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EXAMPLE OF TRIAL RAFT

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In every building construction project, once functional planning is over, the stage

comes to analyze and design the structural member of building. Here proposed building

is of four storied school building. This building is designed by using Limit state method

of design of reinforced concrete structure and S. I. Units. The design is based on IS

456:2000. Before starting design the soil investigation is carried out to know about the

strata available for foundation. The soil investigation report shows that soil below the

proposed building site is of black cotton soil having bearing capacity 150KN/m². Type of

foundation is depending on soil bearing capacity and load coming from superstructure.

Since load coming on footing is very heavy because of four storied building and as the

bearing capacity is low it may tends to design raft foundation for proposed building.

Other structural members are designed as per requirement of functional plan, i.e. slab,

beam and column.

1) Building type: G+ 3 RCC school building.

2) Plan: As shown in ground floor plan. (Same typical plan is used for all 4 floors.)

3) Details : Area of building = 45.8m x 18.29m= 837.7 m²

Floor to floor height= 3.75m

Height of plinth= 0.75m

Dept of foundation= 2.5m

4) Loads: live load = 3+ 2.7= 5.7 KN/m

Floor finish load = 1.75 KN/m

Unit weight of concrete = 25 KN/m³

Unit weight of brick wall = 20 KN/m³

5) Specifications:

Concrete: M20 Grade

Steel: Fe 415 Grade

Wall: 230mm Thick duly plastered

Bearing capacity of soil = 150 KN/ m²

This typical plan is use same for all 4 floors.

DESIGN OF SLAB

One way continuous slab- S1

1) Span= 2.51 meter = 2510 mm

2) Trial depth – Basic L/d ratio for continuous slab rb = 26

Assume Pt= 0.3% for M20, Fe 415. Modification factor α1= 1.5 by curve from IS

456

required depth= d = 2510 / (1.5 x 26) = 64.35mm

provide 100mm depth with effective cover 20mm.

.·. D = 120mm, & d= 100mm

3) Loads – Consider 1m width of slab,

Dead load wd= Self wt. + F. F. load = 25 x 0.12 x 1 + 1.75 = 4.75 KN/m

Live load ws = 3 + 2.7 = 5.7 KN/m

Ultimate load wu = 1.5(4.75+ 5.7) = 15.68 KN/m

4) Design moments-

B. M. using IS code coefficients for continuous slab

Mu= 1.5 (αd wd L²+ αL wL L²)

Mu1= 1.5(4.75 x 2.512/12+ 5.7 x 2.512//10) = 6.182 KN-m

Mu2= 1.5(4.75 x 2.512/10+ 5.7 x 2.512//9) = 10.47 KN-m

Mu3= 1.5(4.75 x 2.512/16+ 5.7 x 2.512//12) = 7.29 KN-m

Mu4= 1.5(4.75 x 2.512/12+ 5.7 x 2.512//9) = 9.73 KN-m

5) Check for concrete depth:

Mur.max = Ru max bd2 ( here Ru max - 2.76 for M20 and Fe 415)

= 2.76 x 1000 x 1002 x 10-6 = 27.6 KN-m ˃10.47 KN-m

6) Main steel

Ast = {0.5 x 20/415} [1-√(1-(4.6 x 10.47 x 106 )/(20 x 1000 x 1002))]

x 1000 x 100

=320mm2

For 8 mm steel-

Spacing S= 1000 x 50/320= 156mm

Provide 8mm φ @ 150 c/c.

7) Distribution steel-

Ast = 0.12 % of bd

= 0.12 x 1000 x 100/100

=120mm2

Provide 8mm φ @ 300 c/c.

Two way slab- S2

1) Span= 8.62 meter x 7.54 meter

Aspect ratio = Ly/Lx= 8.62/7.54= 1.14 .·. Thus design 2 way.

