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LECTURE MECHANICS OF

MATERIALS
2 Stress and Strain
– Axial Loading

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MECHANICS OF MATERIALS Beer • Johnston • DeWolf • Mazurek

Stress & Strain: Axial Loading

• Suitability of a structure or machine may depend on the


deformations in the structure as well as the stresses induced
under loading. Statics analyses alone are not sufficient.

• Considering structures as deformable materials allows


determination of internal forces and reactions which are
statically indeterminate.
• Determination of the stress distribution within a member
also requires consideration of deformations in the member.

• This chapter is concerned with deformation of a structural


member under axial loading. Later chapters will deal with
torsional and pure bending loads.

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Strain

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Stress-Strain Test

Fig 2.7 This machine is used to test tensile test specimens, Fig 2.8 Test specimen with tensile load.
such as those shown in this chapter.

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Stress-Strain Diagram: Ductile Materials

Ultimate Strength Breaking Strength


Yield Strength

Yield (屈服)
Hardening (硬化)
Necking (頸縮)

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Stress-Strain Diagram: Brittle Materials

Fig 2.1 Stress-strain diagram for a typical brittle material.

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Hooke’s Law: Modulus of Elasticity


• Below the yield stress (or strength)
s = Ee
E = Youngs Modulus or
Modulus of Elasticity
• Yield stress or yield strength is the
largest value of the stress below
which Hooke’s law can be used
• For a given material, yield strength
is known as the proportional limit
of that material. Strength is affected
by alloying, heat treating, and
manufacturing process but stiffness
(Modulus of Elasticity) is not.
Fig 2.16 Stress-strain diagrams for iron and
different grades of steel.

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MECHANICS OF MATERIALS Beer • Johnston • DeWolf • Mazurek

Elastic vs. Plastic Behavior

• If the strain disappears when the


stress is removed, the material is
said to behave elastically.

• The largest stress for which this


occurs is called the elastic limit.

• When the strain does not return


to zero after the stress is
removed, the material is said to
behave plastically.

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MECHANICS OF MATERIALS Beer • Johnston • DeWolf • Mazurek

Deformations Under Axial Loading

• From Hooke’s Law:


s P
s = Ee e= =
E AE
• From the definition of strain:


L
• Equating and solving for the deformation,
PL

AE

• With variations in loading, cross-section or
material properties,

Pi Li
Fig. 2.22  
i Ai Ei

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Example 2.01

SOLUTION:
• Divide the rod into components at
the load application points.

• Apply a free-body analysis on each


component to determine the
internal force

• Evaluate the total of the component


Determine the deformation of deflections.
the steel rod shown under the
given loads.

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SOLUTION: • Apply free-body analysis to each


• Divide the rod into three component to determine internal forces,
components: P1  240 103 N
P2  60 103 N
P3  120 103 N

• Evaluate total deflection,

Pi Li 1  P1 L1 P2 L2 P3 L3 
      
i Ai Ei E  A1 A2 A3 


1     
 240 103 0.3  60 103 0.3 120 103 0.4 
 

 
200 109  581106 581106 194 106 
 1.73 103 m

L1  L2  0.3m L3  0.4m   1.73 mm


A1  A2  58110-6 m 2 A3  194 10-6 m 2

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Example 2.1
The rigid bar BDE is supported by two links AB and CD.
Link AB is made of aluminum (E = 70 GPa) and has a cross-sectional area of 500
mm2. Link CD is made of steel (E = 200 GPa) and has a cross-sectional area of (600
mm2).
For the 30-kN force shown, determine the SOLUTION:
deflection a) of B, b) of D, and c) of E.
• Apply a free-body analysis to the bar
BDE to find the forces exerted by
links AB and DC.
• Evaluate the deformation of links AB
and DC or the displacements of B
and D.
• Work out the geometry to find the
deflection at E given the deflections
at B and D.

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Example 2.1
Displacement of B:
SOLUTION:
PL
B 
Free body: Bar BDE AE
 60 103 N 0.3 m 

500 10-6 m2 70 109 Pa 
 514 10 6 m
 B  0.514 mm 
åMB = 0
Displacement of D:
0 = -(30 kN ´ 0.6 m )+ FCD ´ 0.2 m
PL
FCD = +90 kN tension D 
AE
å MD = 0 90  103 N 0.4 m 
0 = -(30 kN ´ 0.4 m )- FAB ´ 0.2 m

600 10-6 m2 200 109 Pa 
FAB = -60 kN compression  300 10 6 m

 D  0.300 mm 
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Example 2.1
Displacement of D:

BB BH

DD HD
0.514 mm 200 mm   x

0.300 mm x
x  73.7 mm

EE  HE

DD HD
E

400  73.7 mm
0.300 mm 73.7 mm
 E  1.928 mm

 E  1.928 mm 

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Static Indeterminacy
• Structures for which internal forces and
reactions cannot be determined from statics
alone are said to be statically indeterminate(静
不定).
• A structure will be statically indeterminate
whenever it is held by more supports than
are required to maintain its equilibrium.

