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Shock absorber

A shock absorber (in reality, a shock "damper") is a mechanical

or hydraulic device designed to absorb and damp shock impulses. It does this by
converting the kinetic energy of the shock into another form of energy
(typically heat) which is then dissipated. Most shock absorbers are a form
of dashpot.

Pneumatic and hydraulic shock absorbers are used in conjunction with cushions
and springs. An automobile shock absorber contains spring-loaded check valves
and orifices to control the flow of oil through an internal piston (see below).[1]
One design consideration, when designing or choosing a shock absorber, is where
that energy will go. In most shock absorbers, energy is converted to heat inside
the viscous fluid. In hydraulic cylinders, the hydraulic fluid heats up, while in air
cylinders, the hot air is usually exhausted to the atmosphere. In other types of
shock absorbers, such as electromagnetic types, the dissipated energy can be
stored and used later. In general terms, shock absorbers help cushion vehicles on
uneven roads.
Vehicle suspension[.]
Main article: Suspension (vehicle)

In a vehicle, shock absorbers reduce the effect of traveling over rough ground,
leading to improved ride quality and vehicle handling. While shock absorbers
serve the purpose of limiting excessive suspension movement, their intended sole
purpose is to damp spring oscillations. Shock absorbers use valving of oil and
gasses to absorb excess energy from the springs. Spring rates are chosen by the
manufacturer based on the weight of the vehicle, loaded and unloaded. Some
people use shocks to modify spring rates but this is not the correct use. Along
with hysteresis in the tire itself, they damp the energy stored in the motion of
the unsprung weight up and down. Effective wheel bounce damping may require
tuning shocks to an optimal resistance.
Spring-based shock absorbers commonly use coil springs or leaf springs,
though torsion bars are used in torsional shocks as well. Ideal springs alone,
however, are not shock absorbers, as springs only store and do not dissipate or
absorb energy. Vehicles typically employ both hydraulic shock absorbers and
springs or torsion bars. In this combination, "shock absorber" refers specifically to
the hydraulic piston that absorbs and dissipates vibration. Now, composite
suspension system are used mainly in 2 wheelers and also leaf spring are made up
of composite material in 4 wheelers.
In common with carriages and railway locomotives, most early motor vehicles
used leaf springs. One of the features of these springs was that the friction
between the leaves offered a degree of damping, and in a 1912 review of vehicle
suspension the lack of this characteristic in helical springs was the reason it was
"impossible" to use them as main springs.[2] However the amount of damping
provided by leaf spring friction was limited and variable according to the
conditions of the springs, and whether wet or dry. It also operated in both
directions. Motorcycle front suspension adopted coil sprung Druid forks from
about 1906, and similar designs later added rotary friction dampers, which
damped both ways - but they were adjustable (e.g. 1924 Webb forks).
These friction disk shock absorbers were also fitted to many cars.
One of the problems with motor cars was the large variation in sprung weight
between lightly loaded and fully loaded, especially for the rear springs. When
heavily loaded the springs could bottom out, and apart from fitting rubber 'bump
stops', there were attempts to use heavy main springs with auxiliary springs to
smooth the ride when lightly loaded, which were often called 'shock absorbers'.
Realising that the spring and vehicle combination bounced with a characteristic
frequency, these auxiliary springs were designed with a different period, but were
not a solution to the problem that the spring rebound after striking a bump could
throw you out of your seat. What was called for was damping that operated on
the rebound.
Although C.L. Horock came up with a design in 1901 that had hydraulic damping,
it worked in one direction only. It does not seem to have gone into production
right away, whereas mechanical dampers such as the Gabriel Snubber started
being fitted in the late 1900s (also the similar Stromberg Anti-Shox). These used a
belt coiled inside a device such that it freely wound in under the action of a coiled
spring, but met friction when drawn out. Gabriel Snubbers were fitted to an
11.9HP Arrol-Johnston car which broke the 6 hour Class B record at Brooklands in
late 1912, and the Automotor journal noted that this snubber might have a great
future for racing due to its light weight and easy fitment.[3]
One of the earliest hydraulic dampers to go into production was the Telesco
Shock Absorber, exhibited at the 1912 Olympia Motor Show and marketed by
Polyrhoe Carburettors Ltd.[3] This contained a spring inside the telescopic unit like
the pure spring type 'shock absorbers' mentioned above, but also oil and an
internal valve so that the oil damped in the rebound direction. The Telesco unit
was fitted at the rear end of the leaf spring, in place of the rear spring to chassis
mount, so that it formed part of the springing system, albeit a hydraulically
damped part.[4] This layout was presumably selected as it was easy to apply to
existing vehicles, but it meant the hydraulic damping was not applied to the
action of the main leaf spring, but only to the action of the auxiliary spring in the
unit itself.
The first production hydraulic dampers to act on the main leaf spring movement
were probably those based on an original concept by Maurice Houdaille patented
in 1908 and 1909. These used a lever arm which moved hydraulically damped
vanes inside the unit. The main advantage over the friction disk dampers was that
it would resist sudden movement but allow slow movement, whereas the rotary
friction dampers tended to stick and then offer the same resistance regardless of
speed of movement. There appears to have been little progress on
commercialising the lever arm shock aborbers until after World War I, after which
they came into widespread use, for example as standard equipment on the 1927
Ford Model A (see Lever arm shock absorber).
Types of vehicle shock absorbers

