography project in Honduras. The University where the
project was located was often disturbed by strikes and social and
political incidents. These led to recurrent interruptions of courses and
departure of students. As a result, the evaluation advised the re-location
of the project in a more stable setting.

It must be recognized, however, that the institutional environment


is usually beyond the control of managers of training programmes. The
structural requirements necessary for the sustainability of training efforts
have to be addressed by political decision-makers. They have the
ultimate responsibility to ensure the optimal conditions to enable training
facilities to respond to the needs of the country.
The capacity of the institutional setting to meet training needs is related
to exogenous factors such as political decisions, economic conditions
and institutional resources. In most cases, these factors are beyond the
control of managers of training programmes

1.4 PRESENT INDUSTRIAL SCENARIO

The employees are provided with both on the Job training and off
the Job training, Training is to fill the gap between actual performance
and excepted performance,

Various types of training provided to the employees are

♦ Induction training
♦ Regular training from annual training needs Identification
♦ On the Job training for new or transferred employees
♦ Development programme Induction training

Induction training is provided as part of the placement activity of


HRM process. Once selected candidate is joined, he is inducted in the
organization to understand its various practices, products and
processes, linkages in the process, Interaction points for his position,
quality management system and safety systems.

HRD interacts with the functional heads of the function in which the
candidate is to be placed, to arrive at the areas where more focus should
be given, accordingly a schedule is provided to be the newly recruited
employee. An induction manual which contains the essential details
about product/ processes, systems and organization is provided for
reference.

Once the induction training is completed a written test is conducted


to know his leave of understanding. HRD & the HOD concerned will
evaluate the effectiveness after which the employee is placed on the job.
Incase, my further training is found necessary it is arranged. The level of
learning and his performance is received after 3 months using post
induction review.

The employee is induced in the regular training programmes as


per his training requirements identified by his functional head.

Training Based On the Annual Training Needs Identification

Based on the training need identification Annual training calendar


is prepared. Advisory committee on training (ACT) arrives at the
necessary and objectives on the training programmes planned for every
month. All the recommendation of the committee on faculty Training
facilities, timing requirement are implemented accordingly. ACT also
short lists the programmes from the requested programme list.

Monthly training programme details are informed to the functional


heads through Inter Department Memo to ensure the participation of the
employee 5 days prior to the start of the month.

Training hall requirement, training aids like OHP, multimedia


projector etc are booked by the HRD personnel though lotus notes/e-
mail and the status of the same is viewed online before the
commencement of the training the HRD personnel goes to the venue
and checks the arrangement.

Participates attending the training are recording in training


programme attendance. At the end of training the participants are asked
to evaluate and give their feedback in training program. The feed back is
consolidated and analyzed through program evaluation questionnaire.
Retraining is planned if the j overall rating is less than 50%. Details of
the training attended by the employees are entered in the individual
training record.
After completing the training the effectiveness is assessed based
on the objective test.

On the Job Training

On the job training is provided to the new and the transferred


employees and on the effect of non conforming products over the
customers.

On the job is focused on function related specific aspects which is


conducted by the foremen/supervisors in the particular function.

The training focuses on the job content this is accomplished


through an instruction session and subsequently evaluating the
performance through observation by the superior once the employee
starts performing to the expected level, the functional head will inform
the HRD for recording the same in the individual training record.

Development Programme

Development programme is conducted for the potential employees


to enable them to acquire competency to hold higher responsibilities in
future.

CHAPTER 2

PROFILE OF THE ORGANIZATION

2.1 INDUSTRY PROFILE

• ROOTS Industries Ltd. is a leading manufacturer of Horns in India


and the 11th largest Horn Manufacturing Company in the world.
• Headquartered in Coimbatore - India, ROOTS has been a
dominant player in the manufacture of Horns and other products
like Castings and Industrial Cleaning Machines.
• Since its establishment in 1970, ROOTS has had a vision and
commitment to produce and deliver quality products adhering to
International standards.
• With a strong innovative base and commitment to Quality, Roots
Industries Limited has occupied a key position in both international
and domestic market as suppliers to leading OEMs and after
market.
• Now, RIL is the first Indian Company and first horn manufacturing
company in the world to get ISO/TS 16949 certification based on
effective implementation of QS 9000 and VDA 6.1 system
requirement earlier.
• RIL has entered into technical collaboration with Robert Bosch, SA
to further enhance the technical competence.
• Roots' vision is to become a world class company manufacturing
world class product, excelling in human relation.

MANAGEMENT:

ROOTS Industries India Ltd is managed by an excellent team of


path-breakers, chief among them being the Chairman, Mr. K.
RAMASAMY, a Master's Degree Holder in Automobile Engineering from
Lincoln Technical Institute, USA.

The company credo is echoed in his own words,

"At ROOTS, we believe that if something is worth doing, it is worth


doing well. And this attitude is reflected in every realm of our activities.
As a customer, you naturally expect the best. We are fully geared, in
spirit and method, to meet your requirements."
He is supported by technical and administrative people, experts in
their own field, who together strive to maintain the highest quality
quotient in all of ROOTS' products.

2.2 COMPANY PROFILE

ROOTS GROUP OF COMPANIES:

In the years since its genesis, the Roots have spun off several
divisions to cater a wide range of services.

The Roots Conglomerate consists of the following companies.

Roots Industries India Ltd Electric horns


Roots Auto Products Pvt Ltd. Air horns, switches, & controllers
Roots Multiclean Ltd Cleaning machines
Roots Cast Pvt Ltd Aluminium & Zinc Pressure Die
cost
Roots Precision Products Dies, Tools, Jigs & Fixtures
Roots Metrology lab Instrument Calibration, Quality
system, Consultancy
Roots Polycraft Plastic components
RK Nature Cure Home Nature cure therapy, Yoga,
massages
Satchidananda Jothi Nikethan International School
Roots Brake System Pvt Ltd Brakes
Roots Industries (Malaysia) Sdn Electric horns
Bhd

In addition to being a leading corporate house, Roots has used the


combined power of all its chakras to emerge as a service minded social
citizen. Its nature cure and school are examples of how the group has
taken a step forward to expand the very basic roots of Indian Culture to
citizens across the globe.

SECRET OF SUCCESS:

At Roots, the underlying belief is that the thirst for success is the
mantra that drives the company to excel. This is achieved by embracing
the mantra of "embedding value driven success" in every root.

VISION OF ROOTS:

We will stand technologically ahead of others to deliver world-class


innovative products useful to our customers. We will rather lose our
business than our customers' satisfaction. It is our aim that the customer
should get the best value for his money,
Every member of our company will have decent living standards.
We care deeply for our families, for our environment and our society. We
promise to pay back in full measure to the society by way of selfless and
unstinted service.

GLOBAL ALLIANCES:

Roots is a leading Original Equipment supplier to major vehicle


manufacturers like Mercedes Benz, Mitsubishi, Mahindra & Mahindra,
Toyota, Fiat, TELCO, TVS, Kinetic, etc. The technical collaboration with
Robert Bosch S.A. of Spain starting from 195 has strengthened the R&D
activities and increased Roots' technical competence to international
standards.

Roots Multiclean Ltd. (RMCL) is a joint venture with Hako Werke


GmbH & Co., Germany, one of the largest cleaning machine
manufacturers with global operations. RMCL is the sole representative in
India and SAARC countries for Hako Werke's entire range of cleaning
equipment. The quality of RMCL products is products is so well
established that Hako buys back a major portion for their global market.

RMCL also represents several global manufacturers of cleaning


products and is gearing itself up to provide customized, total cleaning
solutions.

ROOTS - A SYMBOL OF QUALITY:

Roots is committed to manufacture customer- centric and


technology-driven products on par with international quality standards.
For example, the horns manufactured undergo a rigorous life-cycle test
and are subjected to an endurance of over 200,000 cycles of
performance while the industry norm requires only 100,000.
What s more, Roots believes in a quality culture that goes beyond
just products. Equal emphasis is given to quality in human relation and
quality in service. Roots in its journey towards Total Quality Management
have reached important milestones: ISO 9001, QS 9000, VDA 6.1,
ISO/TS 16949 and ISO

14001 Certifications, presently in the process of obtaining NABL


accreditation for our Metrology lab. The Group's TQM policy has a well-
integrated quality Circle Movement with active employee Circle
Movement with active employee participation at various levels.

QUALITY POLICY:

We are committed to provide world-class products and services


with due concern for the environment and safety of he society.

This will be achieved through total employee involvement,


technology up gradation, cost reduction and continual improvement in
 Quality of the products and services
 Quality Management system
 Complete to QMS requirements

Quality will reflect in everything we do and think

 Quality in behaviour
 Quality in governance
 Quality in human relation

ENVIRONMENTAL POLICY

With due concern towards maintaining and improving the Quality


of Life, Roots is committed for sustainable development by minimizing
pollution and conserving resources.

