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SAE TECHNICAL
PAPER SERIES 2008-32-0026 (SAE)
20084726 (JSAE)

A Study on the Combustion and Emission


Characteristics of Diesel Fuel Blended with
Ethanol in an HCCI Engine
Yung-Jin Kim, Ki-Bum Kim and Ki-Hyung Lee
Hanyang University

Small Engine Technology Conference


Milwaukee, Wisconsin
September 9-11, 2008

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2008-32-0026 (SAE) / 20084726 (JSAE)

A Study on the Combustion and Emission Characteristics of


Diesel Fuel Blended with Ethanol in an HCCI Engine
Yung-Jin Kim, Ki-Bum Kim and Ki-Hyung Lee
Hanyang University

Copyright © 2008 SAE International and Copyright © 2008 SAE Japan

ABSTRACT requiring prompt attention, the demands for emission


reduction and high thermal efficiency of vehicles have
As the exhaustion of petroleum resources and air been increased. In light of this, diesel engines which
pollution problems are getting more serious day by day, generally have high thermal efficiency and low
demands for low emission levels and higher thermal greenhouse gas emissions have been spotlighted.
efficiency of vehicle engines have been increased. In However generated nitrogen oxides (NOx) and
light of this, the diesel engine has many advantages particulate matter (PM) are the problem of the diesel
such as high thermal efficiency, a cheaper price of fuel, engine. Therefore, to solve the problems, those are
and what is more it has a low CO2 exhaustion level well important minimizing the peak temperature in order to
known as the factor of 'Global Warming', therefore the reduce NOx emissions and better air-fuel mixing to
use of diesel engines is getting increased. However in reduce particulate matter formation. The HCCI is a
the case of diesel engine, NOx increases in the local technique that can help achieve such conditions [1, 2]
high temperature region, and particulate matter and researches on HCCI combustion that would satisfy
increases in fuel rich regions. That is why, getting down engine efficiency and emission standards are in
the peak temperature to reduce NOx emission and progress. However, the conventional diesel injection
making better air-fuel mixing to minimize particulate system is not perfectly acceptable to be used in the
matter formation are required and Homogeneous HCCI engine, and HCCI combustion using the
Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) is a technique conventional diesel injection system cannot decrease
which can make those conditions. In the HCCI engine, a emissions as much as expected because the collision of
largely premixed lean mixture is burned by compression the spray with the wall occurs when the fuel was injected
ignition and in this way, it has the advantages of both into cylinder at the early stage of the compression stroke.
thermal efficiency and emission reduction. However it Also the engine efficiency is lower than that of the
also has got a limited operating region because of conventional diesel engine due to the control difficulties
difficulties of reducing the droplet collision with the of ignition timing in which the ignition usually occurs
cylinder wall and controlling the ignition timing. The earlier than that of the conventional diesel engine.
present study builds on the narrow spray cone angle
concept and investigates its use in conjunction with early In the present study narrow spray cone angle injectors
multiple injection to help reduce wall wetting and create are investigated in conjunction with early multiple
a more homogeneous mixture. In addition many injection to help create a more homogeneous mixture [3,
methods to control the ignition timing are now under 4]. Many kinds of methods and fuels are also used to
study as well. For the reason, in this research, the effect control the ignition timing and to improve the engine
of injection strategies on spray, mixture formation, the efficiency besides [5 - 7]. In this research, spray
combustion and emission characteristics were verified behavior, mixture formation and emission characteristics
with an HCCI engine and simulation for 100% diesel fuel in accordance with injection conditions are clarified using
first, and then diesel fuel blended with ethanol using the a common rail-type high-pressure narrow spray cone
optimized injection conditions acquired from the earlier angle diesel injector and multiple injection strategies.
research was used to investigate the effects of mixed Diesel fuel blended with ethanol was used to delay and
fuel on the ignition timing and engine efficiency. control the ignition timing as a method to expand the
operating range of the HCCI engine. From the result, we
INTRODUCTION verified that the fuel injection timing, times and spray
cone angle largely affected the mixture formation and
Recently as environmental pollution and exhaustion of combustion and also the use of the diesel fuel blended
petroleum resource become a worldwide problem with ethanol affected the ignition timing, engine
efficiency and emissions.
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TEST METHOD for using surface wave breakup. From Kelvin-Helmholtz


surface tension wave theory, the wavelength and
In this research, firstly, both an engine experiment and a frequency of the fastest growing waves are expressed
numerical analysis were used to investigate the effects as follows:
of injection strategies using diesel fuel and then the
effects of the diesel fuel blended with ethanol on the
/

