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# INTRODUCTION

In every building construction project, once functional planning is over, the stage
comes to analyze and design the structural member of building. Here proposed building
is of four storied school building. This building is designed by using Limit state method
of design of reinforced concrete structure and S. I. Units. The design is based on IS
456:2000. Before starting design the soil investigation is carried out to know about the
strata available for foundation. The soil investigation report shows that soil below the
proposed building site is of black cotton soil having bearing capacity 150KN/m². Type of
foundation is depending on soil bearing capacity and load coming from superstructure.
Since load coming on footing is very heavy because of four storied building and as the
bearing capacity is low it may tends to design raft foundation for proposed building.
Other structural members are designed as per requirement of functional plan, i.e. slab,
beam and column.

## DATA AS PER PLAN

1) Building type: G+ 3 RCC school building.
2) Plan: As shown in ground floor plan. (Same typical plan is used for all 4 floors.)
3) Details : Area of building = 45.8m x 18.29m= 837.7 m²
Floor to floor height= 3.75m
Height of plinth= 0.75m
Dept of foundation= 2.5m
Floor finish load = 1.75 KN/m
Unit weight of concrete = 25 KN/m³
Unit weight of brick wall = 20 KN/m³
5) Specifications:
Wall: 230mm Thick duly plastered
Bearing capacity of soil = 150 KN/ m²
This typical plan is use same for all 4 floors.
DESIGN OF SLAB
One way continuous slab- S1
1) Span= 2.51 meter = 2510 mm
2) Trial depth – Basic L/d ratio for continuous slab rb = 26
Assume Pt= 0.3% for M20, Fe 415. Modification factor α1= 1.5 by curve from IS
456
required depth= d = 2510 / (1.5 x 26) = 64.35mm
provide 100mm depth with effective cover 20mm.
.·. D = 120mm, & d= 100mm
3) Loads – Consider 1m width of slab,
Dead load wd= Self wt. + F. F. load = 25 x 0.12 x 1 + 1.75 = 4.75 KN/m
Live load ws = 3 + 2.7 = 5.7 KN/m
Ultimate load wu = 1.5(4.75+ 5.7) = 15.68 KN/m
4) Design moments-
B. M. using IS code coefficients for continuous slab
Mu= 1.5 (αd wd L²+ αL wL L²)
Mu1= 1.5(4.75 x 2.512/12+ 5.7 x 2.512//10) = 6.182 KN-m
Mu2= 1.5(4.75 x 2.512/10+ 5.7 x 2.512//9) = 10.47 KN-m
Mu3= 1.5(4.75 x 2.512/16+ 5.7 x 2.512//12) = 7.29 KN-m
Mu4= 1.5(4.75 x 2.512/12+ 5.7 x 2.512//9) = 9.73 KN-m
5) Check for concrete depth:
Mur.max = Ru max bd2 ( here Ru max - 2.76 for M20 and Fe 415)
= 2.76 x 1000 x 1002 x 10-6 = 27.6 KN-m ˃10.47 KN-m
6) Main steel
Ast = {0.5 x 20/415} [1-√(1-(4.6 x 10.47 x 106 )/(20 x 1000 x 1002))]
x 1000 x 100
=320mm2
For 8 mm steel-
Spacing S= 1000 x 50/320= 156mm
Provide 8mm φ @ 150 c/c.
7) Distribution steel-
Ast = 0.12 % of bd
= 0.12 x 1000 x 100/100
=120mm2
Provide 8mm φ @ 300 c/c.
Two way slab- S2
1) Span= 8.62 meter x 7.54 meter
Aspect ratio = Ly/Lx= 8.62/7.54= 1.14 .·. Thus design 2 way.
2) Trial depth – Since span length is more than 3.5m deflection criteria is same as
one way slab, .·. Basic L/d ratio for continuous slab rb = 26
Assume Pt= 3% for M20, Fe 415. Modification factor α1= 1.48 by curve from IS
456
Required depth= d = 7540 / (1.48 x 26) = 196mm
Provide 196mm depth with effective cover 25mm.
.·. D = 221mm, say 220mm & d0= 195mm and d1=185
3) Loads – Consider 1m width of slab,
Dead load wd= Self wt. + F. F. load = 25 x 0.22 x 1 + 1.75 = 7.25 KN/m
Live load ws = 3 + 2.7 = 5.7 KN/m
Ultimate load wu = 1.5(4.75+ 5.7) = 19.42 KN/m
4) Design moments-
B. M. using IS code coefficients for boundary cond. Of 2 way slab
Is interior panel.
.·. B.M.= wu x Lx2 =19.43 x 7.542 =1104.62 KNm.
From IS456 B.M. coeff. For short span are-
-αx = 0.037+(0. α043-0.037)(1.14-1.1)/0.1= 0.039
+αx = 0.028+(0.032-0.028)(1.14-1.1)/0.1= 0.03
Span position BM coeff. Mu=α w L2

