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Feasibility Report Page 4 - 1

4.0 Pavement & Material Investigations

4.1 Introduction

It is essential to have thorough pavement investigations in order to assess the strength of the
existing pavement and to study the characteristics of the materials used in the construction and
the strength parameters of the foundation soil. Apart from the existing material characteristics, it
is also necessary to study the location, quality and quantity of the materials to be used in the
construction. As per the TOR, several investigations were carried out and its findings are
presented as follows:

 Pavement Condition Survey
 Benkelman beam deflection survey
 Test Pits
 Material Investigations for
- Borrow materials
- Aggregate for road and structural works
- Sand for road and structural works

4.2 General

The project road is of National Highway category designated as NH-29. The project road is starts

from Varanasi city and ends at Gorakhpur (From Km.2/225 to Km.208/300). The existing road is

two lane single carriageway.

This chapter describes for the survey for pavement investigation and pavement materials

undertaken to upgrade the existing road facility.

4.3 Pavement Investigation of Existing Road

4.3.1 Visual Condition Survey

Visual Condition of existing pavement is the most important data needed for deciding upon the
maintenance and about which the road user is not concerned. The basic measurement of

Feasibility Report for Four-laning with paved shoulders for
Varanasi-Gorakhpur section of NH-29 on DBFOT basis. SAI Consulting Engineers Pvt. Ltd.

Photograph 4.1: View of cracks distress Surface at km 179. Ltd.1 and 4. In this survey information about various type of distresses are noted. . SAI Consulting Engineers Pvt. condition of shoulder and side slope and drainage is mentioned in terms of Good. Ravelling with Patchwork found along the project road which is shown below in photograph 4. 1 Bleeding 2 Block cracking 3 Corrugation 4 Depressions 5 Pot hole 6 Patch deterioration 7 Polishing of aggregate 8 Raveling 9 Rutting A pavement condition survey was carried out in the month of March 2009.2. During field survey. In visual condition survey. condition of existing pavement.Feasibility Report Page 4 .600 Feasibility Report for Four-laning with paved shoulders for Varanasi-Gorakhpur section of NH-29 on DBFOT basis. excessive cracking. Potholes. List of distresses are mentioned below. Fair and Poor.2 pavement condition is existing distresses.

000 138.000 30.000 Mau to Gorakpur 125. Ltd.1 Damaged locations Chainage Location From To Varansi to Gazipur 11. Table 4. .2: Locaton of overlay Location Chainage Compositon From To Varansi to Gazipur 18. hence existing bituminous layer is scarified and re-laid as new propose pavement design. During survey in some locations Periodical maintenance work was found in progress.000 121.000 Gazipur to Mau 109.Feasibility Report Page 4 .000 Varansi to Gazipur 25.000 35 BC Varansi to Gazipur 50.000 For above mentioned location reconstruction is proposed.000 Varansi to Gazipur 34. SAI Consulting Engineers Pvt.000 Condition shown in above photographs are found at many locations which are badly damaged This locations are listed in below Table. The locations of Periodical Maintenance work are shown in below Table.000 70.000 50.2: View of Raveling distress Surface at km 188.000 Mau to Gorakpur 145.000 25.000 18.000 35 BC Feasibility Report for Four-laning with paved shoulders for Varanasi-Gorakhpur section of NH-29 on DBFOT basis.000 202.3 Photograph 4. Generally base and sub base layer are found in order. Table 4.

Photgraph: 4.  Sub-grade samples collected from the pit and tested for: Feasibility Report for Four-laning with paved shoulders for Varanasi-Gorakhpur section of NH-29 on DBFOT basis.2 Investigation on Existing Sub-grade Investigations along existing sub grade have been carried out to assess the adequacy of the existing pavement layers apropos to present sub grade strength so that the strengthening and reconstruction requirement can be established to cater for the design traffic.3.3.  To Calculate Average thickness.1Large Pits These test pits were dug at the pavement-shoulder interface extending through the pavement layers down to the sub-grade level at 3. type of material examined and logged. . SAI Consulting Engineers Pvt.3.4 Following photographs shown the overlaid surface. characteristics of existing sub grade for design of pavement by means of in-situ and laboratory tests as well as need for further investigation along the widened part/proposed new alignment. Objectives of investigation also include evaluating the existing pavement -composition.3.0 km interval along the existing road. Ltd.3 – View of Freshly laid Periodical Renewal Coat The observed and recorded data for Pavement Condition Survey is given in Annexure 3.3 Test Pits for Existing Sub grade 4.Feasibility Report Page 4 .6 4. 4.

