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# Statics of Building Structures I.

, ERASMUS

Continuous beam

## • Basic properties of a continuous beam

• Solution of a continuous beam by the Force method
• Symmetry of a continuous beam

## Department of Structural Mechanics

Faculty of Civil Engineering, VŠB-Technical University of Ostrava
Continuous beam
Continuos beam is a statically indetermin ate direct beam with tran sversal loading.

It is restrained :
a) against ve rtical movement,
b) against rotation at end node
(fixed support)

## Degree of statical indetermin acy :

ns p 1 vk
p number of spans
vk number of fixed supports (0, 1, 2)

## Supports of the transversally loaded

continuous beam
Basic properties of a continuous beam 2 / 40
Continuous beam, derivation of the “Three moments equation”

## 1) determinat ion of degree of statical indetermin acy ns ,

2) removal of ns internal links (inserting hinges),
3) replacing of removed links with moment
interactio ns or reactions (at fixed supports),
4) writing deformatio nal conditions .

## First 3 steps of the Force method in

solution of a continuous beam
Solution of a continuous beam by the Force method 3 / 40
Derivation of the Three moments equation

## Solution of a continuous beam by the Force method 4 / 40

Calulation of rotations at the ends of beams

## For the clockwise rotation :

a ,b a ,b , 0 M a ,b a ,b M b ,a a ,b b ,a b ,a ,0 M a ,b b ,a M b ,a b ,a

## Simply supported beam as a member of a statically indeterminate structure 5 / 40

Derivation of 3moments (Clapeyron’s) equation
r, r 1 r, r 1
For left span (r - 1, r) is : , , ,M M , M M
b, a r, r - 1 b, a r, r - 1 b, a r, r - 1 b, a r a, b r 1
M M
r, r 1 r , r 1,0 r 1, r r , r 1 r r, r 1
For right span (r, r 1) is : , , ,M M , M M
a, b r, r 1 a, b r, r 1 a, b r, r 1 a, b r b, a r 1
M M
r, r 1 r , r 1,0 r r, r 1 r, r 1 r, r 1
After substituti on and conversion :
M M ( ) M 0
r 1 r, r 1 r r, r 1 r, r 1 r 1 r, r 1 r , r 1,0 r , r 1,0

Notes :
sign of correspond s to marking at pictures on slides #4 and #5 (clockwise rotation),
r , r 1,0
number of equations for a continuous beam is equal to its degree of statical indetermin acy n ,
s
there are maximally 3 unknown bending moments in each equation

6 / 40
Derivation of the Three moments equation

The beam at the picture below (c) has degree of statical indetermin ancy ns 1. M 1 0, M 3 0, M r M 2.
Only 1 equation w ill be composed : M 2 ( 1, 2 2 ,1 ) 2 , 3, 0 2 ,1, 0 0

A continuous beam obtained by connetion of pictures (a) and (b) is (p - 1) times statically indetermin ate,
M1 Mp 1 0, number of equations is ( p 1).
For left end of the beam is : M 2 ( 2 ,1 2,3 ) M3 2,3 2,3, 0 2 ,1, 0 0
For right end of the beam is : M p 1 p 1, p Mp ( p, p 1 p, p 1 ) p , p 1, 0 p , p 1, 0 0
For support r : M r 1 r 1, r Mr ( r ,r 1 r ,r 1 ) Mr 1 r ,r 1 r , r 1, 0 r , r 1, 0 0

## Solution of a continuous beam by the Force method 7 / 40

Derivation of the 3moments equation, the beam with a cantilever

Bending moments above outer supports are non - zero when cantilever ends are loaded
(they are negative in the case depicted below)
Those moments can be calculated directly from loading of the cantilever s.