## 5) Check for concrete depth:

Mur.max = Ru max bd2 ( here Ru max - 2.76 for M20 and Fe 415)
Mur.max1 = 2.76 x 1000 x 1952 x 10-6 = 104.95 KN-m ˃43.08 KN-m
Mur.max2 = 2.76 x 1000 x 1852 x 10-6 = 94.46 KN-m ˃43.08 KN-m
6) Main steel
Ast = {0.5 x 20/415} [1-√(1-(4.6 x Mu )/(20 x 1000 x d2))] x 1000 x d

## Location Mu d Req. Ast Dia. And spacing Prov. Ast.

Short- support 43.08 195 658 10 φ-115mm c/c 683
Short-midspan 33.13 195 497 10 φ-150mm c/c 524
Long- support 35.35 185 566 10 φ-125mm c/c 628
Long -midspan 22.09 185 344 10 φ-225mm c/c 349

7) Distribution steel-
Provide 8mm φ @ 250 c/c.
8) Check for deflection
Required Pt. at midspan of short span
=497x100/(1000 x 100)= 0.25 < 0.3% .·. ok.

Cantilever slab- S3
1) Span= 1.5 meter = 1500 mm
2) Trial depth – Basic L/d ratio for continuous slab rb = 7
Assume Pt= 0.2% for M20, Fe 415. Modification factor α1= 1.7 by curve from IS
456
required depth= d = 1500 / (1.7 x 26) = 126mm say 130mm
provide 100mm depth with effective cover 20mm.
.·. D = 150mm, & d= 130mm
3) Loads – Consider 1m width of slab,
Ultimate load wu = 1.5(25 x 0.15+1.75+4) = 14.25 KN/m
4) Design moments-
B. M. using IS code coefficients for continuous slab
Mu= wu x L2/2
= 14.25 x 1.52/2 = 16.03 KNm
Check for concrete depth:
Mur.max = Ru max bd2 ( here Ru max - 2.76 for M20 and Fe 415)
= 2.76 x 1000 x 1302 x 10-6 = 46.6 KN-m ˃16.3 KN-m
5) Main steel
Ast = {0.5 x 20/415} [1-√ (1-(4.6 x 16.3 x 106) / (20 x 1000 x 1302))]
x 1000 x 130
=285mm2
For 8 mm steel-
Spacing S= 1000 x 50/285= 156mm
Provide 8mm φ @ 175 c/c.
6) Distribution steel-
Ast = 0.15 % of bd
= 0.15 x 1000 x 130/100
=225mm2
Provide 8mm φ @ 220 c/c.
7) Check for deflection –
Pt = 100 x 284.3/(1000 x 130) = 0.22> 0.2% assumed
Therefore detailed deflection check is required.
Ast req. = 284.3 mm2, Ast prov. = 285.7 mm2
Steel stress fs = 0.58 x 415 x 284.3/285.7
= 239.5
Pt. provided = 100 x 285.7/ (1000 x 1302) = 0.22
.·. α1= 1.65
Req. d= 1000/ (1.65 x 7) = 129.87 <130 mm2 .·. Ok.
Stair waist slab- ST
1) Width of stair = 4.38/2 = 2.19m
Floor to floor height = 3750mm.
Functional design –
No. of riser= 25no.
No. of riser for 1st flight= 12 and for 2nd flight= 13
No. of trade for 1st and 2nd flight are 11 and 12 respectively.
Going= 3300mm for 1st flight and 3600mm for 2nd flight.
Width of landing= 2000mm.
Length of 1st flight= 3300+ 2000+230= 5530mm
2) Design of flight-
One way simply supported inclined slab
Trial depth – Basic L/d ratio for continuous slab rb =20
Assume Pt= 4% for M20, Fe 415. Modification factor α1= 1.32 by IS 456