2) Trial depth – Since span length is more than 3.5m deflection criteria is same as

one way slab, .·. Basic L/d ratio for continuous slab rb = 26

Assume Pt= 3% for M20, Fe 415. Modification factor α1= 1.48 by curve from IS

456

Required depth= d = 7540 / (1.48 x 26) = 196mm

Provide 196mm depth with effective cover 25mm.

.·. D = 221mm, say 220mm & d0= 195mm and d1=185

3) Loads – Consider 1m width of slab,

Dead load wd= Self wt. + F. F. load = 25 x 0.22 x 1 + 1.75 = 7.25 KN/m

Live load ws = 3 + 2.7 = 5.7 KN/m

Ultimate load wu = 1.5(4.75+ 5.7) = 19.42 KN/m

4) Design moments-

B. M. using IS code coefficients for boundary cond. Of 2 way slab

Is interior panel.

.·. B.M.= wu x Lx2 =19.43 x 7.542 =1104.62 KNm.

From IS456 B.M. coeff. For short span are-

-αx = 0.037+(0. α043-0.037)(1.14-1.1)/0.1= 0.039

+αx = 0.028+(0.032-0.028)(1.14-1.1)/0.1= 0.03

Span position BM coeff. Mu=α w L2

Mur.max = Ru max bd2 ( here Ru max - 2.76 for M20 and Fe 415)

Mur.max1 = 2.76 x 1000 x 1952 x 10-6 = 104.95 KN-m ˃43.08 KN-m

Mur.max2 = 2.76 x 1000 x 1852 x 10-6 = 94.46 KN-m ˃43.08 KN-m

6) Main steel

Ast = {0.5 x 20/415} [1-√(1-(4.6 x Mu )/(20 x 1000 x d2))] x 1000 x d

Short- support 43.08 195 658 10 φ-115mm c/c 683

Short-midspan 33.13 195 497 10 φ-150mm c/c 524

Long- support 35.35 185 566 10 φ-125mm c/c 628

Long -midspan 22.09 185 344 10 φ-225mm c/c 349

7) Distribution steel-

Provide 8mm φ @ 250 c/c.

8) Check for deflection

Required Pt. at midspan of short span

=497x100/(1000 x 100)= 0.25 < 0.3% .·. ok.

Cantilever slab- S3

1) Span= 1.5 meter = 1500 mm

2) Trial depth – Basic L/d ratio for continuous slab rb = 7

Assume Pt= 0.2% for M20, Fe 415. Modification factor α1= 1.7 by curve from IS

456

required depth= d = 1500 / (1.7 x 26) = 126mm say 130mm

provide 100mm depth with effective cover 20mm.

.·. D = 150mm, & d= 130mm

3) Loads – Consider 1m width of slab,

Ultimate load wu = 1.5(25 x 0.15+1.75+4) = 14.25 KN/m

4) Design moments-

B. M. using IS code coefficients for continuous slab

Mu= wu x L2/2

= 14.25 x 1.52/2 = 16.03 KNm

Check for concrete depth:

Mur.max = Ru max bd2 ( here Ru max - 2.76 for M20 and Fe 415)

= 2.76 x 1000 x 1302 x 10-6 = 46.6 KN-m ˃16.3 KN-m

5) Main steel

Ast = {0.5 x 20/415} [1-√ (1-(4.6 x 16.3 x 106) / (20 x 1000 x 1302))]

x 1000 x 130

=285mm2

For 8 mm steel-

Spacing S= 1000 x 50/285= 156mm

Provide 8mm φ @ 175 c/c.

6) Distribution steel-

Ast = 0.15 % of bd

= 0.15 x 1000 x 130/100

=225mm2

Provide 8mm φ @ 220 c/c.

7) Check for deflection –

Pt = 100 x 284.3/(1000 x 130) = 0.22> 0.2% assumed

Therefore detailed deflection check is required.

Ast req. = 284.3 mm2, Ast prov. = 285.7 mm2

Steel stress fs = 0.58 x 415 x 284.3/285.7

= 239.5

Pt. provided = 100 x 285.7/ (1000 x 1302) = 0.22

.·. α1= 1.65

Req. d= 1000/ (1.65 x 7) = 129.87 <130 mm2 .·. Ok.

