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FUZZY PID CONTROLLERS: AN OVERVIEW

Istanbul Technical University, Electrical and Electronics Faculty, Control Systems Division,

34390, Maslak, Istanbul, TURKEY

E-mail: {yesil, gkaya, eksin}@elk.itu.edu.tr

Fax: +902122856700

Abstract: The aim of this study is to examine various studies on fuzzy PID

controllers in literature and to classify these fuzzy controllers into categories . There

exist three major categories: Direct action (DA) type fuzzy PID controllers, fuzzy

gain scheduling (FGS) type fuzzy PID controllers, and hybrid type fuzzy PID

controllers. The DA type fuzzy PID controllers are further classified according to

the number of the input variables; namely single input, two input, and three input

fuzzy PID controllers.

deterministic (PI) or (PD) controller in the limit as

The best-known controllers used in industrial control quantization levels of control and measurement

processes are proportional-integral-derivative (PID) variables become infinitely fine [5].

controllers because of their simple structure and

robust performance in a wide range of operating In literature, various structures for fuzzy PID

conditions. However, the PID controller being linear (including PI and PD) controllers and fuzzy non-PID

is not suited for strongly nonlinear systems. Fuzzy controllers have been proposed. A classification of

Control is often mentioned as an alternative to PID fuzzy controllers is sketched in Figure 1. In general,

control [1]. Most fuzzy controllers used in the industry the application of fuzzy PID controllers can be

have the same structure as incremental PI or PID classified into three major categories according to the

controllers. The parameterization using rules and way of their construction [6, 7]:

fuzzy membership functions makes it easy to add

nonlinearities, logic, and additional input signals to (a) When a typical FLC is constructed as a set of

control law [2]. Therefore, in recent years, fuzzy logic heuristic control rules, control signal is directly

controllers (FLC), especially Fuzzy PID controllers deduced from the knowledge base and the fuzzy

have been widely used for industrial processes owing inference as it is done in Mc Vicar-Whelan [4] or

to their heuristic nature associated with simplicity and diagonal rule-base [8] generation approaches [9-11].

effectiveness for both linear and nonlinear systems. Since the fuzzy controller directly drives the process,

controllers in this category are referred as “Direct

The first fuzzy logic control algorithm implemented Action” (DA) type [12].

by Mamdani (1974) [3] was constructed to synthesize

the linguistic control protocol of a skilled human (b) When the gains of the conventional PID controller

operator. Although, this type of FLC application was are tuned on-line in terms of the knowledge base and

successful compared to classical controllers, the fuzzy inference, while still the conventional PID

design procedure is dependent on the experience and controller generates the control signal [13, 14], the

knowledge of the operator and it is limited by the overall controllers of this category are referred as

elucidation of the heuristic rules of control. In order to “Fuzzy Gain Scheduling” (FGS) type [15].

avoid this major difficulty or drawback of depending

on the control experience of the operator, Mac Vicar- (c) When a conventional PID controller and a DA-

Whelan (1976) [4] firstly proposed some general rules type FLC are combined, the overall controllers are

for the structure of fuzzy controllers. These fuzzy referred as “Hybrid” type [15, 16].

Figure 1. A classification of fuzzy controllers

In the rest of the paper, various studies on fuzzy PID variable to generate three separate fuzzy proportional

controllers in literature will be examined and they will action [12, 15].

be classified according to the above mentioned three

major categories.

CONTROLLERS

two inputs or three inputs. Therefore, DA fuzzy PID

controllers can be classified into three categories:

i) Single input fuzzy PID controllers,

ii) Two input fuzzy PID controllers,

iii) Three input fuzzy PID controllers. Figure 3. Single input fuzzy PID controller with three

separate rule bases.

i) Single input fuzzy PID controllers:

The error signal is the essential and fundamental ii) Two input fuzzy PID controllers:

control component in PID control. Using error as the If two inputs are used in forming a fuzzy PID

only input, a single input fuzzy PID controller can be controller then one can obtain either fuzzy PD or

formed. As it is seen in Figure 2 [17], this is simply a fuzzy PI controller. For instance, if the inputs are

nonlinear mapping of error into fuzzy proportional chosen as error (e) and derivative (or chance) of error

action cascaded to a conventional PID controller. ( e& ) then one ends up with a fuzzy PD controller as

shown in Figure 4. When the inputs are chosen as

error (e) and the integral (or the sum) of error then the

controller becomes absolute form fuzzy PI controller.

If the inputs are chosen as error (e) and derivative (or

chance) of error (e& ) then an incremental form fuzzy

PI controller can be obtain, but the output is achieved

as the derivative (or the chance) of control signal as

shown in Figure 5 [18].

rule base.

shown in Figure 3. In this structure, there exist three Figure 4. Fuzzy PD-type controller structure

distinct rule bases using again only error as the input

fuzzy PD and a fuzzy I controller and their control

actions are summed to form a fuzzy PID controller. A

similar idea is used in [27] to form a fuzzy PID by

combining a fuzzy PI and fuzzy D controller. These

two fuzzy PID controllers are given in Figure 8,

Figure 9 respectively.

