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MATERIALS

2 Stress and Strain

– Axial Loading

Edition

Sixth

MECHANICS OF MATERIALS Beer • Johnston • DeWolf • Mazurek

deformations in the structure as well as the stresses induced

under loading. Statics analyses alone are not sufficient.

determination of internal forces and reactions which are

statically indeterminate.

• Determination of the stress distribution within a member

also requires consideration of deformations in the member.

member under axial loading. Later chapters will deal with

torsional and pure bending loads.

Edition

Sixth

MECHANICS OF MATERIALS Beer • Johnston • DeWolf • Mazurek

Strain

Edition

Sixth

MECHANICS OF MATERIALS Beer • Johnston • DeWolf • Mazurek

Stress-Strain Test

Fig 2.7 This machine is used to test tensile test specimens, Fig 2.8 Test specimen with tensile load.

such as those shown in this chapter.

Edition

Sixth

MECHANICS OF MATERIALS Beer • Johnston • DeWolf • Mazurek

Yield Strength

Yield (屈服）

Hardening (硬化)

Necking (頸縮)

Edition

Sixth

MECHANICS OF MATERIALS Beer • Johnston • DeWolf • Mazurek

Edition

Sixth

MECHANICS OF MATERIALS Beer • Johnston • DeWolf • Mazurek

• Below the yield stress (or strength)

s = Ee

E = Youngs Modulus or

Modulus of Elasticity

• Yield stress or yield strength is the

largest value of the stress below

which Hooke’s law can be used

• For a given material, yield strength

is known as the proportional limit

of that material. Strength is affected

by alloying, heat treating, and

manufacturing process but stiffness

(Modulus of Elasticity) is not.

Fig 2.16 Stress-strain diagrams for iron and

different grades of steel.

Edition

Sixth

MECHANICS OF MATERIALS Beer • Johnston • DeWolf • Mazurek

stress is removed, the material is

said to behave elastically.

occurs is called the elastic limit.

to zero after the stress is

removed, the material is said to

behave plastically.

Edition

Sixth

MECHANICS OF MATERIALS Beer • Johnston • DeWolf • Mazurek

s P

s = Ee e= =

E AE

• From the definition of strain:

L

• Equating and solving for the deformation,

PL

AE

• With variations in loading, cross-section or

material properties,

Pi Li

Fig. 2.22

i Ai Ei

Edition

Sixth

MECHANICS OF MATERIALS Beer • Johnston • DeWolf • Mazurek

Example 2.01

SOLUTION:

• Divide the rod into components at

the load application points.

component to determine the

internal force

Determine the deformation of deflections.

the steel rod shown under the

given loads.

Edition

Sixth

MECHANICS OF MATERIALS Beer • Johnston • DeWolf • Mazurek

• Divide the rod into three component to determine internal forces,

components: P1 240 103 N

P2 60 103 N

P3 120 103 N

Pi Li 1 P1 L1 P2 L2 P3 L3

i Ai Ei E A1 A2 A3

1

240 103 0.3 60 103 0.3 120 103 0.4

200 109 581106 581106 194 106

1.73 103 m

A1 A2 58110-6 m 2 A3 194 10-6 m 2

Edition

Sixth

MECHANICS OF MATERIALS Beer • Johnston • DeWolf • Mazurek

Example 2.1

The rigid bar BDE is supported by two links AB and CD.

Link AB is made of aluminum (E = 70 GPa) and has a cross-sectional area of 500

mm2. Link CD is made of steel (E = 200 GPa) and has a cross-sectional area of (600

mm2).

For the 30-kN force shown, determine the SOLUTION:

deflection a) of B, b) of D, and c) of E.

• Apply a free-body analysis to the bar

BDE to find the forces exerted by

links AB and DC.

• Evaluate the deformation of links AB

and DC or the displacements of B

and D.

• Work out the geometry to find the

deflection at E given the deflections

at B and D.

Edition

Sixth

MECHANICS OF MATERIALS Beer • Johnston • DeWolf • Mazurek

Example 2.1

Displacement of B:

SOLUTION:

PL

B

Free body: Bar BDE AE

60 103 N 0.3 m

500 10-6 m2 70 109 Pa

514 10 6 m

B 0.514 mm

åMB = 0

Displacement of D:

0 = -(30 kN ´ 0.6 m )+ FCD ´ 0.2 m

PL

FCD = +90 kN tension D

AE

å MD = 0 90 103 N 0.4 m

0 = -(30 kN ´ 0.4 m )- FAB ´ 0.2 m

600 10-6 m2 200 109 Pa

FAB = -60 kN compression 300 10 6 m

D 0.300 mm

© 2012 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 2- 13

Edition

Sixth

MECHANICS OF MATERIALS Beer • Johnston • DeWolf • Mazurek

Example 2.1

Displacement of D:

BB BH

DD HD

0.514 mm 200 mm x

0.300 mm x

x 73.7 mm

EE HE

DD HD

E

400 73.7 mm

0.300 mm 73.7 mm

E 1.928 mm

E 1.928 mm

Edition

Sixth

MECHANICS OF MATERIALS Beer • Johnston • DeWolf • Mazurek

Static Indeterminacy

• Structures for which internal forces and

reactions cannot be determined from statics

alone are said to be statically indeterminate(静

不定).