This will be achieved through continual improvement in


Environmental Awareness of all employees & associates, Legal
Compliance and objective towards Environmental Protection.

MILESTONES

1970 - Promotes American Auto Service for manufacture of Electric


Horns.

1972 - First to manufacture Servo Brakes for Light Motor Vehicles.

1984 - Roots Auto Products Private Limited was established to


manufacture Air Horns. Die Casting Unit Commences commercial
operations.

1988 - Polycraft, a unit for Plastic Injection Moulding was established.

1990 - Roots Industries Private Limited takes over Electric Horn


business.
1992 - RMCL enters into Techno-Financial collaboration with M/s. Hako
Werke GmbH, Germany.

1992 - Roots Industries Private Limited obtains the National Certification


- ISI Mark of Quality.

1994 - Production of floor cleaning equipment commences.

Roots Industries Private Limited wins American International Quality


Award.

1999 - Becomes the first horn manufacturer in Asia to obtain QS 9000.

2000 - Becomes the first horn manufacturer in Asia to obtain VDA 6.1
and the first in the world to ISO/TS 16949

2000 - The first to introduce digitally controlled air horns and low
frequency, low decimal irritation first Jumbo Air Horns.

2003 - Roots Industries Ltd., Horn Division is accredited with ISO


14001:1996

2003 - Roots Industries Ltd (RIL) opens its 100% exclusive Export
Oriented Unit at their horn division.

2004 - Roots Industries Limited (RIL) opens its 100% exclusive Export
Oriented Unit at their Horn Division, Thoppampatti, Coimbatore to cater
the needs of Ford North America.

2004 - RlL's EOU commences its supplies to Ford, North America.

2004 - Roots Multiclean Limited (RMCL) inaugurates its 100% EOU


Plant at Kovilpalayam, Coimbatore.

2004 - Roots Cast Private Limited (RCPL) inaugurates its


Unit II at Arugampalayam, Coimbatore.
2004 - Roots Auto Products Pvt Ltd (RAPPL) expands with its Machining
Division at Arugampalayam, Coimbatore.

2004 - RIL successfully launches its Malaysian Plant

2004 -The group Company American Auto Service is accredited with


ISO 9001:2000

2005 - Roots Industries Ltd. is certified with MS 9000, a pre-requisite for


Q1 award for Ford Automotive Operations Suppliers. Focus on Systems
and Processes.

2005 - Roots Metrology & Testing Laboratory has been accredited by


National Accreditation Board testing & calibration in the field of
Mechanical - Linear & Angular.

2005 - Roots Industries Ltd., is awarded Ql by Ford Motor Company

2005 - Roots Industries Ltd., Horn Division upgraded its ISO: 14001
from 1996 version to 2004 version,

2006 - RIL Horn Division upgraded computer automated system.

2007 - RIL got award for the best horn industry in Coimbatore city.

2.3 DETA1LS ABOUT ROOTS GROUP OF COMPANIES

2.3.1 ROOTS INDUSTRIES INDIA LTD:

RIL was the first offshoot of American Auto Service. Since then,
there has been no looking back In terms of growth and diversification.
RIL's versatile product range includes a comprehensive array of
automobile horns, auto lamps, pistons & rings and sophisticated parking
guide systems. The company currently enjoys 60% market share in the
automobile horn market Its growing market leadership stance has been
enough incentive for RIL to start operations In Malaysia as well.
A technical collaboration with Robert Bosch brought International
acclaim to RIL. An Engineering Research Centre equipped with the
latest technical instruments adds further advantage to manufacturing
world class products. RIL is India's first auto accessories manufacturing
company to get ISO: 9001, QS 9000, VDA 6.1 and the ISO/TS 16949
certifications. As an eco-conscious corporate, RIL has also gained ISO:
14001 certification.

It all started with just a honk. Encouraged by the response, the


company kept on moving ahead, in the beginning, it did not realize that
they would make such an impact. Slowly but surely, the reverberations
were felt far and wide. Indian automobile market responded to their call.
Soon the global market too followed suit. Roots horns, in a very short
span of time, got a place of pride in millions of vehicles across the globe.

PRODUCT RANGE:

Roots Industries specializes in the manufacture of a wide range


and line-up of automobile horns. Roots Industries Limited places a
premium on original technology and innovation. Its technical
collaboration with Robert Bosch S.S. of Spain in 1995 has helped it to
further strengthen its R&D activities and technical competence. This
collaboration along with Roots' indigenous talent has kicked off a spree
of growth unmatched in the history of automobile OE manufacturers.

The products of Roots Industries are

 Vibrosonic
 Windtone
 Clearotne
 Bosch range
 Roots 90
 Megasonic
 Smartone
 Spider
 FSA2
 R70
 Sensors

PARTS OF AN ELECTRIC HORN:

1. Housing
2. Windtone Super
3. Diaphragm
4. Tone Disc
5. Contact Point Components
6. Mounting bracket

MANUFACTURING METHODS:

There are different for manufacturing electric horn parts.

1) HOUSING:

There are two methods to manufacture housings. They are

a) The process flows in the right direction.

Blanking  Drawing  Restrike  Piercing I  Piercing II  Trimming


 Embossing  M.S. riveting  Stack assembly riveting  Trimming

b) The process flows in the right direction

Blanking  Drawing I  Drawing II  Drawing III  Restrike 


Piercing  Trimming  SCR Riveting.

2. DIAPHRAGM:
The process flows in the right direction.

Blanking -> Forming -> Piercing -> Cleartone

ASSEMBLY SECTION

Assembly section receives materials (components) from stores.


The components are checked for its quality in stores itself. The steps
involved in assembly section are as follows

Customers:

Roots is a leading supplier to all the major vehicle manufacturers


like Ford, Daimler Chrysler, Mitsubishi Lancer, Mahindra & Mahindra,
Toyota, Tata Motors, Fiat Uno and Siena, TELCO, TVS Motor Company,
Kinetic Honda, etc.

2.3.2 ROOTS CAST PVT LTD:

Roots Cast Pvt. Ltd., (RCPL) (Formerly known as Aruna Auto


Castings Private Limited) was established in 1984 to meet the captive
requirements of the Roots group. With its ever probing eye on the needs
of the market, the company in the late 80s expanded its operations to
manufacture High Pressure Die Cast Aluminium and Zinc components to
the exacting needs of various customers in Automobile and Textile
Industries with a high degree of Quality and Perfection.

Die-cast components manufactured by RCPL, vary from 8 grams


to 1250 grams and this has thrown open the field for ample opportunity
to cast a host of products. The company also specialized in
manufacturing critical and exclusive components for the automobile,
textile and healthcare industries.
RCPL now has established itself as a major player in the die cast
component manufacturing thanks to the expertise built in the core
activities like tool design, tool making and pressure die cast component
manufacturing.

PRODUCTS:

○ RSV Governor housing for Fuel Injection Pump


○ Heat-Sink For Alternator
○ Pump body and Pump body cover
○ Ring Holder For Ring Frame
○ Fixing Bracket For Car-Starter
○ Steam & Dry Iron Sole Plates For Electric Iron
○ Clam shell for surgical interconnect System
○ Pivot Housing For Wiper Motor
○ Filed Mould GF Nylon 66 for Alternator

INDUSTRIES:

○ Medical & Home Appliances


○ Auto Electrical Parts
○ Automobile Engine Parts
○ Range of Textile Parts

FACILITIES:

RCPL has explained its production capacity by putting up its


second unit with a Fully Automatic, Computer Controlled Toshiba Die
Casting Machine and fully automated with auto ladle, extractor and
sprayer.

In order to achieve the highest degree of customer satisfaction in


quality and productivity combine with cost competiveness. RCPL is using
a state-of-art, fully automatic Strike finance and LPG as the fuel. The
present capacity of RCPL is 920 tons per annum.

RCPL is supported by specialized services like ERC with


CAD/CAM and other test facilities, in-house tool room and good quality
system concepts. With customer service as the goal and commitment to
quality as the means, RCPL is marching forward with a dedicated team
of professionals.

ROOTS CASE IN EXPORT FRONT:

20% of the production is exported to TRICO, UK and Zinser,


Germany. Customers:

The core competence coupled with synergistic effect of system


and product quality improvement has attracted reputed customers like
Philips, DAP, MICO, LMW, Lucas-TVS, Pricol, TIL, Wipro InfoTech etc.
to name a few. RCPL - made automobile precision components are
exported to UK< and textile components, to Germany.