• Redundant reactions are replaced with


unknown loads which along with the other
loads must produce compatible deformations.

• Deformations due to actual loads and redundant


reactions are determined separately and then
added or superposed.

  L R  0

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MECHANICS OF MATERIALS Beer • Johnston • DeWolf • Mazurek

Example 2.04
Determine the reactions at A and B for the steel
bar and loading shown, assuming a close fit at
both supports before the loads are applied.
SOLUTION:
• Consider the reaction at B as redundant,
release the bar from that support, and solve for
the displacement at B due to the applied loads.

• Solve for the displacement at B due to the


redundant reaction at B.

• Require that the displacements sum due to the


loads and due to the redundant reaction be
compatible, i.e., require that their sum be zero.

• Solve for the reaction at A due to applied loads


and the reaction found at B.
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MECHANICS OF MATERIALS Beer • Johnston • DeWolf • Mazurek

Example 2.04
SOLUTION:
• Solve for the displacement at B due to the applied loads with
the redundant constraint released,
P1  0 P2  P3  600 103 N P4  900 103 N

A1  A2  400 10 6 m 2 A3  A4  250 10 6 m 2


L1  L2  L3  L4  0.150 m

Pi Li 1.125 109
L   
A
i i iE E
• Solve for the displacement at B due to the redundant
constraint,
P1  P2   RB

A1  400  10 6 m 2 A2  250  10 6 m 2


L1  L2  0.300 m

δR  
Pi Li


1.95  103 RB 
A
i i iE E
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MECHANICS OF MATERIALS Beer • Johnston • DeWolf • Mazurek

Example 2.04
• Require that the displacements due to the loads and due to
the redundant reaction be compatible,
  L R  0

  

1.125 109 1.95  103 RB 
0
E E
RB  577  103 N  577 kN

• Find the reaction at A due to the loads and the reaction at B


 Fy  0  R A  300 kN  600 kN  577 kN
R A  323 kN
R A  323 kN
RB  577 kN

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Thermal Stresses(熱應力)
• A temperature change results in a change in length or
thermal strain. There is no stress associated with the
thermal strain unless the elongation is restrained by
the supports.

• Treat the additional support as redundant and apply


the principle of superposition.
 T   T L
PL
P 
AE
  thermal expansion coefficien t

• The thermal deformation and the deformation from


the redundant support must be compatible.
  T   P  0  T L 
PL
0
AE
P   AE T 
P
   E T 
A
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Poisson’s Ratio

• For a slender bar subjected to axial loading:


x
x  y z  0
E

• The elongation in the x-direction is


accompanied by a contraction in the other
directions. Assuming that the material is
isotropic (no directional dependence),
y  z  0

• Poisson’s ratio is defined as

lateral strain y 
   z
axial strain x x

0    12 (to be demonstrated)

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Negative “Poisson’s ratio”

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Generalized Hooke’s Law


• For an element subjected to multi-axial loading, the
normal strain components resulting from the stress
components may be determined from the principle of
superposition(疊加原理): the effect of a given
combined loading on a structure can be obtained by
determining separately the effects of the various
loads and combining the results obtained. This
requires:
1) strain is linearly related to stress
2) deformations are small

• With these restrictions:


 x  y  z
x    
E E E
 x  y  z
y    
E E E
 x  y  z
z    
E E E
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Dilatation: Bulk Modulus


• Relative to the unstressed state, the change in volume is
   
e  1   x 1   y 1   z   1  1   x   y   z  1
 x y z
1  2
  x   y   z 
E
 dilatation (change in volume per unit volume)

• For element subjected to uniform hydrostatic pressure,


3(1 - 2n ) p
e = -p =-
E k
E
k= = bulk modulus
3(1 - 2n )

• Subjected to uniform pressure, dilatation must be


negative, therefore
0    12

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Shear Strain
• Shear strain is defined as the change in angle
between two line segments that were originally
perpendicular.

• A cubic element subjected to a shear stress will


deform into a rhomboid. The corresponding shear
strain is quantified in terms of the change in angle
between the sides,
Fig. 2-46  
 xy  f  xy

• A plot of shear stress vs. shear strain is similar to


the previous plots of normal stress vs. normal
strain except that the strength values are
approximately half. For small strains,

 xy  G  xy  yz  G  yz  zx  G  zx

Fig. 2-47 where G is the modulus of rigidity or shear modulus.