9 . 02 r d 1  0 . 45 Z 0 . 5 1  0 .4 T 0 .7
(1)
engine efficiency and emissions were evaluated. To get KH
1  0 . 865 We 1 . 67
0 .6

a fundamental data for the engine experiment and the


simulation, injection characteristics were investigated
using diesel fuel with common-rail-type injection system :
0 . 34  0 . 385 We 1 .5
V (2)
and then the optimal injection conditions were
KH
1  Z 1  1 . 4 T 0 .6
U d rd 3
determined based on the results. Finally, the effects of
the diesel fuel blended with ethanol on the engine The newly formed droplet size is assumed to be
performance and emissions were investigated using the proportional to the above Kelvin-Helmholtz wavelength:
optimized injection conditions.

EXPERIMENTAL SETUP OF SPRAY VISUALIZATION


rd , stable B0 / KH / KH d rd (3)

ª§ 3Sr 2U 1/ 3
· § 3rd 2 / KH
1/ 3
· º
rd ,stable min«¨¨ d r ¸ ,¨
¸ ¨
¸
¸
» (4)
«© 2: KH ¹ © 4 ¹ »
¬ ¼

The constant B0 is set at 0.6. For Kelvin-Helmholtz


breakup, the droplet lifetime is

3.78B1rd
Wb (5)
: KH / KH

where, the breakup time constant B1 is 10.

In addition, a spray calculation was conducted in a


combustion chamber that simulated the geometry of the
experimental HCCI engine to analyze the spray pattern
and evaporation characteristics using the spray model.
The engine geometry has 17.5 in compression ratio, 91
mm of bore, and 96 mm of stroke. We chose 140 o BTDC
as the calculation start time which corresponds to both
Figure 1 Schematic diagram of spray visualization intake and exhaust valves being closed, and we chose
system using a high pressure and temperature chamber TDC as the finish time of combustion. Furthermore, the
engine speed was 1400 rpm and the swirl ratio produced
by the intake port was 2.0.
As shown in the Figure 1, the spray visualization system
was used to get fundamental data of spray behavior for
To evaluate fuel evaporation, heat transfer and
the numerical analysis and the engine experiment. The
temperature calculations were added. Equations (6) and
chamber used in this research simulated the
(7) express the mass and temperature of a droplet [7].
experimental engine with the conditions such as high
temperature and high pressure in the engine cylinder.
dm d
 Ad Sh
D AB
U v ln
p  p v ,f (6)
SPRAY AND MIXTURE FORMATION ANALYSIS dt Dd p  pv ,s
The numerical analysis of diesel fuel spray injected from
dCp,d Td dmd
a common rail-type injector was performed using the md  Ad Nu Td  T km Fz  hhg (7)
VECTIS program (Ricardo Co. Ltd) [8]. We selected dt dt
50,000 as the calculation mesh density in order to
prevent a wall collision with the cylinder. The injection The spray impingement model proposed by Gosman et
velocity and discharge coefficient were calculated using al. [11] was used to evaluate spray characteristics.
experimental data on the injection rate [9], the initial According to the Wein and TLeid, the stick, rebound,
S.M.D. value postulated for nozzle diameter, and an X- spread, and splash conditions occurred after spray
square distribution. The breakup model developed by impingement. The roughness effect of the combustion
the Liu-Mather-Reitz model was used for the analysis chamber was ignored.
[10]. The breakup of the injected liquid was accounted
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EXPERIMENTAL APPARATUS OF ENGINE SYSTEM Injector

High pressure pump


Cylinder Head

Cylinder liner
P.C.V Signal control box
Common rail
Air flow Upper side of piston
sensor
Exhaust gas Intake gas
Injector
TDC sensor
Radial penetration
Piston bowl

(a) Spray cone angle: 150° (b) Spray cone angle: 100°
FSN PPM

Charge Figure 3 The definition of the spray cone angle and the
Amplifier Data Acquisition
Smoke Exhaust gas radial penetration for the test injectors
Meter analyzer
Crank angle sensor
( HC, CO, Nox )
EXPERIMENTAL AND SIMULATION PROCEDURES