Stair waist slab- ST

1) Width of stair = 4.38/2 = 2.19m

Floor to floor height = 3750mm.

Functional design –

Rise= 150mm, & Trade =300mm

No. of riser= 25no.

No. of riser for 1st flight= 12 and for 2nd flight= 13

No. of trade for 1st and 2nd flight are 11 and 12 respectively.

Going= 3300mm for 1st flight and 3600mm for 2nd flight.

Width of landing= 2000mm.

Length of 1st flight= 3300+ 2000+230= 5530mm

2) Design of flight-

One way simply supported inclined slab

Trial depth – Basic L/d ratio for continuous slab rb =20

Assume Pt= 4% for M20, Fe 415. Modification factor α1= 1.32 by IS 456

required depth= d = 5530 / (1.32 x 20) = 209mm say 210mm

provide 210mm depth with effective cover 20mm.

.·. D = 230mm, & d= 210mm

3) Loads –

Self wt= 25D X sec φ here secφ= √(3002+1502)/300

=25 x 0.23 x 1.12= 6.44 KN/m2

Wt. of steps= 25 x 0.23 x 0.15/2= 1.88KN/m2

Live load= 5 KN/ m2

F.F. load= 1 KN/ m2

Ultimate load wu = 1.5(14.32) = 21.48 KN/ m2

4) Design moments-

B. M. using IS code coefficients for continuous slab

Mu= wu x L2/8

= 21.48 x 5.532/8 = 82.11 KNm

Check for concrete depth:

Mur.max = Ru max bd2 ( here Ru max - 2.76 for M20 and Fe 415)

= 2.76 x 1000 x 2102 x 10-6 = 121.71 KN-m ˃82.11 KN-m

5) Main steel

Ast = {0.5 x 20/415} [1-√(1-(4.6 x 82.11 x 106 )/(20 x 1000 x 2102))]

x 1000 x 210

=1234.12mm2

For 12 mmφ steel-

Spacing S= 1000 x 113/1234= 91.57mm

Provide 12mm φ @ 90mm c/c.

6) Distribution steel-

Ast = 0.15 % of bd

= 0.15 x 1000 x 210/100

=315mm2

Provide 8mm φ @ 150 c/c.

DESIGN OF BEAMS

Simply supported beam B1

1) Span= 6.5 meter = 6500 mm

2) Section assumed = 300 x450

Trial depth-L/16= 6500/16= 406mm

provide 410mm depth with effective cover 40mm.

.·. D = 450mm, & d= 410mm

3) Loads –Slab on both side,

w= DL+FF+LL= 25x0.12+1.75+5.7= 10.45KN/m2

ws= w x Lx =10.45 x 2.51 = 26.23KN/m

Self wt. wb= 25 x 0.3 x (0.45-0.12)= 2.48 KN/m

Ultimate load wu = 1.5(26.23+2.48) = 43.1 KN/m

4) Design moments-

B. M.

Mu= wu x L2/12

= 43.1 x 6.52/12 = 151.75 KNm

Check

Mur.max = Ru max bd2 (here Ru max - 2.76 for M20 and Fe 415)

= 2.76 x 300 x 4102 x 10-6 = 139.18 KN-m <151.75 KN-m

.·. Beam should be design as flanged beam-

Lo= 0.7 L= 0.7 x 6500= 4550mm

bf = Lo/6 + 6 Df + bw =4550/6 + 6 x 120+ 300= 1778mm

for xu =Df

Mu= 0.36 fck bf Df (d- 0.42 Df)

=0.36 x 20 x 1778 x 120 (410 – 0.42 x 120) x 10-6 = 553.39> 151.75KNm

5) Main steel

Ast = {0.5 x 20/415} [1-√(1-(4.6 x 151.75 x 106 )/(20 x 1778 x 4102))]

x 1778 x410

=1050mm2

Provide 6 no -16mm φ @ in two rows Ast prov=1206mm2.