Figure 5. Fuzzy PI-type controller structure

controllers has been established under special

conditions [19-21].

fuzzy PD because it is difficult for the fuzzy PD to

remove steady state error. The fuzzy PI control,

however, is known to give poor performance in

transient response for higher order processes due to

the internal integration operation.

To obtain proportional, integral and derivative control Figure 8. A fuzzy PID controller formed by

action all together, it is intuitive and convenient to combining a fuzzy PD and a fuzzy I controller

combine PI and PD actions together to form a fuzzy

PID-type controller [6, 21-24]. Therefore, the

formulation of fuzzy PID controller can be achieved

by combining fuzzy PI and PD controllers with two

distinct rule-bases. Another and a simpler way of

construction a fuzzy PID controller is combining

fuzzy PD controller with an integrator and a

summation unit at the output. These two cases are

given in Figure 6 and in Figure 7, respectively. It is

obvious that the fuzzy PID controller given in Figure

7 has less number of rules and scaling factors

compared to the fuzzy PID that is given in Figure 6

[25].

combining a fuzzy PI and a fuzzy D controller

A fuzzy PID controller may be constructed by

introducing the third information besides error and

derivative (or the change) of error [28, 29]. When this

third input is chosen as the integral (or the sum) of

error, an absolute form fuzzy PID controller with 3-D

Figure 7. Fuzzy PID-type controller structure formed rule base, which is given in Figure 10, can be

of combining fuzzy PD-type and PI-type controllers obtained. In order to get an incremental form fuzzy

PID controller then the third input should be taken as

the rate of change in error [6].

rule-base

Figure 10. Fuzzy PID-type controller structure with

to control a flexible-joint robot arm. This controller

3-D rule-base

mimics a conventional PD+I controller. There exist a

The fuzzy PID controller with 3-D rule base is controller parameters Kd and ß simultaneously at each

difficult to construct because of the following reasons: peak time according to the peak value.

(1) For the case of using rate of change in error, a

human expert can hardly sense the third dimension of

information, for instance, the acceleration besides

position and velocity in a motion control system, and

thus it is difficult to obtain the control rules,

(2) For the case of using sum of error, it is difficult to

quantitate its linguistic values since a different plant

needs different integral gain and steady state value of

sum of error,

(3) A 3-D rule base can be very complex when the

number of quantizations of each dimension increases,

and in this situation, the control rule number increases

cubically with the number of quantizations [6]. Figure 11. The closed-loop control structure for

parameter adaptive PID type fuzzy logic controller via

In [30], a design procedure for fuzzy PID controller is peak observer

presented and a reduced look up table is introduced.

An implementation of three input fuzzy PID controller The block diagram of the parameter adaptive PID type

on a robotic manipulators is studied in [31]. In FLC using a function tuner, which has been proposed

addition, a brief analysis is presented to prove that the in [40], is shown in Figure 12. This tuner adjusts the

controller has BIBO stability. input scaling factor corresponding to the derivative

coefficient and the output scaling factor corresponding

2.2 Tuning Mechanisms of Fuzzy PID Controllers to the integral coefficient of the PID type fuzzy logic

controller through empirical functions.

As it is discussed above a wide variety of fuzzy PID

controllers have been developed. The design

parameters that can be used to improve the

performance of these fuzzy PID controllers can be

summarized within two groups [7, 32]: (a) structural

parameters, (b) tuning parameters.

variables to fuzzy inference, fuzzy linguistic sets,

membership functions, fuzzy rules, inference

mechanism and defuzzification mechanism. Tuning

parameters include I/O scaling factors (SF) and Figure12. The closed-loop control structure for

parameters of membership functions (MF). Usually parameter adaptive PID type fuzzy logic controller via

the structural parameters are determined during off- function tuner

line design while the tuning parameters can be

calculated during on-line adjustments of the controller A new method for tuning the coefficients of fuzzy PID

to enhance the process performance, as well as to controller is presented in [32] that uses the error and

accommodate the adaptive capability to system rate information of the system response together.

uncertainty and process disturbance. Again, this method adjusts the scaling factors that

correspond to the derivative and integral coefficients

However, the adjustment of the scaling factors of the fuzzy PID controller using a fuzzy inference

becomes more crucial for the former case mentioned mechanism in an on-line manner. The fuzzy inference

above. There exist various heuristic and non-heuristic mechanism that adjusts the related coefficients has

tuning strategies for the adaptation of scaling factors two inputs one of which is “system error” designated

of fuzzy controllers [33-39]. as e and the other one is a new variable rv named as

“normalized acceleration” in [41]. The normalized

The fuzzy PID controller, given in Figure 7., has a acceleration gives “relative rate” information about

simple structure and has only four scaling factors, so it the fastness or slowness of the system response and

has a great importance in literature. In [21], this fuzzy therefore the mechanism that provides this