In this research, we evaluated the effects of the spray


Figure 2 Schematic diagram of common rail injection
collision point on the mixture formation according to
type HCCI single cylinder engine
injection timings and injection frequencies using a spray
simulation. In addition, we measured the engine
The schematic diagram of a common rail type HCCI
performance and emissions.
single cylinder engine system and the engine
specifications are as shown in Figure 2 and Table 1. As
The combustion analysis was conducted using the
shown in Figure 2, a common rail injector was fitted
experimental device as shown in Figure 2 to evaluate
vertically in the center of the cylinder head; cooling water
the HCCI engine combustion and output performance.
and a heater for water and lubricating oil supply system
NOx, CO, HC emissions and smoke were measured
were also installed to control the engine temperature.
with an exhaust gas analyzer (Horiba Co., LTD.) and a
The engine was operated at a constant speed using a
smoke meter (AVL Co., LTD.). The engine speed and
30-kW AC dynamometer. The 7200-pulse encoder was
injection pressure were fixed at 1400rpm and 100MPa
attached to the crankshaft and a TDC sensor was fixed
respectively, and the effects of injection quantities and
to the camshaft to detect the crank position. To control
timings were evaluated. The experimental conditions are
injection pressure, a PCV (Pressure Control Valve) was
as shown in Table 2.
used for the common rail. A counter board controlled
injection timing and duration. In addition, combustion
Table 2 Experiment and Simulation conditions
pressure was measured by a pressure sensor installed
in the combustion chamber to identify HCCI combustion. Experiment and Simulation
Engine speed 1400RPM
Table 1 Engine specifications Injection pressure 100 MPa
Engine system 4-valve single cylinder Injection quantity 7.5mm3 ~ 26mm3
Bore൴Stroke 91൴96mm (624.37cc) Injection timing 180 o BTDC ~ TDC
Spray cone angle 70o , 100o, 130o , 150o
Compression ratio 17.5
Injection method Early single and multiple
Injection type Common-rail
Fuel Diesel and Ethanol blended
Injector (hole diameter) 0.168mm൴5holes Coolant temperature 90 o C
Combustion chamber Re-entrant type Simulation ( only diesel fuel used )
Initial SMD ( assumed ) Injector hole diameter
Intake condition N. A
Piston Temperature 530 K (isothermal)
Cylinder wall & head Temp. 450 K (isothermal)
THE DEFINITION OF THE SPRAY CONE ANGLE AND
THE RADIAL PENETRATION EXPERIMENTAL AND SIMULATION RESULTS
USING DIESEL FUEL
Figure 3 shows the definition of the spray cone angle
and the radial penetration length for the test injectors. EXPERIMENTAL RESULTS OF SINGLE INJECTION
The spray cone angle that we used is defined as double FOR VARIOUS SPRAY CONE ANGLES
value of the angle between the vertical line from the
injector tip and the center line of one of the spray cones. Figure 4 shows penetration length measured from spray
And we used the radial penetration length because it is images which were taken from the bottom of the injector
mainly effective on spray collision with the cylinder wall. in terms of the spray cone angles. The ambient density
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was changed using a high-pressure chamber is good for the engine performance, but makes the
corresponding to the cylinder pressure at the injection smoke level increase. However, when the spray cone
timing of BTDC 70~50°. From the results, as the spray angle was 100°, smoke was less than FSN 1 even
cone angle narrowed the spray radial penetration length though IMEP was over 3.5bar. Therefore, in the case of
decreased. At the ambient density of 13.53 kg/m3, in the early injection, the spray cone angle of 100° with an
case the spray angle was narrower than 100° the spray injection timing of BTDC 65° was most effective in
was not supposed to collide with the cylinder wall reducing smoke without sacrificing IMEP.
because the spray penetration was shorter than the
radius (45.5mm) of cylinder bore. The result was used to 5.0 o
Injection timing: BTDC 50 ~ 80
o

compare to the result of the spray simulation. 4.5 Injection quantity: 20mm
3
The best condition
o o
4.0 Spray cone angle 70 BTDC 65
50 o
Spray cone angle 100 injection timing
Injection Quantity 3.5
45 o
Radial spray penetration (mm)

