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Electronic Cam Motion Generation With Special Reference

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TRANSACTIONS®

ISA Transactions 43 共2004兲 427–443

to constrained velocity, acceleration, and jerk

Chung-Shu Liao,a Shyr-Long Jeng,b Wei-Hua Chienga

a

Department of Mechanical Engineering, National Chiao-Tung University, 1001 Ta Hsueh Road, Hsinchu, Taiwan 30010,

Republic of China

b

Department of Automation Engineering, Ta Hwa Institute of Technology, 1 Ta-Hwa Road, Chiung-Lin, Hsinchu, Taiwan,

Republic of China

共Received 3 May 2003; accepted 5 December 2003兲

Abstract

Electronic cam motion involves velocity tracking control of the master motor and trajectory generation of the slave

motor. Special concerns such as the limits of the velocity, acceleration, and jerk are beyond the considerations in the

conventional electronic cam motion control. This study proposes the curve-fitting of a Lagrange polynomial to the cam

profile, based on trajectory optimization by cubic B-spline interpolation. The proposed algorithms may yield a higher

tracking precision than the conventional master-slaves control method does, providing an optimization problem is

concerned. The optimization problem contains three dynamic constraints including velocity, acceleration, and jerk of

the motor system. © 2004 ISA—The Instrumentation, Systems, and Automation Society.

Keywords: Electronic cam; Tracking control; Trajectory generation; Trajectory optimization; Master-slaves

cal and easy to implement.

In this study, the electronic cam 共ECAM兲 mo- This approach to obtaining a highly precise

tion is generated in two stages, the first of which is estimate of the master position involves Nth-order

a typical electronic gearing process which is fo- polynomial tracking. For example, the fifth-order

cused on the velocity tracking control of the mas- polynomial estimate is more precise than the

ter motor. Steven 关1兴 specified a tracking control third-order polynomial estimation by a factor of

electronic gearing system called an ‘‘optimal feed- about 10 000. The advantage of the proposed

forward tracking controller,’’ concerned primarily tracking method is that the low-frequency

with the design of the slave controller. However, harmonic disturbances of a loaded master are very

he did not consider the output properties of the precisely estimated. Such nominal harmonic

master motor, including the measurement noise, disturbances are observed in many industrial

periodic errors, and external harmonic distur- applications 关3兴. In practice, the frequencies of

bances. In practice, the measurement noise or the the external disturbances are expected to be far

external disturbance must be controlled and elimi- below the Nyquist frequency 关4兴 of the real-time

nated by modeling the disturbances, before apply- system.

ing tracking control to estimate the master posi- ECAM motion regulates the slave motion to fol-

tion. This paper proposes the use of a disturbance low a predetermined trajectory, which is a function

estimator 关2兴 to suppress the external disturbance. of the position of the master axis 关5,6兴. A cam

0019-0578/2004/$ - see front matter © 2004 ISA—The Instrumentation, Systems, and Automation Society.

428 Chung-Shu Liao, Shyr-Long Jeng, Wei-Hua Chieng / ISA Transactions 43 (2004) 427–443

trajectory is generally specified by a cam profile nomial curve. However, the predicted master po-

table, which lists a set of reciprocal coordinates. sition is estimated by the electronic gearing 共E-

Chen 关7兴 applied B-spline 关8,9兴 and polynomial gearing兲 process.

curve-fitting methods to generate a smooth cam

profile curve function. Kim and Tsao 关10兴 devel- 2.1. External disturbance estimator

oped an electrohydraulic servo actuator for use in

electronic cam motion generation, and obtained External disturbances 共or loads兲 applied to the

improved performance. However, some original master may directly impact the efficiency of

performance limits, including velocity, accelera- E-gearing. Therefore disturbances must be sup-

tion, or jerk constraints, must be considered be- pressed. A mathematical model of the disturbance

cause motors have the lower loaded capacity rela- estimator, depicted in Fig. 1共a兲, is used to estimate

tive to the hydraulic actuators. For example, for a and suppress the external loads of the master mo-

highly precise machining tool, chattering must be tor. Fig. 1共b兲 is one practical embodiment for the

avoided, so jerking in motion must be reduced. proposed disturbance suppressed control.

This study proposes an optimization algorithm In Fig. 1共b兲, the external load L is estimated

关11兴 to prevent extremely high velocities, accelera- from the input current i a and the angular velocity

tion, or jerk, yielding smooth motion of the slave , where K a , L̂ f , R̂ f , K̂, Ĵ, and B̂ represent the

motor without loss of precision. The proposed nominal back electromotive force constant, the

tracking method presented here was experimen- nominal armature current inductance, the nominal

tally verified using a real-time program to realize armature current resistance, the nominal torque

the ECAM control system. The master’s system constant, the nominal moment of inertia, and the

uses a disturbance estimator to eliminate external nominal damping coefficient of the motor, respec-

disturbances. This estimator is the prerequisite for tively. Furthermore, V re f , L f , R f , K, J, and B

the Nth-order polynomial tracking control. represent the reference voltage input, the actual