2.3.3 ROOTS MULTICLEAN LTD:

At Roots, there have been no restriction to expanding possibilities


for the group's success. The group has always been willing to travel the
extra mile to contribute positively to the society. RMCL was established
with the hope of drastically improving the cleanliness and hygiene-both
indoors and outdoors by introducing the concept of mechanized cleaning
in the country. RMCL is acclaimed as one of the most successful lndo-
German joint ventures in partnership with Hako Werke GmbH, one of the
largest and most reputed manufacturers of cleaning equipment in
Europe.
As a renowned cleaning equipment manufacturer, RMCL is
situated in the Industrial town of Coimbatore, Tamil nadu. It commenced
manufacture of cleaning equipment in early 90's and has now three
modern factories, producing various ranges of small versions of
sweeping machines and scruber driers and almost 50% are exported to
several developed countries.

RMCL not only manufactures cleaning equipment but also


provides customized solutions to client's cleaning requirements, having a
wide array of equipment from its principal Hako as well as from a
number of leading manufacturers of cleaning equipment known world
wide for the environment and stake holders arises from purity of thought.
This is the secret of Root's success. The thought process that has gone
into the seat of the creative mind propels RMCL to do something more.

RMCL is the sole respresentative of Hako Werke GmbH for the


entire range of cleaning equipment for India and SAARC countries. To
improvise they facilitate a better service to its customers, RMCL has
established Regional offices in all Metros and a wide dealer network in
all principal locations. The superior quality products and the added
advantage of good after sales service has established the company as
the country's largest and leading manufacturer of floor cleaners.

PRODUCTS:

○ Sweepers
○ Scrubber-Driers
○ Floor Washing Machines
○ Ride-one-Scrubber
○ Ride-on-Sweeper
○ City Master
○ High Pressure Jet Cleaners
○ Extra Heavy Duty Industrial Vacuums
○ Industrial Vacuum Cleaners
○ Single Disc Machines
○ Janitorial Range

RESEARCH & DEVELOPMENT:

RMCL has emerged as a strong engineering company and


recognizing the importance of Research and Development, has made
significant investments towards R&D facilities. ROOTS ENGINEERING
RESEARCH CENTRE (ERC) is a central facility that caters to all the
Roots Group of Companies in the areas of Product Development, Tool
Development and Facilities Development.

The products developed recently by Roots R&D are Hakomatric E


350 - a scrubber cum drier, High Pressure Water Jet Cleaner. They have
also developed the Roots Cutler, a vegetable cutting machine to cater to
the needs of Food & Hospitality Industry. The above mentioned
products have been recently launched in the global market to further
strengthen the market share of RMCL

Advanced state-of-the-art CAD/CAM Software is employed for


carrying out the product design activities. 3-D Solid Modelling Design
Tool - Pro/Engineer is used by trained engineers to produce World Class
Designs.

INDUSTRIES:

RMCL products have found wide application in the following


industries.

○ Auto & Ancillary Industries


○ Electronics & Engineering
○ Machine & Equipment Manufacturing Industries
○ Pharmaceutical Industries
○ Food Processing and Hotel Industries
○ Chemical Industry
○ Service Centres & Work Station
○ Telecom & Infrastructure Industry
○ Government Institutions
○ Civic Bodies
○ Transport Department
○ Printings Packaging Industry
○ Bottling & Breweries
○ Engineering & Power Industries
○ Plantation
○ Textile Industries

2.3.4 ROOTS AUTO PRODUCTS PVT LTD:

RAPPL has grown from a small manufacturer of horns, to India's


largest air horn manufacturing company in just a span of five years.
Today, RAPPL enjoys a market share of 70% in the air horn segment.

Commercial transportation plays a crucial role in the economic


development of nations. Roots Air Horns ensures safe and smooth
passage of thousands of heavy vehicles on the move.

It is also India's first horn company to manufacture horns that


confirm to the IS: 14813 standards. The company's product offerings do
not just stop with a wide variety of air horns but also include a host of
auto accessories like flashers, horn relays, dual head lamp relays,
melody makers, lever switches etc., that are renowned for their stringent
quality standards. These products demonstrate the company's
boundless inspiration to innovate and improvise products to suit evolving
customer needs.

The logistics division of RAPPL coordinates the sales and


marketing activities throughout the country. The machining and
manufacturing divisions are responsible for manufacturing products
contemporary to market needs.

As an exclusive OE supplier to major automobile giants like Ashok


Leyland, JGB, and Caterpillar, RAPPL has established itself as the most
preferred choice for its range of products. Export markets include
France, South Africa, UAE and US.

One of the reasons why RAPPL has been able to achieve


phenomenal levels of success is its ability to innovate and deliver quality
products beyond the expectation of customers. Imagination and
innovation has helped RAPPL to attain peak productivity through quality
products and services.

PRODUCTS:

The main products of RAPPL are

○ Air horns
○ Controllers
○ Switches
○ Relays
○ Electronic Flashers
○ Melody Makers
○ Security Systems
○ Mobile Charges
CUSTOMERS:

ASHOK LEYLAND

CATERPILLAR INDIA

JOB ESCORTS

2.3.5 ROOTS POLYCRAFT:

Roots Polycraft (PC) was established in 1988 to manufacture


precision plastic components. It is equipped with latest microprocessor
injection moulding machines to maintain consistent process parameters.

Over the years, Polycraft has gained skills and unique techniques
to manufacture small and medium size components for Automative,
Pump, Textile, and Medical Industries besides meeting the captive
requirements of Roots Group. Being fully equipped to provide the best
service, Polycraft has satisfied customers who have helped augment its
technological advances.

RPC manufactures precision plastic components. Specialised


parts like trumpets and connectors are examples of the team's
dedication to quality and productivity. Unique techniques and skills
developed enable the company to produce parts requiring insert
moulding, ultrasonic welding and vacuum-impregnation, whilst meeting
stringent quality standards.

Roots Polycraft, backed by a full-fledged Tool Room and Design


Centre which is equipped with sophisticated CAD/CAM/CAE software,
enables quick preparation of insert drawings and design of complex
moulds, according to customer specifications.
➢ Polyethylene
➢ Polyurethane

MANUFACTURING METHOD:

The process flows in the right direction

Incoming material inspection  Storage  Pre heating of raw materials


 Injection moulding & inspection  Deflashing  Final inspection 
Checking & inspection.

FACILTIES:

Roots Polycraft is specialized in

○ Injection moulding
○ Extrusion moulding
○ Ultrasonic welding

Injection moulding is a discontinuous process and it can be carried in


two types namely

Roots Polycraft also assists its customers in the product design


stage to optimize the mould construction, to reduce the cost and
complexity of the mould.

Roots Cast Private Limited and Roots Polycraft are the most
dynamic enterprises within the Root's group. This is where precision and
quality is in complete harmony with each other. Dynamism is part
design; tooling and part production, all drive the group to elevated levels
of success.

RAW MATERIALS:

Some of the major raw materials used for manufacturing plastic


components are
➢ ABS copolymer
➢ Polyamide
➢ Polycarbonate
➢ EVA
➢ PPO
➢ Polypropylene
➢ HIPS
➢ PBT
➢ PPS
➢ Vertical injection moulding
➢ Horizontal injection moulding

It has totally 8 injection moulding machines and their specifications are

➢ 150 Tonnage - 1No.


➢ 155 Tonnage-2No
➢ 5O Tonnage—1No
➢ 20 Tonnage-1No
➢ 15 Tonnage -2No
➢ 12 Tonnage-1No

It has an ultrasonic welding machine.

INDUSTRIES:

Roots Polycraft is specialized in supplying components to:

➢ Automobile industries
➢ Textile industries
➢ Medical Industries
➢ Electrical Industries
➢ Pump Industries

2.3.6 ROOTS PRECISION PRODUCTS:


RPP came into existence when precision tooling requirements
from within the group companies rose to considerable proportions.

Roots Precision Products was established in 1978 to address then


in-house tooling needs of the diverse industries in Roots group. Owing to
continuous improvement and investment into better resources, the
company has become self-sufficient. It is catering to the needs of various
industries. RPP acts as a one-stop solution for tooling and precision
machining.

Controlled and measured process with modern tools like DFMEA,


QFD, FTR, PFMEA and SQA provides basis to delivering excellence in
service. A high — tech manufacturing units and international quality
norms have resulted in a unique customer manufacturer relationship.
Solid modeling, master CAM and in-house metrology keep the wheels of
precision running right.

RPP's repository has a diverse product portfolio including press


tools, casting dies, plastic moulds, jigs and fixtures. For essential
components, RPP undertakes the task of conducting tools trials by
simulating real life conditions. These trials prove instrumental to attaining
higher levels of customer satisfaction while also serving as a vehicle of
perfection for tooling craftsmen.