required depth= d = 5530 / (1.32 x 20) = 209mm say 210mm
provide 210mm depth with effective cover 20mm.
.·. D = 230mm, & d= 210mm
Self wt= 25D X sec φ here secφ= √(3002+1502)/300
=25 x 0.23 x 1.12= 6.44 KN/m2
Wt. of steps= 25 x 0.23 x 0.15/2= 1.88KN/m2
Ultimate load wu = 1.5(14.32) = 21.48 KN/ m2
4) Design moments-
B. M. using IS code coefficients for continuous slab
Mu= wu x L2/8
= 21.48 x 5.532/8 = 82.11 KNm
Check for concrete depth:
Mur.max = Ru max bd2 ( here Ru max - 2.76 for M20 and Fe 415)
= 2.76 x 1000 x 2102 x 10-6 = 121.71 KN-m ˃82.11 KN-m
5) Main steel
Ast = {0.5 x 20/415} [1-√(1-(4.6 x 82.11 x 106 )/(20 x 1000 x 2102))]
x 1000 x 210
=1234.12mm2
For 12 mmφ steel-
Spacing S= 1000 x 113/1234= 91.57mm
Provide 12mm φ @ 90mm c/c.
6) Distribution steel-
Ast = 0.15 % of bd
= 0.15 x 1000 x 210/100
=315mm2
Provide 8mm φ @ 150 c/c.
DESIGN OF BEAMS
Simply supported beam B1
1) Span= 6.5 meter = 6500 mm
2) Section assumed = 300 x450
Trial depth-L/16= 6500/16= 406mm
provide 410mm depth with effective cover 40mm.
.·. D = 450mm, & d= 410mm
3) Loads –Slab on both side,
w= DL+FF+LL= 25x0.12+1.75+5.7= 10.45KN/m2
ws= w x Lx =10.45 x 2.51 = 26.23KN/m
Self wt. wb= 25 x 0.3 x (0.45-0.12)= 2.48 KN/m
Ultimate load wu = 1.5(26.23+2.48) = 43.1 KN/m
4) Design moments-
B. M.
Mu= wu x L2/12
= 43.1 x 6.52/12 = 151.75 KNm
Check
Mur.max = Ru max bd2 (here Ru max - 2.76 for M20 and Fe 415)
= 2.76 x 300 x 4102 x 10-6 = 139.18 KN-m <151.75 KN-m
.·. Beam should be design as flanged beam-
Lo= 0.7 L= 0.7 x 6500= 4550mm
bf = Lo/6 + 6 Df + bw =4550/6 + 6 x 120+ 300= 1778mm
for xu =Df
Mu= 0.36 fck bf Df (d- 0.42 Df)
=0.36 x 20 x 1778 x 120 (410 – 0.42 x 120) x 10-6 = 553.39> 151.75KNm
5) Main steel
Ast = {0.5 x 20/415} [1-√(1-(4.6 x 151.75 x 106 )/(20 x 1778 x 4102))]
x 1778 x410
=1050mm2
Provide 6 no -16mm φ @ in two rows Ast prov=1206mm2.
6) Design of shear-
Vumax = 43.1 x 6.5/2= 140.1 KN
Vud = Vumax - ww(b/2 + d)
= 140.1 – 43.1(300/2 + 410)/ 1000= 115.9 KN
Here Ast prov=1206mm2, .·. Pt= 0.89%
For M20 and Pt= 0.89, from IS 456 Ʈuc= 0.594
Vuc = Ʈuc bd= 0.594 x 300 x 450/1000= 80.19 KN
Vusv.min= 0.4 bd= 0.4 x 300 x 400= 54 KN
Vur.min=80.19 + 54= 134.19KN > Vud
.·. Minimum stirrups are sufficient
Provide 8mm φ @ 300c/c
Continuous beam B2
1) Span= 6.5 meter = 6500 mm
2) Section assumed = 230 x 600
provide 560mm depth with effective cover 40mm.
.·. D = 600mm, & d= 560mm
3) Loads –Slab on both side,
w= DL+FF+LL= 25x0.12+1.75+5.7= 10.45KN/m2
ws= 1/2w x Lx =1/2 x10.45 x 2.51 = 13.11KN/m
Self wt. wb= 25 x 0.3 x (0.6-0.12)= 2.76 KN/m
Wt. of wall= ww= 20 x 3.0 x 0.25= 15 KN/m