Lagrange polynomial 关9兴 curve-fitting, cubic armature current inductance, the actual armature

B-spline 关9兴 interpolation and a constrained opti- current resistance, the actual 共uncertain兲 torque

mization algorithm are used to determine the po- constant, the actual 共uncertain兲 moment of inertia,

sition of the slaves. Consequently, a tradeoff may and the actual 共uncertain兲 damping coefficient of

exist between precision and constraints, which are the motor, respectively. Consider the dynamics of

imposed in given order of priority. a typical dc motor:

共1兲

2. Prerequisite of electronic cam „ECAM…

tracking control According to Fig. 2共a兲, this estimator cannot be

realized because of the differential term ( Ĵs ) of

Electronic cam 共ECAM兲 control is a well- angular velocity. The estimator depicted in Fig.

known master-slaves system. Fig. 1共a兲 schemati- 2共a兲 is also very numerically sensitive to the mea-

cally depicts the mathematical model of the pro- surement noise because it yields high gains in the

posed electronic cam system. The variables and high-frequency field. Accordingly, a first-order

symbols in the figure are defined in the following low-pass filter is used to estimate the disturbance

sections. In Fig. 1共a兲, the motion of the slave mo- ˆ L , as shown in Fig. 2共b兲, where

tor clearly depends on the estimated slave position

1

command, p k⫹1 , which is generated by cubic ˆ L ⫽ 共2兲

B-spline interpolation, combined with an optimi- 共 Is⫹1 兲 L

zation algorithm. Such optimization is performed and

to meet the demands of limited performance—the

constraints of velocity, acceleration, and jerk. The ˆ L ⫺ 共 Ĵs⫹B 兲 Ĵ ⫺B̂⫹Ĵ/I

method of cubic B-spline curve-fitting is based on ⫽ ⫽⫺ ⫹ . 共3兲

Is⫹1 I Is⫹1

substituting the estimated master position into the

cam trajectory. It is established using Lagrange’s Rearranging this external disturbance estimator in

interpolation formula to generate a Lagrange poly- Fig. 3 yields no differential term. The estimated

Chung-Shu Liao, Shyr-Long Jeng, Wei-Hua Chieng / ISA Transactions 43 (2004) 427–443 429

Fig. 1. 共a兲 Mathematical model of the proposed electronic cam system. 共b兲 Block diagram of the proposed disturbance

estimator for one practical embodiment.

disturbance ( ˆ L ) is then fed back to the current specified by Eq. 共2兲. Thus the estimated value for

loop, and the external disturbance is suppressed. low delay time is obtained by reducing the time

In practice, due to the current loop’s bandwidth constant 共I兲 of the low-pass filter. However, the

being much larger than the speed loop’s band- small time constant trades off the estimated preci-

width, the electrical dynamic response 关 1/( L f s sion and robustness because it suffers more on

⫹R f ) 兴 may be ignored from the model of Fig. measurement noise and modeling uncertainty.

1共b兲. Fig. 2共b兲 is equivalently transformed to Fig. 2共c兲

to elucidate the effect of the external disturbance

2.2. Suppressing external disturbance ( L ) . According to Fig. 2共c兲, the effect of L is

that of passing L through the filter Is/ ( Is⫹1 ) .

According to Fig. 3, the pole of the disturbance Accordingly, the external disturbance can be sup-

estimator equals the pole of the low-pass filter, pressed when the disturbance frequency is less

430 Chung-Shu Liao, Shyr-Long Jeng, Wei-Hua Chieng / ISA Transactions 43 (2004) 427–443

than 1/I rad/s. Thus the smaller time constant I E-gearing system employs only electronic means

yields better efficiency for suppressing high- to achieve the constant input/output velocity ratio.

frequency disturbances. However, a tradeoff exists It is assumed that the output velocity control sys-

between estimated precision and robustness, as de- tem is stiff and the main issue for the electronic

scribed in the above paragraph. E-gearing is to predict the future master velocity

Due to considerations of robustness, the mea- from its past. The velocity of the slave 共output兲

surement noise and the modeling uncertainty must motor is controlled according to the velocity of the

also be considered in determining the time con- master 共input兲 motor.

stant I. The Appendix discusses the sensitivities, The velocity of the master motor varies when

G G G G

S K c , S J c , and S B c to the uncertainties, where S K c , loads or other external disturbances are applied.

G G

S J c , and S B c are the sensitivities of the current Therefore the master velocity is not usually con-

stant and may exhibit harmonics. Even though the

loop transfer function G c to the uncertain param-

amplitudes of the harmonic velocity are greatly

eters K, J, and B, respectively. Moreover, the ef-

reduced by using the proposed disturbance estima-

fect of measurement noise is discussed with refer-

tor, there still exists velocity variations. The pro-

ence to a numerical simulation in Section 5.1.

cedure for estimating the master position and/or

3. Electronic gearing „E-gearing… process velocity is an important step for E-gearing. Meth-

ods of tracking control have been developed in

The electronic gearing 共E-gearing兲 differentiates various fields, and include radar tracking control

itself from the mechanical gearing because the and others 关12兴. This study proposes an Nth-order

polynomial tracking method to perform the

E-gearing process.