FACILITIES:

Its manufacturing facility includes:

• Tool Design department with CAD/CAM, Solid modeling


• All types of convectional machines including EDM
• CNC Milling with Master CAM software for #D machining
• Metrology lab for inspection of Tool parts and components

Roots Precision Products has the facility to conduct tool trial on:
• Mechanical Press up to 250 Tons
• Hydraulic Press up to 60 Tons
• Pressure Die Casting Machine up to 250 Tons
• Plastic Injection Moulding up to 130 Tons
• Ultrasonic welding (with horns supplied by customers) up to
25mm2 capacity

A highly skilled team handling various types of press tools, moulds,


die castings dies, jigs and fixtures with high degree of accuracy
COUPLED WITH PROMPT DELIVERY, IS THE SECRET OF ITS
SUCCESS. High quality standards are maintained throughout; each unit
is run through stringent inspection and calibration at the fully- fledged
metrology laboratory, adhering to ISO 9002 standards.

PRODUCTS:

RPP is specialized in design and manufacture of

➢ Press tools
➢ Injection moulds
➢ Die-castings dies
➢ Jigs and fixtures

PRODUCT RANGE:

I. Product : Die casting Dies

Specification : 60 Ton to 400 Ton Cold Chamber & Hot

Chamber

Component Material : Zinc & Aluminum alloys

Die Material : HDS H13 & Orvar Supreme


II. Product : Engineering Plastic Moulds

Specification : 30 Ton to 250 Ton cold runner, hot

runner, 2 plate, split mould.

Component Material : ABS, Nylon, PPs, HDPE, LDPE, Derlin,


PP

Die material : HPM 38, HDS Hll, Stavax ESR, Impax

Supreme and calmax.

III. Product : Press Tools

Specification : 10 Ton to 250 Ton progressive compound

& combination mould

Component Material : ABS, Nylon. PPs. HDPE, LDPE, Derlin,PP

Die material : HPM 38, HDS H11, Stavax ESR, Impax


and Calmax

IV. Product : Jigs & Fixtures

Specification : Machining and Assembly

Die Material : OHNS, EN 24, En8, and HCHCR

Customers:

The core competence coupled with synergistic effect of system


and product quality improvement has attracted reputed customers like
Troika, LMW, Lucas-TVS Pricol, TVS Electronics, Sulzer Electronis and
TV5 Motors etc.
CHAPTER 3

DEPARTMENTS IN ROOTS

1. Human Resource Department


2. Finance Department
3. Secretarial Department
4. Purchase Department
5. Systems Department
6. Production Department
7. Quality Department
8. Stores Department
9. Sales and Marketing Department
10. Public relations Department

3.1 HUMAN RESOURCE DEVELOPMENT DEPARTMENT

Introduction

HR department handles the most valuable yet vulnerable resource


of the company i.e. the employees. It is concerned totally with
maintaining the harmony within employees, friction free employees, and
employer relation, keep the morale high, reduce all causes of employee
fatigue or failure, take care of accidents and safety, keep a striking
balance between satisfying the employee Land profit sharing etc

Recruitment and Selection

• Application
• paper advertisement
• Campus Interview
• Internal /External.

Selection Criteria

• Age
• Communication Skill
• Physical Stamina
• Leadership Skill
• Social & Human Relation Skill
• Formal education
• Technical Education
• Previous Experience
• Social Status
• Suitability to the post.

Methods of Selection

• Aptitude Test
• Intelligence Test.
• Attitude test
• Achievement test
• Personal Interview
• Group discussion

Performance Appraisal

• At all levels
• Executives, Staff, Workers, Trainees and Apprentice.
• Periodical appraisal
• Reporting officer Appraisal
• HOD Appraisal

Bonus
A minimum of 8.33% and maximum of 20.5% is provided.

Promotion

• Based on organizational needs


• Based on skill requirement
• Based on Manpower

Provident fund

12% contribution is made by the employer and 12% by the


employee.

Punch Card

The punch card system is followed in this industry.

Salary & Wages

The workers receive their wages on 6th every month when the
staff received their.

Grades are given to the workers and the staffs and those with
higher grade get higher salary.

Factors identifying the best employee

• Punctuation and attendance


• Discipline
• Interpersonal Relations
• Quality of work Dependability and commitment

HR Objectives

• Customer satisfaction
• Concern for society

Customer Satisfaction
• Job Enrichment
• Empowerment
• Development of Staff

Concern for Society

• Safety
• Health

Welfare Scheme

• Free uniforms
• Education advance Scheme
• Marriage loan
• Groups Insurance Scheme
• Super animation Scheme
• LIC Scheme

ORGANIZATIONAL STRUCTURE:

Roots Organizational structure is decentralized structure. Every


group of Roots Company has the following structure

TRAINING AND DEVELOPMENT

Introduction

The employees are provided with both on the Job training and off
the Job training, Training is to fill the gap between actual performance
and excepted performance,

Various types of training provided to the employees are

♦ Induction training
♦ Regular training from annual training needs Identification
♦ On the Job training for new or transferred employees
♦ Development programme Induction training

Induction training is provided as part of the placement activity of


HRM process. Once selected candidate is joined, he is inducted in the
organization to understand its various practices, products and
processes, linkages in the process, Interaction points for his position,
quality management system and safety systems.

HRD interacts with the functional heads of the function in which the
candidate is to be placed, to arrive at the areas where more focus should
be given, accordingly a schedule is provided to be the newly recruited
employee. An induction manual which contains the essential details
about product/ processes, systems and organization is provided for
reference.

Once the induction training is completed a written test is conducted


to know his leave of understanding. HRD & the HOD concerned will
evaluate the effectiveness after which the employee is placed on the job.
Incase, my further training is found necessary it is arranged. The level of
learning and his performance is received after 3 months using post
induction review.

The employee is induced in the regular training programmes as


per his training requirements identified by his functional head.

Training Based On the Annual Training Needs Identification

Based on the training need identification Annual training calendar


is prepared. Advisory committee on training (ACT) arrives at the
necessary and objectives on the training programmes planned for every
month. All the recommendation of the committee on faculty Training
facilities, timing requirement are implemented accordingly. ACT also
short lists the programmes from the requested programme list.
Monthly training programme details are informed to the functional
heads through Inter Department Memo to ensure the participation of the
employee 5 days prior to the start of the month.

Training hall requirement, training aids like OHP, multimedia


projector etc are booked by the HRD personnel though lotus notes/e-
mail and the status of the same is viewed online before the
commencement of the training the HRD personnel goes to the venue
and checks the arrangement.

Participates attending the training are recording in training


programme attendance. At the end of training the participants are asked
to evaluate and give their feedback in training program. The feed back is
consolidated and analyzed through program evaluation questionnaire.
Retraining is planned if the j overall rating is less than 50%. Details of
the training attended by the employees are entered in the individual
training record.

After completing the training the effectiveness is assessed based


on the objective test.

On the Job Training

On the job training is provided to the new and the transferred


employees and on the effect of non conforming products over the
customers.

On the job is focused on function related specific aspects which is


conducted by the foremen/supervisors in the particular function.

The training focuses on the job content this is accomplished


through an instruction session and subsequently evaluating the
performance through observation by the superior once the employee
starts performing to the expected level, the functional head will inform
the HRD for recording the same in the individual training record.

Development Programme

Development programme is conducted for the potential employees


to enable them to acquire competency to hold higher responsibilities in
future.

Social Security Scheme

♦ Provident Fund

An employee will become a member of PF scheme from the date


of confirmation of job. The member's contribution towards the scheme is
12% of the basic wage/salary. Employer pays the other 12% towards the
scheme.

♦ Pension

The company provides a pension for permanent employees based


on their service and salary. Pension is calculated as

Basic pay x Number of years of service

If the pensioner expires then the spouse will be paid 75% of the
actual pension and 25% of first children below the age of 25 year.

♦ Gratuity

When an employee has worked for more than five years and then
leaves the company, gratuity is given and calculated as follows.

Monthly wage*15* number of years of service26

Where

26 - Total working days of a month


15 – 1/2 month salary

Monthly wage - Basic + DA

Obseravtion:

• Perfect Performance indicators for each and every department are


not clear
• Job rotation should be continuously checked within every
department employees.
• Meeting up of higher officials involves lot many procedures for an
employee.
• Salary package fixing for an employee follows in reverse trend as
for as the growth rate of the company is verified in the annual
report

3.2 FINANCE DEPARTMENT

Accounts department maintains the following

Registers

• Cash Payment
• Cash Receipt
• Debit Note
• Credit Note
• Bank Receipt
• Bank payment
• Purchase journals
• Sales journals
• General Journals

Ledgers

• General ledger
• Credit's ledger
• Debtor's ledger
• Vendor ledger
• Share transfer ledger

OTHERS

Expenses of roots employees are accounted. Expenses such as


administrative, travelling are classified as domestic fare, conveyance,
boarding and lodging, post and telegraph, office, entertainment
expenses, etc.The entries are made in SAP software and accounted .
Bills for the expenses are collected from the employees and accounted.