Diagram of the main components of a twin-tube and mono-tube shock absorber

Most vehicular shock absorbers are either twin-tube or mono-tube types with
some variations on these themes.
Also known as a "two-tube" shock absorber, this device consists of two nested
cylindrical tubes, an inner tube that is called the "working tube" or the "pressure
tube", and an outer tube called the "reserve tube". At the bottom of the device
on the inside is a compression valve or base valve. When the piston is forced up
or down by bumps in the road, hydraulic fluid moves between different chambers
via small holes or "orifices" in the piston and via the valve, converting the "shock"
energy into heat which must then be dissipated.
Twin-tube gas charged
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Variously known as a "gas cell two-tube" or similarly-named design, this variation
represented a significant advancement over the basic twin-tube form. Its overall
structure is very similar to the twin-tube, but a low-pressure charge of nitrogen
gas is added to the reserve tube. The result of this alteration is a dramatic
reduction in "foaming" or "aeration", the undesirable outcome of a twin-tube
overheating and failing which presents as foaming hydraulic fluid dripping out of
the assembly. Twin-tube gas charged shock absorbers represent the vast majority
of original modern vehicle suspensions installations.
Position sensitive damping[.]
Often abbreviated simply as "PSD", this design is another evolution of the twin-
tube shock. In a PSD shock absorber, which still consists of two nested tubes and
still contains nitrogen gas, a set of grooves has been added to the pressure tube.
These grooves allow the piston to move relatively freely in the middle range of
travel (i.e., the most common street or highway use, called by engineers the
"comfort zone") and to move with significantly less freedom in response to shifts
to more irregular surfaces when upward and downward movement of the piston
starts to occur with greater intensity (i.e., on bumpy sections of roads— the
stiffening gives the driver greater control of movement over the vehicle so its
range on either side of the comfort zone is called the "control zone"). This
advance allowed car designers to make a shock absorber tailored to specific
makes and models of vehicles and to take into account a given vehicle's size and
weight, its maneuverability, its horsepower, etc. in creating a correspondingly
effective shock.
Acceleration sensitive damping[.]
The next phase in shock absorber evolution was the development of a shock
absorber that could sense and respond to not just situational changes from
"bumpy" to "smooth" but to individual bumps in the road in a near instantaneous
reaction. This was achieved through a change in the design of the compression
valve, and has been termed "acceleration sensitive damping" or "ASD". Not only
does this result in a complete disappearance of the "comfort vs. control" tradeoff,
it also reduced pitch during vehicle braking and roll during turns. However, ASD
shocks are usually only available as aftermarket changes to a vehicle and are only
available from a limited number of manufacturers.
Main article: Coilover

Coilover shock absorbers are usually a kind of twin-tube gas charged shock
absorber inside the helical road spring. They are common on motorcycle and
scooter rear suspensions, and widely used on front and rear suspensions in cars.

Hydraulic shock absorber monotube in different operational situations:

1 ) Drive slow or adjustments open
2 ) Like "1", but extension immediately after the compression
3 ) Drive fast adjustments or closed, you can see the bubbles of depression, which
can lead to the phenomenon of cavitation
4 ) Like "3", but the extension immediately after the compression
Note: The volume change caused by the stem is considered.