According to the Nth-order polynomial, the

master velocity at time t can be expressed as

N

⫽ 兺 c it i. 共4兲

i⫽0

( c 0 ,c 1 ,...,c N ) in real time, two procedures are

proposed.

共i兲 The initial procedure, t⫽kT, 1⭐k⭐N⫹1,

Fig. 3. The external disturbance estimator and external dis-

is the various order 关 ( k⫺1 ) th order兴 polynomial

turbance eliminated control. 共i兲 k⭐N⫹1, 0 ⬃ k⫺1 are the extrapolation, where the symbol k is a real-time

recorded data and ˆ k is the unknown 共estimated兲 data. 共ii兲 counter of time base, T is the PC-based program-

k⬎N⫹1, k⫺N⫺2 ⬃ k⫺1 are the recorded data and ˆ k is ming sampling time, and kT denotes the present

the unknown 共estimated兲 data. time over all this paper,

Chung-Shu Liao, Shyr-Long Jeng, Wei-Hua Chieng / ISA Transactions 43 (2004) 427–443 431

兺

i⫽0

c i 共 l•T 兲 ⫽ l ,

i

l⫽0 to k⫺1. 共5兲 M in the ith row and jth column can be expressed

as

共ii兲 The main procedure, t⫽kT, k⬎N⫹1, is

the fixed Nth-order polynomial extrapolation: Ck ⫽ 关 c 0 ,c 1 ,...,c N 兴 T ,

N ⍀⫽ 关 k⫺N⫺1 , k⫺N ,..., k⫺1 兴 T . 共9兲

兺 c i共 j•T 兲 ⫽ l ,

i

l⫽ 共 k⫺N⫺1 兲 to 共 k⫺1 兲 ,

i⫽0 In Eq. 共8兲, M is a constant matrix and M⫺1 exists;

the computation involves no numerical degen-

j⫽l⫺ 共 k⫺N⫺1 兲 . 共6兲 eracy. Then the estimated velocity ˆ k during the

time interval 关 kT, ( k⫹1 ) T 兴 can be calculated as

Similarly, the symbol k is a real-time counter of

time base, T is the PC-based programming sam- ˆ k ⫽ 关 1,NT,..., 共 NT 兲 N⫺1 兴 •Ck . 共10兲

pling time. Where l 关 ⫽ ( x l⫹1 ⫺x l ) /T 兴 are the

measured angular velocities during the interval However, the estimated initial angular velocity

关 lT, ( l⫹1 ) T 兴 , x l are the recorded positions of the may be chosen as the reference master velocity ¯

master measured from the encoder at the past time which is the desired velocity of the master, i.e.,

lT. Furthermore, Fig. 4 shows the temporal rela- ˆ 0 ⫽

¯ . Then, the estimated position of the master

tions of the two proposed procedures. is

Rewriting Eq. 共6兲 in matrix form yields

x̂ k⫹1 ⫽x k ⫹ ˆ k •T, 共11兲

M"Ck ⫽⍀⇒Ck ⫽M⫺1 "⍀, 共7兲

where x k and x̂ k⫹1 are the measured position of

where M苸R( N⫹1 ) ⫻ ( N⫹1 ) , Ck 苸RN⫹1 , and ⍀ are the master at the present sample time kT and the

the obtained time matrix, the matrix of polynomial estimated position at the next sample time ( k

coefficients, and the matrix of measured angular ⫹1 ) T, respectively.

432 Chung-Shu Liao, Shyr-Long Jeng, Wei-Hua Chieng / ISA Transactions 43 (2004) 427–443

Table 1

An example of cam profile table, both sets of data are scaled by their largest travel distance of one cam cycle.

Master 0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1

position

x

Slave 0 0.006 45 0.048 63 0.148 63 0.306 45 0.5 0.693 55 0.851 37 0.951 37 0.993 55 1

position

f (x)

4. Predicting the position of the slaves r k⫹1,j 共 u 兲 ⫽F 1,4共 u 兲 p k⫹1,j⫺1 ⫹F 2,4共 u 兲 p k⫹1,j

This study uses Lagrange’s interpolation for- ⫹F 3,4共 u 兲 p k⫹1,j⫹1 ⫹F 4,4共 u 兲 p k⫹1,j⫹2 ,

mula to establish piecewise cam trajectories. If the 共15兲

piecewise reciprocal master-slave’s coordinates

( x i ,y i ) obtained from the given cam profile table where r k⫹1,j ( u ) represents the jth segment of the

specify n⫹1 points, where i⫽0 to n, and x 0 ( k⫹1 ) th time interval; j苸 关 1:4 兴 denotes the

⬍x 1 ⬍¯⬍x n , then the nth-degree Lagrange curve segment number and u⫽0 to 1 within each

polynomial is curve segment. p k⫹1,j⫺1 ⬃p k⫹1,j⫹2 are the control

n points of the spline. F 1,4( u ) ⬃F 4,4( u ) are the

f L共 x 兲 ⫽ 兺 L i共 x 兲 y i , 共12兲 blending functions.

i⫽0 The fourth degree cubic B-spline, as shown in

Fig. 8, exhibits second-order continuity. All the

where

variables of the B-spline are defined below.

n

x⫺x j

L i共 x 兲 ⫽ 兿

j⫽0,j⫽i x i ⫺x j

共13兲 point of the ( k⫹1 ) th time interval, where p k⫺4,5

is the previous position command of the slave at

are the Lagrange interpolation coefficients. Table 1 time ( k⫺4 ) T and equivalently the fifth control

is an example of a cam profile table. point of the ( k⫺4 ) th time interval.