Imprest cash which are given in advance to employees for


expenditure purpose. This cash paid to Individual, departments.
Companies in Roots groups. Higher authorities will decide the amount to
be paid as imprest by estimating the expenses. Bills for the expenditure
done are collected from the employees and accounted.

C-Forms are collected from customers for every quarter and


accounted. In the same way for suppliers c-forms are given. For raw
materials it is 4%, purchased goods-2%.

All the above books maintain and transactions are done through
Electronic Data Processing (EDP). For this RIL has EDP In
Finance section for computerizing all functions and activities carried out
in each department.

FUNCTIONS OF FINANACE DEPARTMENT

• Arrangement of funds
○ Reserves and surplus
○ Deferred Tax Liability
○ Secured Loan
○ Unsecured Loan
• Funds management
• Funds management includes payments like salary, wages,
repayment etc.
• Expenses and revenues:

Material, Factory, administrative expenses are managed and


controlled. Managing revenues with in budgeted limits(expenses)
and to attain the budgeted revenues.

BUDGETING

Budgeting is done for the period of April 1 to 31st march of every


year-It is done by estimating

1. Estimating domestic and foreign sales.(Marketing department)


2. Based on number of units, Material Requirement and its total cost
required Is calculated
3. For some components. Job Work is needed, total cost involved for
job order is calculated.
4. Expenses for Manufacturing goods such as wages, salary, power
etc., are calculated
5. Administrative expenses are calculated...
6. Adding (2+3+4+5), gives budgeted value,, based on estimated
sales revenues are calculated.
7. From above values, budgeted profit, tax, are calculated.
8. Budgeted values and actual values are compared. Reasons for
deviation of actual are analysed. It might be market condition, raw
material prices and other political economical factors. If there is
deviation due to assumptions(wrongly), it is corrected during next
year budget.
CREDIT POLICY

Credit policy for both the customers and suppliers are decided by
following factors

• Negotiation
• Demand and supply
• Long term Relationship
• Price
○ Average credit period is 60 days.

DISCOUNTS

Trade discounts are allowed for certain customers.

1. If payments are less than 25 days, 2% cash discounts are allowed.


2. Quantity discounts are allowed.

CASH SECTION

All cash receipts and payments are carried out in this section.
Daily cash transactions are properly recorded and maintained in this
section, which is completely computerized.

FUNCTIONS OF CASH SECTION

1. Preparing and maintain daily cash receipts and payments register


2. This section deals with following bankers
a. Indian Overseas Bank
b. State Bank of India
c. Citi Bank
d. HDFC Bank
e. Hong Kong & Shanghai Banking Corporation Ltd.
3. This Section is responsible for all payments relating to
remunerations such as salaries and other expenses.
TAXATION PROCEDURE DUTY

Excise duty will be charged on all product, which is manufactured


In the factory, without imposing excise duty any goods cannot be
released from the godown. For this, the company prepares Invoice
statement (Central exercise duty-8%. Cess educational duty-2%,Hr
educational duty, VAT for with in Tamil Nadu-12.5%, outside Tamil
Nadu-CST) contains full details regarding movement of the goods.

CUSTOMS DUTY

RIL pays customs duty for importing materials and machinery from
abroad. For importing of materials, RIL obtained Open general License.

INCOME TAX

The income of all employees will be assessed and deducts the tax
from the employees whose salary exceeds the limits.

SERVICE TAX

Service tax will be paid for any service rendered to the company.

FOREX

Roots industries- export its products to more than 15 countries in the


world.

It also imports raw materials from various countries. So it has to


manage foreign exchange,

• Receivables and payables denoted in foreign currencies


• Different reporting currencies within the same group
• Finance leases in currencies different to the reporting currency
• Foreign financial instruments
Since exchange rates between currencies are volatile, these interests
all bear currency risk. The consequences of movements in foreign
currency exchange rates can vary from receiving higher cash flows or
paying lower amounts than expected at the date of the transaction, to
receiving lower amounts or paying higher sums due to an appreciation of
the currency of the transaction. Movements in foreign exchange rates
can also affect positively or negatively the value of a company after
integrating the results of a foreign branch.

As we shall analyse below, currency risk or foreign exchange risk is


normally distilled into three components, namely transaction, translation
and economic risks. The term risk is usually characterised in terms of
adverse effects on a firm's activity. Exposure to risk arises as a
consequence of uncertainty about the future. In as much as risk
management techniques that are being ingrained in operations and
methods adopted by companies, would include for example using
insurance to cover or hedge against perils, firms use various instruments
to hedge against foreign exchange risk.

The firm has various alternatives available so as to help it contain


Forex risks to acceptable limits. These can be listed as:

I. Do nothing
II. Natural hedging
III. Swaps
IV.Forward market hedging
V. Money market hedging
VI.Leading hedge
VII.Futures hedge
VIII.Options contracts
IX.Exposure netting
X. Risk shifting
XI.Risk sharing

SPOT

A spot transaction is a two-day delivery transaction . This trade


represents a "direct exchange" between two currencies, has the shortest
time frame, involves cash rather than a contract; and interest is not
included in the agreed-upon transaction. The data for this study come
from the spot market. Spot transactions has the second largest turnover
by volume after Swap transactions among all FX transactions in
the_Global FX market.

FORWARD

One way to deal with the foreign exchange risk is to engage in a


forward transaction. In this transaction, money does not actually change
hands until some agreed upon future date. A buyer and seller agree on
an exchange rate for any date in the future, and the transaction occurs
on that date, regardless of what the market rates are then. The duration
of the trade can be a one day, a few days, months or years. Usually the
date is decided by both parties.

FUTURE

Foreign currency futures are exchange traded forward transactions


with standard contract sizes and maturity dates —Futures are
standardized and are usually traded on an exchange created for this
purpose. The average contract length is roughly 3 months. Futures
contracts are usually inclusive of any interest amounts.

SWAP
The most common type of forward transaction is the currency
swap. In a swap, two parties exchange currencies for a certain length of
time and agree to reverse the transaction at a later date. These are not
standardized contracts and are not traded through an exchange.

OPTION

A foreign exchange option (commonly shortened to just FX option)


is a derivative where the owner has the right but not the obligation to
exchange money denominated in one currency into another currency at
a pre-agreed exchange rate on a specified date.

Roots industries usually hedges about 75% and 25% remains


unhedged. It mainly hedges in forward and options. The decisions to
hedge will be decided by higher officials by taking into account

• Premium Charges

• Forecasted information

• Market Conditions

• Interest rates

OPERATING 2004- 2005- 2006- 2007- 2008-


RESULT 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009
Sales 5742 6445 7622 8934 9609
Turnover
Profit 470 703 819 917 1465
Depreciation 184 207 220 236 253
Interest 106 126 131 152 145
Tax 80 96 156 184 403
Net Profit 100 274 312 345 665
Dividend 36 46 47 47 47
Retained 64 228 265 298 618
Profit
Net fixed 1632 1827 1858 1904 2144
Assets
Earnings per 6.26 17.16 19.50 21.55 41.54
share
• All Values are in Rupees(Lakhs)

Observations:

• The company current ratio shows that satisfies the standard norms
during 2003 and 2005 due to decrease in the sundry creditors,
provisions for tax and expenses.
• The company quick ratio shows that, it satisfies the standard
norms during 04, 05, 07 and 08 due to decrease in sundry debtors.
• The company debt equity ratio shows that, it satisfies the standard
norms during 2003-2008 so the company has good liquidity
position.
• The inventory turnover ratio shows that the company conversion
periods are shorter during 03, 04, 05, 06, 07 and 08 due to
increase its sales.
• The debtor's turnover ratio shows that the company debtors are
managed,
• The creditor's turnover ratio shows that the company purchases
more through credit.
• The fixed assets turnover ratio shows that the company efficiently
utilized it fixed assets in proportion to sales during 2003 to 2008.
• The gross profit shows that the company earns a greater profit
before tax during 03, 04, 06, 07 and 08.
• The net profit ratio shows that the company earns a greater profit
after tax during 03,04,06,07 and 08.
• The trend analysis shows that the sales and stocks are in
increasing trend.

3.3 SECRETARIAL DEPARTMENT

Introduction

The company secretary plays the role of chief advisor to the board
of Director on best practice in corporate governance and also
responsible for all regulatory compliances of company.

Company Secretary of RIL

MR. G. BALASUBRAMANIAM

Role of Secretary

The scope of company secretary's work depends essentially on


the extent of power delegated to him by the board of directors. He
assigns the work of all correspondence with respect to the issue and
transfer of shares.