Ultimate load wu = 1.5(30.87) = 46.31 KN/m
4) Design moments-
B. M.
Mu= wu x L2/12
= 46.31 x 6.52/12 = 163.05 KNm
Check
Mur.max = Ru max bd2 ( here Ru max - 2.76 for M20 and Fe 415)
= 2.76 x 300 x 5602 x 10-6 = 199 KN-m >163.05KN-m
.·. Beam should be design as rectangular beam-
5) Main steel
Ast = {0.5 x 20/415} [1-√(1-(4.6 x 163.05 x 106 )/(20 x 230 x 5602))]
x 230 x560
=954mm2
Provide 2 no -20mm φ & 2no-16mm φ @ Ast prov=1028mm2.
6) Design of shear-
Vumax = 46.1 x 6.5/2= 150.5 KN
Here Ast prov=1206mm2, .·. Pt= 0.8%
For M20 and Pt= 0.89, from IS 456 Ʈuc= 0.572
Vuc = Ʈuc bd= 73.67 KN
Vusv.min= 0.4 bd= 0.4 x 230 x 560= 51.52 KN
Vur.min=73.67+ 51.52= 125.2KN < Vumax = 150.5 KN
.·. Extra stirrups are req.
Vsv=Vud- Vuc= 150.5- 73.67= 76.83KN
Provide 8mm φ 2 legged stirrups
S= 0.87fy Asv d/ Vsv= 0.87 x 415 x 100x 560/76.83 x 1000
= 263mm
Provide 250mm c/c.
Continuous beam B3
1) Span= 6.5 meter = 6500 mm
2) Section assumed = 230 x 600
provide 560mm depth with effective cover 40mm.
.·. D = 600mm, & d= 560mm
3) Loads –Slab on one side,
w= DL+FF+LL= 25x0.12+1.75+5.7= 10.45KN/m2
ws1= 1/2w x Lx =1/2 x10.45 x 2.51 = 13.11KN/m
ws2= 1/2w x Lx =1/2 x10.45 x 2.98 = 15.57KN/m
Self wt. wb= 25 x 0.3 x (0.6)= 3.45KN/m
Wt. of wall= ww= 20 x 3.0 x 0.25= 15 KN/m
Ultimate load wu = 47.13 KN/m
4) Design moments-
B. M.
Mu= wu x L2/12
= 47.13 x 6.52/12 = 166 KNm
Check
Mur.max = Ru max bd2 ( here Ru max - 2.76 for M20 and Fe 415)
= 2.76 x 300 x 5602 x 10-6 = 199 KN-m >163.05KN-m
.·. Beam should be design as rectangular beam-
5) Main steel
Ast = {0.5 x 20/415} [1-√(1-(4.6 x 166 x 106 )/(20 x 230 x 5602))]
x 230 x560
2
=975mm
Provide 2 no -20mm φ & 2no-16mm φ @ Ast prov=1028mm2.
6) Design of shear-
Vumax = 47.13 x 6.5/2= 153.15 KN
Here Ast prov=1206mm2, .·. Pt= 0.8%
For M20 and Pt= 0.89, from IS 456 Ʈuc= 0.572
Vuc = Ʈuc bd= 73.67 KN
Vusv.min= 0.4 bd= 0.4 x 230 x 560= 51.52 KN
Vur.min=73.67+ 51.52= 125.2KN < Vumax = 153.15 KN
.·. Extra stirrups are req.
Vsv=Vud- Vuc= 153.15- 73.67= 79.53KN
Provide 8mm φ 2 legged stirrups
S= 0.87fy Asv d/ Vsv= 0.87 x 415 x 100x 560/79.53 x 1000
= 254mm
Provide 250mm c/c.
Simply supported beam B4
1) Span= 6..87meter = 6870 mm
2) Section assumed = 300 x 900
provide 830mm depth with effective cover 70mm.
.·. D = 900mm, & d= 830mm
3) Loads –Slab on one side,
w= DL+FF+LL= 25x0.12+1.75+5.7= 10.45KN/m2
ws= 2 x w x Lx/6 =2 x10.45 x 2.51/6 = 8.74KN/m
Self wt. wb= 25 x 0.3 x 0.9= 6.75KN/m
Wt. of wall= ww= 20 x 2.85 x 0.25= 14.25 KN/m
Ultimate load wu = 44.61 KN/m
Point load= 140 KN from 2.175m from both end.
4) Design moments-

