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Fuzzy PID controllers: An overview

Conference Paper · October 2003


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Engin Yesil Ibrahim Eksin

Getron Corp. Istanbul Technical University


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Engin Yesil, Müjde Güzelkaya, Ibrahim Eksin

Istanbul Technical University, Electrical and Electronics Faculty, Control Systems Division,
34390, Maslak, Istanbul, TURKEY
E-mail: {yesil, gkaya, eksin}
Fax: +902122856700

Abstract: The aim of this study is to examine various studies on fuzzy PID
controllers in literature and to classify these fuzzy controllers into categories . There
exist three major categories: Direct action (DA) type fuzzy PID controllers, fuzzy
gain scheduling (FGS) type fuzzy PID controllers, and hybrid type fuzzy PID
controllers. The DA type fuzzy PID controllers are further classified according to
the number of the input variables; namely single input, two input, and three input
fuzzy PID controllers.

Keywords: Fuzzy controllers, fuzzy PID controllers, tuning mechanisms.

1. INTRODUCTION rules devised by Mac Vicar-Whelan approach to a

deterministic (PI) or (PD) controller in the limit as
The best-known controllers used in industrial control quantization levels of control and measurement
processes are proportional-integral-derivative (PID) variables become infinitely fine [5].
controllers because of their simple structure and
robust performance in a wide range of operating In literature, various structures for fuzzy PID
conditions. However, the PID controller being linear (including PI and PD) controllers and fuzzy non-PID
is not suited for strongly nonlinear systems. Fuzzy controllers have been proposed. A classification of
Control is often mentioned as an alternative to PID fuzzy controllers is sketched in Figure 1. In general,
control [1]. Most fuzzy controllers used in the industry the application of fuzzy PID controllers can be
have the same structure as incremental PI or PID classified into three major categories according to the
controllers. The parameterization using rules and way of their construction [6, 7]:
fuzzy membership functions makes it easy to add
nonlinearities, logic, and additional input signals to (a) When a typical FLC is constructed as a set of
control law [2]. Therefore, in recent years, fuzzy logic heuristic control rules, control signal is directly
controllers (FLC), especially Fuzzy PID controllers deduced from the knowledge base and the fuzzy
have been widely used for industrial processes owing inference as it is done in Mc Vicar-Whelan [4] or
to their heuristic nature associated with simplicity and diagonal rule-base [8] generation approaches [9-11].
effectiveness for both linear and nonlinear systems. Since the fuzzy controller directly drives the process,
controllers in this category are referred as “Direct
The first fuzzy logic control algorithm implemented Action” (DA) type [12].
by Mamdani (1974) [3] was constructed to synthesize
the linguistic control protocol of a skilled human (b) When the gains of the conventional PID controller
operator. Although, this type of FLC application was are tuned on-line in terms of the knowledge base and
successful compared to classical controllers, the fuzzy inference, while still the conventional PID
design procedure is dependent on the experience and controller generates the control signal [13, 14], the
knowledge of the operator and it is limited by the overall controllers of this category are referred as
elucidation of the heuristic rules of control. In order to “Fuzzy Gain Scheduling” (FGS) type [15].
avoid this major difficulty or drawback of depending
on the control experience of the operator, Mac Vicar- (c) When a conventional PID controller and a DA-
Whelan (1976) [4] firstly proposed some general rules type FLC are combined, the overall controllers are
for the structure of fuzzy controllers. These fuzzy referred as “Hybrid” type [15, 16].
Figure 1. A classification of fuzzy controllers

In the rest of the paper, various studies on fuzzy PID variable to generate three separate fuzzy proportional
controllers in literature will be examined and they will action [12, 15].
be classified according to the above mentioned three
major categories.