○ Filling of necessary returns and statement as per statutory


requirements
○ Distribution of dividend
○ Negotiation of contracts with third parties on behalf of the board
○ He carries out administrative functions.
○ Organize and controls office routines.
○ Arrange meeting, record the minutes, draft the annual report of
board

ROLES OF DIRECTOR-FINANCE

• Maintain financial accounting system in accordance with accepted


standards as prescribed.
• Fulfil all financial reporting requirements for federal, state, and
local grants
• Prepare and issue annual and related reports
• Maintain detailed fixed-asset inventory and site based inventories
• Assist in the annual financial audit and any special audit
• Assist in the preparation of the Comprehensive Annual Financial
Report
• Maintain reporting requirements and prepare responses to inquires
or audits by the Internal Revenue Service
• Maintain reporting requirements and prepare responses to
inquiries by the Teacher Retirement System
• Supervise the payroll operation to ensure staff salaries are paid
correctly
• Provide staff training in the areas of fixed assets, payroll and the
financial accounting system
• Act as a resource for principals, division heads, and director in
understanding and using the financial operations of the district

ROLES OF FINANCE MANAGER


• Supervise all accounting functions including monthly financial
reporting, cash management, bank reconciliations, general ledger
maintenance, and journal entries
• Supervise the federally funded programs and all related reporting
• Assist in the preparation of the annual budget including the tax rate
calculations and projections of all revenue sources
• Prepare budget review (held three times a year)
• Supervise the payroll function and act as liaison between payroll
and personnel
• Supervise the accounts payable area and assist with issues
between accounts payable and purchasing
• Act as assistant superintendent in this official's absence
• Update policies and procedures as necessary to accommodate
changes in the computer system and accounting requirements
• Enforce compliance with district policies and procedures as they
relate to the financial and budgeting areas
• Preparation of the Comprehensive Annual Financial Report
• Provide training to financial staff and users of the financial system
• Assist with budget preparation for alternative funding sources
• Supervise fixed assets and all year-end reconciliations

3.4 PURCHASE DEPARTMENT

Introduction

The main principle behind establishing a purchase department is


to reduce the work burden of the stores. It handles all the wok of
concern and vendor interface. It works for on and after the order, Le. For
making an order, follow up the orders and updating vendor details after
the order like the lead time and quality etc.
Proper buying of material and merchandise are of great
importance in any business. If the raw material is not of requisite quality,
the cost of production would rise, profit will decline, quality of finished
products may go down etc.

If raw materials are purchased in excess requirement there is an


unnecessary tie-up of working capital with loan of interest, incurring of
storing and safe guarding expenses, the risk of obsolescence and
detonation of the raw material is more.

Hence roots industries ltd takes careful steps in purchasing the


materials of the right time. Adequate quality and the right quality.

The selection of vendors based upon it following criteria:

 Quality
 Price
 Delivery

Structure:

Sources of Purchase

 Import from overseas suppliers


 Purchase from others states
 Local Suppliers
 Supply from Sub-Contractors
However, for import of goods from overseas, OGL (Open General
License) has to obtained from the industry of imports.

Purchase procedure:
• Bill of material
• Vendor
• Evaluation
• Team of engineers
• Freeze the vendor
• Rise enquiry
• After Evaluation
• Purchase order
These steps are followed for purchasing of material:

• The concerned department that is in need of a particular material


will give a purchase requisition slips to the stores department.
• The storekeeper send the material if it is available in stores, he will
cancel the purchase requisition and provide the material to the
concerned department.
• If material is not available in stores the storekeeper will forward the
purchase requisition to the purchase manager in the purchase
department.
• In the purchase requisition slip the things must be mentioned.

ABC Analysis (always bettor control):

• Store Item have been classified under, A, B, C.


• A-ltems ere normally less In quantity but of high value
• B-items lies some where between A & C
• C-items are less value but of more quality

Based on the vendor credit period:


• A-30 days
• B-14 days
• C-1O days

Frequency of purchase:

• Lesser the ability more the frequency of purchase


• More the ability less the frequency of purchases

Suppliers:
There are 250 vendors all over India, the vendor
supplies 4000 components based on the 5 product range.

3.5. SYSTEMS DEPARTMENT

In this department of Roots Industries, maintaining a centralized


database servers through networking all the systems for quick and easy
communication and transactions and there Is a separate section of
hardware and networking in order to attend the system problems from
any department and maintenance of software license and updates are
also seen. Some of the software's used are

SYSTEM APPLICATION AND PRODUCTION (SAP):

It is basically business application software used to reduce the amount


of time and money spent on developing and testing all the programs. It is
used in data processing also. A standard SAP system could be divided
into 3 environments such as

• Developments
• Quality Assurance (QA)
• Production.

ENTERPRISE RESOURCE PLANNING (ERP):


It can speed up the manufacturing processes by automation and
quicker workflow and reduces the need to carry large inventories. The
system wholly combines the functions such as manufacturing
accounting, planning distribution into a single system and designed in a
different way that it servers the needs of all departments within the
enterprise.

ROOTS INTEGRATION MANAGEMENT SYSTEM (RIMS):

RIMS is a software package responsible for managing bill passing,


material incoming bills and bill matching. When the information is
merged between TATA EX and RIMS the ledger will be created. In that,
the bank details are already available that could generate cheques and
drafts.

Observations:

• The present system can be further enhanced by on line payment


for purchase of the products.
• Not only Indian Currencies but also Foreign Currencies like Dollar,
Franc etc., could be accepted by the system
• The present system is not capable of handling other languages
except English.

3.6 PRODUCTION DEPARTMENT

Function

The major function of the production department is to produce the


goods as customer requires.

Procedure

• Receives and maintain design documents


• Maintain design related to regular products
• Receive information from R&D
• Receive production plan
• Receive materials
• Receive components from stores for production
• Process control
• Inspection
• Quality Controls

5'S Work Place Quality

Seri - Identify needed item or sorting.

Seiton - Systematic arrangement or put items in correct place.

Seiso - Clean up or keep the items & work area place.

Seiketsu - Set Standards and follow.

Shitsuke - Sustains the Result obtained

Roots Industries India Limited

Roots Industries specializes in the manufacture of a wide range


and line-up of automobile horns. Roots is a leading supplier to all the
major vehicle manufacturers like Ford, Daimler Chrysler, Mitsubishi
Lancer, Mahindra & Mahindra, Toyota, Tata Motors, Fiat Uno and Siena,
TELCO, TVS Motor Company, Kinetic Honda, etc.

Roots Industries Limited places a premium on original technology


and innovation. Its technical collaboration with Robert Bosch S.S of
Spain in 1995 has helped it to further strengthen its R & D activities and
technical competence. This collaboration along with Roots' indigenous
talent has kicked off a spree of growth unmatched in the history of
automobile OE manufacturers.
Windtone Vibrosonic Cleartone Bosch Range Roots 90 Megasonic

Smartone Spider FSA2 R 70 Sensors

Roots Auto Products Private Limited

Commercial transportation plays a crucial role in the economic


development of nations. Roots Air Horns ensures safe and smooth
passage of thousands of heavy vehicles on the move.

Roots Auto Products Private Limited (RAPPL), the largest supplier


of Air Horns in India caters to the needs of several OEMs: Ashok
Leyland, Caterpillar India and JCB Escorts. Roots Air Horns also find a
place of pride in Passenger vehicles, Trucks, Earth Moving equipment,
Material Handling equipment, etc.

Roots Air Horns are exported to countries in North America,


Europe, Middle East, Africa and SAARC region.
Air horns Controllers Switches Relays

Electronic flashers Melody Makers Security systems Mobile charger

Roots Multiclean Limited

The genesis of Roots Multiclean Ltd., (RMCL) is due to the vision


of the promoter of Roots group of company about the requirement of
sophisticated cleaning equipment in the country following globalization of
business and entry of Multi Nationals who have very high standard of
house keeping. RMCL, situated in the suburbs of Coimbatore, is a Joint
Venture with Hako Werke Gmbh & Co., Germany. It commenced
manufacture of cleaning equipment in early 90s at its modern factory
located amidst natural greenery. RMCL is the sole representative of
Hako Werke Gmbh & Company's entire range of cleaning equipment for
India and SAARC countries. To improvise and facilitate a better service
to its customers, RMCL has established Regional offices in all Metros
and a huge dealer network in bigger Cities and States.

