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Hot and Cold Packs

Do Now:

1. what is Calorimetry? How is it related to thermochemistry?

Calorimetry is the measurements of heat flow of a system during a chemical and physical
process. Both are the same thing but calorimetry can control heat.

2. what is entropy?
Entropy is the disorder of a system. Second law of thermo

3. what is enthalpy?
Enthalpy is the total sum of heat.

Exothermic-releases heat from its surroundings. - when the temp, increases

Endothermic-absorbs heat from its surroundings. - when the temp. decreases


Calorimetry is the science of measuring heat. Many chemical and physical transformations involve
energy transfer in the form of heat. The magnitude and direction of heat may be determined using a
calorimeter. In reactions that occur in aqueous solutions, the energy is transferred to or taken away
from the water. A calorimeter is an apparatus that is insulated and prevents heat from flowing in or
out of the system. Since the experiment is run under constant pressure (atmospheric), the change in
water temperature that is measured is due to the enthalpy of reaction (heat of reaction). The heat of
reaction may be calculated using the values measured for change in the water temperature.

The heat transfer, or change in enthalpy in a reaction (qrxn), is related to the mass of the solution (m),
the specific heat capacity of the solution (c), and the temperature change (ΔΤ = Τfinal — Τinitial).

qrxn= – (m × c × ΔΤ)
The specific heat capacity of a substance is the amount of energy required to raise 1 g of the
substance 1° C. The specific heat capacity of water is 4.186 J / (° C × g). In experiments
conducted in aqueous solution, the specific heat capacity of water is generally used.

Instant Hot and Cold Packs

Many instant hot and cold packs function by dissolving a salt into water. As the salt disassociates,
heat is either released in an exothermic reaction or absorbed in an endothermic reaction.
Commercial instant cold packs typically use either ammonium nitrate or urea as their salt
component; hot packs often use magnesium sulfate or calcium chloride. These reactions happen in a
similar manner. When the salt is dissolved in water, the ionic bonds of the salt separate. This process
requires energy, which is obtained from the surroundings. The ions then form bonds with the water,
a process that releases energy. If more energy is released than taken in, then the process is
exothermic, making the solution feel warmer. If more energy is taken in than released, then the
process is endothermic, making the solution feel cooler.

Commercially, there are 2 other commonly sold types of instant hot packs. One heats up when
exposed to air. This hot pack functions as iron reacts with oxygen to form iron (III) oxide, an
exothermic reaction. The other type relies on the super cooling of sodium acetate. Upon heating the
solution, it can become supersaturated. Without a seed crystal, the sodium acetate will remain in
solution as it cools. This type of hot pack typically contains a metal disk that provides a site for
crystallization when depressed. As the sodium acetate forms a regular crystal arrangement, heat is
released. This hot pack is reusable as it can be regenerated in boiling water to once again form the
supersaturated solution.

Hot and Cold Packs Experiment Procedure

1. Fill three 250 ml beakers with 150 ml of water, and add a thermometer.

2. Record the initial temperature.

3. Then, add approximately 15 grams of calcium chloride to one beaker, and 15 grams of
ammonium nitrate to the second, and leave the third without any chemical added.

4. Stir continuously to ensure mixing, and watch the changes in temperature over time.

5. Record the temperature every five minutes for a total of 30 minutes.

Record the temperature of each beaker at five minute intervals up to 30 minutes:

Water Alone Calcium Ammonium

Chloride Nitrate

Initial 38 degrees 25 degrees 39 degrees

Temp celsius celsius celsius

5 minutes 30 degrees 26 degrees 34 degrees

celsius celsius celsius

10 minutes 28 degrees 27 degrees 30 degrees

celsius celsius celsius

15 minutes 24 degrees 28 degrees 30 degrees

celsius celsius celsius

20 minutes 24 degrees 28 degrees 29 degrees

celsius celsius celsius

25 minutes 23 degrees 30 degrees 26 degrees

celsius celsius celsius

30 minutes 23 degrees 31 degrees 24 degrees

Final celsius celsius celsius

Which beaker(s) rose in temperature? Which beaker(s) fell in temperature?

The beaker that rose in temperature is calcium chloride. The beaker that fell in temperature is Ammonium
Nitrate. Chemical energy are stored in chemical bonds. When bonds break its releasing energy.
Why would the beaker with no reaction change in temperature?

The beaker with no reaction change in temperature because it adopts to the room temperature and its
absorbing energy.

What might happen to the temperature after the calcium chloride and ammonium nitrate fully dissolve in
solution? Where does heat energy flow from, and where does it end up?

The reaction dissolves completely and it would become room temperature.

Imagine, instead of beakers, the reactions were performed in styrofoam cups or coffee mugs. Would the
temperature return to room temperature faster or slower than in glass beakers?

When using styrofoam cups conserves heat. Coffee mugs also conserves heat. Glass is not as good