3 Spray cone angle 130


20mm

Smoke(FSN)
o
40 3.0 Spray cone angle 150

35 2.5
2.0
30
1.5
25
Ambient Temperature
1.0
20 530 K
3 0.5
Ambient density: 13.53Kg/m
15 o
Spray cone angle: 150 0.0
10 Spray cone angle: 130
o

o
1.0 1.5 2.0 2.5 3.0 3.5 4.0 4.5
5 Spray cone angle: 100
o IMEP(bar)
Spray cone angle: 070
0 Figure 6 Characteristics of smoke and IMEP according
0.0 1.0 2.0 3.0 4.0 5.0 6.0 7.0 8.0
to various spray cone angles and injection timings
After start of injection (deg - Crank angle)
Figure 4 Comparison of penetration length between SIMULATION RESULTS OF SINGLE INJECTION
various spray cone angles
Timing BTDC 80¶ BTDC 70¶ BTDC 60¶ BTDC 40¶
150

140

130 ASOI
120 20¶
110
HC(ppm)

100
3
˪
90 Injection quantity=20mm
o
Spray cone angle: 150
80 o
BTDC
Spray cone angle: 130
70 o 10¶
Spray cone angle: 100
o
60 Spray cone angle: 070
(a) 150 degree spray cone angle
50
90 80 70 60 50 40
Timing BTDC 80¶ BTDC 70¶ BTDC 60¶ BTDC 40¶
o
Injection timing O BTDCP
Figure 5 Characteristics of HC emission according to
various spray cone angles and injection timings ASOI
20¶
HC emission characteristics according to various spray
cone angles and injection timings are shown in Figure 5.
From the result, as the spray cone angle became
narrower HC emission decreased and it was verified that ˪
wall wetting was decreased by narrower spray cone
angles. Especially when the spray cone angles was 100° BTDC
and 70° HC emission levels were much lower than those 10¶
of the others.
(b) 100 degree spray cone angle
Figure 6 shows the smoke characteristics as a function Figure 7 Air-fuel distributions of various spray cone
of IMEP. In general, when IMEP increased, the amount angles in accordance with injection timings.
of smoke tended to increase. It shows that a rich mixture
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The representative simulation results of air-fuel For this section, multiple injection was used to reduce
distribution characteristics in the engine cylinder are the spray penetration length and to expect better air-fuel
shown in Figure 7. The timings of the top part pictures mixing. The amount of fuel injected as first, second and
are same as 20° after the fuel injection started and the third injection is the same. Figure 8 shows penetration
lower part pictures show the air-fuel distribution length of various injection times at the ambient pressure
characteristics at the ignition timing of BTDC 10° from 0.1MPa to 2.0MPa using a high-pressure chamber.
according to injection timings and spray cone angles. The result was also compared to the result of the
From the result, SMD obtained by simulation was good multiple injection simulation and Figure 8-(b) shows the
fit to the experimental data and in the case of early average penetration of triple injection to compare the
injection, which the spray impinged on the wall directly, a results with that of single injection easily. In the case of
rich mixture was formed near the wall and a lean mixture triple injection, as the ambient pressure increased, the
was formed in the center of the combustion chamber spray penetration length decreased similar to a single
and piston bowl zone. In the case of 100° spray cone injection and the penetration length was shorter than
angle at BTDC 60° injection timing, when the spray that of single injection in the same conditions.
collision occurred near the corner between the piston
upper side and the bowl zone, the mixture distribution SIMULATION RESULTS OF MULTIPLE INJECTION
was generally uniformed throughout the whole
combustion area. However from the Figure 7-(b), Injection Single Double Triple
injection timing of BTDC 60° seemed to be still a little bit times injection injection injection
late so BTDC 65° was chosen as the best timing as well
as the result in Figure 6. Additionally from all of the
results, we could verify the spray collision location
ASOI
largely affected the mixture distribution.
20°
EXPERIMENTAL RESULTS OF MULTIPLE INJECTION
FOR THE INJECTOR OF 100° SPRAY CONE ANGLE
˪
50
BTDC
Radial spray penetration (mm)