The superior quality products and the added advantage of good


after sales service has established the company as the country’s largest
manufacturer of floor cleaning equipment.
Sweepers Scrubber- Floor Ride-on- Ride-on- City Master
Driers Washing Scrubber Sweeper
Machines

High Extra Heavy Industrial Single Disc Janitorial


Pressure Duty Vacuum Machines Range
Jet Industrial Cleaners
Cleaners Vacuums

Roots cast Private limited

Roots Cast Pvt. Ltd., (RCPL) (formerly known as Aruna Auto


Castings Private Limited) was established in 1984 to meet the captive
requirements of the Roots group. With its ever probing eye on the needs
of the market, the company in the late 80s expanded its operations to
manufacture High Pressure Die Cast Aluminium and Zinc components to
the exacting needs of various customers in Automobile and Textile
Industries with a high degree of Quality and Perfection.
RSV Governor hsg for Fuel Heat-Sink For Alternator Pump body and Pump body
Injection Pump cover

Fixing Bracket For Car- Steam & Dry Iron Sole plates Clam shell for Surgical
starter For Electric Iron interconnect System

RCPL, now has established itself as a major player in the die cast
component manufacturing thanks to the expertise built in the core
activities like tool design, tool making and pressure die cast component
manufacturing.

RCPL supplies machined castings and sub-assemblies as per


customer requisitions.

Roots Precision Products

Roots Precision Products was established in 1987 to address the


in-house tooling needs of the diverse industries in Roots group. Owing to
continuous improvement and investment into better resources, the
company has become self-sufficient. It is catering to the needs of various
industries. RPP acts as a one-stop solution for tooling and precision
machining.
Specialized in design and manufacture of:

• Press tools
• Injection moulds
• Die-casting dies
• Jigs and fixtures

Our services include:

• Tool Design
• Manufacture of Press tools, Plastic Injection Moulds, Pressure Die-
casting dies, Gauges and Jigs & fixtures.
• CNC Machining

Facilities:

Manufacturing facility includes

• Tool Design department with CAD/CAM, Solid modeling


• All types of conventional machines including EDM
• CNC Milling with Master CAM software for 3D machining
• Metrology lab for inspection of Tool parts and Components.

Roots Precision Products has the facility to conduct tool trial on:
• Mechanical Press up to 250 Tons
• Hydraulic Press up to 60 Tons
• Pressure Die Casting Machine up to 250 Tons
• Plastic Injection Moulding Machine up to 130 Tons
• Ultrasonic welding (with horns supplied by customers) upto
25mm2 capacity

Roots Polycraft (PC)

Roots Polycraft (PC) was established in 1988 to manufacture


precision plastic components. It is equipped with latest microprocessor
injection moulding machines to maintain consistent process parameters.

Over the years, Polycraft has gained skills and unique techniques
to manufacture small and medium size components for Automotive,
Pump, Textile, and Medical Industries besides meeting the captive
requirements of Roots Group. Being fully equipped to provide the best
service, Polycraft has satisfied customers who have helped augment its
technological advances.

The Company's commitment towards the customer is


demonstrated with quality products and service. This has resulted in
continuous growth and product diversification. The process is closely
monitored with proven techniques to obtain consistently good quality
parts.

Roots Meteorology Lab


Roots' state-of-the-art Metrology Laboratory is a comprehensive
calibration centre in South India that offers mechanical, electrical, torque,
pressure and vacuum calibration instruments - all under one roof.

The laboratory is equipped with advanced facilities traceable to


national / international standards. RMTL is accredited by National
accreditation Board for Testing and Calibration laboratory as per
ISO/IEC 17025 : 2005 standards in the field of Mechanical –
Dimensions, Pressure/Vacuum, & Force. The laboratory offers on-site
calibration facility and serves the industry to calibrate surface table,
coordinate measuring machine, profile projector, Toolmakers
Microscope, Pressure switches, Pressure gauges, Temperature
indicators, RTDs, Temperature sensors/scanners, Electronic
transmitters, Pressure reducing valves, Ovens, etc.

The expertise of the laboratory has attracted many renowned


Public and Private Sector undertakings

Observations:

• In coil winding section - Many contract workers are engaged than


the permanent workers and the company uniform is not provided
to all the workers.
• The employees are not engaged in any management programs.
• There is no job rotation for the employee's
• Even after following so many Quality tools and plans, the products
rejected reaches to considerable value,

3.7 QUALITY DEPARTMENT

The basic function of quality department in Roots is to maintain a


quality standard acceptable and appreciated world over. They keep the
quality level by maintaining proper quality control parameters and by
checking through the schedules.

• Thus good quality is maintained by controlling the process and


preventing occurrence of errors at regular intervals.
• It deals with the day to day activities related to incoming inspection
process inspection and final inspection.

TPM GOALS:

• Zero accident
• Zero breakdown
• Reduced cost
• Zero defect

5 S QUALITY TOOLS:

SEIRI - Sorting

SEITON - Systematic Arrangement

SEISO - Cleanliness

SEIKETSU - Standardization

SHITSUKE - Training & Self Discipline


POKA YOKE

• Zero Defects
• Zero waste
• Zero Delays

PRODUCT EFFICIENCY AND WASTE

• Stock Inefficiency
• Cost contributing to waste

FMEA

TIME STUDY

KAIZEN

THE BASIC SEVEN QC TOOLS

• Cause and Effect Diagram


• Run Chart
• Scatter Diagram
• Flowchart
• Parento chart
• Histogram
• Control Chart

Important Information's are displayed in every department display


boards.

AWARDED

American international quality award in 1994.

QUALITY SYSTEM CERTIFICATE:


• First horn manufacturing company in India to get ISO 9001:1994
certified year 1995,
• First horn manufacturing company in Asia to get QS 9000:1998
certified year 1999,
• First horn manufacturing company in Asia to get VDA 6.1 certified
year 2000,
• First horn manufacturing company in world to get ISO/TS
16949:2002 certified year 2003,
• First horn manufacturing company in India to get ISO 14001:2004
certified year 2005.

Observations:

• Even though the quality department engaged in more number of


quality tools the suggestions given by some machine operators are
being neglected.
• The reports prepared at last to illustrate the amount saved due to
the usage of particular Quality loots is being copied from old
reports and there seems to have some fluctuations from the real
cost saved.
• More number of quality tools lead to less important every individual
tool
• No special rewards are given the specific labour or to any specific
working unit in order to encourage the maintenance of Quality
Products.

3.8 STORES DEPARTMENT

Introduction
The Stores Department in a company is to manage the purchased
goods in an efficient way so as to reduce the unknown miscellaneous
loss of material by improper inventory control schemes.

Function

The major functions of this department are receipt of material, storage


and issue of material, documentation and stock check. Maintaining the
stock accurately as per the set norms is another function. All materials
received are codified and entered in to the system.

Once MRP issues an order for materials, on receipt the material is


registered at the Goods Inward section and then Stores takes custody of
the material.

Procedure

 Marketing department
 Raw Materials will be purchased as per production planning
control (PPC).
 After receiving the materials DC will be prepared and for inspection
tag will be attached and sent it to the quality assurance.
 If it is ok stores department confirm it.
 Material issue ticket (MIT) will be given at the time of material
taken from the stores.
 Materials transfer note(MTN) will be made at the time of materials
send for the job order.
 Materials return note will be made against the MIT, quality
assurance inspect the machine and send it to stores.
 Central Excise duty will be paid and dispatch it.

Various tags used for the inspection purpose are as follows:

 White tag - Waiting for inspection


 Green tag - Accepted
 Red tag - rejection
 Yellow tag - Conditionally accepted.

3.9 SALES AND MARKETING DEPARTMENT

Marketing department

Marketing is the process of exchange of goods, services, materials


or transfer of goods from one surplus location to a deficit location

Introduction

The department mainly deals with promoting the market share of


the company unlike the sales where the people work for fixed targets.
The major work of the department is to work on trends of market and
plan for sustaining.

Roots Industries Ltd focuses on 3 kinds of market namely,

1. Original Equipment Market (OEM)


2. Replacement market
i. Intrastate (within Tamilnadu)
ii.Interstate (outside Tamilnadu)
3. Export Oriented Market (EOM)

In the replacement market strategy, the major role is played by the


Mechanics. The mechanics word of mouth is very important for the
selling of the products to the customers.

From the company the distribution is termed as the primary sales,


since it is the direct sales.

From the distribution to the dealer is termed as the secondary


sales. From this sales onwards it is not direct sales.
From the dealer to the customer, it is termed as the territory sales,
where the mechanics are playing a vital role in the selling of product to
the customer.

The main aim of the company is to enhance the value and to make
convenience with the existing products to attract new customers and to
retain them.

Duties

• To improve sales methods


• To ensure that the goods reach the customers by the economical
routes.
• To keep constant watch towards comparative study of the
competitors! products.

Sales department

For attaining the objectives of higher sales each person in the


sales department are assigned with various duties for promoting sales.

Documents

Sales department maintains the following documents and bills

• Sales Statement
• Expenses Statement
• Product Report
• Central Excise
• Invoice
• Gate Pass
• Check
• Chelan
• Stock Statement
Exports

In case exports, market department has to do all things as


mentioned above plus documentation work.

