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You are on page 1of 40

, ERASMUS

Continuous beam

• Solution of a continuous beam by the Force method

• Symmetry of a continuous beam

Faculty of Civil Engineering, VŠB-Technical University of Ostrava

Continuous beam

Continuos beam is a statically indetermin ate direct beam with tran sversal loading.

It is restrained :

a) against ve rtical movement,

b) against rotation at end node

(fixed support)

ns p 1 vk

p number of spans

vk number of fixed supports (0, 1, 2)

continuous beam

Basic properties of a continuous beam 2 / 40

Continuous beam, derivation of the “Three moments equation”

2) removal of ns internal links (inserting hinges),

3) replacing of removed links with moment

interactio ns or reactions (at fixed supports),

4) writing deformatio nal conditions .

solution of a continuous beam

Solution of a continuous beam by the Force method 3 / 40

Derivation of the Three moments equation

Calulation of rotations at the ends of beams

a ,b a ,b , 0 M a ,b a ,b M b ,a a ,b b ,a b ,a ,0 M a ,b b ,a M b ,a b ,a

Derivation of 3moments (Clapeyron’s) equation

r, r 1 r, r 1

For left span (r - 1, r) is : , , ,M M , M M

b, a r, r - 1 b, a r, r - 1 b, a r, r - 1 b, a r a, b r 1

M M

r, r 1 r , r 1,0 r 1, r r , r 1 r r, r 1

For right span (r, r 1) is : , , ,M M , M M

a, b r, r 1 a, b r, r 1 a, b r, r 1 a, b r b, a r 1

M M

r, r 1 r , r 1,0 r r, r 1 r, r 1 r, r 1

After substituti on and conversion :

M M ( ) M 0

r 1 r, r 1 r r, r 1 r, r 1 r 1 r, r 1 r , r 1,0 r , r 1,0

Notes :

sign of correspond s to marking at pictures on slides #4 and #5 (clockwise rotation),

r , r 1,0

number of equations for a continuous beam is equal to its degree of statical indetermin acy n ,

s

there are maximally 3 unknown bending moments in each equation

6 / 40

Derivation of the Three moments equation

The beam at the picture below (c) has degree of statical indetermin ancy ns 1. M 1 0, M 3 0, M r M 2.

Only 1 equation w ill be composed : M 2 ( 1, 2 2 ,1 ) 2 , 3, 0 2 ,1, 0 0

A continuous beam obtained by connetion of pictures (a) and (b) is (p - 1) times statically indetermin ate,

M1 Mp 1 0, number of equations is ( p 1).

For left end of the beam is : M 2 ( 2 ,1 2,3 ) M3 2,3 2,3, 0 2 ,1, 0 0

For right end of the beam is : M p 1 p 1, p Mp ( p, p 1 p, p 1 ) p , p 1, 0 p , p 1, 0 0

For support r : M r 1 r 1, r Mr ( r ,r 1 r ,r 1 ) Mr 1 r ,r 1 r , r 1, 0 r , r 1, 0 0

Derivation of the 3moments equation, the beam with a cantilever

Bending moments above outer supports are non - zero when cantilever ends are loaded

(they are negative in the case depicted below)

Those moments can be calculated directly from loading of the cantilever s.

Derivation of the 3moments equation, fixed end

Rotations at fixed ends 1, 2 , p 1, p are zero but bending moments non - zero.

The moments can be calculated by solving of the Three moments equation.

Deformatio nal condition for fixed end (picture (a)) is : M 1 1, 2 M2 1, 2 1, 2 , 0 0

The same condition is valid for picture (b) with inserted so - called " zero span" (ie. " nulové pole" in picture).

Here is 1,0 1, 0 1, 0 , 0 0

Similarily for right fixed end (picture (c), (d)) :

Mp p 1, p Mp 1 p 1, p p 1, p , 0 0, p 1,p 2 p 1, p 2 p 1, p 2 , 0 0

Variable cross-section within span

In equation M r 1 r 1, r Mr ( r ,r 1 r 1, r ) Mr 1 r ,r 1 r , r 1, 0 r , r 1, 0 0

is for invariable cross - section in every span :

lr , r lr , r lr , r lr , r

r, r 1

1

, r, r -1

1

, r, r 1

1

, r, r -1

1

3 E I r ,r 1 3 E I r ,r 11 6 E I r ,r 1 6 E I r ,r 1

After conversion :

lr 1, r lr , r 1 lr 1, r lr ,r 1

Mr 1 2 Mr ( ) Mr 1 6 E ( r , r 1, 0 r , r 1, 0 ) 0

Ir 1, r I r ,r 1 Ir 1, r I r ,r 1

6 E I r ,r 6 E I r ,r

When marking Z r,r -1 1

r ,r 1, 0 , Z r, r 1

1

r , r 1, 0 then :

lr , r 1 lr ,r 1

lr 1, r lr , r 1 lr 1, r lr ,r 1 lr ,r 1 lr , r 1

Mr 1 2 Mr ( ) Mr 1 Z r ,r 1, 0 Z r ,r 1, 0 0

Ir 1, r I r ,r 1 Ir 1, r I r ,r 1 lr ,r 1 lr , r 1

10 / 40

3moments equation – constant cross-section on all beam

Assumption:

materially and geometrically invariable cross-section

on all beam, ie. E·I = konst.

