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LEMBAR PERHITUNGAN

Diameter kolom = 0,06 m


Panjang Kolom = 0,62 m
Densitas air = 0,995341 g/ml = 995,341 kg/m3
Densitas udara = 0,001313 g/m = 1,2 kg/m3
Viskositas Air = 0,83 Cp = 8,3 x 10-4 kg/m.sec
Viskositas Udara = 0,018 cp = 1,8 x 10-5 kg/m.sec
Variabel Tetap :
Waktu kalibrasi air : 10 detik
Volume wet gas meter : 10 L
Laju alir udara tetap : 1100
Laju alir air tetap : 60
Variabel Berubah :
Laju alir rotameter udara : 900, 1000, 1100, 1200, 1300
Laju alir rotameter air : 40, 50, 60, 70, 80

Data Percobaan
1. Kalibrasi Rotameter Udara
Skala Waktu (s) Waktu Rata- Quk (m3/s)
I II III Rata ( x 10-4)
900 18,5 19 20 19,17 5,2
1000 13 13 13 13 7,7
1100 11 11 11 11 9,1
1200 8,5 8,5 8,5 8,5 11,8
1300 7 7 7 7 14,3

2. Kalibrasi Rotameter Air

Skala Volume (mL) Volume Qair (m3/s)


I II III Rata-Rata ( x 10-5)
40 120 115 120 118,3 1,18
50 135 130 135 133,3 1,33
60 165 165 170 166,7 1,67
70 195 190 200 195 1,95
80 215 215 210 213,3 2,13

Rumus yang digunakan :


𝑣𝑜𝑙
Quk = 𝑡
𝑉𝑚
Qum = 𝑉𝑘 𝑥 𝑄𝑢𝑘
𝑉𝑚 1
Vm = 𝑉𝑘 𝑥 𝑃𝑚 𝑥 (1 + 𝑌𝑚) 22,4
𝑇𝑑 𝑜𝑢𝑡 1
Vk = 273 𝑥 𝑃𝑘 𝑥 (1 + 𝑌𝑘) 22,4
Karena pada percobaan ini Pm = Pk = 1 atm, maka persamaan menjadi :

𝑉𝑚 𝑇𝑑𝑖 (1 + 𝑌𝑚)
= 𝑥
𝑉𝑘 𝑇𝑑𝑜 (1 + 𝑌𝑘)

Ym, Yk dapat dicari pada diagram psikometrik :

 Tw diplotkan pada garis 100% humidity, kemudian ditarik sejajar garis saturasi adiabatis ke
Td, Maka diperoleh Y.
 Tw in, Td in  Ym
 Tw out, Td out  Yk

Perhitungan Bilangan Reynold


𝜌𝐷𝜈
Nre = µ

𝑄
V=𝐴
4.𝜌𝑎.𝑄𝑎
NRe air = ; D = Diameter Kolom
𝐷.𝜋.µ𝑎

Perhitungan Tebal Lapisan Film


3.µ𝑎 . 𝑄𝑎 1/3
δ=[ ] ; g = konstanta gravitasi = 9,8 m/s
𝜌𝑎.𝑔.𝜋.𝐷

Perhitungan Bilangan Reynold Udara


4.𝜌𝑢.𝑄𝑢𝑚
NRe Udara = (𝐷−2𝛿).𝜋.µ𝑢

Perhitungan Koefisien Perpindahan Massa (KgL)


̇
𝑊 𝑋̇ʹ𝐴1−𝑋𝐴1
KgL = ln ( )
𝜋.𝐷.𝐿 𝑋ʹ𝐴2−𝑋𝐴2

𝑋ʹ𝐴1 Plot Tw in ; XA1 =Ym


𝑋ʹ𝐴2 Plot Tw out ; XA2 = Yk
Dimana :
𝑄𝑢𝑘.𝜌𝑢
W = 𝐵𝑀𝑢 (1+𝑌ʹ)

BM Udara = 28,97 kg/mol


Yʹ = Tdin 100% relative humidity

Perhitungan Bilangan Sherwood


𝐾𝑔𝐿 .𝑃𝑚.𝑅.𝑇.𝐷
Nsh = 𝑃𝑡2.𝐷𝐴𝐵
Dimana :
KgL = Koefisien transfer massa udara (mol/m2.s)
Pm = Tekanan parsiil rata-rata udara (N/m2)
Pt = Tekanan total = 1,0132 x 105 N/m2
R = Konstanta gas ideal = 8,314 Nm/kmol.K
T = Temperature absolut = 303 K
DAB = Diffusivitas air udara, interpolasi dari data yang didapat pada Treyball table 2-1 , yaitu
2,6384 x 105 m2/s
YA1 = 𝑋ʹ𝐴1
YA2 = 𝑋ʹ𝐴2
1−𝑃2
Pm = 𝑃1
ln( )
𝑃2
𝑋ʹ𝐴1
PA1 = (1+𝑌𝐴1) 𝑥 𝑃𝑡
𝑋ʹ𝐴2
PA2 = (1+𝑌𝐴2) 𝑥 𝑃𝑡
P1 = Pt – PA1
P2 = Pt – PA2