2.1 Types of Fuzzy PID Controllers

Fuzzy PID controllers can be constructed either using

two inputs or three inputs. Therefore, DA fuzzy PID
controllers can be classified into three categories:
i) Single input fuzzy PID controllers,
ii) Two input fuzzy PID controllers,
iii) Three input fuzzy PID controllers. Figure 3. Single input fuzzy PID controller with three
separate rule bases.
i) Single input fuzzy PID controllers:
The error signal is the essential and fundamental ii) Two input fuzzy PID controllers:
control component in PID control. Using error as the If two inputs are used in forming a fuzzy PID
only input, a single input fuzzy PID controller can be controller then one can obtain either fuzzy PD or
formed. As it is seen in Figure 2 [17], this is simply a fuzzy PI controller. For instance, if the inputs are
nonlinear mapping of error into fuzzy proportional chosen as error (e) and derivative (or chance) of error
action cascaded to a conventional PID controller. ( e& ) then one ends up with a fuzzy PD controller as
shown in Figure 4. When the inputs are chosen as
error (e) and the integral (or the sum) of error then the
controller becomes absolute form fuzzy PI controller.
If the inputs are chosen as error (e) and derivative (or
chance) of error (e& ) then an incremental form fuzzy
PI controller can be obtain, but the output is achieved
as the derivative (or the chance) of control signal as
shown in Figure 5 [18].

Figure 2. Single input fuzzy PID controller with one

rule base.

The other way of forming a single input fuzzy PID is

shown in Figure 3. In this structure, there exist three Figure 4. Fuzzy PD-type controller structure
distinct rule bases using again only error as the input
fuzzy PD and a fuzzy I controller and their control
actions are summed to form a fuzzy PID controller. A
similar idea is used in [27] to form a fuzzy PID by
combining a fuzzy PI and fuzzy D controller. These
two fuzzy PID controllers are given in Figure 8,
Figure 9 respectively.
Figure 5. Fuzzy PI-type controller structure

The equivalence of fuzzy PD and conventional PD

controllers has been established under special
conditions [19-21].

Fuzzy PI control is known to be more practical than

fuzzy PD because it is difficult for the fuzzy PD to
remove steady state error. The fuzzy PI control,
however, is known to give poor performance in
transient response for higher order processes due to
the internal integration operation.

To obtain proportional, integral and derivative control Figure 8. A fuzzy PID controller formed by
action all together, it is intuitive and convenient to combining a fuzzy PD and a fuzzy I controller
combine PI and PD actions together to form a fuzzy
PID-type controller [6, 21-24]. Therefore, the
formulation of fuzzy PID controller can be achieved
by combining fuzzy PI and PD controllers with two
distinct rule-bases. Another and a simpler way of
construction a fuzzy PID controller is combining
fuzzy PD controller with an integrator and a
summation unit at the output. These two cases are
given in Figure 6 and in Figure 7, respectively. It is
obvious that the fuzzy PID controller given in Figure
7 has less number of rules and scaling factors
compared to the fuzzy PID that is given in Figure 6

Figure 9. A fuzzy PID controller formed by

combining a fuzzy PI and a fuzzy D controller

iii) Three input fuzzy PID controllers:

A fuzzy PID controller may be constructed by
introducing the third information besides error and
derivative (or the change) of error [28, 29]. When this
third input is chosen as the integral (or the sum) of
error, an absolute form fuzzy PID controller with 3-D
Figure 7. Fuzzy PID-type controller structure formed rule base, which is given in Figure 10, can be
of combining fuzzy PD-type and PI-type controllers obtained. In order to get an incremental form fuzzy
PID controller then the third input should be taken as
the rate of change in error [6].

