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$ll I Name:

, 'r, i"
MIBO3500 Fall 2004 (Dustman)
Exam r - zffie (Recorded as %) SSN:

You can keep the exam copy. write your responses on the answer
{lzoo sheet and turn onlv that sheet in for grading'

Multiple Choice (2 pts each- 24 questions; 48 points total)

l. was the first individual to demonstrate a link befween certain bacteria and the
establishment of dlsggle in animals and humans'

a. Lister b. Bassi c. Koch

d. van Leeuwenhoek e' Schwann

Z. pasteur's work disproving spontaneous generation was held in contention for some time
because others had difficulty reproducing his results. Which of the following
BEST describes whY this haPPened?

..2: Bactena are capable of developing from dead organic matter.

.fElAacn scientist followed a different set of experimental procedures'
?pasteur made a critical miscalculation in his experimental design'
d Th.e link between bacteria growth and human disease had not yet been established.

3. Which of the following structures would NOT be found in a prokaqrqllic cell?

a. b. cytoplasm c' nucleoid
(flehloroplast e. chromosome
4. The type of microscopy that would be BEST suited to examining the bacterial cell
morphology ofJgg_9911s is
',_._a-.$rightheld light microscopy Atransmission
electron microscopy
,ouooing electron microscopy ($pttute contrast light microscopy
e. any of these types of microscopy are equal ior the purpose

Y S. During heat fixation, bacterial cells are adhered to a glass slide's surface before staining as
-/ \ well as
within the cells are denatured to prevent a change in morphology'
-fiil\ "nrt^es
all water is removed from the inside the cells to prevent osmotic shock and cell lysis.
-.c* soften certain cell wall components to aid in dye penetration
:d.- cause a thickening of flagelia structures, making them more visible
MIBO3500 Fall 2004 (Dustman) Name:
Exam I - 7 5 pts possible (Recorded as SSN:

Which of the following statements is FALSE regarding microscopy and staining?


i-a. ltn a positive simple stain, the chromophores used are attracted to acidic components of the
L- rcells being stained.
,..---b; Refraction is defined as the ability to distinguish two objects as separate entities from one
i'€LF;* tn" p"tr'.
c. Immersion oil may be used b.etween the specimen and the objective lens to preventfloss
.'-4 {he-focal point"piila
is definedas the point in which all1ight rays are focused into a single
beam after passing through the condenser iens. \/

7. The Gram stain procedure

?€)/ vla/l
--Qir a differential staining-method that $,{stinguishes two groups of celis from one another
X -=- based on differences in their cy!9gp1smrg
=\ results in either fuschia or
membrane contents.

C -.6
blue ieilfG/ending on the chemistry of the dye reactions.
uses a critical decolorization step to tell the difference between cells that contain
F'' lipopolysaccharides and those in which that compound is absent.
a physical mordant to trap dye inside the cells
e. ail of the above

8. Which of the following is NOT a component found in the cfoplasmic-memblqne of

g a. Hopanoids
d. lntegrai proteins i
,-€l Sterols
c. Permeases

9. Which of the following is MISMATCHED?

--,+.-,S-layers; prevent damage due to pH fluctuation

fi-tnae;prevent phagocYosis
Cett wall; resist osmolic pressure
d, Pilus; serve as a conduit for genetic exchange
e. None are mismatched

10. Which one of the following is TRUE regarding prokaryotic cSjl4tsZ

*-€--All bacteria *i* possess a cell u'all that contains peptidoglycan.
\*h Gram positive bacteria, you would expect to find the O-polysaccharide as the
outermost laver of their cell walls.
lir Gram negative bacteria, a thin layer of peptidoglycan is found in the periplasmic space.
Techoic acids are essential in creating the tetrapeptide bridges found in both Gram
MIBO3 500 F alI 2004 (Dustman) Name:
Exam I - 75 pts possible (Recorded as SSN:

negative and Gram positive bacteria.

*- 11. Inclusion bodies, in general, within bacterial celis may function as

a. a source of either inorganic or organic reserve nutrients

b. a mechanism for navigation toward nutrients
c. a storage place area for some enzFnes
,, d.
some of the above but not all
:-(G:-pll of the above

12. Systematics based on the sequencing of 165 rRNA seryes as a


,". a,'phylo genetic classifrcation method

L*--'b. natural classification method
c. means for assigning binomial names
d. basis of comparison of commonly held physical or biochemical traits between organisms

13. In Woese's Domain classification hierarchy, yeasts would be found within the group

a. Fungi b. Archea r c.,Eukarya -

d. Protista d. Monera

14. In which of th.e$!${ing groups would you find and an organism that was capable of
s;mthesizlng itssfye-srganic carbon compounds from inorganic sources and derives its
energy and electrons by reducing inorganic compounds?
X /->xa
- . il
p ,r,,4bttotolithoautotrophs
V. chemolithoheterotrophs I d.
e. chemoorganoautotrophs t-J\bhemlithoautotrophs

15. Regarding transport of substances in and out of cells, which of the following is FALSE?

-+-During group translocation, a moiety such as -POa can be ad{ed to the substance being
transported as it is taken across the cytoplasmic membrane r
-*-&-Permeases are essential for the transport of large molecules across the cy'toplasmic
membrane during facilitated diffusion. r/
c. Wastes can be exported from the cell using carrier proteins found within the cell
membrane, /
d-.-Porins represent an additional transport passage for Gram negative bacteria only.
4G.-f acrlitated transport is an energeticaliy expensive reaction for cells to use, and thus, is
Ulrarelv observed in prokarvotes.
MIBO3 500 F all 2004 (Dustman) Name:
Exam | - 7 5 pts possible (Recorded as %) SSN:

16. The cardinal temperature group that human pathogenic bacteria would be placed within is

a. thermophiles c. psychrophiles
e. piezophiles
d. hypermesophiles

17. By increasing the concentration of solutes in the external environment of a cell,

'\ water will be forced to rush into the cell's cl.toplasm, and likely cause the affected cell
swell and expand against its cellwall
\.\ water will be drawn out of the cell to the extemal surroundings, and the cells will continue
to lunctlon as norTnal
\.' water will be forced to rush into the ceil's cl4oplasm, and likely cause the affected cell to
immediately lyse.
,.4-Dater will be drawn out of the cell to the external surroundings, and the cells will cease to
:6. able, to undergo energy-producing metabolic reactions

18. A medium contains beef broth, MgCl2, NaCl, yeast extract and p n;gillin. This medium can
be BEST described as

t: a-,.4omplex and selective

i. synthetrc and selecttve
c. complex and differential {. si.nthetic and selective
e. complex, selective and differential

i9. A method of isolating individual bacterial cells on the surface of an agar medium which is
NatTllso qlrutit?tive is

-4.'spread plate - treak plate

none are quantitative
...e. pour plate
d. either a or c

20. Agar is

\. a nutntional source widely available to most bacteria

-Cirs'ed to cause the solidification of bacteriological media
', c. was first used by Pasteur to isolate pure cultures
d. comes from yeasts
e. all of the above
MIBO3 5 00 F all 2004 (Dustman) Name:
Exam I - 75 pts possible (Recorded as oh) SSN:

21. You have grown a b1g&-qulture of organism GA983. You observe it carefully, and note that
.dfqit is turbid at ar@$Fensity throughout the depth of the liquid. This organism should
be described as

a. obligate aerobe dC aerotolerant c. facultative anaerobe

d. microaerophile e. oblisate anaerobe

22.In a closed bacterial culture during exponential phase,

a. cells are metabolically inactive and no new cells are being produced
b. cells are gearing up for binary fission and merely undergoing DNA replication
c. the number of new cells produced is equal to the number of cells which die
d. secondary metabolites like starvation proteins and antibiotics are produced
each cell present will double by binary fission after reaching its generation time

23.Ifa germicidal chemical is used as an antimicrobial soak for dentures, which of the following
is TRUE?

a. It is being employed as an antiseptic agent.

/. brgarrisms residing on the dentures before the soak will resume growth as soon as they
are removed from the agent.
c. Fungi will be unaffected by this treatment.
/-: *.
{d. trhe treatment maybe said to be a sterilization of the dentures.

24. Which of the followins methods of heat sterilization is the most effective and efficient
against e#g*ggforming bacteria found in l$uidsmfbods?

pasteurization b. dry-baking ,.{ ?utoclavin1 t'a C|.Qsrf

u. boiling e. incineration
MIBO3 5 00 F all 2004 (Dustman) Name:
Exam I - 7 5 pts possible (Recorded as %) SSN:

Short Answer (27 points total- see individual questions and keep your answers concise! You
moy- choose to ans\iler either question 3I or 3l- DO NOT answer both - ,f you do, neither witt be

25. Discuss three chemical differences found in the peptidoglycan layer of Gram positive
bacteria and Gram negative bacteria. Do not compare their physical size or location in the cell
wall. (6pts) tr j : )),"1,_

26. At 8 am, you begin a culture of bacteria that you know has a generation time of 15 minutes.
You also know this strain undergoes a 30 minute lag phase. If the initial culture began with 25
cells at 8 am, how many cells would you expect to find at 10: 15 am? Show your work for
credit. (a pts)

27. Yo,u boss in the microbiology lab has been a little absent-minded as of late and has asked
you to prepare a Gram stain of a culture of Mycoplasma. Bnefly explain to her why you think
this would be a waste of your time and lab resources, and predict what the outcome of the
process,would be if she told you to do it anlnvay. (a pts) ^ o . 1 ( ..'" i 1

t\ ( id ficu"L Wtr (Yal'ttt'j

"- /

28. Draw a tube of liquid medium with a microaerophillic organism growing inside (dots : cell
density). Explain why it is capable.of,growing where it does, and also why (if any) it does not
growinotherareas. ( pts) '1'.' ''' I . i:: '' ,i.,' '' .r:'

I ' , ', i. i ',' .l

29. Give another term for an axiai filament and describe the type(s) of cell(s) you find it in, and
in what general location it wouid be found. (3 pts)

tfifu{e&${'t't-'a* ; lil ?&/p*eg*{ t4t*{; {PtAo*+as7€::

30. Draw a rooted tree in which organisms G and R have diverged more recently from one
another than either has diverged from.organism X. (2 pts) JL

31. A nutrient is in low concentration in the external environment of a cell. but the cell is
starving and needs to bring it inside its cytoplasm. Describe one way in which the organism
could transport the nutrient to its cytoplasm, and specifically identify what specihc needs the
cell may have for this process. (4 pts)


32. Explain why 165 rRNA is an excellent molecule to study both the fine details between
species of the same genus, as well as to study large differences between domains of organisms.
(4 pts)