Perhitungan Bilangan Sherwood (Persamaan)


Nsh = a(NRe)b ; a dan b dicari dengan persamaan Least Square
1. Perhitungan Persentase Kesalahan :
(𝑁𝑠ℎ)𝑝−(𝑁𝑠ℎ)ℎ
(𝑁𝑠ℎ)𝑝
% Kesalahan (%error) = x 100 %
𝑛 𝑑𝑎𝑡𝑎

Skala Td in Tw in Td out Tw out Ym=XA1 Yk=XA2


40 31.7 26.3 27.8 26.8 0.0193 0.0225
50 31.9 26.4 27.9 26.8 0.0195 0.0226
60 32.3 25.8 28 27.1 0.0183 0.0229
70 32.5 27.2 28.2 27.4 0.0200 0.0231
80 32.9 26.2 28.4 27.6 0.0190 0.0234

𝑉𝑚 Qair
Skala Td in Td out 𝑉𝑘 (m3/s) NRe air δ
40 31.7 27.8 1.1367 1.18 x 10-5 300.438 2.52 x 10-4
50 31.9 27.9 1.1399 1.33 x 10-5 338.630 2.62 x 10-4
60 32.3 28 1.1483 1.67 x 10-5 425.196 2.83 x 10-4
70 32.5 28.2 1.1489 1.95 x 10-5 496.486 2.98 x 10-4
80 32.9 28.4 1.1534 2.13 x 10-5 542.316 3.07 x 10-4

Skala Qu NRe udara Td in (K) Y’ W X*A1=YA1 X*A2=YA2


40 9.1 x 10-4 1298.95 304.7 0.0295 3.661 x 10-5 0.0220 0.0223
50 9.1 x 10-4 1299.38 304.9 0.0298 3.660 x 10-5 0.0221 0.0223
60 9.1 x 10-3 1300.30 305.3 0.0314 3.654 x 10-5 0.0215 0.0225
70 9.1 x 10-3 1300.76 305.5 0.0319 3.653 x 10-5 0.0226 0.0230
80 9.1 x 10-3 1300.96 305.9 0.0323 3.663 x 10-5 0.0219 0.0232
Skala Kgl PA1 PA2 P2 P1 Pm Nsh
40 8.157 x 10-4 2181.057 2210.150 9.9109 x 104 9.9138 x 104 -333697441.8 1.519 x 10-9
50 6.766 x 10-4 2190.757 2210.150 9.9109 x 104 9.9129 x 104 -497648026.8 1.880 x 10-9
60 6.504 x 10-4 2132.530 2229.535 9.9090 x 104 9.9187 x 104 -101673398.0 3.690 x 10-9
70 1.019 x 10-3 2239.226 2277.967 9.9042 x 104 9.9080 x 104 -253256142.6 1.440 x 10-9
80 8.385 x 10-4 2171.356 2297.326 9.9022 x 104 9.9148 x 104 -77913314.7 3.646 x 10-9

Hubungan antara Nsh dengan NRe :


Nsh = a(NRe)b dengan c = log a
Log Nsh = log a + b log NRe a = 10c
Y = c + mx

Skala Log NRe (X) Log Nsh (y)


40 2.477 -8.0616
50 2.529 -7.799
60 2.628 -8.433
70 2.696 -7.730
80 2.734 -8.243
Dengan metode Least Square diperoleh :
𝑛𝛴𝑥𝑦 − 𝛴𝑥𝛴𝑦
𝑚=
𝑛 𝛴𝑥² − (𝛴𝑥)²
𝛴𝑥²𝛴𝑦 − 𝛴𝑥𝛴𝑥𝑦
𝑦=
𝑛 𝛴𝑥² − (𝛴𝑥)²
Sehingga persamaan Least Square nya menjadi :
Y = mx + c = b log NRe + log a = -0.466x – 6.836
m = b = - 0.466
c = log a = – 6.836
a = 1.45 x 10-7
Maka :
NSh(p) = a(NRe)b
NSh (p) = 1.45 x 10-7 (NRe) - 0.466