Then the Three moments equation has form:

Mr 1 l r ,r 1 2 M r (l r , r 1 l r ,r 1 ) Mr 1 l r ,r 1 Z r ,r 1 l r ,r 1 Z r ,r 1 l r ,r 1 0

11 / 40

Loading members

Formulas for loading members of

the Three moments equation

6 E I a ,b

Z a ,b a ,b , 0

l a ,b

6 E I a ,b

Z b ,a b ,a ,0

l a ,b

Rotation a, b,0 a b,a,0

Internal forces of the continuous beam

The beam a - b is a part of the continuous beam. It is loaded :

a) as a simply supported beam, b) by moments M a a M b .

We can write for shear forces :

Mb Ma

Va ,b Va ,b , 0 Va ,b Va ,b , 0

l a ,b

Mb Ma

Vb ,a Vb , a , 0 Vb , a Vb ,a , 0

l a ,b

Mb Ma

Vx Vx , 0 Vb ,a Vx , 0

l a ,b

For bending moments can be written :

M a (l a , b x) M b x

Mx M x,0 Ma Va ,b x M x,0

l a ,b

13 / 40

Reactions of a continuous beam

a) the span r - 1, r at left side

b) the span r, r 1 at right side

For a vertical reaction Rr at a support r can be written :

Rr V V

r,r 1 r,r 1

14 / 40

Loading members for loading by displacement of supports

The Three moments equation for continuous beam with different cross - section in spans (but constant w ithin 1 span) :

lr 1, r lr 1, r lr ,r 1 lr ,r 1

Mr 1 Mr 2 ( ) Mr 6 E ( r , r 1, 0 r , r 1, 0 ) 0

Ir 1, r Ir 1, r I r ,r 1 I r ,r 1

wr 1 wr wr wr 1

r, r 1,0 r, r 1,0

lr , r 1 lr ,r 1

lr 1, r lr 1, r lr ,r 1 lr ,r 1 wr 1 wr wr wr 1

Mr 1 Mr 2 ( ) Mr 6 E ( ) 0

Ir 1, r Ir 1, r I r ,r 1 I r ,r 1 lr , r 1 lr ,r 1

For clockwise rotation of the left support " 1" at the fixed end 1 is :

l1, 2 l1, 2 w2 w1

M1 2 M2 6 E 6 E 1

I1, 2 I1, 2 l2 ,1

For clockwise rotationa of the right support " ( p 1) at the fixed end " p 1 is :

l p, p 1 l p, p 1 wp 1 wp

Mp Mp 1 2 6 E ( ) 6 E p 1

I p, p 1 I p, p 1 l p. p 1

15 / 40

Example 4.1

Problem definition :

I1, 2 I 3, 4 6 10 4 m 4 , I 2,3 40 10 4 m 4

h1, 2 h3, 4 0,3m h2,3 0,6m

Force loading according to picture (a),

Thermal loading

of the example 4.1 (part one)

Example 4.1, displacement of supports

Problem definition : w2 2mm( ), w3 3,5mm( )

I1,2 I 3 ,4 6 10 - 4 m 4 ,h1,2 h3 ,4 0 ,3m, l1,2 2 ,8m, l3 ,4 3,1m

I 2 ,3 40 10 - 4 m 4 ,h2 ,3 0 ,6m , l 2 ,3 6 ,4m, E 2,4 10 7 kPa

Example 4.1, displacement of supports, solution

Compositio n of equations :

l1, 2 l1, 2

2 M1 M2 6 E 1, 2 , 0 0

I1, 2 I1, 2

l1, 2 l1, 2 l2 ,3 l2 ,3

M1 2 M2( ) M3 6 E ( 2 , 3, 0 2 ,1, 0 ) 0

I1, 2 I1, 2 I 2,3 I 2,3

l2 ,3 l2 ,3 l3 , 4

M2 2 M3( ) 6 E ( 3, 4 , 0 3, 4 , 0 ) 0

I 2,3 I 2,3 I 3, 4

w2 w1 w2 w1 w3 w2 w3 w2 w4 w3

It is : 1, 2 , 0 , 2 ,1, 0 , 2 , 3, 0 , 3, 2 , 0 , 3, 4 , 0 ,

l1, 2 l1, 2 l2 ,3 l2 ,3 l3 , 4

2 0

after substituti on : 1, 2 , 0 10 3

0,714286 10 3 ,

2,8

2 0 3,5 2

2 ,1, 0 10 3 0,714286 10 3 , 2 , 3, 0 10 3 0,234375 10 3 ,

2,6 6,4

3,5 2 3 3,5 0

3, 2 , 0 10 0,234375 10 3 , 3, 4 , 0 10 3

1,129032 10 3.