Substituting Eq. 共11兲 into Eq. 共12兲 yields the 共ii兲 p k⫹1,1( ⫽p k⫺3,5) denotes the first control

next ideal cam profile position of the slave: point of the ( k⫹1 ) th time interval, where p k⫺3,5

is the previous position of the slave at time ( k

n

⫺3 ) T and equivalently the fifth control point of

f L 共 x̂ k⫹1 兲 ⫽ 兺 L i 共 x̂ k⫹1 兲 y i . 共14兲 the ( k⫺3 ) th time interval.

i⫽0

共iii兲 p k⫹1,2( ⫽p k⫺2,5) denotes the second con-

The design of the cam profile may not consider trol point of the ( k⫹1 ) th time interval, where

the dynamic capability of the control plant in ad- p k⫺2,5 is the previous position of the slave at time

vance. Some dynamic limitations that degrade the ( k⫺2 ) T and equivalently the fifth control point of

slave motion generally apply; for example, a cut- the ( k⫺2 ) th time interval.

ting machine tool may chatter due to over-large 共iv兲 p k⫹1,3( ⫽p k⫺1,5) denotes the third control

jerk, so the jerk has to be limited during the cut- point of the ( k⫹1 ) th time interval, where p k⫺1,5

ting process. Furthermore, maximal velocity and is the previous position of the slave at time ( k

acceleration are limited by the motor and servo ⫺1 ) T and equivalently the fifth control point of

drive system. Consequently, the actual trajectory the ( k⫺1 ) th time interval.

of slave motion may not be fulfilled, Eq. 共14兲, but 共v兲 p k⫹1,4( ⫽p k,5) denotes the fourth control

must be close to the ideal trajectory provided that point of the ( k⫹1 ) th time interval, where p k,5 is

it fits the specified constraints. Given its low sen- the previous position of the slave at time kT and

sitivity, the piecewise trajectory of the actual slave equivalently the fifth control point of the kth time

motion with respect to time is proposed to follow interval.

a cubic B-spline curve of fourth degree 关9兴, as 共vi兲 p k⫹1,5 denotes the position command of the

shown in Fig. 5: slave motor yet to be determined, and is equiva-

Chung-Shu Liao, Shyr-Long Jeng, Wei-Hua Chieng / ISA Transactions 43 (2004) 427–443 433

lently the fifth control point of the ( k⫹1 ) th time Minimizing the objective error function subject

interval. to the constraints on velocity, acceleration, and

共vii兲 p k⫹1,6关 ⫽ f L ( x̂ k⫹2 ) 兴 denotes the sixth con- jerk yields the one-dimensional constrained opti-

trol point of the ( k⫹1 ) th time interval, where mization problem:

f L ( x̂ k⫹2 ) is derived from the cam profile position

at time ( k⫹2 ) T, as indicated in Eq. 共14兲.

Statements 共i兲–共vii兲 include a total of seven un-

Minimize 储 p k⫹1,5⫺ f 共 x̂ k⫹1 兲 储 22 共19a兲

knowns and six independent equalities. There is an

extra degree of freedom left for the following op-

再

timization problem: The slave’s position error be-

tween the next unknown position command p k⫹1,5 兩 r k⫹1,4

u

共 0 兲 兩 ⭐V max 共 19b兲

and the ideal cam profile position command 兩 r k⫹1,4共 0 兲 兩 ⭐A max

uu

共 19c兲

subject to

f L ( x̂ k⫹1 ) at time ( k⫹1 ) T can be expressed as

兩 r k⫹1,4

uuu

共 0 兲 兩 ⭐Jerkmax. 共 19d兲

e k⫹1 ⫽p k⫹1,5⫺ f L 共 x̂ k⫹1 兲 . 共16兲

The objective error function is defined in quadratic

form as The constrained optimization problem of a qua-

dratic cost function has an easy to find optimal

E k⫹1 ⫽ 储 e k⫹1 储 22 ⫽ 储 p k⫹1,5⫺ f 共 x̂ k⫹1 兲 储 22 . 共17兲 * ⫽ f L ( x̂ k⫹1 ) with zero cost, when

solution, p k⫹1,5

To ensure that the velocity, acceleration, and jerk none of the constraints is violated. According to

do not exceed the maximal values, ( V max , A max , Eqs. 共19a兲–共19d兲, the optimization problem may