Absorber with gas tank connected rigidly, compared to most shock absorbers. It
uses a diaphragm instead of a membrane, and does not contain a control valve
for expansion of the pneumatic chamber.
1) Sheath and gas tank
2) Stem
3) Snap rings
4) Plate bearing spring
5) Spring
6) End cap and preload adjustment
7) Cap gas, present in versions both with or without gas valve (inverted profile)
8) Mobile diaphragm
9) Pad switch (compression)
10) Wiper
11) Oil seal assembly, and shock seal
12) Negative buffer pad or limit switch (extension)
13) Piston with sliding blades and seal
The principal design alternative to the twin-tube form has been the mono-tube
shock absorber which was considered a revolutionary advancement when it
appeared in the 1950s. As its name implies, the mono-tube shock, which is also a
gas-pressurized shock and also comes in a coilover format, consists of only one
tube, the pressure tube, though it has two pistons. These pistons are called the
working piston and the dividing or floating piston, and they move in relative
synchrony inside the pressure tube in response to changes in road smoothness.
The two pistons also completely separate the shock's fluid and gas components.
The mono-tube shock absorber is consistently a much longer overall design than
the twin-tubes, making it difficult to mount in passenger cars designed for twin-
tube shocks. However, unlike the twin-tubes, the mono-tube shock can be
mounted either way— it does not have any directionality.[5] It also does not have
a compression valve, whose role has been taken up by the dividing piston, and
although it contains nitrogen gas, the gas in a mono-tube shock is
under high pressure (260-360 p.s.i. or so) which can actually help it to support
some of the vehicle's weight, something which no other shock absorber is
designed to do.[6]
Mercedes became the first auto manufacturer to install mono-tube shocks as
standard equipment on some of their cars starting in 1958. They were
manufactured by Bilstein, patented the design and first appeared in
1954s.[7] Because the design was patented, no other manufacturer could use it
until 1971 when the patent expired.[6]
Spool valve[.]
Spool valve dampers are characterized by the use of hollow cylindrical sleeves
with machined-in oil passages as opposed to traditional conventional flexible discs
or shims.[8] Spool valving can be applied with monotube, twin-tube, and/or
position-sensitive packaging, and is compatible with electronic control.[9]
Primary among benefits cited in Multimatic’s 2010 patent filing is the elimination
of performance ambiguity associated with flexible shims, resulting in
mathematically predictable, repeatable, and robust pressure-flow
characteristics.[10] Multimatic also claims damper-to-damper manufacturing
variance within two percent in the case of volume production dampers, and
under one percent in the case of hand-built racing dampers, as compared to
contemporary industry variance of up to twelve percent for shim-type units.[11] As
such, Multimatic DSSV dampers have become series-mandated to ensure equality
among teams in multiple pro-level racing championships.[12][13]
The concept was first applied by Newman/Haas Racing during their
championship-winning 2002 CART ChampCar season[14], and quickly spread to
sports car racing and British Formula 3[15], and eventually to Formula 1, notably
with Red Bull Racing during their consecutive championship-winning seasons from
2010 to 2014[16]. Multimatic‘s DSSV line of spool-valve dampers remains a popular
choice among teams competing in international-level endurance racing,
eventually equipping nearly half the field at the 24 Hours of Le Mans.[16]
Following the design's initial racing success, Multimatic DSSV dampers have been
adopted for use on select high-performance road cars including Aston Martin
One-77 and Vulcan, Mercedes AMG-GT, Ford GT, and Chevrolet Camaro Z/28. A
position-sensitive variant was also devised for GM's Colorado ZR2 off-road

Theoretical approaches[.]
There are several commonly used principles behind shock absorption:

 Hysteresis of structural material, for example

the compression of rubber disks, stretching of rubber bands and
cords, bending of steelsprings, or twisting of torsion bars. Hysteresis is the
tendency for otherwise elastic materials to rebound with less force than was
required to deform them. Simple vehicles with no separate shock absorbers
are damped, to some extent, by the hysteresis of their springs and frames.
 Dry friction as used in wheel brakes, by using disks (classically made of leather)
at the pivot of a lever, with friction forced by springs. Used in early
automobiles such as the Ford Model T, up through some British cars of the
1940s. Although now considered obsolete, an advantage of this system is its
mechanical simplicity; the degree of damping can be easily adjusted by
tightening or loosening the screw clamping the disks, and it can be easily
rebuilt with simple hand tools. A disadvantage is that the damping force tends
not to increase with the speed of the vertical motion.
For more details on this topic, see Friction disk shock absorber.
 Solid state, tapered chain shock absorbers, using one or more tapered, axial
alignment(s) of granular spheres, typically made of metals such as nitinol,
in a casing. [2], [3]
 Fluid friction, for example the flow of fluid through a narrow orifice
(hydraulics), constitutes the vast majority of automotive shock absorbers.
This design first appeared on Mors racing cars in 1902.[18] One advantage of
this type is, by using special internal valving, the absorber may be made
relatively soft to compression (allowing a soft response to a bump) and
relatively stiff to extension, controlling "rebound", which is the vehicle
response to energy stored in the springs; similarly, a series of valves
controlled by springs can change the degree of stiffness according to the
velocity of the impact or rebound. Specialized shock absorbers for racing
purposes may allow the front end of a dragster to rise with minimal
resistance under acceleration, then strongly resist letting it settle, thereby
maintaining a desirable rearward weight distribution for enhanced
For more details on this topic, see Lever arm shock absorber.

 Compression of a gas, for example pneumatic shock absorbers, which

can act like springs as the air pressure is building to resist the force on
it. Enclosed gas is compressible, so equipment is less subject to shock
damage. This concept was first applied in series production
on Citroën cars in 1954. Today, many shock absorbers are pressurized
with compressed nitrogen, to reduce the tendency for the oil
to cavitate under heavy use. This causes foaming which temporarily
reduces the damping ability of the unit. In very heavy duty units used
for racing or off-road use, there may even be a secondary cylinder
connected to the shock absorber to act as a reservoir for the oil and
pressurized gas. In aircraft landing gear, air shock absorbers may be
combined with hydraulic damping to reduce bounce. Such struts are
called oleo struts (combining oil and air) [4].
 Inertial resistance to acceleration, for example prior to 1966 [5],
the Citroën 2CV had shock absorbers that damp wheel bounce with no
external moving parts. These consisted of a spring-mounted 3.5 kg
(7.75 lb) iron weight inside a vertical cylinder [6] and are similar to, yet
much smaller than versions of the tuned mass dampers used on tall
 Composite hydropneumatic suspension combines many suspension
elements in a single device: spring action, shock absorption, ride-height
control, and self leveling suspension. This combines the advantages of
gas compressibility and the ability of hydraulic machinery to apply force
 Conventional shock absorbers can be combined with air
suspension springs - an alternate way to achieve ride-height control,
and self leveling suspension.
 In an electrorheological fluid damper, an electric field changes the
viscosity of the oil. This principle allows semi-active damper
applications in automotive and various industries.
 Magnetic field variation: a magneto rheological damper changes its
fluid characteristics through an electromagnet.
 The effect of a shock absorber at high (sound) frequencies is usually
limited by using a compressible gas as the working fluid or mounting it
with rubber bushings.

Design consists of application of scientific principles, technical information

and imagination for development of new or improvised machine or mechanism to
perform a specific function with maximum economy & efficiency .

Hence a careful design approach has to be adopted . The total design work ,
has been split up into two parts;

 System design
 Mechanical Design.

System design mainly concerns the various physical constraints and ergonomics,
space requirements, arrangement of various components on main frame at
system, man + machine interactions, No. of controls, position of controls, working
environment of machine, chances of failure, safety measures to be provided,
servicing aids, ease of maintenance, scope of improvement, weight of machine
from ground level, total weight of machine and a lot more.

In mechanical design the components are listed down and stored on the basis of
their procurement, design in two categories namely,
 Designed Parts
 Parts to be purchased

For designed parts detached design is done & distinctions thus obtained are
compared to next highest dimensions which is readily available in market. This
amplifies the assembly as well as postproduction servicing work. The various
tolerances on the works are specified. The process charts are prepared and
passed on to the manufacturing stage.
The parts which are to be purchased directly are selected from various catalogues
& specified so that any body can purchase the same from the retail shop with
given specifications.