Figure 7. Fuzzy PID-type controller structure with one


In [26], a new fuzzy PID controller design is presented

Figure 10. Fuzzy PID-type controller structure with
to control a flexible-joint robot arm. This controller
3-D rule-base
mimics a conventional PD+I controller. There exist a
The fuzzy PID controller with 3-D rule base is controller parameters Kd and ß simultaneously at each
difficult to construct because of the following reasons: peak time according to the peak value.
(1) For the case of using rate of change in error, a
human expert can hardly sense the third dimension of
information, for instance, the acceleration besides
position and velocity in a motion control system, and
thus it is difficult to obtain the control rules,
(2) For the case of using sum of error, it is difficult to
quantitate its linguistic values since a different plant
needs different integral gain and steady state value of
sum of error,
(3) A 3-D rule base can be very complex when the
number of quantizations of each dimension increases,
and in this situation, the control rule number increases
cubically with the number of quantizations [6]. Figure 11. The closed-loop control structure for
parameter adaptive PID type fuzzy logic controller via
In [30], a design procedure for fuzzy PID controller is peak observer
presented and a reduced look up table is introduced.
An implementation of three input fuzzy PID controller The block diagram of the parameter adaptive PID type
on a robotic manipulators is studied in [31]. In FLC using a function tuner, which has been proposed
addition, a brief analysis is presented to prove that the in [40], is shown in Figure 12. This tuner adjusts the
controller has BIBO stability. input scaling factor corresponding to the derivative
coefficient and the output scaling factor corresponding
2.2 Tuning Mechanisms of Fuzzy PID Controllers to the integral coefficient of the PID type fuzzy logic
controller through empirical functions.
As it is discussed above a wide variety of fuzzy PID
controllers have been developed. The design
parameters that can be used to improve the
performance of these fuzzy PID controllers can be
summarized within two groups [7, 32]: (a) structural
parameters, (b) tuning parameters.

Structural parameters include input/output (I/O)

variables to fuzzy inference, fuzzy linguistic sets,
membership functions, fuzzy rules, inference
mechanism and defuzzification mechanism. Tuning
parameters include I/O scaling factors (SF) and Figure12. The closed-loop control structure for
parameters of membership functions (MF). Usually parameter adaptive PID type fuzzy logic controller via
the structural parameters are determined during off- function tuner
line design while the tuning parameters can be
calculated during on-line adjustments of the controller A new method for tuning the coefficients of fuzzy PID
to enhance the process performance, as well as to controller is presented in [32] that uses the error and
accommodate the adaptive capability to system rate information of the system response together.
uncertainty and process disturbance. Again, this method adjusts the scaling factors that
correspond to the derivative and integral coefficients
However, the adjustment of the scaling factors of the fuzzy PID controller using a fuzzy inference
becomes more crucial for the former case mentioned mechanism in an on-line manner. The fuzzy inference
above. There exist various heuristic and non-heuristic mechanism that adjusts the related coefficients has
tuning strategies for the adaptation of scaling factors two inputs one of which is “system error” designated
of fuzzy controllers [33-39]. as e and the other one is a new variable rv named as
“normalized acceleration” in [41]. The normalized
The fuzzy PID controller, given in Figure 7., has a acceleration gives “relative rate” information about
simple structure and has only four scaling factors, so it the fastness or slowness of the system response and
has a great importance in literature. In [21], this fuzzy therefore the mechanism that provides this
PID controller is used with a parameter adaptive information can be interpreted as “Relative Rate
method that is based on a peak observer. The tuning Observer”(RRO). It has been shown that the new
mechanism adjusts the input and output scaling factors method is more efficient since lesser number of
corresponding to the integral and derivative parameters is to be tuned and it is more robust to the
coefficients of the controller. The block diagram of system parameter or structural changes compared to
the proposed method is shown in Figure 11. The peak the other related methods mentioned above. The
observer keeps watching on the system’s output, closed-loop control structure for parameter adaptive
transmits a signal at each peak time, and measures the fuzzy PID controller via relative rate observer is given
absolute peak value. The parameter regulator tunes the in Figure 13.
premise part of the rule, and the rule’s output gi is the
controller gain matrix for a i . A ik is a fuzzy set
defined on the kth scheduling variable space.
Extensions to the FGS scheme can be made to further
enhance the performance. For instance, in [43],
model-based fuzzy gain scheduling (MFGS) is
proposed to improve performance when the
nonlinearity involves is too severe. MFGS technique
on water-gas shift reactor, because this system
demonstrates many behaviors typical of nonlinear
processes. They demonstrated that because of large
variations in process gain; traditional linear controller
such as PID was inadequate for the laboratory-scale