and Jerkmax) allowed for the motor’s system, three be reformulated as an unconstrained minimization

inequality constraints are imposed on the optimi- problem as follows:

zation. The first, second, and third differentiation

of the cubic B-spline curve at the start, u⫽0, of

the fourth segment, can be expressed as follows: Minimize 储 p k⫹1,5⫺ f 共 x̂ k⫹1 兲 储 22 ⫹W v g v 共 p k⫹1,5兲

u

r k⫹1,4共 0 兲 ⫽⫺0.5p k⫹1,3⫹0.5p k⫹1,5 , 共18a兲 ⫹W a g a 共 p k⫹1,5兲 ⫹W J g J 共 p k⫹1,5兲 , 共20兲

uu

r k⫹1,4共 0 兲 ⫽p k⫹1,3⫺2p k⫹1,4⫹p k⫹1,5 ,

共18b兲

where W v , W a , and W J are the weighting factors

uuu

r k⫹1,4共 0 兲 ⫽⫺p k⫹1,3⫹3p k⫹1,4⫺3p k⫹1,5⫹p k⫹1,6 . of velocity constraint, acceleration constraint, and

共18c兲 jerk constraint, respectively, and

434 Chung-Shu Liao, Shyr-Long Jeng, Wei-Hua Chieng / ISA Transactions 43 (2004) 427–443

u

each of the constraints may be easily calculated

g v 共 p k⫹1,5兲 ⫽ if 兩 r k⫹1,4

u

共 0 兲 兩 ⬍V max from Eqs. 共19b兲–共19d兲 by substituting the inequal-

0, if 兩 r k⫹1,4

u

共 0 兲 兩 ⭓V max , ity sign into equality sign, as follows:

共21a兲

再

p k⫹1,5⫽2 sgn关 r k⫹1,4

u

共 0 兲兴 •V max⫹p k⫹1,3 ,

兩兩 r k⫹1,4

uu

共 0 兲 兩 ⫺A max兩 , 共22a兲

g a 共 p k⫹1,5兲 ⫽ if 兩 r k⫹1,4

uu

共 0 兲 兩 ⬍A max p k⫹1,5⫽sgn关 r k⫹1,4

uu

共 0 兲兴 •A max⫺p k⫹1,3⫹2p k⫹1,4 ,

0, if 兩 r k⫹1,4

uu

共 0 兲 兩 ⭓A max , 共22b兲

共21b兲

再

p k⫹1,5⫽⫺ 31 sgn关 r k⫹1,4

uuu

共 0 兲兴 Jerkmax⫺ 31 p k⫹1,3

兩兩 r k⫹1,4

u

共 0 兲 兩 ⫺Jerkmax兩 ,

⫹p k⫹1,4⫹ 31 p k⫹1,6 . 共22c兲

g J 共 p k⫹1,5兲 ⫽ if 兩 r k⫹1,4

uuu

共 0 兲 兩 ⬍Jerkmax

The optimal solution process may be depicted in

0, if 兩 r k⫹1,4

uuu

共 0 兲 兩 ⭓Jerkmax .

the flow chart as shown in Fig. 6. According to the

共21c兲

flow chart, the solution of the optimization prob-

In an extreme case that W v ⰇW a ⰇW J , the mini- lem is unique, and thus guarantees to be the global

mization problem implies a constraint violation optimum.

priority that g v is much more important than g a In Fig. 6, all possible cases are enumerated and

and g J . In practice, Eq. 共19兲 is highly nonlinear, categorized as follows. 共i兲 The ideal cam profile

existing techniques to find the global optimization position command violates the velocity constraint,

are not guaranteed. One needs to enumerate all the as shown in Figs. 7共a兲–7共l兲; 共ii兲 the ideal cam pro-

possible cases for the global solution. Fig. 7 shows file position command violates acceleration con-

all the possible optimal solution for the extreme straint and does not violate velocity constraint, as

Chung-Shu Liao, Shyr-Long Jeng, Wei-Hua Chieng / ISA Transactions 43 (2004) 427–443 435

Fig. 7. The location of the optimal position command, p k⫹1,5

profile position command violates only the jerk

共23兲

constraint, as shown in Figs. 7共o兲–7共q兲; 共iv兲 the

ideal cam profile position command satisfies all of

the constraints, as shown in Fig. 7共r兲.

The amplitude a of the square wave is set to

5. Simulation and experimental results 4.8773 N m and the frequency of the square wave

is 1 Hz. Figs. 8共a兲 and 8共b兲 present the master’s

5.1. Simulation of disturbance estimator simulated angular velocity obtained using the pro-

posed disturbance estimator feedback control and

For simulation purposes, the nominal external without using the disturbance estimator. The

disturbance is assumed to be a square wave func- nominal parameters of the master motor defined in

tion: Section 2 are K̂⫽0.55 N m/A, Ĵ⫽0.093 kg m2 ,

436 Chung-Shu Liao, Shyr-Long Jeng, Wei-Hua Chieng / ISA Transactions 43 (2004) 427–443

Fig. 8. 共a兲 Simulated angular velocity of the master. 共b兲 Simulated angular velocity of the master using disturbance estimator

feedback control 共zoom in兲.