6) Design of shear-

Vumax = 43.1 x 6.5/2= 140.1 KN

Vud = Vumax - ww(b/2 + d)

= 140.1 – 43.1(300/2 + 410)/ 1000= 115.9 KN

Here Ast prov=1206mm2, .·. Pt= 0.89%

For M20 and Pt= 0.89, from IS 456 Ʈuc= 0.594

Vuc = Ʈuc bd= 0.594 x 300 x 450/1000= 80.19 KN

Vusv.min= 0.4 bd= 0.4 x 300 x 400= 54 KN

Vur.min=80.19 + 54= 134.19KN > Vud

.·. Minimum stirrups are sufficient

Provide 8mm φ @ 300c/c

Continuous beam B2

1) Span= 6.5 meter = 6500 mm

2) Section assumed = 230 x 600

provide 560mm depth with effective cover 40mm.

.·. D = 600mm, & d= 560mm

3) Loads –Slab on both side,

w= DL+FF+LL= 25x0.12+1.75+5.7= 10.45KN/m2

ws= 1/2w x Lx =1/2 x10.45 x 2.51 = 13.11KN/m

Self wt. wb= 25 x 0.3 x (0.6-0.12)= 2.76 KN/m

Wt. of wall= ww= 20 x 3.0 x 0.25= 15 KN/m

Ultimate load wu = 1.5(30.87) = 46.31 KN/m

4) Design moments-

B. M.

Mu= wu x L2/12

= 46.31 x 6.52/12 = 163.05 KNm

Check

Mur.max = Ru max bd2 ( here Ru max - 2.76 for M20 and Fe 415)

= 2.76 x 300 x 5602 x 10-6 = 199 KN-m >163.05KN-m

.·. Beam should be design as rectangular beam-

5) Main steel

Ast = {0.5 x 20/415} [1-√(1-(4.6 x 163.05 x 106 )/(20 x 230 x 5602))]

x 230 x560

=954mm2

Provide 2 no -20mm φ & 2no-16mm φ @ Ast prov=1028mm2.

6) Design of shear-

Vumax = 46.1 x 6.5/2= 150.5 KN

Here Ast prov=1206mm2, .·. Pt= 0.8%

For M20 and Pt= 0.89, from IS 456 Ʈuc= 0.572

Vuc = Ʈuc bd= 73.67 KN

Vusv.min= 0.4 bd= 0.4 x 230 x 560= 51.52 KN

Vur.min=73.67+ 51.52= 125.2KN < Vumax = 150.5 KN

.·. Extra stirrups are req.

Vsv=Vud- Vuc= 150.5- 73.67= 76.83KN

Provide 8mm φ 2 legged stirrups

S= 0.87fy Asv d/ Vsv= 0.87 x 415 x 100x 560/76.83 x 1000

= 263mm

Provide 250mm c/c.

Continuous beam B3

1) Span= 6.5 meter = 6500 mm

2) Section assumed = 230 x 600

provide 560mm depth with effective cover 40mm.

.·. D = 600mm, & d= 560mm

3) Loads –Slab on one side,

w= DL+FF+LL= 25x0.12+1.75+5.7= 10.45KN/m2

ws1= 1/2w x Lx =1/2 x10.45 x 2.51 = 13.11KN/m

ws2= 1/2w x Lx =1/2 x10.45 x 2.98 = 15.57KN/m

Self wt. wb= 25 x 0.3 x (0.6)= 3.45KN/m

Wt. of wall= ww= 20 x 3.0 x 0.25= 15 KN/m

Ultimate load wu = 47.13 KN/m

4) Design moments-

B. M.

Mu= wu x L2/12

= 47.13 x 6.52/12 = 166 KNm

Check

Mur.max = Ru max bd2 ( here Ru max - 2.76 for M20 and Fe 415)

= 2.76 x 300 x 5602 x 10-6 = 199 KN-m >163.05KN-m

.·. Beam should be design as rectangular beam-

5) Main steel

Ast = {0.5 x 20/415} [1-√(1-(4.6 x 166 x 106 )/(20 x 230 x 5602))]

x 230 x560

2

=975mm

Provide 2 no -20mm φ & 2no-16mm φ @ Ast prov=1028mm2.