Figure 13. The closed-loop control structure for Besides the form of the fuzzy rule set stated in (1), an
parameter adaptive PID type fuzzy logic controller via alternative form is utilized in [14], where the
relative rate observer Mamdani fuzzy model is implemented. In that study, a
new scheme utilizes fuzzy rules and reasoning to
The mechanism given in Figure 11 ameliorates the determine the control signal. It is demonstrated that
response after the occurrence of the first peak value the human expertise on PID gain scheduling can be
and therefore it outperforms worst than the other two represented in fuzzy rules. Furthermore, better control
mechanisms. However, one should keep in mind that performance can be expected in the proposed method
the mechanism given in Figure 11 has no parameter to than that of the PID controllers with fixed parameter
be adjusted [41]. since this type of fuzzy PID controllers can adapt
themselves to varying environments. The fuzzy PID
3. FUZZY GAIN SCHEDULING TYPE structure used in [14] is given in Figure 14. The main
CONTROLLERS difficulty in using this category of fuzzy PID
controllers is that the analysis task is relatively tough,
The fuzzy gain scheduling (FGS) is a rule-based as it is hard to acquire the equivalent nonlinearity of
scheme for gain scheduling [14, 42, 43]. This type of the fuzzy knowledge base. The issue of stability is
fuzzy PID controller is composed of the conventional also addressed in [14]. As in CGS, global stability
PID control system in conjunction with a set of fuzzy cannot be ensured, because the linear controller
rules (knowledge base) and a fuzzy reasoning parameters are functions of time. It is suggested that a
mechanism. The PID gains are tuned on-line in terms supervisor be included to monitor the stability of the
of the knowledge base and fuzzy inference, and then control system and take appropriate actions when
the PID controller generates the control signal. FGS is instability is identified.
implemented in essentially the same way as
conventional gain scheduling (CGS), expect that the
operating regions are associated with overlapping
membership functions of the fuzzy sets defined in the
scheduling variable space and that a fuzzy inference
mechanism is used to dynamically interpolate the
controller parameters around region boundaries based
on known local controller parameters. Hence, it is able
to express and use incomplete knowledge of the
controlled system and provide smooth transitions from
region to region.

In the last decade, several studied are published in this

category of fuzzy PID controller. In [43], the Takagi-
Sugeno fuzzy model [44] is employed in FGS. The Figure 14. PID control system with a fuzzy gain
FGS rule base contains a set of fuzzy gain scheduling scheduler.
rules of the form
In [45], the idea given in [14] is implemented to area
Ri : IF a i 1 is A i1 and a i 2 is A i2 ... a iq is A iq load frequency control problem in power systems to
schedule the conventional PI controllers.
THEN gi = K( a i ) (1)
Also, a scheme for self-tuning of a conventional PID
where a ik (k=1, 2, ..., q) is the kth component of the controller using fuzzy rules is proposed in [13]. The
scheduling variable vector, a i is the scheduling proportional gain (Kp ), the integral time constant (Ti ),
variable vector that best fits the description in the and derivative time constant (Td ) are initially
calculated using Ziegler-Nichols tuning formula [46].
These three parameters are then modified online by a 5. CONCLUSION
single parameter, which is updated by a rule-base
defined on error and change in error. A considerable In this study, various studies in literature on fuzzy PID
improvement in the overall performance of the over its controllers are examined. The fuzzy PID controllers
conventional counterpart is reported in [13]. The are classified then into three major categories; namely,
results show a remarkable reduction in overshoots of direct action (DA) type, fuzzy gain scheduling (FGS)
the second-order processes with dead time but at the type, and hybrid type. In addition, structural and
cost of increased rise times. tuning parameters of fuzzy control systems are
discussed and some tuning mechanisms of fuzzy PID
In [47], FGS allows simple online duplication of PID controllers are presented and compared.
control and the online improvement of PID control
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