• A structure will be statically indeterminate

whenever it is held by more supports than

are required to maintain its equilibrium.

unknown loads which along with the other

loads must produce compatible deformations.

reactions are determined separately and then

added or superposed.

L R 0

Edition

Sixth

MECHANICS OF MATERIALS Beer • Johnston • DeWolf • Mazurek

Example 2.04

Determine the reactions at A and B for the steel

bar and loading shown, assuming a close fit at

both supports before the loads are applied.

SOLUTION:

• Consider the reaction at B as redundant,

release the bar from that support, and solve for

the displacement at B due to the applied loads.

redundant reaction at B.

loads and due to the redundant reaction be

compatible, i.e., require that their sum be zero.

and the reaction found at B.

2- 16

© 2012 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.

Edition

Sixth

MECHANICS OF MATERIALS Beer • Johnston • DeWolf • Mazurek

Example 2.04

SOLUTION:

• Solve for the displacement at B due to the applied loads with

the redundant constraint released,

P1 0 P2 P3 600 103 N P4 900 103 N

L1 L2 L3 L4 0.150 m

Pi Li 1.125 109

L

A

i i iE E

• Solve for the displacement at B due to the redundant

constraint,

P1 P2 RB

L1 L2 0.300 m

δR

Pi Li

1.95 103 RB

A

i i iE E

© 2012 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 2- 17

Edition

Sixth

MECHANICS OF MATERIALS Beer • Johnston • DeWolf • Mazurek

Example 2.04

• Require that the displacements due to the loads and due to

the redundant reaction be compatible,

L R 0

1.125 109 1.95 103 RB

0

E E

RB 577 103 N 577 kN

Fy 0 R A 300 kN 600 kN 577 kN

R A 323 kN

R A 323 kN

RB 577 kN

Edition

Sixth

MECHANICS OF MATERIALS Beer • Johnston • DeWolf • Mazurek

Thermal Stresses（熱應力）

• A temperature change results in a change in length or

thermal strain. There is no stress associated with the

thermal strain unless the elongation is restrained by

the supports.

the principle of superposition.

T T L

PL

P

AE

thermal expansion coefficien t

the redundant support must be compatible.

T P 0 T L

PL

0

AE

P AE T

P

E T

A

© 2012 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 2- 19

Edition

Sixth

MECHANICS OF MATERIALS Beer • Johnston • DeWolf • Mazurek

Poisson’s Ratio

x

x y z 0

E

accompanied by a contraction in the other

directions. Assuming that the material is

isotropic (no directional dependence),

y z 0

lateral strain y

z

axial strain x x

0 12 (to be demonstrated)

Edition

Sixth

MECHANICS OF MATERIALS Beer • Johnston • DeWolf • Mazurek

Edition

Sixth

MECHANICS OF MATERIALS Beer • Johnston • DeWolf • Mazurek

• For an element subjected to multi-axial loading, the

normal strain components resulting from the stress

components may be determined from the principle of

superposition(疊加原理): the effect of a given

combined loading on a structure can be obtained by

determining separately the effects of the various

loads and combining the results obtained. This

requires:

1) strain is linearly related to stress

2) deformations are small

x y z

x

E E E

x y z

y

E E E

x y z

z

E E E

© 2012 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 2- 22

Edition

Sixth

MECHANICS OF MATERIALS Beer • Johnston • DeWolf • Mazurek

• Relative to the unstressed state, the change in volume is

e 1 x 1 y 1 z 1 1 x y z 1

x y z

1 2

x y z

E

dilatation (change in volume per unit volume)

3(1 - 2n ) p

e = -p =-

E k

E

k= = bulk modulus

3(1 - 2n )

negative, therefore

0 12

Edition

Sixth

MECHANICS OF MATERIALS Beer • Johnston • DeWolf • Mazurek

Shear Strain

• Shear strain is defined as the change in angle

between two line segments that were originally

perpendicular.

deform into a rhomboid. The corresponding shear

strain is quantified in terms of the change in angle

between the sides,

Fig. 2-46

xy f xy

the previous plots of normal stress vs. normal

strain except that the strength values are

approximately half. For small strains,

xy G xy yz G yz zx G zx

© 2012 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 2- 24

Edition

Sixth

MECHANICS OF MATERIALS Beer • Johnston • DeWolf • Mazurek

Example 2.10

SOLUTION:

• Determine the average angular

deformation or shearing strain of

the block.