5 Field Moisture Content : As per IS: 2720. Part. Part.VIII-1983 CBR (4 days soaked) : As per IS: 2720.VIII-1983 Dry Density (Heavy Compaction) Optimum moisture content : As per IS: 2720. Type of Layer Maximum Minimum Average No.XVI-1987 4. (mm) (mm) (mm) (mm) 1 Bituminious Top ( BT) 290 25 125 2 Base Coarse ( WBM/WMM) 435 100 210 Feasibility Report for Four-laning with paved shoulders for Varanasi-Gorakhpur section of NH-29 on DBFOT basis.V-1985 Grain Size Analysis : As per IS: 2720.7m x 0. gradation. Part. .The total thickness of pavement varies from 190mm to 540mm with a mean value of 340mm.3.3. SAI Consulting Engineers Pvt. Ltd.II-1973 Atterberg’s Limits : As per IS: 2720. Atterberg limit test.Feasibility Report Page 4 . The sub grade field moisture content.IV-1985 Maximum Laboratory : As per IS: 2720. The base course mainly comprises of Water Bound Macadam (WBM).3. Part. 4. The Sub base course is found to be absent. Part. Summary of the layer thickness as recorded from test pits are as under: Table 4.1.3: Summary of Crust Thickness in mm Sr. The wearing course consists of bituminous material that may be termed as Bituminous Top (BT). base course. Generally the existing pavement structure comprise of two layers namely wearing coarse.2 Small Pits Small pits (0.4 Composition of Existing Pavement Crust The detailed layer composition of the existing pavement is recorded from each open pit and observations are presented in Annexure 4. Part.7m) are excavated on road edge at each 2. The data reveal that there is a wide variation in existing pavement structure composition. classifications are carried out.5km staggered to the left and right and average thickness of pavement is found.

3.6 During the Trial Pits.3: View of Crust Thickness during Trial Pit at km 45.000 4. sub grade moisture content (at sub grade level and at depths below sub grade) and in-situ CBR are described in this section.Feasibility Report Page 4 .3.5.3: View of Crust Thickness during Trial Pit at km 55. Feasibility Report for Four-laning with paved shoulders for Varanasi-Gorakhpur section of NH-29 on DBFOT basis.000 Photograph 4.1 in Situ Tests The in-situ properties of existing sub grade soil namely Type of soil .5 Discussion on Tests Results of Existing Sub-grade 4. Photograph 4. Ltd. it is observed that there is absent of Base layer at few location which is shown in photograph 4. . SAI Consulting Engineers Pvt. All existing Subgrade test results are tabulated below.3.

7  Field Moisture Content The samples are collected to determine the soil characteristics and engineering properties of sub-grade soil.5 % with and that of sand and silt+clay is 21% to 70% and 28% to 79% respectively. and  Effective thickness procedure In the first case.3. Sub grade soil in alignment in majority of portion falls in SM and ML group as per IS classification are found. Then prepared soil sample is kept for soaking for 4 days to find out CBR value with swelling factor if any is worked out. 4. SAI Consulting Engineers Pvt. The results are presented in Annexure 4. Field moisture content of sub-grade soil are measured at every large pit at sub-grade level and presented in Annexure 4. From grain size analysis it is seen that gravel percentage is varied from Nil to 4.70 %. Plasticity Index as Non Plastic.3. Ltd. In the second method. The most common procedures are:  Based on deflection testing.7 Analysis of Test Results for Existing Sub-grade Soil Soaked CBR of Sub grade soil is found varied from 3.11. and the thickness of the overlay is calculated to achieve the desired deflection.6 Laboratory California Bearing Ratio (CBR) Laboratory CBR tests are carried out on pit samples as per IS: 2720 (Part. the desired deflection to carry the future traffic is determined empirically. CBR mould are prepared by compacting the soil in five layers giving compaction of 97% of MDD and water content equal to OMC. Liquid limit of existing sub grade soil varies from 17. (average value is 23 %).13 % to 26.16). 4.3. The excavated trial pit is backfilled with the same material with thorough compaction and the surface is made good.2.76% to 10. . deflection of the existing pavement is measured.Feasibility Report Page 4 .8 Pavement Structural Strength There are several design methods used to determine the thickness of flexible overlay required. IRC: 81-1997 and Asphalt Institute methods are examples of this procedure. As the soil group indicate that the silt content is more compare to Clay hence. the thickness (or SN) of the existing pavement is calculated and the thickness (or SN) required to carry the future traffic is computed. 4. The difference between the two Feasibility Report for Four-laning with paved shoulders for Varanasi-Gorakhpur section of NH-29 on DBFOT basis.3.