10°
40

30 Figure 9 Mixture formation and evaporation


Ambient Temperature
characteristics according to the injection type
530 K
20
Ambient Pressure Figure 9 compares the effect of injection times on spray
0.1 MPa and mixture formation. Injection timings were BTDC 65°
10 Injection Quantity 0.6 MPa for single, BTDC 70° and 60° for double and BTDC 75°,
3
20mm 1.0 MPa
2.0 MPa
65° and 55° for triple injection. And the timings were
0 determined to make the main injection collide with the
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 corner between the piston upper side and the bowl zone.
After start of injection (deg - crank angle) The results indicate that as the number of injections
(a) Single injection increased, the mixture in the combustion chamber was
enriched and evaporated more.
50
Injection interval
o
Crank Angle 10
Radial spray penetration (mm)

50 Injection timing
Injection timing o o
BTDC 75 , 65 ,55
o
Evaporated fuel percetage(%)

40 45 o o

BTDC 70 , 60

40
30
Injection interval
Ambient Temperature 35 o
Crank Angle 10
530 K
20
Ambient Pressure 30 The ratio of fuel quantity
0.1MPa
* Double injection
10 0.6MPa 25
Injection Quantity first : second = 1:1
3 1.0MPa
20mm  Injection timing * Triple injection
2.0MPa 20 o first : second : third = 1:1:1
0 BTDC 65
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9
15
After start of injection O deg - crank anglePP Single Double Triple
(b) Average penetration of triple injection Number of injections
Figure 8 Comparison of penetration length according to Figure 10 Effect of injection times on fuel evaporation at
various ambient pressures and injection times the ignition timing of BTDC 10°
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90 90
Figure 10 shows the evaporation rate of fuel injected
Combustion Pressure
into the chamber at the ignition timing of BTDC 10°. The 80 Diesel 100%
80
Injection Timing
rate increased with increasing injection times. It is BTDC 65° Ethanol 5%
70 70
attributed to shorter spray penetration resulting in wall Ethanol 10%

wetting decrease. Therefore, the higher evaporation rate 60 60

Pressure (bar)
can produce more homogeneous mixture in the

ROHR (J/CA)
50 50
combustion chamber.
40 40

EXPERIMENTAL RESULTS OF ENGINE TEST FOR 30 30


MULTIPLE INJECTION ROHR
20 Diesel 100% 20
Ethanol 5%
7 7 10 10
Ethanol 10%
IMEP
0 0
6 Double 6
Triple 330 340 350 360 370 380 390
5 5 Crank Angle OdegreeP

Smoke (FSN)
(a) Single injection (16mm3 of injection quantity)
IMEP (bar)

4 4
SMOKE
Double 90 90
3 3 Combustion Pressure
Triple 80
Injection Timing Diesel 100% 80
BTDC Ethanol 5%
2 2
70 75° - 65° - 55° Ethanol 10% 70

1 1 60 60

Pressure (bar)

ROHR (J/CA)
0 0 50 50
12 14 16 18 20 22 24
40 40
Injected quantity Omm3P 30 30
Figure 11 Characteristics of IMEP and smoke according ROHR
20 20
Diesel 100%
to injected fuel quantity of early multiple injections. Ethanol 5%
10 10
Ethanol 10%
The IMEP and smoke characteristics of early double and 0 0
triple injections according to the injection quantity are as 330 340 350 360 370 380 390
shown in Figure 11. Injection timings were fixed at 70°, Crank Angle OdegreeP
60° BTDC for the double injection and at 75°, 65°, 55°
BTDC for the triple injection to make the best mixture (b) Triple injection (16mm3 of injection quantity)
distribution in the combustion chamber. As shown in the Figure 12 Combustion pressure and rate of heat release
figure, as the injection amount increased, IMEP and for the diesel fuel blended with ethanol.
smoke increased simultaneously in both cases. In the
case of double injection, when IMEP was over 6 bars, The combustion pressure and ROHR(Rate of Heat
smoke exceeded FSN 2 and in the region of less than Release) characteristics of the blended fuel are depicted
FSN 2 smoke level, the limit of IMEP was 5 bars. In the in Figure 12. In the case of singe injection, the fuel
case of triple injection, as smoke was less than FSN 2, composition had little influence on the combustion
IMEP exceeded 6 bars. At 26 mm3 of injected fuel pressures, and the ROHR pattern was a little delayed by
quantity, smoke decreased a little, however NOx the blended fuel. It was clearly seen in triple injection
increased so much that it was difficult to increase the cases. In all cases combustion started earlier than that
injection quantity over 26 mm3. It showed that the IMEP of single injection because triple injection made a shorter
limit in the homogeneous combustion area was 6 bars. fuel evaporation time and the region with mixture near
stoichiometry is larger than in case of single injection.
RESULTS OF ENGINE EXPERIMENT USING The ROHR pattern was delayed by increased ethanol
DIESEL FUEL BLENDED WITH ETHANOL mixing rate and became closer to TDC, however, the
level of combustion pressure and the ROHR decreased
In this part, we evaluated the effects of the blended fuel and it is considered that the lower heating value
on the ignition timing, combustion and emissions based approximately 64% of diesel fuel and the lower cetane
on the injection conditions optimized previously. We number of ethanol were responsible for the results.
used single and triple injection to compare the results
simply and the injection timings were fixed at 65° BTDC IMEP characteristics of the blended fuel according to
for the single injection and at 75°, 65°, 55° BTDC for the injection quantities are shown in Figure 13. In general,
triple injection. Firstly having checked the blended fuel the single injection IMEP was lower than that of triple
injection quantity in terms of the injection duration, we injection at the same injection quantity. And the singe
found that the amount was almost same as the amount injection IMEP characteristics were not classified clearly
of diesel fuel injected in the same duration. as well as those of ROHR and combustion pressure.
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However in the case of triple injection, even though the