## RA= RB= 433.5KN

Max. bending moment is at center
Mu = (433.5 x 3.44) – (280.2 x 1.26) – (44.61 x 3.442)
= 875 KN

Check
Mur.max = Ru max bd2 ( here Ru max - 2.76 for M20 and Fe 415)
= 2.76 x 300 x 8302 x 10-6 = 570.4 KN-m <875KN-m
.·. Beam should be design as rectangular beam doubly reinforced-
5) Main steel
Ast = Mur.max / 0.87fy (d- 0.42xumax)
Here xumax = 0.48 x 830 = 398mm
Ast1 = 570.4/ 0.87 x 415 x (830- 0.42 x 398) = 2383 mm2
Mu2 = MuD -Mur.max = 875-570.4= 304.6KN
Ast2 = 304.6 x 106 / 0.87 x 415 x (830-45)
=1075 mm2
Ast= Ast1+ Ast2=3458 mm2
Provide 6 no -25mm φ & 2no-20mm φ @ Ast prov=3568mm2.
6) Compression steel-
dc/d = 45/830 = 0.0542
Ɛsc= 0.0035(1-dc/d)= 0.0033
xu= 398mm
Ɛsc= 0.0035(1-45/398)=0.0031
From table , fsc=354.8 N/mm2
Asc = 0.87 fy Ast2/fsc
= 0.87 x 415 x 1075 /354.8 = 1094 mm2
Provide 2-25 φ & 1-16 φ @ Ast prov=1181mm2.
7) Design of shear-
Vumax = Va=Vb= 433.5 KN
For M20 and Pt= 1.39, from IS 456 Ʈuc= 0.698
Vuc = Ʈuc bd= 173.8KN
Vusv.min= 0.4 bd= 0.4 x300 x830= 99.6 KN
Vur.min=173.8+ 99.6= 273.4KN < Vumax = 433.5 KN
.·. Extra stirrups are req.
Vsv=Vud- Vuc= 433.5-1 73.8= 259KN
Provide 8mm φ 2 legged stirrups
S= 0.87fy Asv d/ Vsv= 0.87 x 415 x 100x830/259.7 x 1000
= 115mm
Provide110mm c/c.