## Solution of a continuous beam by the Force method 8 / 40

Derivation of the 3moments equation, fixed end

Rotations at fixed ends 1, 2 , p 1, p are zero but bending moments non - zero.
The moments can be calculated by solving of the Three moments equation.
Deformatio nal condition for fixed end (picture (a)) is : M 1 1, 2 M2 1, 2 1, 2 , 0 0
The same condition is valid for picture (b) with inserted so - called " zero span" (ie. " nulové pole" in picture).
Here is 1,0 1, 0 1, 0 , 0 0
Similarily for right fixed end (picture (c), (d)) :
Mp p 1, p Mp 1 p 1, p p 1, p , 0 0, p 1,p 2 p 1, p 2 p 1, p 2 , 0 0

## Solution of a continuous beam by the Force method 9 / 40

Variable cross-section within span

In equation M r 1 r 1, r Mr ( r ,r 1 r 1, r ) Mr 1 r ,r 1 r , r 1, 0 r , r 1, 0 0
is for invariable cross - section in every span :
lr , r lr , r lr , r lr , r
r, r 1
1
, r, r -1
1
, r, r 1
1
, r, r -1
1

3 E I r ,r 1 3 E I r ,r 11 6 E I r ,r 1 6 E I r ,r 1

After conversion :
lr 1, r lr , r 1 lr 1, r lr ,r 1
Mr 1 2 Mr ( ) Mr 1 6 E ( r , r 1, 0 r , r 1, 0 ) 0
Ir 1, r I r ,r 1 Ir 1, r I r ,r 1

6 E I r ,r 6 E I r ,r
When marking Z r,r -1 1
r ,r 1, 0 , Z r, r 1
1
r , r 1, 0 then :
lr , r 1 lr ,r 1

lr 1, r lr , r 1 lr 1, r lr ,r 1 lr ,r 1 lr , r 1
Mr 1 2 Mr ( ) Mr 1 Z r ,r 1, 0 Z r ,r 1, 0 0
Ir 1, r I r ,r 1 Ir 1, r I r ,r 1 lr ,r 1 lr , r 1

10 / 40
3moments equation – constant cross-section on all beam

Assumption:
materially and geometrically invariable cross-section
on all beam, ie. E·I = konst.
Then the Three moments equation has form:

Mr 1 l r ,r 1 2 M r (l r , r 1 l r ,r 1 ) Mr 1 l r ,r 1 Z r ,r 1 l r ,r 1 Z r ,r 1 l r ,r 1 0

11 / 40
the Three moments equation

6 E I a ,b
Z a ,b a ,b , 0
l a ,b
6 E I a ,b
Z b ,a b ,a ,0
l a ,b
Rotation a, b,0 a b,a,0

## Solution of a continuous beam by the Force method 12 / 40

Internal forces of the continuous beam
The beam a - b is a part of the continuous beam. It is loaded :
a) as a simply supported beam, b) by moments M a a M b .
We can write for shear forces :
Mb Ma
Va ,b Va ,b , 0 Va ,b Va ,b , 0
l a ,b
Mb Ma
Vb ,a Vb , a , 0 Vb , a Vb ,a , 0
l a ,b
Mb Ma
Vx Vx , 0 Vb ,a Vx , 0
l a ,b
For bending moments can be written :
M a (l a , b x) M b x
Mx M x,0 Ma Va ,b x M x,0
l a ,b
13 / 40
Reactions of a continuous beam

## The support r separates :

a) the span r - 1, r at left side
b) the span r, r 1 at right side
For a vertical reaction Rr at a support r can be written :
Rr V V
r,r 1 r,r 1

14 / 40

The Three moments equation for continuous beam with different cross - section in spans (but constant w ithin 1 span) :
lr 1, r lr 1, r lr ,r 1 lr ,r 1
Mr 1 Mr 2 ( ) Mr 6 E ( r , r 1, 0 r , r 1, 0 ) 0
Ir 1, r Ir 1, r I r ,r 1 I r ,r 1

## For vertic al displaceme nt wr ( ) is :

wr 1 wr wr wr 1
r, r 1,0 r, r 1,0
lr , r 1 lr ,r 1

lr 1, r lr 1, r lr ,r 1 lr ,r 1 wr 1 wr wr wr 1
Mr 1 Mr 2 ( ) Mr 6 E ( ) 0
Ir 1, r Ir 1, r I r ,r 1 I r ,r 1 lr , r 1 lr ,r 1

