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# ME 461

Control Engineering

## Dr. Sumon Saha

Assistant Professor
Department of Mechanical Engineering
Bangladesh University of Engineering and Technology
Wednesday, March 25, 2015
Control Course Syllabus
Engineering
 Introduction to control systems and their representation
by different equations and Laplace transforms
 Block diagrams and transfer functions
 Analog computer solution of system equations
 System response, control action and system types
 Frequency response
 System analysis
 System compensation
 Analogues to control systems
 Hydraulic and pneumatic control systems
 Elements of electro-mechanical controls
 Introduction to digital computer control
Control Sample Questions
Engineering (Topic: Control System)

##  What are the objectives of automatic control system?

 Functionally, how do closed-loop systems differ from open-
loop system?
 Do you think a closed loop system is always advantageous
over an open loop system?
 With appropriate examples, discuss the differences between
open loop and closed loop control systems.
 With examples discuss the differences between regulator and
follow up systems of feedback control.
 Discuss the steps to be followed during feedback control
system design.
 “A very precise system is more prone to unstable” – explain
briefly.
Control Today’s topic
Engineering

Mathematical Modelling
Control Mathematical Models
Engineering
 A mathematical model usually describes a system by means of
variables.
 Think how systems behave with time when subject to some
disturbances or action.
 The basis for any mathematical model is provided by the
fundamental physical laws that govern the behavior of the system.
 Sometimes experimental procedures are necessary.
 But no mathematical model can represent a physical system
completely.
 Approximations and assumptions restrict the validity of the model.
 Systems can be made up from a range of building blocks.
 Each building block is considered to have a single property or
function.
Control Classification of System Models
Engineering
Control Mathematical Modeling Procedure
Engineering

## Flowchart for the mathematical

modeling procedure
Control Mechanical System Building
Engineering Blocks (Translational)

##  Basic building block: spring, dashpots, and masses.

 Springs represent the stiffness of a system.
 Dashpots represent the forces opposing motion, for example
frictional or damping effects.
 Masses represent the inertia or resistance to acceleration.
 Mechanical systems does not have to be really made up of
springs, dashpots, and masses but have the properties of
stiffness, damping, and inertia.
 All these building blocks may be considered to have a force
as an input and displacement as an output.
Control Modeling Mechanical
Engineering System (Translational)
Control Modeling Mechanical
Engineering System (Translational)
Example: Spring-mass-damper system

d 2x dx
m 2 + b + kx = F
dt dt

y1

M body of a car

y2
b K

x
Kω •m
Control Building Mechanical System
Engineering

y (‘+’ve)

d2y
F =M 2
dt

## Mathematical model of the

Spring-mass-damper system system
with an input. Here x is input
d2y dy
displacement and y is output ↓ ∑ F = 0 ⇒M 2 + c + ky = kx
dt dt
displacement.
Control Building Mechanical System
Engineering

y (‘+’ve)

d2y
F =M 2
dt

## Mathematical model of the

Spring-mass-damper system system
with an input. Here y is output
d2y dy
displacement. ↓ ∑ F = 0 ⇒M 2 + c + ky = 0
dt dt
Control Building Mechanical System
Engineering
x (‘+’ve)
b(dx/dt)
m(d2x/dt2) m F
kx
Free body diagram

## Mathematical model of the

system
Spring-mass-damper system
d 2x dx
with an input. Here F is input → ∑ F = 0 ⇒m 2 + b + kx = F
dt dt
force and x is output
displacement.
Control Building Mechanical System
Engineering
Here f(t) is input force and
x(t) is output displacement.

x (‘+’ve)
fv(dx/dt)
M(d2x/dt2) M f(t) Free body diagram
Ks x
Mathematical model of the system
d 2 x (t ) dx ( t )
→ ∑ F = 0 ⇒M 2
+ fv + Ks x (t ) = f (t )
dt dt
Control Building Mechanical System
Engineering
m(d2x/dt2) c(dx/dt)
Position with
kx
spring relaxed kδ
δ
Reference Position
(x = 0)
m

x (‘+’ve)
x
mg F
Free body diagram
Spring-mass-damper system
with an input. Here F is input When the system at rest, mg = kδ
force and x is output Mathematical model of the system
displacement.
d 2x dx
↓ ∑ F = 0 ⇒m 2 + c + kx = F
dt dt
Control Building Mechanical System
Engineering
Forces on m1 due to only motion of m1
b(dx/dt)
k2 x
x (‘+’ve)

m1

k1 x k1 u
m1(d2x/dt2)
Spring-mass-damper system
with an input. Here u(t) is input Free body diagram
displacement and x(t) is output
displacement.
Control Building Mechanical System
Engineering
Forces on m1 due to Free body diagram Forces on m1 due to
only motion of m1 All Forces on m1 only motion of m2
b(dx/dt) b(dy/dt - dx/dt) b(dy/dt)
k2 x k2(y-x) k2 y
x (‘+’ve) x (‘+’ve) x (‘+’ve)

m1 m1 m1

k1 x k1 u k1(x-u)
m1(d2x/dt2) m1(d2x/dt2)
d 2x  dy dx 
↓ ∑ F = 0 ⇒m1 2 − b  −  + k1 ( x − u ) − k2 ( y − x ) = 0
dt  dt dt 
Control Building Mechanical System
Engineering
Forces on m2 due to only motion of m1

y (‘+’ve)

m2

k2 x b(dx/dt)

Spring-mass-damper system
with an input. Here u(t) is input Free body diagram
displacement and x(t) is output
displacement.
Control Building Mechanical System
Engineering
Forces on m2 due to Free body diagram Forces on m2 due to
only motion of m1 All Forces on m2 only motion of m2
m2(d2y/dt2)
y (‘+’ve) m2(d2y/dt2) y (‘+’ve)
y (‘+’ve)
m2 m2
m2

k2 x b(dx/dt) k2 y b(dy/dt)
k2(y-x)
b(dy/dt - dx/dt)
d2y  dy dx 
↓ ∑ F = 0 ⇒m2 2 + b  −  + k2 ( y − x ) = 0
dt  dt dt 
Control Class Practice
Engineering
Find the relationship(s) for the system below where u is the input
force, and x1 and x2 are the output displacements of masses m1
and m2, respectively.

