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Control Engineering

Assistant Professor

Department of Mechanical Engineering

Bangladesh University of Engineering and Technology

Wednesday, March 25, 2015

Control Course Syllabus

Engineering

Introduction to control systems and their representation

by different equations and Laplace transforms

Block diagrams and transfer functions

Analog computer solution of system equations

System response, control action and system types

Frequency response

System analysis

System compensation

Analogues to control systems

Hydraulic and pneumatic control systems

Elements of electro-mechanical controls

Introduction to digital computer control

Control Sample Questions

Engineering (Topic: Control System)

Functionally, how do closed-loop systems differ from open-

loop system?

Do you think a closed loop system is always advantageous

over an open loop system?

With appropriate examples, discuss the differences between

open loop and closed loop control systems.

With examples discuss the differences between regulator and

follow up systems of feedback control.

Discuss the steps to be followed during feedback control

system design.

“A very precise system is more prone to unstable” – explain

briefly.

Control Today’s topic

Engineering

Mathematical Modelling

Control Mathematical Models

Engineering

A mathematical model usually describes a system by means of

variables.

Think how systems behave with time when subject to some

disturbances or action.

The basis for any mathematical model is provided by the

fundamental physical laws that govern the behavior of the system.

Sometimes experimental procedures are necessary.

But no mathematical model can represent a physical system

completely.

Approximations and assumptions restrict the validity of the model.

Systems can be made up from a range of building blocks.

Each building block is considered to have a single property or

function.

Control Classification of System Models

Engineering

Control Mathematical Modeling Procedure

Engineering

modeling procedure

Control Mechanical System Building

Engineering Blocks (Translational)

Springs represent the stiffness of a system.

Dashpots represent the forces opposing motion, for example

frictional or damping effects.

Masses represent the inertia or resistance to acceleration.

Mechanical systems does not have to be really made up of

springs, dashpots, and masses but have the properties of

stiffness, damping, and inertia.

All these building blocks may be considered to have a force

as an input and displacement as an output.

Control Modeling Mechanical

Engineering System (Translational)

Control Modeling Mechanical

Engineering System (Translational)

Example: Spring-mass-damper system

d 2x dx

m 2 + b + kx = F

dt dt

y1

M body of a car

y2

b K

x

Kω •m

Control Building Mechanical System

Engineering

y (‘+’ve)

d2y

F =M 2

dt

Spring-mass-damper system system

with an input. Here x is input

d2y dy

displacement and y is output ↓ ∑ F = 0 ⇒M 2 + c + ky = kx

dt dt

displacement.

Control Building Mechanical System

Engineering

y (‘+’ve)

d2y

F =M 2

dt

Spring-mass-damper system system

with an input. Here y is output

d2y dy

displacement. ↓ ∑ F = 0 ⇒M 2 + c + ky = 0

dt dt

Control Building Mechanical System

Engineering

x (‘+’ve)

b(dx/dt)

m(d2x/dt2) m F

kx

Free body diagram

system

Spring-mass-damper system

d 2x dx

with an input. Here F is input → ∑ F = 0 ⇒m 2 + b + kx = F

dt dt

force and x is output

displacement.

Control Building Mechanical System

Engineering

Here f(t) is input force and

x(t) is output displacement.

x (‘+’ve)

fv(dx/dt)

M(d2x/dt2) M f(t) Free body diagram

Ks x

Mathematical model of the system

d 2 x (t ) dx ( t )

→ ∑ F = 0 ⇒M 2

+ fv + Ks x (t ) = f (t )

dt dt

Control Building Mechanical System

Engineering

m(d2x/dt2) c(dx/dt)

Position with

kx

spring relaxed kδ

δ

Reference Position

(x = 0)

m

x (‘+’ve)

x

mg F

Free body diagram

Spring-mass-damper system

with an input. Here F is input When the system at rest, mg = kδ

force and x is output Mathematical model of the system

displacement.

d 2x dx

↓ ∑ F = 0 ⇒m 2 + c + kx = F

dt dt

Control Building Mechanical System

Engineering

Forces on m1 due to only motion of m1

b(dx/dt)

k2 x

x (‘+’ve)

m1

k1 x k1 u

m1(d2x/dt2)

Spring-mass-damper system

with an input. Here u(t) is input Free body diagram

displacement and x(t) is output

displacement.

Control Building Mechanical System

Engineering

Forces on m1 due to Free body diagram Forces on m1 due to

only motion of m1 All Forces on m1 only motion of m2

b(dx/dt) b(dy/dt - dx/dt) b(dy/dt)

k2 x k2(y-x) k2 y

x (‘+’ve) x (‘+’ve) x (‘+’ve)

m1 m1 m1

k1 x k1 u k1(x-u)

m1(d2x/dt2) m1(d2x/dt2)

d 2x dy dx

↓ ∑ F = 0 ⇒m1 2 − b − + k1 ( x − u ) − k2 ( y − x ) = 0

dt dt dt

Control Building Mechanical System

Engineering

Forces on m2 due to only motion of m1

y (‘+’ve)

m2

k2 x b(dx/dt)

Spring-mass-damper system

with an input. Here u(t) is input Free body diagram

displacement and x(t) is output

displacement.