## Simply supported beam B5

1) Span= 6.87 meter = 6870 mm
2) Section assumed = 300 x 900
provide 830mm depth with effective cover 70mm.
.·. D = 900mm, & d= 830mm
3) Loads –Slab on one side S1,
w= DL+FF+LL= 25x0.12+1.75+5.7= 10.45KN/m2
ws1= 1/2w x Lx =1/2 x10.45 x 2.51/6 = 4.37KN/m
ws2= 1/2w x Ly x k1
here k1= 1-(1/3β2)= 0.3 since β=1.06 from 2 way slab
ws2= 19.243 x 6.87 x 0.3/2= 13.39 KN/m
Self wt. wb= 25 x 0.3 x 0.9= 6.75KN/m
Wt. of wall= ww= 20 x 2.87 x 0.25= 14.25 KN/m
Ultimate load wu = 58.1 KN/m
Point load= 140.1 KN at 2.175m
4) Design moments-

## Ra= Rb= 339.28KN

B. M.
Mu= (339.28 x 3.44) – (140.1 x 1.26) – (58 x 3.442/2)
= 447.55 KNm
Check
Mur.max = Ru max bd2 ( here Ru max - 2.76 for M20 and Fe 415)
= 2.76 x 300 x 8302 x 10-6 = 570 KN-m >447.55KN-m
.·. Beam should be design as rectangular beam-
5) Main steel
Ast = {0.5 x 20/415} [1-√(1-(4.6 x 447.55 x 106 )/(20 x300 x 8302))]
x 300x830
=2324mm2
Provide 4 no -25mm φ & 2no-20mm φ.
6) Design of shear-
Provide as per Beam B4

Continuous beam B6
1) Span=8.62 meter = 8620 mm
2) Section assumed = 300 x 900
provide 830mm depth with effective cover 70mm.
.·. D = 900mm, & d= 830mm
3) Loads –Slab on one side S1,
w= DL+FF+LL= 25x0.12+1.75+5.7= 10.45KN/m2
ws1= 1/2w x Lx/6 =1/2 x10.45 x 2.98 = 15.57KN/m
ws2= 2/3w x Ly /2
ws2= 13 x8.62 /3= 37.35 KN/m
Self wt. wb= 25 x 0.3 x 0.9= 6.75KN/m
Wt. of wall= ww= 20 x 2.87 x 0.25= 14.25 KN/m
Ultimate load wu = 110.9 KN/m

4) Design moments-
Mu=110.9 x 8.622/12)
= 681.69 KNm
5) Main steel
Ast = {0.5 x 20/415} [1-√(1-(4.6 x 681.69 x 106 )/(20 x300 x 8302))]
x 300x830
2
=3086mm
Provide 6 no -25mm φ .
6) Design of shear-
Provide as per Beam B4
Continuous beam B7
1) Span=4.38 meter = 4380 mm
2) Section assumed = 300 x 900
provide 830mm depth with effective cover 70mm.
.·. D = 900mm, & d= 830mm
7) Loads – Slab on one side S1,
w= DL+FF+LL= 25x0.12+1.75+5.7= 10.45KN/m2
ws1= 1/2w x Lx/6 =1/2 x10.45 x 2.98 = 15.57KN/m
Self wt. wb= 25 x 0.3 x 0.9= 6.75KN/m
Ultimate load on half width due to stair wu = 122.6 KN/m
Ultimate load on half width witout stair wu = 33.48 KN/m

3) Design moments-
Ra =219.66KN and Rb= 122.14KN
Mu=219.66 x 1.76 – 122.6 x 1.762/2
= 196.72 KNm
4) Main steel
Ast = {0.5 x 20/415} [1-√(1-(4.6 x 192.76 x 106 )/(20 x300 x 8302))]
x 300x830
=698mm2
Provide 2 no -20mm φ and 1no- 12 mm φ.
5) Design of shear-
Provide 8mm φ 230mm c/c