MARKETING PROCESS

In this industry- the marketing process is carried out by two methods:

1. Direct method (Direct interaction between the customers and the


company)
2. Dealers method (Business-business (B-B) principle is followed)

DISTRIBUTION OF PRODUCTS IN REPLACEMENT MARKET

EXPORT ORIENTED MARKET

In OEM the products are directly sold to the customers.


Some of the OEM customers are Ashok Leyland, Caterpillar India.
Fiat, Ford, Hindustan Motor, Mahindra & Mahindra, Tata Motors,
Toyota, TVS Motor, Skoda Auto India. Volvo India etc.

Exclusive suppliers of sealed water tight horns for Indian Defense.


SALES PROCEDURE

CUSTOMERS:

ASHOK LEYLAND

TATRA UDYOG

FIAT INDIA
FORD MOTORS

HINDUSTAN MOTORS

MAHINDRA & MAHINDRA

MITSUBISHI LANCER

TATA ENGINEERING

DAIMLERCHRYSLER

TOYOTA KIRLOSKAR

VOLVO INDIA

BHARATH EARTH MOVERS

CATERPILLAR INDIA

TVS MOTOR COMPANY LIMITED

SKODA AUTO INDIA

PIAGGIO

Observations:

• The Discount for the products of Roots is having a certain limit In


both in domestic and international market.
• As per the dealers opinion the products of Roots are having a little
bit high I price when compared to the competitors.
• Marketing involves many activities like canvassing, getting orders,
proper maintenance of distribution of the products and to give
importance to customer's feedback, this makes the marketing
department to enlarge its scope.
• Since the Employees in this department are engaged in
travelling continuously they indulge in serious medical problems.

3.10 PUBLIC RELATIONS

Public relations (PR) is the practice of managing the flow of


information between an organization and its publics. Public relations
gains an organization or individual exposure to their audiences using
topics of public interest and news items that do not require direct
payment. Because public relations places exposure in credible third-
party outlets, it offers a third-party legitimacy that advertising does not
have. Common activities include speaking at conferences, working with
the press, and employee communication.

PR can be used to build rapport with employees, customers,


investors, voters, or the general public. Almost any organization that has
a stake in how it is portrayed in the public arena employs some level of
public relations. A number of specialties exist within the field of public
relations, such as Analyst Relations, Media Relations, Investor Relations
or Labor Relations.

"Public Relations is a set of management, supervisory, and


technical functions that foster an organization's ability to strategically
listen to, appreciate, and respond to those persons whose mutually
beneficial relationships with the organization are necessary if it is to
achieve its missions and values." Essentially it is a management function
that focuses on two-way communication and fostering of mutually
beneficial relationships between an organization and its publics.
Building and managing relationships with those who influence an
organization or individual's audiences has a central role in public
relations.

A fundamental technique used in public relations is to identify the


target audience, and to tailor every message to appeal to that audience.
It can be a general, nationwide or worldwide audience, but it is more
often a segment of a population. Marketers often refer to economy-
driven "demographics," such as "black males 18-49," but in public
relations an audience is more fluid, being whoever someone wants to
reach

In addition to audiences, there are usually stakeholders, literally


people who have a "stake" in a given issue. All audiences are
stakeholders (or presumptive stakeholders), but not all stakeholders are
audiences. For example, a charity commissions a PR agency to create
an advertising campaign to raise money to find a cure for a disease. The
charity and the people with the disease are stakeholders, but the
audience is anyone who is likely to donate money.

Sometimes the interests of differing audiences and stakeholders


common to a PR effort necessitate the creation of several distinct but still
complementary messages. This is not always easy to do, and
sometimes – especially in politics – a spokesperson or client says
something to one audience that angers another audience or group of
stakeholders.

CHAPTER 4

COMPILATION & CONCLISION

4.1 INTRODUCTION:
The purpose of Organization Study is to know the about a
business and how to drive the business in a profitable ways i.e., by
effective management using some plans or suggestions from its
employees or by following useful theories and this effective management
does not include any Thumb Rule .So it is changes continuously as per
the situations both in Internal and external environments.

The information gathered are all from the ROOTS INDUSTRIES


employees and the suggestions made to improve the business and its
employees are also from them.

4.2 FINDINGS

Human Resource Department

• Perfect Performance indicators for each and every department are


not dearly
• Job rotation should be continuously checked within every
department employees.
• Meeting up of higher officials involves lot many procedures for an
employee.
• Salary package fixing for an employee follows in reverse trend as
for as the growth rate of the company is verified in the annual
report

Finance Department:

• For receiving the mail they are using LOTUS NOTES


APPLICATION in that for every five employee an e-mail id has
given it leads to confusion for the working staff in that group.
• The person who is recruited for a certain specific work is involved
in the same job more than decade. So the scope for learning for
that employee is certainly limited.
• The remuneration for the employees is decreased as because of
not getting enough orders.
• The environment in which they are working is not having A/c
because of cost reduction policy.
• Frequent switch off of computers due interrupted power supply
makes the user to frustrate soon.

Systems Department

• The present system can be further enhanced by on line payment


for purchase of the products.
• Not only Indian Currencies but also Foreign Currencies like Dollar,
Franc etc., could be accepted by the system
• The present system is not capable of handling other languages
except English.

Production Departments

• In coil winding section - Many contract workers are engaged than


the permanent workers and the company uniform is not provided
to all the workers.
• The employees are not engaged in any management programs.
• There is no job rotation for the employee's
• Even after following so many Quality tools and plans, the products
rejected reaches to considerable value,

Quality Department

• Even though the quality department engaged in more number of


quality tools the suggestions given by some machine operators are
being neglected.
• The reports prepared at last to illustrate the amount saved due to
the usage of particular Quality loots is being copied from old
reports and there seems to have some fluctuations from the real
cost saved.
• More number of quality tools lead to less important every individual
tool
• No special rewards are given the specific labour or to any specific
working unit in order to encourage the maintenance of Quality
Products.

Marketing Department

• The Discount for the products of Roots is having a certain limit In


both in domestic and international market.
• As per the dealers opinion the products of Roots are having a little
bit high I price when compared to the competitors.
• Marketing involves many activities like canvassing, getting orders,
proper maintenance of distribution of the products and to give
importance to customer's feedback, this makes the marketing
department to enlarge its scope.
• Since the Employees in this department are engaged in
travelling continuously they indulge in serious medical problems.

4.2 SUGGESTIONS

• Separate mail-id for each and every management employees have


to be provided in order to avoid confusion.
• The scope of learning for every employee has to be taken care by
having continuous interaction programs.
• Package for every employee have to be increased significantly
equal to the growth of the company.
• Frequent power cut has to be taken care by providing UPS facility.
• The working environments have to be Air conditioned for the
employee satisfaction and also to avoid a continuous increase in
electronic equipments, e.g. Computer
• Discounts have to given to bulk orders from dealers.
• Price level fixing have to be taken care off.
• Scope of marketing division should be limited for concentration in
sale of goods.
• Some basic medical facilities like Sugar test, BP test etc., should
be conducted within the company itself for every month.
• Job securities have to be given to employees who work in contract
basis.
• Employees should participate In management programs for
mutual understanding of the business.
• Product rejection ratio have to be decreased by engaging various
alternative solutions
• Suggestions from machine operators and also from all levels have
to be informed to higher officials.
• Quality reports should have the accuracy when comparable to the
real situations.
• Special rewards should be given to the employees for quality
output.
• Every Quality tool should have equal importance at all levels of
productions.
• Performance Indicators, salary revisions, job rotations and meeting
up of higher officials have to be taken care.
• Improvement should be made to have enhanced web-based sales
services.
• Payments should be taken care in order to maintain online
payments in any currencies
• The system should be developed to have other languages also.
• The analysis reveals that the company is financially good.
• The company can control its sundry debtors, sundry creditors and
expenses.
• The company should give much attention for effective utilization of
the resources and cost reduction,
• In order to push sales the company has to offer credit to customers
contributes to high current assets.
• The company should take efforts to decrease the non operating
expenditure of the company.
• The company should take efforts to increase the profitability of the
company.

CONCLUSION

Roots Industries India Limited., is a fast growing auto


components manufacturing company, which is playing a major role
among its group of companies. It always strives to improve its quality
standards and serve its customers better.

The training experience in Roots was totally a new experience to


us. I really enjoyed the nature of work given by the staff because every
one helped us whenever we approached them for their hand.

Everyone in the company helped us to collect all the necessary


information, ^o march on the path of success of the Internship Program.
I conclude by thanking the college faculty members of our department
and officials, personnel's and employees of the company for giving us
the right guidance to complete internship successfully.
BIBLIOGRAPHY

www.rootsindia.com

www.en.wikipedia.com

www.answers.yahoo.com

www.wiki.answers.com