• Apply Hooke’s law for shearing

stress and strain to find the

A rectangular block of material with corresponding shearing stress.

modulus of rigidity G = 630 MPa is

bonded to two rigid horizontal • Use the definition of shearing stress

plates. The lower plate is fixed, to find the force P.

while the upper plate is subjected to

a horizontal force P. Knowing that

the upper plate moves through 1.0

mm. under the action of the force,

determine a) the average shearing

strain in the material, and b) the

force P exerted on the plate.

© 2012 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 2- 25

Edition

Sixth

MECHANICS OF MATERIALS Beer • Johnston • DeWolf • Mazurek

or shearing strain of the block.

1 mm

xy tan xy xy 0.020 rad

50 mm

strain to find the corresponding shearing

stress.

the force P.

P xy A 12.6 106 Pa 0.2m 0.062m 156.2 103 N

P 156.2 kN

Edition

Sixth

MECHANICS OF MATERIALS Beer • Johnston • DeWolf • Mazurek

• An axially loaded slender bar will

elongate in the axial direction and

contract in the transverse directions.

• An initially cubic element oriented as in

top figure will deform into a rectangular

parallelepiped. The axial load produces a

normal strain.

• If the cubic element is oriented as in the

bottom figure, it will deform into a

rhombus. Axial load also results in a shear

strain.

• Components of normal and shear strain are

related,

E E

1 or G

2G 21

(Read textbook 2.15 for detailed proof )

© 2012 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 2- 27

Edition

Sixth

MECHANICS OF MATERIALS Beer • Johnston • DeWolf • Mazurek

Example 2.5

an unstressed aluminum plate of thickness t =

18 mm. Forces acting in the plane of the plate

later cause normal stresses x = 84 MPa and

z = 140 MPa.

For E = 70 GPa and = 1/3, determine the

change in:

a) the length of diameter AB,

b) the length of diameter CD,

c) the thickness of the plate, and

d) the volume of the plate.

Edition

Sixth

MECHANICS OF MATERIALS Beer • Johnston • DeWolf • Mazurek

SOLUTION:

• Apply the generalized Hooke’s Law to • Evaluate the deformation components.

B A x d 0.533 10 3 mm/mm 225mm

find the three components of normal

strain.

B A 0.12mm

x y z

x

E E E C D z d 1.600 10 3 mm/mm 225mm

1

84 MPa 0

1

140 MPa C D 0.36mm

70 10 MPa

3

3

0.533 103 mm/mm t y t 1.067 10 3 mm/mm 18mm

x y z

y t 0.0192mm

E E E

1.067 103 mm/mm

x y z • Find the change in volume

z

E E E

1.600 103 mm/mm e x y z 1.067 103 mm 3 /mm3

V eV 1.067 103 380 380 18mm 3

V 2733mm 3

Edition

Sixth

MECHANICS OF MATERIALS Beer • Johnston • DeWolf • Mazurek

Saint-Venant’s Principle

• Loads transmitted through rigid

plates result in uniform distribution

of stress and strain.

stresses in the vicinity of the load

application point.

become uniform at a relatively short

distance from the load application

points.

• Saint-Venant’s Principle:

Stress distribution may be assumed

independent of the mode of load

application except in the immediate

vicinity of load application points.

© 2012 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 2- 30

Edition

Sixth

MECHANICS OF MATERIALS Beer • Johnston • DeWolf • Mazurek

Stress Distribution

K ave

high localized or concentrated stresses. ave t d

© 2012 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 2- 31

Edition

Sixth

MECHANICS OF MATERIALS Beer • Johnston • DeWolf • Mazurek

max P

K ave

ave t d

© 2012 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 2- 32

Edition

Sixth

MECHANICS OF MATERIALS Beer • Johnston • DeWolf • Mazurek

Example 2.12

SOLUTION:

• Determine the geometric ratios and

find the stress concentration factor

from Fig. 2.64b.

Determine the largest axial load P

that can be safely supported by a • Find the allowable average normal

flat steel bar consisting of two stress using the material allowable

portions, both 10 mm thick, and normal stress and the stress

respectively 40 and 60 mm wide, concentration factor.

connected by fillets of radius r = 8 • Apply the definition of normal stress to

mm. Assume an allowable normal find the allowable load.

stress of 165 MPa.

Edition

Sixth

MECHANICS OF MATERIALS Beer • Johnston • DeWolf • Mazurek

find the stress concentration factor

from Fig. 2.64b.

D 60 mm r 8 mm

1.50 0.20

d 40 mm d 40 mm

K 1.82

stress using the material allowable

normal stress and the stress

concentration factor.

max 165 MPa

ave 90.7 MPa

K 1.82

(b) Flat bars with fillets • Apply the definition of normal stress

to find the allowable load.

P A ave 40 mm 10 mm 90.7 MPa

36.3 103 N

P 36.3 kN

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