Control Building Mechanical System

Engineering

Forces on m2 due to Free body diagram Forces on m2 due to

only motion of m1 All Forces on m2 only motion of m2

m2(d2y/dt2)

y (‘+’ve) m2(d2y/dt2) y (‘+’ve)

y (‘+’ve)

m2 m2

m2

k2 x b(dx/dt) k2 y b(dy/dt)

k2(y-x)

b(dy/dt - dx/dt)

d2y dy dx

↓ ∑ F = 0 ⇒m2 2 + b − + k2 ( y − x ) = 0

dt dt dt

Control Class Practice

Engineering

Find the relationship(s) for the system below where u is the input

force, and x1 and x2 are the output displacements of masses m1

and m2, respectively.

Answer:

Control Important Problem

Engineering

The diagram below illustrates a mass m constrained to move

horizontally, and connected to ground by a parallel arrangement of a

spring of stiffness K and a spring of stiffness k in series with a dashpot

of coefficient c. A force u(t) is applied to the mass. The inertial

displacement and velocity of the mass are denoted by y(t) and v(t),

respectively. The displacement of the junction of the shorter spring

and the dashpot is denoted by yo(t). Using the state vector x = [y v

yo]T, show that the equations of motion for this system with input equal

to the force u are

Control Solution

Engineering

dy

dt 0 1 0 0

y

dv K + k k 1

ɺx = = − 0 v + u

dt m m m

yo

dyo k 0 −

k 0

dt c c

dy

=v

dt

dv K +k k u

=− y + yo +

dt m m m

dyo k k

= y − yo

dt c c

Control Solution

Engineering

k(y-yo)

m(d2y/dt2) m u

Ky

d2y

m 2 + Ky + k ( y − yo ) − u = 0

dt

dv

m + ( K + k ) y − kyo − u = 0

dt

dv K +k k u

=− y + yo +

dt m m m

Control Solution

Engineering

dyo

c + k ( yo − y ) = 0

dt

dyo

c = k ( y − yo )

dt

dyo k k

= y − yo

dt c c

Control Mechanical System Building

Engineering Blocks (Rotational)

• If rotation is involved, then the equivalent three building blocks

are a torsional spring, a rotary damper and the moment of

inertia (i.e., the inertia of a rotating mass).

• With a torsional spring the angle θ rotated is proportional to the

torque: T = kθ.

• With a rotary damper a disc is rotated in a fluid and the resistive

torque T is proportional to the angular velocity ω.

dθ

T = Dω = D

dt

• The moment of inertia block exhibit the property that the greater

the moment of inertia J the greater the torque needed to

produce an angular acceleration

T = Ja

Control Modeling Mechanical

Engineering System (Rotational)

Control Modeling Mechanical

Engineering System (Rotational)

Example: Torsional spring-mass-damper system

T(t) θ(t)

K

D

T(t) Kθ(t) D[dθ(t)/dt] J[d2θ(t)/dt2]

J

d θ (t )

2

dθ ( t )

J 2

+D + Kθ ( t ) = T ( t )

dt dt

Control Mechanical System Building

Engineering Blocks

Translational

Spring F = ky E = 0.5 F2/k

Dashpot F = D dy/dt P = Dv2

Mass F = m d2y/dt2 E = 0.5 mv2

Rotational

Spring T = kθ E = 0.5 T2/k

Damper T = D dθ/dt P = Dω2

Moment of inertia T = J d2θ/dt2 P = 0.5 Jω2

Control Systems with Gears

Engineering

n=

speed of the driven shaft

ω1 θ1 N 2 T2 r2

n= = = = =

ω2 θ 2 N1 T1 r1

Control Systems with Gears

Engineering

ω2 n = N2/N1

T(t)n

= ω1/ω2

I

Control Systems with Gears

Engineering

Control Systems with Gears

Engineering

output after reflection of

input torque

Control Systems with Gears

Engineering

input after reflection of

impedances

Control Systems with Gears

Engineering

Control Practice: Systems with Gears

Engineering

Find the relationship between output displacement θ1(t) and

input torque T1(t) for the system.

d 2θ1 ( t ) dθ1 ( t )

Je 2

+D + K eθ1 ( t ) = T1 ( t )

dt dt

Control Problem: Systems with Gears

Engineering

Find the relationship between output displacement θ2(t) and

input torque T1(t) for the system.

Control Problem: Systems with Gears

Engineering

d 2θ 2 ( t ) dθ 2 ( t ) N2

Je 2

+ De + K eθ 2 ( t ) = T1 ( t )

dt dt N

1

Control Practice: Systems with Gears

Engineering

Find the relationship between output displacement θ2(t) and

input torque T(t) for the system.

Control Gear Train

Engineering

If we allow our gears to be large enough we can obtain any

desired gear ratio. However, it is usually impractical to allow gears

with large radii. Instead, gear trains are employed.

The equivalent gear ratio is the product of gear ratios for pairs of

meshed gears.

Control Gear Train

Engineering

Notice that we are assuming the rotations of all other shafts are

directly tied through the gear train to θ1.

Control Electrical System Building

Engineering Blocks

Resistor Inductor Capacitor

Control Building Electrical System

Engineering

t 2

di 1 d q dq q

L + Ri + ∫ idt = e ⇒L 2 +R + =e

dt C0 dt dt C

Control System Modelling

Engineering

• Analogy between mechanical and electrical

systems

Building Block Equation

Spring F = kx

Mechanical

Dashpot F = c dx/dt

system

Mass F = m d2x/dt2

Capacitor V = C-1q

Electrical Resistor

system

V = R dq/dt

Inductor V = L d2q/dt2

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