Fig. 9. The errors between the fed torque ( L ) and the estimated torque ( ˆ L ) with respect to various time constants I.

Chung-Shu Liao, Shyr-Long Jeng, Wei-Hua Chieng / ISA Transactions 43 (2004) 427–443 437

Table 2

Experimental specifications of parameters for the ECAM

B̂⫽0.008 N m s/rad, L f ⫽0.046 H, R f ⫽1 ⍀, and

control, last four data are scaled by their largest travel dis- K a ⫽0.55 V s/rad. The sampling time of the cur-

tance of one cam cycle. rent loop is set to 0.001 s in the simulation. Fur-

PC-based Critical thermore, the amplitude of the disturbance load

program- Polyno- Critical slave Critical torque is 4.8773 N m and the torque constant is

ming mial slave accelera- slave 0.55 N m/A, that is, the operating current is about

sampling order velocity tion jerk 8.9 A, the i 2a R f power loss is around 78.6 W 共cal-

time T N (C v ) (C a ) (C j ) culated by the paper reviewer兲. The power loss of

0.01 s 0⬃5 1 10 600 78.6 W in this case is not serious for the applica-

tions with motors up to several kW.

Fig. 10. 共a兲 The tracking error of the master’s position for the zero-order interpolation method. 共b兲 The tracking error of the

master for the third-order polynomial tracking method. 共c兲 The tracking error of the master for the fourth-order polynomial

tracking method. 共d兲 The tracking error of the master for the fifth-order polynomial tracking method.

438 Chung-Shu Liao, Shyr-Long Jeng, Wei-Hua Chieng / ISA Transactions 43 (2004) 427–443

The maximum tracking error of the master’s position for performance of the electronic gearing process

the Nth-order polynomial tracking control (N⫽0 – 5).

Order 0th 1st 2nd 3rd 4th 5th Table 2 lists the parameter settings of the

Max. 11 17 3 1 1 0 ECAM control. The accuracy of the tracking of

err. the master’s velocity is characterized by the maxi-

共counts/20 mum error between the actual position and the es-

rad兲 timated position. Figs. 10共a兲–共d兲 show that the

maximum tracking error of the master’s position,

using the fifth-order polynomial tracking control

Figs. 9共a兲 and 9共b兲 show the maximum errors method, is zero when the master’s nominal mean

between the fed torque L and the estimated speed is 10 rad/s. Table 3 shows the maximum

torque ˆ L for various time constants 共I兲. In Fig. tracking error of the master’s position for polyno-

9共a兲, a smaller I yields a smaller mean torque er-

mial tracking control methods of various orders

ror. However, Fig. 9共b兲 reveals that a lower I

( N⫽0 – 5 ) .

yields a larger measurement noise. Furthermore,

the measurement noise was assumed to be a zero-

mean, normally 共Gaussian兲 distributed random

signal in the simulation.

Both a larger mean torque error and a larger 5.3. Performance of the electronic cam process

measurement noise reduce the tracking perfor-

mance of the master, so the time constant must be Fig. 11共b兲 shows an example of a reference tra-

neither too small nor too large. In the experiment, jectory that corresponds to the electronic cam mo-

the time constant I of the disturbance estimator tion. According to a constant master speed of 10

was set to ten times the current loop sampling rad/s and a maximum slave travel distance of

time. As depicted in Fig. 8共b兲, the time constant I 200 rad, the reference trajectory yields a 200

and the current loop sampling time are set to 0.01 rad/s maximum slave speed, 1260 rad/s2 maxi-

s and 0.001 s, respectively. mum acceleration and 8120 rad/s3 maximum

Fig. 11. The piecewise tracking trajectory of the electronic cam motion: 共a兲 the actual master’s position in real-time; 共b兲 the

reference trajectory corresponding to the electronic cam motion; 共c兲 the actual cam trajectory in real-time. Note that the unit

‘‘counts’’ means the encoder’s pulse counts and the resolution of the encoder is 2000 counts/revolution.

Chung-Shu Liao, Shyr-Long Jeng, Wei-Hua Chieng / ISA Transactions 43 (2004) 427–443 439

Fig. 12. 共a兲 Cam profile error with the zero-order 共conventional兲 tracking method 共the maximum travel distance: 200 000

encoder’s counts兲. 共b兲 Cam profile error with the third-order polynomial tracking method 共the maximum travel distance:

200 000 encoder’s counts兲. 共c兲 Cam profile error with the fourth-order polynomial tracking method 共the maximum travel

distance: 200 000 encoder’s counts兲. 共d兲 Cam profile error with the fifth-order polynomial tracking method 共the maximum

travel distance: 200 000 encoder’s counts兲.

Table 4

An experimental example for the maximum tracking errors of the slave’s position in the encoder’s counts for the Nth-order

polynomial master tracking control, the maximum travel distance is 200 000 encoder’s counts 共equivalent to 200 rad兲.