6,4 3,1

18 / 40

Example 4.1, displacement of supports, solution continuation

2,8 2,8

2 M1 4

M2 4

6 2,4 10 7 0,714286 10 3 0

6 10 6 10

2,8 2,8 6,4 6,4

M1 4

2 M2( 4 4

) M3 4

6 2,4 10 7 (0,234375 0,714286 ) 10 3

0

6 10 6 10 40 10 40 10

6,4 6,4 3,1

M2 4

2 M 3 ( 4 4

) 6 2,4 10 7 ( 1,129032 0,234375 ) 10 3 0

40 10 40 10 6 10

Po úpravě :

2 M1 M2 0 M3 22 ,041

4666 ,7 M 1 12533 ,3 M 2 1600 M 3 69107 ,2

0 M 1 1600 M 2 13533 ,3M 3 195898 ,6

M1 15,881kNm, M 2 9,722 kNm, M 3 13,358 kNm,

M1 M 2

l1, 2

15,881 9,722

2,8

9,144 kN

V2 ,3 V3, 2 0,568 kN V3, 4 V4 ,3 4,309 kN

l2,3 6,4 l3 , 4 3,1

R1 V1, 2 9,144 kN R2 V2 ,1 V2 ,3 9,144 0,568 8,576 kN,

R3 V3, 2 V3, 4 0,568 4,309 4,877 kN, R4 V4 ,3 4,309 kN

19 / 40

Example 4.2

of the example 4.2

Solution of a continuous beam by the Force method 20 / 40

Symmetry of a continuous beam

Symmetry of a continuous beam assumes :

a) symmetry of geometry - symmetrica l spans have identical lenght and identical cross - sections

b) symmetry of supports - both ends of a continuous beam are same

(pin ended or roller ended, fixed or cantilever )

a) odd number of spans

b) even number of spans

Loading of a symmetrical continuous beam

The loading of a symmetrica l continuous beam can be :

a) symmetrica l - S

b) antisymmet rical - A

c) general

formed by :

ad a) mirrored pictures of same direction of forces

ad b) mirrored pictures of oposite direction of forces

ad c) loading without character of

symmetry or antisymmet ry

Abbraviati ons :

SL symmetrica l loading, odd number of spans

AL antisymmet rical loading, even number of spans

SS symmetrica l loading, even number of spans

AS antisymmet rical loading, even number of spans Symmetrical, antisymmetrical and

general loading

Employment of the symmetry of a continuous beam 22 / 40

Symmetrical and antisymmetrical loading

n n 1

SL : M M ´, M M ´n SL s

, SS : M M ´, M , n SS s

2 2

2 2 3 3 s 2 2 3 s

n n 1

AL : M M ´, M M ´n AL s

, AS : M M ´, M , n AS s

2 2

2 2 3 3 s 2 2 3 s

loading of a continuous beam.

Employment of the symmetry of a continuous beam 23 / 40

Example 4.3

Loading of a symmetrica l continuous

beam can be decomposed into :

a) symetrical loading

b) antisymmet rical loading

are solved separately, including evaluation

of internal forces (shear, bending moments..)

of solutions of the symmetrica l and

antisymmet rical loading states of the same

symmetrica l beam.

of the example 4.3 (part one)

Employment of the symmetry of a continuous beam 24 / 40

Example 4.3

Resulting diagrams of internal forces - by superposition of SL+AL

Donau-wald bridge, Winzer, Germany

Donau-wald bridge, Winzer, Germany

Bogenberg bridge, Bogen, Germany

Kingstone Bridge, Glasgow, Scotland

Kingstone Bridge, Glasgow, Scotland

Kingstone Bridge, Glasgow, Scotland

Bridge in Nusle quarter, Prague

Bridge in Nusle quarter, Prague

Construction of highway D47, Ostrava

Construction of highway D47, Ostrava

Construction of highway D47, Ostrava

Energetic Research Centre, VŠB-TU Ostrava

Energetic Research Centre, VŠB-TU Ostrava

Energetic Research Centre, VŠB-TU Ostrava

Energetic Research Centre, VŠB-TU Ostrava

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