## Simply supported beam B8

1) Span=2.98 meter = 2980 mm
Section assumed = 230 x 450
2) Loads – Slab on two side S1,
w= DL+FF+LL= 25x0.12+1.75+5.7= 10.45KN/m2
ws1= 2w x Lx/6 =2 x10.45/6 = 10.38KN/m
Self wt. wb= 25 x 0.23 x 0.6= 3.45KN/m
Wt of wall= 20 x 0.25 x 3.15 = 15.75 KN/m
3) Design moments-
Mu=w x L2/8= 44.3 x2.982/8
= 49.25 KNm
4) Main steel
Ast = {0.5 x 20/415} [1-√(1-(4.6 x 49.25 x 106 )/(20 x230 x 5602))]
x 230x560
2
=254mm
Provide 2 no -12mm φ and 1no- 10 mm φ.
5) Design of shear-
Provide 8mm φ 230mm c/c
DESIGN OF COLUMN
Load on columns from roof slab
Column Beam end shear Total wt.
1 2 3 4
C1 150.5 433.5 - - 584
C2 153.17 433.5 - 66.12 653
C3 150.5 433.5 150.5 - 735
C4 153.17 433.5 153.17 66.12 806
C5 153.17 433.5 153.17 - 740
C6 318.5 - 150.5 339.28 809
C7 318.5 339.28 153.17 66.12 877
C8 220 339.28 318.5 - 878
C9 153.17 433.5 122.14 66.12 755
C10 150.5 - 122.14 433.5 707

Maximum load on from roof slab end column C1 and C2= 653 KN
Maximum load on from roof slab intermediate column C3 to C10 = 878 KN

## Design of columns of 3rd and 2nd floor-

So here design all columns using max. load 878 KN from roof slab to 3rd floor
column. Also same load from 3rd floor level slab come to 2nd floor column. So
design of 2nd and 3rd floor column is done by using load by roof and 3rd slab and
this design is used for all 2nd and 3rd floor column.

## Pu= (roof slab load + 3rd slab load + 2 self wt of column)

Assume section of column = 300 x 600
Self wt of column= 1.5 x 25 x 0.3 x 0.6 x 3.15 = 21.26KN
Here Leff = 3.75-0.6= 3.15m
Pu= 878+878+2 x 21.26 = 1800 KN
Ag= 300 x 600= 18000mm2
Asc= Pu – (0.4 fckAg) / (0.67 x fy- 0.4fck)
= 1800 x 103 – (0.4 x 20 x 180000) / (0.67 x 415 – 0.4 x 20)
= 1333mm2
Provide 6 no.- 16mm φ & 2no. – 12mm φ @ Ast prov=1426mm2
Provide 8mm φ 4 legged stirrups at 200 c/c

## Design of columns of 1st floor-

Assume section 300 x 750mm
Pu= 878 x 3+ 21.26 x 2+ (1.5 x 25 x 3.15 x 0.3 x 0.75 )
= 2703 KN
Ag = 300 x 750= 225000mm2
Asc = 2703 x 103 –(0.4 x 20 x 225000) / (0.67 x 415- 0.4 x 20)
= 3343mm2
Provide4 no.- 25mm φ & 4no. – 20mm φ & 2 no- 12mm φ @ Ast prov=3442mm2
Provide 8mm φ 4 legged stirrups at 150 c/c

## Design of columns of ground floor-

Assume section 300 x 900mm
Pu= 878 x 4+ 21.26 x 2+26.58+ (1.5 x 25 x 4.65 x 0.3 x 0.9 )
= 3613 KN
Ag = 300 x 900= 270000mm2