Skala NRe udara NSh (h) NSh(p) % kesalahan


40 1298.95 1.519 x 10-9 5.134 x 10-9 14.28
50 1299.38 1.880 x 10-9 5.133 x 10-9 12.67
60 1300.30 3.690 x 10-9 5.131 x 10-9 5.61
70 1300.76 1.440 x 10-9 5.130 x 10-9 14.38
80 1300.96 3.646 x 10-9 5.130 x 10-9 5.78
Rata-rata Kesalahan 10.54
Variabel Laju Alir Udara (Skala Rotameter Air = 60)

Skala Td in Tw in Td out Tw out Ym=XA1 Yk=XA2


900 33 26.5 28.5 27.1 0.0190 0.023
1000 33.1 26.6 28.6 27.3 0.0194 0.024
1100 33.3 26.8 28.7 27.5 0.0198 0.0245
1200 33.3 27 28.8 27.4 0.02 0.0245
1300 33.5 27 29 27.5 0.022 0.0255

𝑉𝑚
Skala Td in Td out 𝑉𝑘 Qair (m3/s) NRe air δ
900 33 28.5 1.1533 1.67 x 10-5 425.196 2.828 x 10-4
1000 33.1 28.6 1.1521 1.67 x 10-5 425.196 2.828 x 10-4
1100 33.3 28.7 1.1549 1.67 x 10-5 425.196 2.828 x 10-4
1200 33.3 28.8 1.1511 1.67 x 10-5 425.196 2.828 x 10-4
1300 33.5 29 1.1513 1.67 x 10-5 425.196 2.828 x 10-4

Skala Qum NRe udara Td in(K) Y’ W X*A1=YA1 X*A2=YA2


900 5.997 x 10-4 856.910 306 0.0318 2.087 x 10-5 0.0208 0.0216
1000 8.871 x 10-4 1267.576 306.1 0.0318 3.091 x 10-5 0.0208 0.0217
1100 1.050 x 10-3 1500.343 306.3 0.0319 3.653 x 10-5 0.0212 0.0219
1200 1.358 x 10-3 1940.443 306.3 0.0319 4.737 x 10-5 0.0215 0.0217
1300 1.646 x 10-3 2351.966 306.5 0.0321 5.379 x 10-5 0.0215 0.0219

Skala KgL PA1 PA2 P2 P1 Pm Nsh


900 4.4902 x 10-5 2064.51 2142.24 9.9177 x 104 9.9255 x104 -126151865.5 3.161 x 10-10
1000 1.834 x 10-4 2064.51 2151.92 9.9168 x 104 9.9255 x104 -113086278.0 11.6 x 10-10
1100 1.936 x 10-4 2103.40 2171.36 9.9148 x 104 9.9216 x104 -144611726.0 11.76 x 10-10
1200 2.531 x 10-4 2132.53 2151.92 9.9168 x 104 9.9187 x104 -517638690.1 73.11 x 10-10
1300 9.090 x 10-4 2132.53 2171.36 9.9148 x 104 9.9187 x104 -252106666.6 127.88 x 10-10

Hubungan antara Nsh dengan NRe :


Nsh = a(NRe)b dengan c = log a
Log Nsh = log a + b log NRe a = 10c
Y = c + mx

Skala Log NRe (X) Log Nsh (y)


900 2.933 -9.5001
1000 3.103 -8.9355
1100 3.176 -8.9296
1200 3.288 -8.1360
1300 3.371 -7.8932
Dengan metode Least Square diperoleh :
𝑛𝛴𝑥𝑦 − 𝛴𝑥𝛴𝑦
𝑚=
𝑛 𝛴𝑥² − (𝛴𝑥)²
𝛴𝑥²𝛴𝑦 − 𝛴𝑥𝛴𝑥𝑦
𝑦=
𝑛 𝛴𝑥² − (𝛴𝑥)²
Sehingga persamaan Least Square nya menjadi :
Y = mx + c = b log NRe + log a =0.0173x-8.4138
m = b = 0.0173
c = log a = -8.4138
a = 3.856 x 10-9
Maka :
NSh(p) = a(NRe)b
NSh (p) = 3.856 x 10-9 (NRe)0.0173

Skala NRe udara NSh (h) NSh(p) % kesalahan


900 856.910 3.161 x 10-10 4.33 x10-9 18.53
1000 1267.576 11.6 x 10-10 4.363 x 10-9 14.68
1100 1500.343 11.76 x 10-10 4.376 x 10-9 14.62
1200 1940.443 73.11 x 10-10 4.396 x 10-9 13.26
1300 2351.966 127.88 x 10-10 4.401 x 10-9 38.11
Rata-rata Kesalahan 19.84