Order 0th 1st 2nd 3rd 4th 5th

Max. error 395 655 83 17 2 1

共encoder’s counts兲

rms error 194.9368 325.6317 45.2338 8.1915 0.9681 0.144 715

Cycle-to-cycle 0.590 083 0.449 440 0.140 121 0.075 427 0.129 316 0.072 357

variation

440 Chung-Shu Liao, Shyr-Long Jeng, Wei-Hua Chieng / ISA Transactions 43 (2004) 427–443

Fig. 13. 共a兲 The tracking result of the slave velocity, acceleration, and jerk purely based on the Lagrange polynomial

curve-fitting with no optimization. 共b兲 The result of the slave velocity, acceleration, and jerk applying the optimization.

Chung-Shu Liao, Shyr-Long Jeng, Wei-Hua Chieng / ISA Transactions 43 (2004) 427–443 441

An experimental example for the maximum slave velocity, the root-mean-square 共rms兲 error. The consistency

acceleration, and jerk based purely on the Lagrange poly-

nomial curve-fitting and applying the optimization algo- of the cam tracking—that is, the cycle-to-cycle

rithm to the cubic B-spline curve-fitting process. variation—is characterized by the rms difference

between the particular error response and the error

Performance

response averaged over a number of cycles. Fifty

index Maximum Maximum Maximum

conditions velocity acceleration jerk cycles of tracking error data were collected. Figs.

12共a兲–12共d兲 summarize the results of slave posi-

Applying the 1 共scaled兲 6.1422 572.2694 tion. Table 4 lists the maximum tracking errors of

optimization 共equivalent 共scaled兲 共scaled兲

the slave’s position in encoder counts, using the

algorithm to to 共equivalent 共equivalent to

the cubic 628.32 to 3.59e05

Nth-order polynomial tracking control method and

B-spline rad/s兲 3859 rad/s2兲 rad/s3兲 the pure Lagrange polynomial curve-fitting

curve-fitting method. Furthermore, Fig. 13 shows the partial re-

process sults of the slave’s tracking velocity, acceleration,

Purely 1 共scaled兲 20.12 3980.95 and jerk, according to Lagrange polynomial curve-

curve-fitting 共equivalent 共scaled兲 共scaled兲 fitting with or without the aforementioned optimi-

using to 共equivalent 共equivalent to zation. Similarly, Table 5 indicates the tracking

Lagrange 628.32 to 2.50e06 control performance, also for the Lagrange poly-

polynomial rad/s兲 12644 rad/s3兲 nomial curve-fitting method with or without the

rad/s2兲

aforementioned optimization.

jerk. The master’s speed is generally not constant 5.4. Computational load on the CPU of the

and may be harmonic, as shown in Fig. 7. The proposed ECAM tracking control

speed will exhibit the actual position of the master

and the ideal cam trajectory, as shown in Figs. The selection of N depends on the accuracy de-

11共a兲 and 11共c兲, respectively. This piecewise cam manded. As stated above, tracking using a higher-

trajectory contains 191 points. Three performance order polynomial yields higher precision; how-

indices are used to quantify the accuracy and con- ever, a tradeoff exists between the ‘‘order’’ of the

sistency. The tracking accuracy of the slave mo- polynomial used and the CPU time required. In

G G G

Fig. 14. Magnitudes of the sensitivities: 共a兲 S ¯ c , 共b兲 S¯ c , and 共c兲 S ¯ c , in relation to the input frequency at various time

K J B

constants I.

442 Chung-Shu Liao, Shyr-Long Jeng, Wei-Hua Chieng / ISA Transactions 43 (2004) 427–443

G

algorithm 共fifth-order tracking兲 is about 0.02 ms in S¯J c ⫽ • ⫽ ,

a programming cycle on an Intel Pentium III 900- K̄ G c KJ̄Is 2 ⫹ 共 KB̄I⫹K̄J 兲 s⫹K̄B

MHz CPU. The computational time of a program- 共A3兲

ming cycle is much less than the PC-based sam-

pling time, 10 ms. G Gc K̄ ⫺KB̄Is 2

S ¯B c ⫽ • ⫽ .

K̄ G c KJ̄Is 2 ⫹ 共 KB̄I⫹K̄J 兲 s⫹K̄B

共A4兲

6. Conclusion

Figs. 14共a兲–14共c兲 show the magnitudes of the

three sensitivities in relation to the input fre-

The proposed disturbance estimator can effec-

quency, where the parameters of the master motor

tively suppress the external disturbance and the

are all set as in Section 5. According to Eqs. 共A2兲

high-frequency measurement noise, trading off de- G

lay time and the robustness of the estimator. As a and 共A3兲, the magnitudes of the sensitivities, S K¯ c

G

result, higher-order polynomial fitting must be and S¯J c , are both small for low-frequency motion.

adapted for a cam profile with a farther travel dis-

Figs. 14共a兲 and 14共b兲 reveal that the magnitudes of

tance. The cam profile tracking is formulated as G G

optimization in real-time control. A deterministic the sensitivities, S K¯ c and S¯J c , are both less than

and unique solution is derived for all possible 0.707 while the input frequency is lower than 1/I

cases of tracking control. The proposed method is Hz. Furthermore, according to Fig. 14共c兲, the mag-

G

effective for general motion tracking control and nitude of the sensitivity S ¯B c is less than 0.000 86

guarantees a global optimal solution for practical over the entire frequency domain. From Eqs.

control. 共A1兲–共A3兲 and the foregoing discussion, the low

time constant I of the disturbance estimator sup-

G G G

Acknowledgment presses the sensitivities, S K¯ c , S¯J c , and S ¯B c .