intermediate and final readings according to the IRC Guidelines and a temperature correction of 0. Characteristic deflection was calculated using the initial.Feasibility Report Page 4 . Thus the characteristic deflection is worked out using deflection method. Therefore. Bituminous Macadam Overlay.8 thicknesses (or SNs) represents the overlay required. Ltd. are widely used. SAI Consulting Engineers Pvt. Feasibility Report for Four-laning with paved shoulders for Varanasi-Gorakhpur section of NH-29 on DBFOT basis. All these methods are essentially empirical in nature and are liable to give different results. Both methods.1 : Overlay Thickness Design chart (IRC 81-1997) Of course. mm Figure 4.01 mm/ 0C was used. however. it is important that a consistent methodology backed by experience and sound engineering judgment be used. . Deflection Method To determine the thickness of overlay by means of Benkelman beam deflections.3. The BBD survey is carried out at 250m long stretch at every 3 km distance at an interval of 50m staggered. the procedures contained in the following methods have been used: i) IRC: 81-1997: Guidelines for Strengthening of Flexible Road Pavement Using Benkelman Beam Deflection Technique. The detail calculation of characteristic deflection is shown in Annexure 4. Examples of this procedure are the Asphalt Institute and AASHTO methods. an appropriate seasonal correction was used before calculating characteristic deflection as the mean (deflection for that homogenous section) plus 2 x standard deviation.

location.4: Details of available source.200 Varanasi – Gazipur LHS Soil 80 100x100 3. material survey is undertaken. properties and characteristics of these basic ingredients.9 4.4.250 Varanasi – Gazipur LHS Soil 60 100x50 2. . SAI Consulting Engineers Pvt. Chainage Section Side Type of Approximate Approximate No. average lead distance to the project roads and approximate available quantity Sr. the sub grade soil to be overstressed meaning thereby that the pressure transmitted on the top of the sub grade is within the allowable limits. 4.1. Therefore it is essential that at no time. Soil that can be used in sub grade and embankment were identified from various borrow areas located in the vicinity of the project road.1 Borrow Area for Soil Soil sub grade is a layer of soil prepared to withstand against load of road material.000 Varanasi – Gazipur RHS Soil 50 100x50 5 49. average lead distance to the project roads and approximate available quantity are given in below Table 4. 25. Table 4.800 Varanasi – Gazipur LHS Soil 50 200x200 4. 4. The visual assessment for suitable quantities available from soil borrow areas was made. 26.000 Varanasi – Gazipur RHS Soil 30 100x50 Feasibility Report for Four-laning with paved shoulders for Varanasi-Gorakhpur section of NH-29 on DBFOT basis. The details of available source.4. Feasibility Report Page 4 . location. the information in this regard were gathered from concerned government offices/local authorities/contractor and quarry owners and based on these available information intensified survey is conducted.4 Pavement Materials Soil and aggregate are the prime materials required to build pavement and to familiarise with the sources. The loads on pavement are ultimately received by the sub grade soil for dispersion to the earth mass.4. In order to identify the location of soil borrows areas and suitable aggregate quarry site with reasonable lead.1 Locations Locations mentioned below were identified as borrow area for the soil that can be used for road embankment as well as for sub grade. 44. Material distance from Quantity project road in (Area) (M) 1 19. Ltd. traffic load and environmental conditions. not to cause excessive stress conditions or to deform the same beyond elastic limit.

89 1.81 % to 19.86 gm/cc so. sample had been collated from four different location for testing.1985  MDD (heavy compaction) As per IS: 2720. Material distance from Quantity project road in (Area) (M) and LHS 6 136.  Atterberg’s limits As per IS: 2720.91 1. Ltd.2 Discussion on Borrow Soil From the test results it is shown that the liquid limit is varies from 22. so for pavement design. Atterberg’s limit. More over Minimum MMD of soil is obtained 1. Modified Maximum Dry Density / Optimum moisture content and CBR.400 Mau – Gorakpur RHS Soil 50 50x50 and LHS 9 202. Minimum CBR value is obtained 6.VIII .700 Mau – Gorakpur LHS Soil 50 75x75 From the above listed borrow borrow location. All these parameters have been tested in accordance following Code.10 Sr.87 21.IV .5 Table 4.90 OMC % 11 11 11 Soaked CBR % 7. Part.1.4.1983  CBR (4 days soaked) As per IS: 2720.VIIl . . Soil Samples Collected from borrow areas have been tested for Gradation.20 %. Part.5: Summary of results of borrow sample Test Maximum Minmum Average Remarks Liquid Limit % 25.1985  Grain size analysis As per IS: 2720.Feasibility Report Page 4 .1987 The test results of borrow soil is presented in the Annexure 4. Part.2 6.74 23. Chainage Section Side Type of Approximate Approximate No.32 6.76 4.80 Plastic Limit % NP NP NP Plasticity Index % NP NP NP MDD gm/cc 1.V . Part.XVI . soil is satisfies the criteria for suitable soil.4 and summary shown in following Table 4.300 Mau – Gorakpur LHS Soil 50 75x75 7 155 Mau – Gorakpur RHS Soil 50 100x100 and LHS 8 190. design CBR may taken as 6%. soil can be used either in subgrade or in embankement.29 % which is less than the 75 % and plasticity index is Non plastic which is also less than the 45 % so. Feasibility Report for Four-laning with paved shoulders for Varanasi-Gorakhpur section of NH-29 on DBFOT basis. Part. SAI Consulting Engineers Pvt.1983  Optimum Moisture Content As per IS: 2720.