6 6
combustion pressures and ROHR of the blended fuel
Triple Injection were much lower as shown in Figure 12, IMEP showed
5 5
Diesel 100% less difference and as the injection quantity increased
Ethanol 5% the gap of IMEP difference became narrower. It is
4 4
Ethanol 10% considered that even if the ROHR values were lower the
IMEP (bar)

main combustion became closer to TDC.


3 3
3.0
2 2
Triple Injection
Single Injection 2.5 Diesel 100%
1 1
Diesel 100% Ethanol 5%
Ethanol 5% 2.0 Ethanol 10%

Smoke (FSN)
0 Ethanol 10%
0
Single Injection
6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 1.5 Diesel 100%
Injection Quantity Omm3P Ethanol 5%
1.0 Ethanol 10%
Figure 13 IMEP characteristics of the diesel fuel
blended with ethanol. 0.5

500 0.0
0 1 2 3 4 5 6
450 Triple Injection
400 Diesel 100% IMEP (bar)
350 Ethanol 5% (a) Smoke characteristics of the blended fuel
Ethanol 10% according to IMEP values
300
NOx (ppm)

500
250
450 Triple Injection
200 Single Injection
400 Diesel 100%
150 Diesel 100%
Ethanol 5%
Ethanol 5% 350
100 Ethanol 10%
Ethanol 10% 300
NOx (ppm)

50 Single Injection
250 Diesel 100%
0
6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 200 Ethanol 5%
150 Ethanol 10%
Injection Quantity Omm3P
100
(a) NOx characteristics of the blended fuel according to
injection quantity 50
0
3.0 0 1 2 3 4 5 6

Triple Injection IMEP (bar)


2.5 Diesel 100% (b) NOx characteristics of the blended fuel according to
Ethanol 5% IMEP values
2.0 Ethanol 10%
Smoke (FSN)

Figure 15 Smoke and NOx characteristics of the


Single Injection blended fuel according to IMEP values.
1.5
Diesel 100%
Ethanol 5% Figure 14 and Figure 15 show the characteristics of
1.0 Ethanol 10% representative emissions to be noticed in HCCI
combustion. From the result of Figure 14 in most cases
0.5
except triple injection with 100% diesel fuel, NOx
emission levels were greatly low and smoke has almost
0.0 same low level tendency. It is thought that the lower
6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20
combustion temperature caused by the low heating
Injection Quantity Omm3P value of ethanol and the feature of the fuel including
(b) Smoke characteristics of the blended fuel according oxygen affected the result. As shown in Figure 15
to injection quantity smoke was decreased a little however NOx was
decreased a lot by the blended fuel with triple injection
Figure 14 Smoke and NOx characteristics of the simultaneously without much decreasing of IMEP
blended fuel according to injection quantity compared to the result of 100% diesel fuel with triple
injection.
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CONCLUSION 4. K. P. Nandha, J. Abraham, “Dependence of Fuel-Air