Answer:
Control Important Problem
Engineering
The diagram below illustrates a mass m constrained to move
horizontally, and connected to ground by a parallel arrangement of a
spring of stiffness K and a spring of stiffness k in series with a dashpot
of coefficient c. A force u(t) is applied to the mass. The inertial
displacement and velocity of the mass are denoted by y(t) and v(t),
respectively. The displacement of the junction of the shorter spring
and the dashpot is denoted by yo(t). Using the state vector x = [y v
yo]T, show that the equations of motion for this system with input equal
to the force u are
Control Solution
Engineering
 dy   
 dt   0 1 0  0
    y   
dv   K + k k   1 
ɺx =  = − 0 v + u
 dt   m m  m
     yo   
 dyo   k 0 −
k  0
 dt   c c 

dy
=v
dt
dv K +k k u
=− y + yo +
dt m m m
dyo k k
= y − yo
dt c c
Control Solution
Engineering
k(y-yo)
m(d2y/dt2) m u
Ky

d2y
m 2 + Ky + k ( y − yo ) − u = 0
dt
dv
m + ( K + k ) y − kyo − u = 0
dt
dv K +k k u
=− y + yo +
dt m m m
Control Solution
Engineering

## c(dyo/dt) M=0 k(yo - y)

dyo
c + k ( yo − y ) = 0
dt
dyo
c = k ( y − yo )
dt
dyo k k
= y − yo
dt c c
Control Mechanical System Building
Engineering Blocks (Rotational)
• If rotation is involved, then the equivalent three building blocks
are a torsional spring, a rotary damper and the moment of
inertia (i.e., the inertia of a rotating mass).
• With a torsional spring the angle θ rotated is proportional to the
torque: T = kθ.
• With a rotary damper a disc is rotated in a fluid and the resistive
torque T is proportional to the angular velocity ω.

T = Dω = D
dt
• The moment of inertia block exhibit the property that the greater
the moment of inertia J the greater the torque needed to
produce an angular acceleration

T = Ja
Control Modeling Mechanical
Engineering System (Rotational)
Control Modeling Mechanical
Engineering System (Rotational)
Example: Torsional spring-mass-damper system
T(t) θ(t)
K

D
T(t) Kθ(t) D[dθ(t)/dt] J[d2θ(t)/dt2]
J
d θ (t )
2
dθ ( t )
J 2
+D + Kθ ( t ) = T ( t )
dt dt
Control Mechanical System Building
Engineering Blocks

## Building Block Equation Energy representation

Translational
Spring F = ky E = 0.5 F2/k
Dashpot F = D dy/dt P = Dv2
Mass F = m d2y/dt2 E = 0.5 mv2
Rotational
Spring T = kθ E = 0.5 T2/k
Damper T = D dθ/dt P = Dω2
Moment of inertia T = J d2θ/dt2 P = 0.5 Jω2
Control Systems with Gears
Engineering

## speed of the driving shaft

n=
speed of the driven shaft
ω1 θ1 N 2 T2 r2
n= = = = =
ω2 θ 2 N1 T1 r1
Control Systems with Gears
Engineering

ω2 n = N2/N1
T(t)n
= ω1/ω2
I

## Equivalent system at the output after reflection of input torque

Control Systems with Gears
Engineering
Control Systems with Gears
Engineering

## Equivalent system at the

output after reflection of
input torque
Control Systems with Gears
Engineering

## Equivalent system at the

input after reflection of
impedances
Control Systems with Gears
Engineering

## Equivalent system at the input after reflection of impedances

Control Practice: Systems with Gears
Engineering
Find the relationship between output displacement θ1(t) and
input torque T1(t) for the system.

d 2θ1 ( t ) dθ1 ( t )
Je 2
+D + K eθ1 ( t ) = T1 ( t )
dt dt
Control Problem: Systems with Gears
Engineering
Find the relationship between output displacement θ2(t) and
input torque T1(t) for the system.
Control Problem: Systems with Gears
Engineering

d 2θ 2 ( t ) dθ 2 ( t )  N2 
Je 2
+ De + K eθ 2 ( t ) = T1 ( t )  
dt dt N
 1
Control Practice: Systems with Gears
Engineering
Find the relationship between output displacement θ2(t) and
input torque T(t) for the system.
Control Gear Train
Engineering
If we allow our gears to be large enough we can obtain any
desired gear ratio. However, it is usually impractical to allow gears
with large radii. Instead, gear trains are employed.

The equivalent gear ratio is the product of gear ratios for pairs of
meshed gears.
Control Gear Train
Engineering

Notice that we are assuming the rotations of all other shafts are
directly tied through the gear train to θ1.
Control Electrical System Building
Engineering Blocks
Resistor Inductor Capacitor
Control Building Electrical System
Engineering

## Mathematical model of the system (Applying KVL)

t 2
di 1 d q dq q
L + Ri + ∫ idt = e ⇒L 2 +R + =e
dt C0 dt dt C
Control System Modelling
Engineering
• Analogy between mechanical and electrical
systems
Building Block Equation

Spring F = kx
Mechanical
Dashpot F = c dx/dt
system
Mass F = m d2x/dt2
Capacitor V = C-1q
Electrical Resistor
system
V = R dq/dt
Inductor V = L d2q/dt2