6) Design of shear-

Vumax = 47.13 x 6.5/2= 153.15 KN

Here Ast prov=1206mm2, .·. Pt= 0.8%

For M20 and Pt= 0.89, from IS 456 Ʈuc= 0.572

Vuc = Ʈuc bd= 73.67 KN

Vusv.min= 0.4 bd= 0.4 x 230 x 560= 51.52 KN

Vur.min=73.67+ 51.52= 125.2KN < Vumax = 153.15 KN

.·. Extra stirrups are req.

Vsv=Vud- Vuc= 153.15- 73.67= 79.53KN

Provide 8mm φ 2 legged stirrups

S= 0.87fy Asv d/ Vsv= 0.87 x 415 x 100x 560/79.53 x 1000

= 254mm

Provide 250mm c/c.

Simply supported beam B4

1) Span= 6..87meter = 6870 mm

2) Section assumed = 300 x 900

provide 830mm depth with effective cover 70mm.

.·. D = 900mm, & d= 830mm

3) Loads –Slab on one side,

w= DL+FF+LL= 25x0.12+1.75+5.7= 10.45KN/m2

ws= 2 x w x Lx/6 =2 x10.45 x 2.51/6 = 8.74KN/m

Self wt. wb= 25 x 0.3 x 0.9= 6.75KN/m

Wt. of wall= ww= 20 x 2.85 x 0.25= 14.25 KN/m

Ultimate load wu = 44.61 KN/m

Point load= 140 KN from 2.175m from both end.

4) Design moments-

Max. bending moment is at center

Mu = (433.5 x 3.44) – (280.2 x 1.26) – (44.61 x 3.442)

= 875 KN

Check

Mur.max = Ru max bd2 ( here Ru max - 2.76 for M20 and Fe 415)

= 2.76 x 300 x 8302 x 10-6 = 570.4 KN-m <875KN-m

.·. Beam should be design as rectangular beam doubly reinforced-

5) Main steel

Ast = Mur.max / 0.87fy (d- 0.42xumax)

Here xumax = 0.48 x 830 = 398mm

Ast1 = 570.4/ 0.87 x 415 x (830- 0.42 x 398) = 2383 mm2

Mu2 = MuD -Mur.max = 875-570.4= 304.6KN

Ast2 = 304.6 x 106 / 0.87 x 415 x (830-45)

=1075 mm2

Ast= Ast1+ Ast2=3458 mm2

Provide 6 no -25mm φ & 2no-20mm φ @ Ast prov=3568mm2.

6) Compression steel-

dc/d = 45/830 = 0.0542

Ɛsc= 0.0035(1-dc/d)= 0.0033

xu= 398mm

Ɛsc= 0.0035(1-45/398)=0.0031

From table , fsc=354.8 N/mm2

Asc = 0.87 fy Ast2/fsc

= 0.87 x 415 x 1075 /354.8 = 1094 mm2

Provide 2-25 φ & 1-16 φ @ Ast prov=1181mm2.

7) Design of shear-

Vumax = Va=Vb= 433.5 KN

For M20 and Pt= 1.39, from IS 456 Ʈuc= 0.698

Vuc = Ʈuc bd= 173.8KN

Vusv.min= 0.4 bd= 0.4 x300 x830= 99.6 KN

Vur.min=173.8+ 99.6= 273.4KN < Vumax = 433.5 KN

.·. Extra stirrups are req.