For clockwise rotation of the left support " 1" at the fixed end 1 is :
l1, 2 l1, 2 w2 w1
M1 2 M2 6 E 6 E 1
I1, 2 I1, 2 l2 ,1

For clockwise rotationa of the right support " ( p 1) at the fixed end " p 1 is :
l p, p 1 l p, p 1 wp 1 wp
Mp Mp 1 2 6 E ( ) 6 E p 1
I p, p 1 I p, p 1 l p. p 1

15 / 40
Example 4.1
Problem definition :
I1, 2 I 3, 4 6 10 4 m 4 , I 2,3 40 10 4 m 4
h1, 2 h3, 4 0,3m h2,3 0,6m

## Problem definition and solution

of the example 4.1 (part one)

## Solution of a continuous beam by the Force method 16 / 40

Example 4.1, displacement of supports
Problem definition : w2 2mm( ), w3 3,5mm( )
I1,2 I 3 ,4 6 10 - 4 m 4 ,h1,2 h3 ,4 0 ,3m, l1,2 2 ,8m, l3 ,4 3,1m
I 2 ,3 40 10 - 4 m 4 ,h2 ,3 0 ,6m , l 2 ,3 6 ,4m, E 2,4 10 7 kPa

## Solution of a continuous beam by the Force method 17 / 40

Example 4.1, displacement of supports, solution

Compositio n of equations :
l1, 2 l1, 2
2 M1 M2 6 E 1, 2 , 0 0
I1, 2 I1, 2
l1, 2 l1, 2 l2 ,3 l2 ,3
M1 2 M2( ) M3 6 E ( 2 , 3, 0 2 ,1, 0 ) 0
I1, 2 I1, 2 I 2,3 I 2,3
l2 ,3 l2 ,3 l3 , 4
M2 2 M3( ) 6 E ( 3, 4 , 0 3, 4 , 0 ) 0
I 2,3 I 2,3 I 3, 4
w2 w1 w2 w1 w3 w2 w3 w2 w4 w3
It is : 1, 2 , 0 , 2 ,1, 0 , 2 , 3, 0 , 3, 2 , 0 , 3, 4 , 0 ,
l1, 2 l1, 2 l2 ,3 l2 ,3 l3 , 4
2 0
after substituti on : 1, 2 , 0 10 3
0,714286 10 3 ,
2,8
2 0 3,5 2
2 ,1, 0 10 3 0,714286 10 3 , 2 , 3, 0 10 3 0,234375 10 3 ,
2,6 6,4
3,5 2 3 3,5 0
3, 2 , 0 10 0,234375 10 3 , 3, 4 , 0 10 3
1,129032 10 3.
6,4 3,1

18 / 40
Example 4.1, displacement of supports, solution continuation

## Substituti on into system of equations :

2,8 2,8
2 M1 4
M2 4
6 2,4 10 7 0,714286 10 3 0
6 10 6 10
2,8 2,8 6,4 6,4
M1 4
2 M2( 4 4
) M3 4
6 2,4 10 7 (0,234375 0,714286 ) 10 3
0
6 10 6 10 40 10 40 10
6,4 6,4 3,1
M2 4
2 M 3 ( 4 4
) 6 2,4 10 7 ( 1,129032 0,234375 ) 10 3 0
40 10 40 10 6 10
Po úpravě :
2 M1 M2 0 M3 22 ,041
4666 ,7 M 1 12533 ,3 M 2 1600 M 3 69107 ,2
0 M 1 1600 M 2 13533 ,3M 3 195898 ,6