6 Table 4.2 Stone Aggregates Aggregate quarries in the vicinity of project area were checked for the numbers of crushers working over there along with production capacity. As per IS: 2386 (Part 3)  Water Absorption of Aggregate . below mentioned location for aggregate source was inspected and sample had been collected. As per IS: 2386 (Part 3)  Specific Gravity of Aggregate .3 Aggregate Survey After having information about availability of aggregate resources in vicinity of project road. Sources of rock aggregate were surveyed to assess the approximate quantity that could be procured for use in road construction.11 4. water absorption. Dala is around 150 km from Varanasi and Line diagram showing the aggregate source is presented at Figure 4. . SAI Consulting Engineers Pvt. The aggregate test results is shown below Table No. As per IS: 2386 (Part 1) 4. Test parameters like impact value. As per IS: 2386 (Part 3)  Elongation and Flakiness Index . 4. The samples of aggregate from quarries / crushers were collected and tested to determine its suitability in the construction of various components of pavement structure.4.35 Feasibility Report for Four-laning with paved shoulders for Varanasi-Gorakhpur section of NH-29 on DBFOT basis.78 35.1. elongation and flakiness index were carried out on the aggregate samples collected from various quarries in order to determine its suitability vis-à-vis specifications. All the tests were carried out in accordance with the codes mentioned below:  Aggregate Impact Test .85 0. specific gravity.Feasibility Report Page 4 .6 : Aggregate Test Results Source Aggregate Specific Water Combine Remarks Impact Value Grevity Absorption% Elongation (AIV) % & Flakiness Index % Dala 18.06 2.4. Ltd.

4. other sources are the River Rapti and the River Sone.27 2. Source Finess Specific Water Modulus Grevity Absorption % River Ganga 2.7 Test Results of Sand. To use this aggregate as base material the combine EIFI value must be less than 30%. 43 and 53. Uttar Pradesh 4. Ltd. The brands available in open market are Ultratech. This value is less than the specified limit of 30% for AIV and 2 % of Water Absorption hence.06 % and 0. SAI Consulting Engineers Pvt.72 0. Combine Elongation and Flakiness value is found 35. Results obtained from the test is shown in following Table 4. Bihar is the major source of Bitumen. 4.79 Quality of sand is varies from time to time. can be use as a construction material. Birla. This refinery produce 60/70 grade of bitumen.7 Table 4.1 Discussion on Aggregate Aggregate Impact Value (AIV) and Water Absorption of Dala aggregate is found 18. The other IOCL refineries near the project road are Panipat.84 2. Combine EFI value is depending upon the quality of crusher. can be used either in base or sub base layer.3.5 Bitumen IOCL refinery is located in Barauni.12 4. this value may be reduced by controlling the crusher. Samples for all these sources were collected and tested for its utility as construction material. Feasibility Report for Four-laning with paved shoulders for Varanasi-Gorakhpur section of NH-29 on DBFOT basis.6 Cement Various brand of ordinary portland cement is available in open market with various grade like 33.30 2.71 0. 4.78% respectively.86 River Sone 2.4.35% which is bit higher than the specified value of 30% hence aggregate can be used as a sub base layer material.79 0.87 River Rapti 1.Feasibility Report Page 4 . The results shows that water absoption of all the rivers are < 2% so. .4. Hariyana and Mathura. J K Cement etc.4.4 Sand The major source of sand is the River Ganga. Apart from the river Ganga.

Feasibility Report for Four-laning with paved shoulders for Varanasi-Gorakhpur section of NH-29 on DBFOT basis. Ltd. SAI Consulting Engineers Pvt.Feasibility Report Page 4 . Other source of water is sub surface water which can be used by making bore hole on the site. .13 4. The Ganga river is flowing Near Varanasi.7 Steel Like cement steel is also procured from the open market.4.4. 4.8 Water The major source of water on the project road is the River Ganga.