Vsv=Vud- Vuc= 433.5-1 73.8= 259KN

Provide 8mm φ 2 legged stirrups

S= 0.87fy Asv d/ Vsv= 0.87 x 415 x 100x830/259.7 x 1000

= 115mm

Provide110mm c/c.

1) Span= 6.87 meter = 6870 mm

2) Section assumed = 300 x 900

provide 830mm depth with effective cover 70mm.

.·. D = 900mm, & d= 830mm

3) Loads –Slab on one side S1,

w= DL+FF+LL= 25x0.12+1.75+5.7= 10.45KN/m2

ws1= 1/2w x Lx =1/2 x10.45 x 2.51/6 = 4.37KN/m

two way slab trapezoidal load

ws2= 1/2w x Ly x k1

here k1= 1-(1/3β2)= 0.3 since β=1.06 from 2 way slab

ws2= 19.243 x 6.87 x 0.3/2= 13.39 KN/m

Self wt. wb= 25 x 0.3 x 0.9= 6.75KN/m

Wt. of wall= ww= 20 x 2.87 x 0.25= 14.25 KN/m

Ultimate load wu = 58.1 KN/m

Point load= 140.1 KN at 2.175m

4) Design moments-

B. M.

Mu= (339.28 x 3.44) – (140.1 x 1.26) – (58 x 3.442/2)

= 447.55 KNm

Check

Mur.max = Ru max bd2 ( here Ru max - 2.76 for M20 and Fe 415)

= 2.76 x 300 x 8302 x 10-6 = 570 KN-m >447.55KN-m

.·. Beam should be design as rectangular beam-

5) Main steel

Ast = {0.5 x 20/415} [1-√(1-(4.6 x 447.55 x 106 )/(20 x300 x 8302))]

x 300x830

=2324mm2

Provide 4 no -25mm φ & 2no-20mm φ.

6) Design of shear-

Provide as per Beam B4

Continuous beam B6

1) Span=8.62 meter = 8620 mm

2) Section assumed = 300 x 900

provide 830mm depth with effective cover 70mm.

.·. D = 900mm, & d= 830mm

3) Loads –Slab on one side S1,

w= DL+FF+LL= 25x0.12+1.75+5.7= 10.45KN/m2

ws1= 1/2w x Lx/6 =1/2 x10.45 x 2.98 = 15.57KN/m

two way slab trapezoidal load

ws2= 2/3w x Ly /2

ws2= 13 x8.62 /3= 37.35 KN/m

Self wt. wb= 25 x 0.3 x 0.9= 6.75KN/m

Wt. of wall= ww= 20 x 2.87 x 0.25= 14.25 KN/m

Ultimate load wu = 110.9 KN/m

4) Design moments-

Mu=110.9 x 8.622/12)

= 681.69 KNm

5) Main steel

Ast = {0.5 x 20/415} [1-√(1-(4.6 x 681.69 x 106 )/(20 x300 x 8302))]

x 300x830

2

=3086mm

Provide 6 no -25mm φ .

6) Design of shear-

Provide as per Beam B4

Continuous beam B7

1) Span=4.38 meter = 4380 mm

2) Section assumed = 300 x 900

provide 830mm depth with effective cover 70mm.

.·. D = 900mm, & d= 830mm

7) Loads – Slab on one side S1,

w= DL+FF+LL= 25x0.12+1.75+5.7= 10.45KN/m2

ws1= 1/2w x Lx/6 =1/2 x10.45 x 2.98 = 15.57KN/m

Stair load = 59.39 KN/m

Self wt. wb= 25 x 0.3 x 0.9= 6.75KN/m

Ultimate load on half width due to stair wu = 122.6 KN/m

Ultimate load on half width witout stair wu = 33.48 KN/m

3) Design moments-

Ra =219.66KN and Rb= 122.14KN

Mu=219.66 x 1.76 – 122.6 x 1.762/2

= 196.72 KNm

4) Main steel

Ast = {0.5 x 20/415} [1-√(1-(4.6 x 192.76 x 106 )/(20 x300 x 8302))]

x 300x830

=698mm2

Provide 2 no -20mm φ and 1no- 12 mm φ.