PID controller is used with a parameter adaptive information can be interpreted as “Relative Rate

method that is based on a peak observer. The tuning Observer”(RRO). It has been shown that the new

mechanism adjusts the input and output scaling factors method is more efficient since lesser number of

corresponding to the integral and derivative parameters is to be tuned and it is more robust to the

coefficients of the controller. The block diagram of system parameter or structural changes compared to

the proposed method is shown in Figure 11. The peak the other related methods mentioned above. The

observer keeps watching on the system’s output, closed-loop control structure for parameter adaptive

transmits a signal at each peak time, and measures the fuzzy PID controller via relative rate observer is given

absolute peak value. The parameter regulator tunes the in Figure 13.

premise part of the rule, and the rule’s output gi is the

controller gain matrix for a i . A ik is a fuzzy set

defined on the kth scheduling variable space.

Extensions to the FGS scheme can be made to further

enhance the performance. For instance, in [43],

model-based fuzzy gain scheduling (MFGS) is

proposed to improve performance when the

nonlinearity involves is too severe. MFGS technique

on water-gas shift reactor, because this system

demonstrates many behaviors typical of nonlinear

processes. They demonstrated that because of large

variations in process gain; traditional linear controller

such as PID was inadequate for the laboratory-scale

reactor.

Figure 13. The closed-loop control structure for Besides the form of the fuzzy rule set stated in (1), an

parameter adaptive PID type fuzzy logic controller via alternative form is utilized in [14], where the

relative rate observer Mamdani fuzzy model is implemented. In that study, a

new scheme utilizes fuzzy rules and reasoning to

The mechanism given in Figure 11 ameliorates the determine the control signal. It is demonstrated that

response after the occurrence of the first peak value the human expertise on PID gain scheduling can be

and therefore it outperforms worst than the other two represented in fuzzy rules. Furthermore, better control

mechanisms. However, one should keep in mind that performance can be expected in the proposed method

the mechanism given in Figure 11 has no parameter to than that of the PID controllers with fixed parameter

be adjusted [41]. since this type of fuzzy PID controllers can adapt

themselves to varying environments. The fuzzy PID

3. FUZZY GAIN SCHEDULING TYPE structure used in [14] is given in Figure 14. The main

CONTROLLERS difficulty in using this category of fuzzy PID

controllers is that the analysis task is relatively tough,

The fuzzy gain scheduling (FGS) is a rule-based as it is hard to acquire the equivalent nonlinearity of

scheme for gain scheduling [14, 42, 43]. This type of the fuzzy knowledge base. The issue of stability is

fuzzy PID controller is composed of the conventional also addressed in [14]. As in CGS, global stability

PID control system in conjunction with a set of fuzzy cannot be ensured, because the linear controller

rules (knowledge base) and a fuzzy reasoning parameters are functions of time. It is suggested that a

mechanism. The PID gains are tuned on-line in terms supervisor be included to monitor the stability of the

of the knowledge base and fuzzy inference, and then control system and take appropriate actions when

the PID controller generates the control signal. FGS is instability is identified.

implemented in essentially the same way as

conventional gain scheduling (CGS), expect that the

operating regions are associated with overlapping

membership functions of the fuzzy sets defined in the

scheduling variable space and that a fuzzy inference

mechanism is used to dynamically interpolate the

controller parameters around region boundaries based

on known local controller parameters. Hence, it is able

to express and use incomplete knowledge of the

controlled system and provide smooth transitions from

region to region.

category of fuzzy PID controller. In [43], the Takagi-

Sugeno fuzzy model [44] is employed in FGS. The Figure 14. PID control system with a fuzzy gain

FGS rule base contains a set of fuzzy gain scheduling scheduler.

rules of the form

In [45], the idea given in [14] is implemented to area

Ri : IF a i 1 is A i1 and a i 2 is A i2 ... a iq is A iq load frequency control problem in power systems to

schedule the conventional PI controllers.

THEN gi = K( a i ) (1)

Also, a scheme for self-tuning of a conventional PID

where a ik (k=1, 2, ..., q) is the kth component of the controller using fuzzy rules is proposed in [13]. The

scheduling variable vector, a i is the scheduling proportional gain (Kp ), the integral time constant (Ti ),

variable vector that best fits the description in the and derivative time constant (Td ) are initially

calculated using Ziegler-Nichols tuning formula [46].

These three parameters are then modified online by a 5. CONCLUSION

single parameter, which is updated by a rule-base

defined on error and change in error. A considerable In this study, various studies in literature on fuzzy PID

improvement in the overall performance of the over its controllers are examined. The fuzzy PID controllers

conventional counterpart is reported in [13]. The are classified then into three major categories; namely,

results show a remarkable reduction in overshoots of direct action (DA) type, fuzzy gain scheduling (FGS)

the second-order processes with dead time but at the type, and hybrid type. In addition, structural and

cost of increased rise times. tuning parameters of fuzzy control systems are

discussed and some tuning mechanisms of fuzzy PID

In [47], FGS allows simple online duplication of PID controllers are presented and compared.

control and the online improvement of PID control

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