## Asc = 3613 x 103 –(0.4 x 20 x 270000) / (0.67 x 415- 0.4 x 20)

= 5380mm2
Provide 10 no.- 25mm φ & 2no. – 20mm φ @ Ast prov=5528mm2
Provide 8mm φ 6 legged stirrups at 150 c/c
DESIGN OF RAFT FOUNDATION –
1) Soil bearing capacity = 150 KN/m2
End column maximum load from roof slab= 638 KN
Thus total load on footing by end column
= 638 x 4+ (2 x 25 x 3.15 x 0.3 x 0.6) + (25 x 3.15x 0.3 x 0.75)+ (25 x 4.65 x 0.3 x 0.9)
= 2630KN
Intermediate column maximum load from roof slab= 878 KN
Thus total load on footing by intermediate column
= 878 x 4+ (2 x 25 x 3.15 x 0.3 x 0.6) + (25 x 3.15x 0.3 x 0.75)+ (25 x 4.65 x 0.3 x 0.9)
= 3590KN
Total load on footing = 8 x 2630 + 24 x 3590= 107200 KN
3) Eccentricity-
Eccentricity along X direction is @ taking moment from 1-1 grid
107200 x Ẍ = 6.5(4 x 3590) + 13(4x3590)+19.5(2x3590)+21.62(2x3590)+26(4x3590)
32.5(4x3590)+39(4x3590)+45.5(4x2630)
Ẍ = 2454022/121560 = 22.89m
ex = 22.89- 22.75= 0.14 (since center of building is =45.5/2= 22.75)

## Eccentricity along Y direction is @ taking moment from D-D grid

107200x Ӯ = 6.87(2x2630+6x3590)+10.52(2x2630+6x3590)+17.39(2x2630+6x3590)
Ӯ= 932104 / 107200 = 8.695m
ey = 8.695 – 8.695 = 0
Projection of raft outside from center is 0.5m
.·. Area of footing = 18.39 x 46.5 = 855.135m2
Ix = 46.5 x 18.393/12 = 24100 m4
Iy = 18.39 x 46.53/12 = 154085 m4
Mx= P ex = 107200 x 0.14 = 15008 KNm
My = P ey = 107200 x 0 = 0
P/A= 125.36 KN/m2
4) Soil pressure-
Soil pressure at different points is-
σ = P/A± (My/ Iy ) X ± (Mx/Ix)Y
Corner A-8
σA-8 = P/A± (My/ Iy ) X ± (Mx/Ix)Y
= 125.36 + 0 + 15008 x 9.195/24100
=125.36 + 5.73 = 131.09 KN/m2 < 150 KN/m2
Corner D-8
σD-8 = 125.36-5.73 = 119.63 KN/m2
Corner A-1
σA-1 = 125.36+5.73 = 131.09 KN/m2
Corner D-1
σD-1 = 125.36-5.73 = 119.63 KN/m2

6) BM calculation-
In X direction maximum soil pressure obtained along A-A strip = 131.09 KN/m2
BM is obtained by coefficient 1/10 & length is c/c distance of columns
BM= wL2 / 10= 131.09 x 6.52 /10 = 553.85 KN-m
In Y direction maximum soil pressure obtained along 8-8 strip = 131.09 KN/m2
BM = wL2 / 10= 131.09 x 6.872 /10
= 618.7 KN-m
7) Depth for footing-
Depth will be govern by 2 way shear at exterior column
τ'c = τu = 0.25√fck = 0.25 x√20= 1.118
for corner column A-1
Perimeter bo = (50+900+0.5d)+(350+300+0.5d)
= d+1600
τu = Vu/bod = 1.5 x 2630 x 1000/ (d+1600)d = 1.118
0= d2 +1600d-3528623
d= 1242mm
For side column A-2
Perimeter bo =2 (0.5d+950)+(300+d)
= 2d+2200
τu = Vu/bod = 1.5 x 3590 x 1000/ (2d+2200)d = 1.118
0= d2 +1100d-2281780
d=1058mm
Adopt effective depth = 1242 +40cover = 1282 say 1300mm
8) Steel reinforcement
Ast = {0.5 x 20/415} [1-√(1-(4.6 x 618.7 x 106 )/(20 x1000 x13002))]
x 1000x1300
=1348mm2 /meter
Provide -20mm φ @230mm c/c at top and bottom both way.
Ast provided = 1365mm2 per meter