5) Design of shear-

Provide 8mm φ 230mm c/c

1) Span=2.98 meter = 2980 mm

Section assumed = 230 x 450

2) Loads – Slab on two side S1,

w= DL+FF+LL= 25x0.12+1.75+5.7= 10.45KN/m2

ws1= 2w x Lx/6 =2 x10.45/6 = 10.38KN/m

Self wt. wb= 25 x 0.23 x 0.6= 3.45KN/m

Wt of wall= 20 x 0.25 x 3.15 = 15.75 KN/m

Ultimate load = 44.37KN/m

3) Design moments-

Mu=w x L2/8= 44.3 x2.982/8

= 49.25 KNm

4) Main steel

Ast = {0.5 x 20/415} [1-√(1-(4.6 x 49.25 x 106 )/(20 x230 x 5602))]

x 230x560

2

=254mm

Provide 2 no -12mm φ and 1no- 10 mm φ.

5) Design of shear-

Provide 8mm φ 230mm c/c

DESIGN OF COLUMN

Load on columns from roof slab

Column Beam end shear Total wt.

1 2 3 4

C1 150.5 433.5 - - 584

C2 153.17 433.5 - 66.12 653

C3 150.5 433.5 150.5 - 735

C4 153.17 433.5 153.17 66.12 806

C5 153.17 433.5 153.17 - 740

C6 318.5 - 150.5 339.28 809

C7 318.5 339.28 153.17 66.12 877

C8 220 339.28 318.5 - 878

C9 153.17 433.5 122.14 66.12 755

C10 150.5 - 122.14 433.5 707

Maximum load on from roof slab end column C1 and C2= 653 KN

Maximum load on from roof slab intermediate column C3 to C10 = 878 KN

So here design all columns using max. load 878 KN from roof slab to 3rd floor

column. Also same load from 3rd floor level slab come to 2nd floor column. So

design of 2nd and 3rd floor column is done by using load by roof and 3rd slab and

this design is used for all 2nd and 3rd floor column.

Assume section of column = 300 x 600

Self wt of column= 1.5 x 25 x 0.3 x 0.6 x 3.15 = 21.26KN

Here Leff = 3.75-0.6= 3.15m

Pu= 878+878+2 x 21.26 = 1800 KN

Ag= 300 x 600= 18000mm2

Asc= Pu – (0.4 fckAg) / (0.67 x fy- 0.4fck)

= 1800 x 103 – (0.4 x 20 x 180000) / (0.67 x 415 – 0.4 x 20)

= 1333mm2

Provide 6 no.- 16mm φ & 2no. – 12mm φ @ Ast prov=1426mm2

Provide 8mm φ 4 legged stirrups at 200 c/c

Assume section 300 x 750mm

Pu= 878 x 3+ 21.26 x 2+ (1.5 x 25 x 3.15 x 0.3 x 0.75 )

= 2703 KN

Ag = 300 x 750= 225000mm2

Asc = 2703 x 103 –(0.4 x 20 x 225000) / (0.67 x 415- 0.4 x 20)

= 3343mm2

Provide4 no.- 25mm φ & 4no. – 20mm φ & 2 no- 12mm φ @ Ast prov=3442mm2

Provide 8mm φ 4 legged stirrups at 150 c/c

Assume section 300 x 900mm

Pu= 878 x 4+ 21.26 x 2+26.58+ (1.5 x 25 x 4.65 x 0.3 x 0.9 )

= 3613 KN

Ag = 300 x 900= 270000mm2

= 5380mm2

Provide 10 no.- 25mm φ & 2no. – 20mm φ @ Ast prov=5528mm2

Provide 8mm φ 6 legged stirrups at 150 c/c

DESIGN OF RAFT FOUNDATION –

1) Soil bearing capacity = 150 KN/m2

2)Load calculation

End column maximum load from roof slab= 638 KN

Thus total load on footing by end column

= 638 x 4+ (2 x 25 x 3.15 x 0.3 x 0.6) + (25 x 3.15x 0.3 x 0.75)+ (25 x 4.65 x 0.3 x 0.9)