In system design we mainly concentrated on the following parameters: -

1. System Selection Based on Physical Constraints
While selecting any machine it must be checked whether it is going to be used in a
large-scale industry or a small-scale industry. In our case it is to be used by a
small-scale industry. So space is a major constrain. The system is to be very
compact so that it can be adjusted to corner of a room.
The mechanical design has direct norms with the system design. Hence the
foremost job is to control the physical parameters, so that the distinctions
obtained after mechanical design can be well fitted into that.
2. Arrangement of Various Components
Keeping into view the space restrictions the components should be laid such that
their easy removal or servicing is possible. More over every component should be
easily seen none should be hidden. Every possible space is utilized in component
3. Components of System
As already stated the system should be compact enough so that it can be
accommodated at a corner of a room. All the moving parts should be well closed
& compact. A compact system design gives a high weighted structure which is
Man Machine Interaction
The friendliness of a machine with the operator that is operating is an important
criteria of design. It is the application of anatomical & psychological principles to
solve problems arising from Man – Machine relationship. Following are some of
the topics included in this section.
 Design of foot lever
 Energy expenditure in foot & hand operation
 Lighting condition of machine.

4. Chances of Failure
The losses incurred by owner in case of any failure is an important criteria of
design. Factor safety while doing mechanical design is kept high so that there are
less chances of failure. Moreover periodic maintenance is required to keep unit

5. Servicing Facility
The layout of components should be such that easy servicing is possible.
Especially those components which require frequents servicing can be easily
Scope of Future Improvement
Arrangement should be provided to expand the scope of work in future. Such as
to convert the machine motor operated; the system can be easily configured to
required one. The die & punch can be changed if required for other shapes of
notches etc.
6. Height of Machine from Ground
For ease and comfort of operator the height of machine should be properly
decided so that he may not get tired during operation. The machine should be
slightly higher than the waist level, also enough clearance should be provided
from the ground for cleaning purpose.

7. Weight of Machine
The total weight depends upon the selection of material components as well as
the dimension of components. A higher weighted machine is difficult in
transportation & in case of major breakdown, it is difficult to take it to workshop
because of more weight.


Mechanical design phase is very important from the view of designer .as
whole success of the project depends on the correct deign analysis of the

Many preliminary alternatives are eliminated during this phase. Designer

should have adequate knowledge above physical properties of material, loads
stresses, deformation, failure. Theories and wear analysis , He should identify the
external and internal forces acting on the machine parts

These forces may be classified as ;

1. Dead weight forces
2. Friction forces
3. Inertia forces
4. Centrifugal forces
5. Forces generated during power transmission etc

Designer should estimate these forces very accurately by using design equations
.If he does not have sufficient information to estimate them he should make
certain practical assumptions based on similar conditions
which will almost satisfy the functional needs. Assumptions must always be on
the safer side.
Selection of factors of safety to find working or design stress is another important
step in design of working dimensions of machine elements. The correction in the
theoretical stress values are to be made according in the kind of loads, shape of
parts & service requirements.
Selection of material should be made according to the condition of loading shapes
of products environment conditions & desirable properties of material.
Provision should be made to minimize nearly adopting proper lubrications
In ,mechanical design the components are listed down & stored on the basis of
their procurement in two categories

 Design parts
 Parts to be purchased

For design parts a detailed design is done & designation thus obtain are compared
to the next highest dimension which is ready available in market.
This simplification the assembly as well as post production service work.
The various tolerance on the work are specified. The process charts are prepared
& passed on to the work are specified.
The parts to be purchased directly are selected from various catalogues &
specification so that any body can purchased the same from the retail shop with
the given specifications.



MAKE:- Godrej -boyce

230 VOLTS, 50 Hz,

POWER = 0.25Hp(0.185 Kw )

SPEED = 1440 rpm (Synchronous)



TORQUE= 0.17 Kg . M



(Back flange mounted)

Torque at spindle is given by;

P= 2N T


where ;

T= Torque at spindle (Nm)

P = POWER (Kw)

N = Speed (rpm)

T = 185 x 60

2 x 1440

 T = 0.79 N.m

Considering factor of safety =1.6

Tdesign =1.6 T

= 1.27 N-m

 Tdesign = 1.27 N.m


Following components are needed for set-up. These are the standard
components, which are selected on the basis of actual operating conditions.