Mixing Characteristics on Injection Timing in an Early-
In this research, we investigated the characteristics of Injection Diesel Engine”, SAE 2002-01-0944, 2002
spray and combustion according to various injection 5. Masahiro Furutani, Masaaki Kono, Mitsutaka Kojima,
conditions using diesel fuel in a HCCI engine, then Masakazu Nose and Yasuhiko Ohta, Chemical Species
evaluated the effects of diesel fuel blended with ethanol Histories up to Ignition in Premixed Compression
on combustion and emissions using optimized Ignition Natural Gas Engine, The Fifth International
conditions and finally reached the following conclusions. Symposium COMODIA 2001, pp.461 ~ 466, 2001.
6. Toshyuki Seko, Eiji Kuroda and Yoshio Hamano,
1) The spray injected from 100° spray cone angle Methanol Lean Burn in Auto-Ignition DI Engine, SAE
injector collided with the corner between the piston paper 980531, 1998.
upper side and the bowl zone at 65° BTDC of single 7. Greg R Pucher, David P Gardiner and Michael F
injection timing and the mixture was distributed Bardon and Vittoria Battista, Alternative Combustion
homogeneously in the whole combustion chamber. Systems for Piston Engines Involving Homogeneous
Charge Compression Ignition Concepts - A Review
2) Injection timing of 65° BTDC produced less smoke of Studies Using Methanol, Gasoline and Diesel
and higher IMEP of 3.5 bars in single injection cases
Fuel, SAE paper 962063, 1996.
and triple injection at 75°, 65°, 55° BTDC made IMEP
8. Ricardo Co.,“Vectis Theory Manual”, 2003
exceeded 6 bars, when smoke was less than FSN 2. It is
9. J. D. Ryu, H. M, Kim, K. H. Lee, H. M. Cho, “A study
considered that in both of the cases, the spray did not
collide with the cylinder liner and the better on the spray structure and evaporation characteristic
homogeneous mixture affected combustion. of common rail type high pressure injector in
homogeneous charge compression ignition engine”,
3) In the case of single injection using the blended fuel The 9th Annual Conference ILASS-Asia
made not much difference in combustion pressure and 10. A. B. Liu, D. Mather and R. D. Reitz, "Modeling the
in ROHR. However early triple injection induced bigger effects of fuel spray characteristics on diesel engine
differences, in addition, combustion was delayed by combustion and emission", SAE 930072, 1993
increased ethanol mixing rate and became closer to 11. C. Bai, A. D. Gosman, “Development of
TDC. methodology for spray impingement simulation”,
SAE 950283, 1995
4) As a result the combustion pressures and ROHR of
the blended fuel were lower, however, IMEP showed
less differences. Especially in the case of triple injection,
smoke was decreased a little however NOx was NOMENCLATURE
decreased a lot by the blended fuel simultaneously
without much IMEP decreasing compared to the result of Ȧ KH : wavelength of fastest growing wave
triple injection using 100% of diesel fuel. ȳ KH : maximum wave growth rate
rd : droplet radius Z : axial coordinate
T : Taylor number We : Weber number
ACKNOWLEDGMENTS Ur : relative velocity vector
This work was supported by the “Development of Ɏ b : liquid breakup time
Techniques on the Fundamental and Practical Uses of md : mass burnt fraction Ad : droplet frontal area
HCCI” project at the Korea Automotive Technology Sh : Sherwood numbers DAB : mass diffusivity
Institute, 2007.
pv,s & pv,˳ : partial pressure at the drop surface and ambient
Cp,d : specific heat of liquid fuel
Nu : Nusselt number Km : conductivity of air
REFERENCES

1. P.M. Najt, D.E. Foster, "Compression-ignited


Homogeneous Charge Combustion", SAE 830264, 1983. ABBREVIATIONS
2. Magnus Christensen and Bengt Johansson, Influence
of Mixture Quality on Homogeneous Charge FSN: Filter Smoke Number
Compression Ignition, SAE paper 982454, 1998. HCCI: Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition
3. B. Walter, B. Gatellier “Development of the High IMEP: Indicated Mean Effective Pressure
Power NADITM Concept Using Dual Mode Diesel NADI: Narrow Angle Direct Injection
Combustion to Achieve Zero NOx and Particulate PCV: Pressure Control Valve
Emissions” SAE 2002-01-1744, 2002. ROHR: Rate of Heat Release
THC: Total Hydro Carbon

Author:Gilligan-SID:12501-GUID:13677992-220.225.214.2