Science Council of the Republic of China for fi- 关1兴 Steven, Chingyei Chung, Tracking Control for the

nancially supporting this research under Contract Electric Gear System. National Science Council of the

No. NSC 91-2212-E009-050. Republic of China 845-012-011, 1995, pp. 1–35.

关2兴 Zhao, Qing-Feng, Advanced Design for Automatic

Control System. Chan Hwa Science and Technology

Book Co., 2000, Chap. 4, pp. 1–26.

Appendix 关3兴 Gavrilovic, A. and Heath, A. J., Prediction and Miti-

gation of System Disturbances to Industrial Loads,

The physical parameters of the motor may be Sources and Effects of Power System Disturbances.

IEE Conference publication, 1982, pp. 227–230.

dynamically varied, so the effect of parameter un- 关4兴 Phillips, Charles L. and Nagle, H. Troy, Digital Con-

certainty must also be discussed. The well-known trol System Analysis and Design. Prentice-Hall Inter-

analysis of the modeling uncertainty is the national Editions, NJ, 1994, pp. 103–144.

analysis 关13兴. A more direct method is to analyze 关5兴 Yan, H. S., Tsai, M. C., and Hsu, M. H., An experi-

G G G mental study of the effects of cam speed on cam-

the sensitivities ( S K¯ c , S¯J c , and S ¯B c ) of the transfer follower systems. Mech. Mach. Theory 31, 397– 412

function G c to the motor’s uncertain parameters, 共1996兲.

关6兴 Yan, H. S., Tsai, M. C., and Hsu, M. H., A variable-

K̄, J̄, and B̄, respectively, where speed method for improving motion characteristics of

cam-following system. J. Mech. Des. 118, 250–258

KK̄ 共 Is⫹1 兲 共1996兲.

G c⫽ , 共A1兲 关7兴 Chen, Li-Shan, Follower Motion Design in a Variable-

KJ̄Is 2 ⫹ 共 KB̄I⫹K̄J 兲 s⫹K̄B Speed Cam System. Master thesis, Institute of Me-

chanical Engineering College of Engineering, National

G Gc K̄ KJ̄Is 2 ⫹KB̄Is Chiao Tung University, 1995, pp. 1– 49.

S K¯ c ⫽ • ⫽ , 关8兴 Dierchx, Paul, Curve and Surface Fitting with Splines.

K̄ G c KJ̄Is 2 ⫹ 共 KB̄I⫹K̄J 兲 s⫹K̄B Oxford University Press, New York, 1993, pp. 75–91.

共A2兲 关9兴 Mortenson, Michael E., Geometric Modeling. John

Chung-Shu Liao, Shyr-Long Jeng, Wei-Hua Chieng / ISA Transactions 43 (2004) 427–443 443

关10兴 Kim, Dean H. and Tsao, Tsu-Chin, Robust perfor- Shyr-Long Jeng received a

mance control of electrohydraulic actuators for elec- Ph.D. in mechanical engineer-

ing at National Chiao-Tung

tronic cam motion generation. IEEE Trans. Control University in 1996. He was ap-

Syst. Technol., 8, 220–227 共2000兲. pointed an assistant professor

关11兴 Chong, Edwin K. P. and Żak, Stanislaw H., An Intro- in automation engineering at

duction to Optimization. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Ta-Hwa Institute of Technol-

New York, 1996, pp. 101–164. ogy in 1998. From 1996 to

关12兴 Blackman, Samuel and Popoli, Robert, Design and 1998, he joined an electrical

motor design company. His

Analysis of Modern Tracking Systems. Artech House- current research is in the

Publishers, Boston, 1999, pp. 147–195. microprocessor-based control

关13兴 Zhou, Kemin, Essentials of Robust Control. Prentice and applications.

Hall, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ, 1998, pp. 55– 62

and 129–211.

M.S. degree in mechanical en- Ph.D. in mechanical engineer-

gineering at National Chiao- ing at Columbia University in

Tung University in 1995. He 1989. He has been a full pro-

has been a Ph.D. candidate in fessor in mechanical engineer-

mechanical engineering at Na- ing at National Chiao-Tung

tional Chiao-Tung University University since 1996 and was

since 2000. From 1995 to appointed associated professor

2000, he served as a high in 1989. His current research is

school teacher of mathematics. in PC based control.

His current research is in the

motion simulator system for

entertainment games.

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