4.1 Selection of components for experimental set up

Reverse Engineering is done and safety of components is checked by comparing
analytical and numerical results.

1.Motor Selection

2. Design of worm shaft


4.Design Of Worm

5.Design Of Worm Gear

 Motor Selection-The type of motor chosen for an application depends on the

characteristics needed in that application which includes:

1. The power supply, - Single Phase, 240V,50Hz

Hence, through field survey, the available motor with lowest hp rating 0.25Hp is
selected for this application. Detail specifications of 0.25 Hp Motor are as follow:-
1. Type of Product: Single Phase Induction
2. Motor Pole: 4
3. Mounting: Foot Mounted Rated
4. Voltage: 220-240 V
5. Speed: 1400 RPM
6. Rated Power: 0.25 HP

4.2 Ensuring safety of components through analytical and FEA results

1. Design ofWORM shaft

2. Design of worm

3. Design of worm gear

1. Design of worm shaft

Figure 4.2.1 Dimensions of worm shaft

Now, by using the values of material of components, like, ultimate tensile

strength and yield strength we have to complete analytical calculations as follow

Material Properties

EN 24

Ultimate Tensile Strength (UTS) N/mm2=800

Factor of safety (FOS) = 2

UTS 800
f s (max)    400N/mm 2
FOS 2 (1)

This is the allowable value of shear stress that can be induced in the shaft
material for safe operation.

Check for torsional shear failure of shaft.

60 (2)

60  186.425
T out_availa ble   1.271Nm
2π  1400 (3)

Twormgear 80
Gear_ratio    8.89
Tworm 9 (4)

Tdesign  Toutavailable  reduction_ratio


Tdesign  1.271 8.89  11.29919 Nm


Tdesign  f s( actual)d 3 (7)

f s ( actual) 
f s ( actual) d 3

16 11.2991103
f s ( actual)   20.971N / mm2
 143 (9)
f s(actual) f s (max)
As; < (10)

Worm shaft is safe under torsional load.

Now, finite element analysis is done to validate the analytical results as follow
Figure 4.2.2Geometry of worm shaft

Figure 4.2.3 Von-mises stress of worm shaft is 17.95 N/mm2

As the Maximum Equivalent Von-mises stress is well below allowable limit the
worm shaft is safe.

2. Design of Worm

Figure 4.2.4 Dimensions of worm

Now, by using the values of material of components, like, ultimate tensile

strength and yield strength we have to complete analytical calculations as follow

Material Properties


Ultimate Tensile Strength (UTS) N/mm2=1000

f s(allowable) 0.18  UTS


f s(allowable) 0.18 1000  180N/mm2

Tdesign  11.29919 Nm

16Tdesign  D
f actual 
  (D4  d 4 ) (14)

16 11.29919 103  28
f actual 
  (284  144 ) (15)

f actual  2.79 N / mm2


f s (actual) f s(allowable)
As; < (17)

Now, finite element analysis is done to validate the analytical results as follow.

Figure 4.2.5 Geometry of worm

Figure 4.2.6 Von-mises stress of worm is 2.5911 N/mm2

As the Maximum Equivalent Von mises stress is well below allowable limit the
worm is safe.

3. Design of Worm Gear

Figure 4.2.7 Dimensions of worm Gear

Now, by using the values of material of components, like, ultimate tensile

strength and yield strength we have to complete analytical calculations as
follow.The total number of teeth are80 and outer and inner diameter is 51mm
and 16mm respectively. This gear is standard gear and only for the safety purpose
we have to check its safety against loading conditions.

Material Properties


Ultimate Tensile Strength (UTS) N/mm2=1000

f s(allowable)  0.18 UTS  0.18 1000  180N/mm2


16Tdesign  D
f actual 
  (D4  d 4 ) (19)

16  20.16 103  51
f actual 
  (514  164 ) (20)

f actual  0.78 N / mm2

f s (actual) f
As; < s(allowable) (22)

Worm gear is safe under torsional load.

Now, finite element analysis is done to validate the analytical results as follow.
Figure 4.2.8 Gear Geometry

Figure 4.2.9 Gear Meshing

Nodes 57813
Elements 32658
Figure 4.2.10 Von mises stress of worm gear is 1.5345N/mm2

As the Maximum Equivalent Von mises stress is well below allowable limit the
gear is safe.