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# ME 571: Aerodynamics

## Homework Assignment #2 Due: Thursday, February 15, 2018

Reading: Chapter 2 of Anderson, and handout on aerobatic flight. Start reading Chapter 3.
Problems from the text: 2.1, 2.2
Problem 2A r
A jet
r of fluid
r is deflected by a vane causing velocity change Δ V . Show that the force on the vane
is F = m˙ ΔV , where the pressure is assumed to return to ambient after interaction with the vane.
Problem 2B
A light plane (Piper Cherokee, image on next page) € has wing span of b = 32 ft and aspect ratio of
€ AR = 6 and weight W = 2450 lbs. The overall drag coefficient (referenced to wing area) is
C2
CD = CD p + rALR e
where CDp equals .03 is the profile drag (includes fuselage, tail, wheels, etc. as well as wing) and
the second term is the induced or vortex drag. This drag formula will be derived later in the
course. The empirical factor e = .64 for this airplane is the “span efficiency factor” (something
of a fudge factor). The airplane flies at sea level (ρ = 2.378 X 10-3 slug/ft3). Hints: Thrust
Required: Treq equals drag + gravitational contribution; and Power Required: Preq equals thrust
times velocity. You can assume that γ is a small angle (in radians).
a.) Find general symbolic expressions for the thrust required Treq, and power required Preq to
cruise at constant speed V along flight path angle γ. Do not substitute specific numbers.
Your expression should involve V, W, AR, e, b, CDp , ρ, and γ, but not CL.
b.) On a single graph plot curves of thrust required Treq versus velocity for level flight γ = 0o
and for flight path (climb and dive) angles of γ = ±4o and ±8o. On another graph plot a
similar set of curves for power required Preq.
c.) Find the thrust and power required at stall (occurring at CLmax = 1.5) in level flight. Note
this stall speed by an appropriately placed vertical line on your graphs of thrust and
power required. The airplane cannot fly below this speed (really it depends weakly on γ).
d.) At γ = 0o, use the results of part (a) to find symbolic formulae for cruise speeds for
minimum thrust required and for minimum power required? Determine the formulae for
the minimum values of thrust and power at theses speeds? Note these points on your
graphs. Note that the minimum thrust speed is higher than the minimum power speed.
Problem 2C
An airplane of weight W and wing area S flies level at speed V while executing a turn of constant
radius R. The wing can pull a maximum lift coefficient CLmax before stall. Derive the formula for
the turn radius versus flight speed at this maximum lift coefficient. This radius represents the
tightest turn the airplane can make at the given flight speed. Plot 1/R versus V for the airplane in
Problem 2A. When 1/R = 0 do you get the correct limit of level flight stall speed? Hint: In a
steady turn the lift must equal the resultant of the weight vector and the centrifugal force vector.
Comment: When flying, presumably you have noticed that when an airplane turns, e.g. to line up
with the runway, the inboard wing tip rolls down. The lift vector is being tipped from vertical to
pull the plane around the turn. From a control standpoint, the pilot coordinates rudder and
aileron motions - you can often see the ailerons deflect during the turn, although for final
approach this may also be done with a spoiler or inboard flap/aileron. Note that you are pressed
into the seat, not pushed sideways as in a car (why?); if you close your eyes during a gentle turn
you may not even realize the airplane is turning.
Piper Cherokee
Problem 2D
A glider has parasite a drag coefficient CDp and a span efficiency factor e, both for the entire
vehicle. The wing area is S, the aspect ratio is AR, and the weight is W. The glide path angle is
γ, where γ = 0 for level flight and γ < 0 for descent. Assume γ << 1 so that sinγ ≈ γ, cosγ ≈ 1,
etc. Assume the glider operates in still air of constant density.
a.) Find the formula for the speed the glider should fly at to minimize its glide path angle?
Hint: How is glide path angle γ related to L/D?
b.) Find the formula for the speed the glider should fly at to minimize its sink rate? Hint:
sink rate is the vertical component of velocity, namely Vsink = Vsinγ ≈ Vγ
c.) Suppose the glider is released at an altitude H. Find the formula for its maximum
possible range.
d.) Suppose the glider is released at an altitude H. Find the formula for its maximum
possible endurance (time aloft).
Note #1: These results bear a relationship to those of Problem 2A. It can be shown that the
speed from part a.) corresponds to flying at the minimum of the thrust required curve, and the
speed from part b.) corresponds to flying at the minimum of the power required curve. This is
fairly obvious since minimum drag means minimum thrust (lift = weight being fixed), and
minimum sink rate means minimum loss of potential energy which is related to minimum power.
Note #2: It is interesting that the glide path angle for the glider is steeper for max. endurance
than for max. range, since the slower flight speed more than compensates for the steeper angle.
Problem 2E
The Piper Cherokee is flying at 3500 ft altitude when the engine quits 5 miles from the airport.
a.) If the pilot glides to maximize range, will he make it back? If so, what will be the speed,
altitude, and flight duration when arriving at the airport? If not, how close will he get?
b.) If the pilot glides to maximize endurance, will he make it back? If so, what will be the
speed, altitude, and flight duration when arriving at the airport? If not, how close will
he get, and how long will the plane have stayed aloft?
Problem 2F
A fluid system flows one-dimensionally in the x-direction in a tube having constant cross-
sectional area S. The system lies between xa(t) and xb(t). The system carries with it some
property QTOT, where Q(x,t) is the amount of this quantity per unit volume. Determine the time
rate of change of QTOT following the system. This 1-D version of the Transport Theorem is
called Leibniz's Rule in mathematics.
dQTOT d xb (t ) xb (t) ∂Q(ξ ,t) dx dx
= ∫ x (t) Q(ξ ,t)dξ = ∫ x (t ) dξ +Q(xb ,t) b − Q(xa ,t) a
dt dt a a ∂t dt dt
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gottfried_Wilhelm_Leibniz (Note big brain and big hair... :-)