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Example 2.10
SOLUTION:
• Determine the average angular
deformation or shearing strain of
the block.
• Apply Hooke’s law for shearing
stress and strain to find the
A rectangular block of material with corresponding shearing stress.
modulus of rigidity G = 630 MPa is
bonded to two rigid horizontal • Use the definition of shearing stress
plates. The lower plate is fixed, to find the force P.
while the upper plate is subjected to
a horizontal force P. Knowing that
the upper plate moves through 1.0
mm. under the action of the force,
determine a) the average shearing
strain in the material, and b) the
force P exerted on the plate.
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• Determine the average angular deformation


or shearing strain of the block.
1 mm
 xy  tan  xy   xy  0.020 rad
50 mm

• Apply Hooke’s law for shearing stress and


strain to find the corresponding shearing
stress.

 xy  G xy  630MPa 0.020 rad  12.6MPa

• Use the definition of shearing stress to find


the force P.
 
P   xy A  12.6 106 Pa 0.2m 0.062m   156.2 103 N

P  156.2 kN

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Relation Among E, , and G


• An axially loaded slender bar will
elongate in the axial direction and
contract in the transverse directions.
• An initially cubic element oriented as in
top figure will deform into a rectangular
parallelepiped. The axial load produces a
normal strain.
• If the cubic element is oriented as in the
bottom figure, it will deform into a
rhombus. Axial load also results in a shear
strain.
• Components of normal and shear strain are
related,
E E
 1    or G 
2G 21  
(Read textbook 2.15 for detailed proof )
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Example 2.5

A circle of diameter d = 225 mm is scribed on


an unstressed aluminum plate of thickness t =
18 mm. Forces acting in the plane of the plate
later cause normal stresses x = 84 MPa and
z = 140 MPa.
For E = 70 GPa and  = 1/3, determine the
change in:
a) the length of diameter AB,
b) the length of diameter CD,
c) the thickness of the plate, and
d) the volume of the plate.

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SOLUTION:
• Apply the generalized Hooke’s Law to • Evaluate the deformation components.
 B A   x d   0.533 10 3 mm/mm 225mm 
find the three components of normal
strain.
 B A  0.12mm
 x  y  z
x    
E E E  C D   z d   1.600 10 3 mm/mm 225mm 
 

1
84 MPa   0 
1
140 MPa   C D  0.36mm
70  10 MPa 
3
3 
 0.533 103 mm/mm  t   y t   1.067 10 3 mm/mm 18mm 
 x  y  z
y      t  0.0192mm
E E E
 1.067 103 mm/mm
 x  y z • Find the change in volume
z    
E E E
 1.600  103 mm/mm e   x   y   z  1.067 103 mm 3 /mm3
V  eV  1.067 103 380  380 18mm 3
V  2733mm 3

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Saint-Venant’s Principle
• Loads transmitted through rigid
plates result in uniform distribution
of stress and strain.

• Concentrated loads result in large


stresses in the vicinity of the load
application point.

• Stress and strain distributions


become uniform at a relatively short
distance from the load application
points.

• Saint-Venant’s Principle:
Stress distribution may be assumed
independent of the mode of load
application except in the immediate
vicinity of load application points.
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Stress Concentration: Effect of Materials Defects on


Stress Distribution

(a) Flat bars with holes

Discontinuities of cross section may result in  max P


K  ave 
high localized or concentrated stresses.  ave t d
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Stress Concentration: Fillet

(b) Flat bars with fillets

 max P
K  ave 
 ave t d
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MECHANICS OF MATERIALS Beer • Johnston • DeWolf • Mazurek

Example 2.12

SOLUTION:
• Determine the geometric ratios and
find the stress concentration factor
from Fig. 2.64b.
Determine the largest axial load P
that can be safely supported by a • Find the allowable average normal
flat steel bar consisting of two stress using the material allowable
portions, both 10 mm thick, and normal stress and the stress
respectively 40 and 60 mm wide, concentration factor.
connected by fillets of radius r = 8 • Apply the definition of normal stress to
mm. Assume an allowable normal find the allowable load.
stress of 165 MPa.

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• Determine the geometric ratios and


find the stress concentration factor
from Fig. 2.64b.
D 60 mm r 8 mm
  1.50   0.20
d 40 mm d 40 mm
K  1.82

• Find the allowable average normal


stress using the material allowable
normal stress and the stress
concentration factor.
 max 165 MPa
 ave    90.7 MPa
K 1.82

(b) Flat bars with fillets • Apply the definition of normal stress
to find the allowable load.
P  A ave  40 mm 10 mm 90.7 MPa 

 36.3  103 N
P  36.3 kN

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