## Solution of the system of 3 equations is :

M1 15,881kNm, M 2 9,722 kNm, M 3 13,358 kNm,

M1 M 2
l1, 2
15,881 9,722
2,8
9,144 kN

## M2 M3 13,358 9,722 M3 M4 13,358 0

V2 ,3 V3, 2 0,568 kN V3, 4 V4 ,3 4,309 kN
l2,3 6,4 l3 , 4 3,1
R1 V1, 2 9,144 kN R2 V2 ,1 V2 ,3 9,144 0,568 8,576 kN,
R3 V3, 2 V3, 4 0,568 4,309 4,877 kN, R4 V4 ,3 4,309 kN

19 / 40
Example 4.2

## Problem definition and solution

of the example 4.2
Solution of a continuous beam by the Force method 20 / 40
Symmetry of a continuous beam
Symmetry of a continuous beam assumes :
a) symmetry of geometry - symmetrica l spans have identical lenght and identical cross - sections
b) symmetry of supports - both ends of a continuous beam are same
(pin ended or roller ended, fixed or cantilever )

## There is different position of axis of symmetry for symmetrica l beams with :

a) odd number of spans
b) even number of spans

## Employment of the symmetry of a continuous beam 21 / 40

The loading of a symmetrica l continuous beam can be :
a) symmetrica l - S
b) antisymmet rical - A
c) general

formed by :
ad a) mirrored pictures of same direction of forces
ad b) mirrored pictures of oposite direction of forces
symmetry or antisymmet ry

Abbraviati ons :
SL symmetrica l loading, odd number of spans
AL antisymmet rical loading, even number of spans
SS symmetrica l loading, even number of spans
AS antisymmet rical loading, even number of spans Symmetrical, antisymmetrical and
Employment of the symmetry of a continuous beam 22 / 40
n n 1
SL : M M ´, M M ´n SL s
, SS : M M ´, M , n SS s

2 2
2 2 3 3 s 2 2 3 s

n n 1
AL : M M ´, M M ´n AL s
, AS : M M ´, M , n AS s

2 2
2 2 3 3 s 2 2 3 s

## Utilization of a symmetry for symmetrical and antisymmetrical

Employment of the symmetry of a continuous beam 23 / 40
Example 4.3
beam can be decomposed into :

## Both loading states of a continuous beam

are solved separately, including evaluation
of internal forces (shear, bending moments..)

## Final solution is given by superposit ion

of solutions of the symmetrica l and
antisymmet rical loading states of the same
symmetrica l beam.

## Problem definition and solution

of the example 4.3 (part one)
Employment of the symmetry of a continuous beam 24 / 40
Example 4.3
Resulting diagrams of internal forces - by superposition of SL+AL

## Employment of the symmetry of a continuous beam 25 / 40

Donau-wald bridge, Winzer, Germany

## Examples of real continuous beam structures 26 / 40

Donau-wald bridge, Winzer, Germany

## Examples of real continuous beam structures 27 / 40

Bogenberg bridge, Bogen, Germany

## Examples of real continuous beam structures 28 / 40

Kingstone Bridge, Glasgow, Scotland

## Examples of real continuous beam structures 29 / 40

Kingstone Bridge, Glasgow, Scotland

## Examples of real continuous beam structures 30 / 40

Kingstone Bridge, Glasgow, Scotland

## Examples of real continuous beam structures 31 / 40

Bridge in Nusle quarter, Prague

## Examples of real continuous beam structures 32 / 40

Bridge in Nusle quarter, Prague

## Examples of real continuous beam structures 33 / 40

Construction of highway D47, Ostrava

## Examples of real continuous beam structures 34 / 40

Construction of highway D47, Ostrava

## Examples of real continuous beam structures 35 / 40

Construction of highway D47, Ostrava

## Examples of real continuous beam structures 36 / 40

Energetic Research Centre, VŠB-TU Ostrava

## Examples of real continuous beam structures 37 / 40

Energetic Research Centre, VŠB-TU Ostrava

## Examples of real continuous beam structures 38 / 40

Energetic Research Centre, VŠB-TU Ostrava

## Examples of real continuous beam structures 39 / 40

Energetic Research Centre, VŠB-TU Ostrava