= 2630KN

Intermediate column maximum load from roof slab= 878 KN

Thus total load on footing by intermediate column

= 878 x 4+ (2 x 25 x 3.15 x 0.3 x 0.6) + (25 x 3.15x 0.3 x 0.75)+ (25 x 4.65 x 0.3 x 0.9)

= 3590KN

Total load on footing = 8 x 2630 + 24 x 3590= 107200 KN

3) Eccentricity-

Eccentricity along X direction is @ taking moment from 1-1 grid

107200 x Ẍ = 6.5(4 x 3590) + 13(4x3590)+19.5(2x3590)+21.62(2x3590)+26(4x3590)

32.5(4x3590)+39(4x3590)+45.5(4x2630)

Ẍ = 2454022/121560 = 22.89m

ex = 22.89- 22.75= 0.14 (since center of building is =45.5/2= 22.75)

107200x Ӯ = 6.87(2x2630+6x3590)+10.52(2x2630+6x3590)+17.39(2x2630+6x3590)

Ӯ= 932104 / 107200 = 8.695m

ey = 8.695 – 8.695 = 0

Projection of raft outside from center is 0.5m

.·. Area of footing = 18.39 x 46.5 = 855.135m2

Ix = 46.5 x 18.393/12 = 24100 m4

Iy = 18.39 x 46.53/12 = 154085 m4

Mx= P ex = 107200 x 0.14 = 15008 KNm

My = P ey = 107200 x 0 = 0

P/A= 125.36 KN/m2

4) Soil pressure-

Soil pressure at different points is-

σ = P/A± (My/ Iy ) X ± (Mx/Ix)Y

Corner A-8

σA-8 = P/A± (My/ Iy ) X ± (Mx/Ix)Y

= 125.36 + 0 + 15008 x 9.195/24100

=125.36 + 5.73 = 131.09 KN/m2 < 150 KN/m2

Corner D-8

σD-8 = 125.36-5.73 = 119.63 KN/m2

Corner A-1

σA-1 = 125.36+5.73 = 131.09 KN/m2

Corner D-1

σD-1 = 125.36-5.73 = 119.63 KN/m2

6) BM calculation-

In X direction maximum soil pressure obtained along A-A strip = 131.09 KN/m2

BM is obtained by coefficient 1/10 & length is c/c distance of columns

BM= wL2 / 10= 131.09 x 6.52 /10 = 553.85 KN-m

In Y direction maximum soil pressure obtained along 8-8 strip = 131.09 KN/m2

BM = wL2 / 10= 131.09 x 6.872 /10

= 618.7 KN-m

7) Depth for footing-

Depth will be govern by 2 way shear at exterior column

τ'c = τu = 0.25√fck = 0.25 x√20= 1.118

for corner column A-1

Perimeter bo = (50+900+0.5d)+(350+300+0.5d)

= d+1600

τu = Vu/bod = 1.5 x 2630 x 1000/ (d+1600)d = 1.118

0= d2 +1600d-3528623

d= 1242mm

For side column A-2

Perimeter bo =2 (0.5d+950)+(300+d)

= 2d+2200

τu = Vu/bod = 1.5 x 3590 x 1000/ (2d+2200)d = 1.118

0= d2 +1100d-2281780

d=1058mm

Adopt effective depth = 1242 +40cover = 1282 say 1300mm

8) Steel reinforcement

Ast = {0.5 x 20/415} [1-√(1-(4.6 x 618.7 x 106 )/(20 x1000 x13002))]

x 1000x1300

=1348mm2 /meter

Provide -20mm φ @230mm c/c at top and bottom both way.

Ast provided = 1365mm2 per meter

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