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Department of Petrochemical

Collage of technical Engineering

Duhok polytechnic University

Name of student : Ibrahim dewali

Lecture : Work Shop

Year: first

Grope:

Name of the exercise : ( 1 ,2 )

Date : 21.4.2017
INTRODUCTION TO WELDING

In the Navy as well as private industry, welding is widely used by


metalworkers in the fabrication, maintenance, and repair of
parts and structures. While there are many methods for joining
metals, welding is one of the most convenient and rapid
methods available. The term welding refers to the process of
joining metals by heating them to their melting temperature and
causing the molten metal to flow together. These range from
simple steel brackets to nuclear reactors. Welding, like any
skilled trade, is broad in scope and you cannot become a welder
simply by reading a book. You need practice and experience as
well as patience; however, much can be gained through study.
For instance, by learning the correct method or procedure for
accomplishing a job from a book, you may eliminate many
mistakes that otherwise would occur through trial and error.
This chapter is designed to equip you with a background of basic
information applicable to welding in general. If you take time to
study this material carefully, it will provide you with the
foundation needed to become a skilled welder.
most common welding process. The primary differences between
the various welding processes are the methods by which heat is
generated to melt the metal. Once you understand the theory of
welding, you can apply it to most welding processes. The most
common types of welding are oxyfuel gas welding (OFW), arc
welding (AW), and resistance welding (RW). As a Steelworker,
your primary concern is gas and arc welding. The primary
difference between these two processes is the method used to
generate the heat

Type of welding

1-Arc welding

2- Gas welding

3-Resistance welding

4-Energy beam welding

5- Solid – state welding


:Step Work

.Aim

To make a single v‐butt joint, using the given mild steel pieces of and by
arc welding.

Material used

Two mild steel pieces of 100X40X6 mm.

Tools and equipment used

Arc welding machine, Mild steel electrodes, Electrode holder, Ground


clamp, flat nose Tong, Face shield,

Apron, Hand gloves, Metallic work Table, Bench vice, Rough flat file, Try
square, Steel rule, Wire brush,

Ball peen hammer, Chipping hammer, Chisel and Grinding machine.

Sketch

Figure 3.12: Single‐V butt joint


Operations to be carried out

1. Cleaning the work pieces 2.


tackwelding

3. full welding 4. cooling

5. chipping 6. finishing

Procedure

1. Take the two mild steel pieces of given dimensions and clean the
surfaces thoroughly from rust, dust

particles, oil and grease.

2. Remove the sharp corners and burrs by filing or grinding.

3. One edge of each piece is beveled, to an angle 30˚.

4. The two pieces are positioned on the welding table such that, they are
separated slightly for better

penetration of the weld.

5. The electrode is fitted in to the electrode holder and the welding


current is set to a proper value.

6. The ground clamp is fastened to the welding table. The machine is


switched ON

7. Wearing the apron, hand gloves, using the face shield, the arc is struck
and the work pieces are tack‐

welded at the ends and holding the two pieces together; first run of the
weld is done to fill the rootgap.
8. Second run of the welding is done with proper weaving and with
uniform movement. During the

process of welding, the electrode is kept at angle of 15˚ to 25˚ from


vertical and in the direction of

welding.

9. The slag formation on the weld is removed by chipping hammer.

10. Filing is done to remove spatters around the weld.

Result The single v‐butt joint is thus made, using the tools and
equipment as mentioned above

.The Exercise (1) : kinds of welding lines the purpose of the exercise. teach student how
he can make the kinds of lines and acquisition a hang skill adevice used

1-cut pallet machine

2-welding machine and electric arc

:devise used.

Tools used: 1- Piece 2- Disjointed

3- Protective 4- Wire brush 5- Iron hammer

6- Welding wire 7- Gloves 8- Ruler

.Exercise (2): welding tow piece opposite the head the purpose of the exercise : teach
student welding tow piece opposite the hand and acquistion a hand skill.
Workshop rules and safety considerations

Workshop safety is everyone's responsibility, the following rules have been put in
place to ensure the safety of all students and staff. Please read the safety rules
carefully before entering the workshop.

Workshop rules

 Student affected by drugs or alcohol are not permitted in the workshop

 Students with any health problems that may affect workplace safety (e.g.
medication, epileptic fits) must report these conditions to the workshop staff

 Notify the workshop staff of your arrival

 No food or drink in the workshop

 Wear the correct protective equipment for the tools you are using – ask if in
doubt

 All chemicals (e.g. glues and paints) must be checked through Chemwatch and
with workshop staff before use

 Immediately notify the workshop supervisor of any faulty or broken equipment

 Ask how to use the tools safely

 Make sure your work piece is fixed securely before work commences

 Keep leads up off the floor

 Keep clear of any person operating tools and machinery (bumping an operator
or get tangled in the lead could cause serious injury to you or the operator)

 Do not talk to anyone operating electrical equipment and machinery

 Keep your work area tidy

 Clean up any spills immediately

 Wash hands after using equipment and materials

Ensure your safety in the workshop

When entering workshop


Pick up your hearing and eye protectors and immediately report to the workshop
supervisor.

When exiting the workshop

Check that any tools you have been using have been put away in the appropriate
spots, cleaned up your work area and notify the workshop staff.

Clothing & footwear

 Safety glasses and hearing protection - every person entering the workshop
must collect these items from just inside the door. They must be worn at all
times.

 Students that wear glasses should be aware these are not safety glasses, they
are only impact resistant and may shatter, safety glasses must be worn.

 All loose clothing (eg shirts hanging out) must be tucked in.

 Safety boots or enclosed shoes must be worn in the workshop. Do not enter
under any circumstances without this footwear, there are no exceptions to this
rule.

 Long hair has to be tied up including fringes.

 Remove rings and loose jewellery before operating machinery they can be a
hazard.

 Behaviour

Fooling around and practical jokes in the workshop will not be tolerated. These
students will be told to leave.
The rod which provides additional metal in completing the welding is known as filler. The
composition of filler metal should be the same as that of the metal to be welded.

Welding and Cutting Equipment

Welding equipment includes stick welders, tig welders, MIG welders, multi-process
welders, advanced process welders, multi-operator welders, engine drives, submerged
arc equipment, and wire feeders for arc welding.
Cutting equipment includes plasma cutters, plasma cutting systems, CNC cutting
systems, pipe cutting machines, structural steel fabrication, motion and shape cutting
controllers, and genuine torch consumables for plasma torches.

Welding guns for any application include MIG guns, semiautomatic guns, aluminum
push pull, fume extraction, spool guns, robotic guns, innershield flux-cored self-
shielded guns, and welding guns for submerged arc applications. Torches include air-
cooled and water-cooled models available in several amperage ratings.

Automation welding solutions include robotic automation for fixed and programmable
welding, orbital systems, training equipment for educational welding instruction, and weld
fume control products to extract weld fume and provide environmental safety.
Personal protective wear includes fire retardant welding gloves, clothing, caps and
doo rags, and face protection including glasses, cutting goggles, and shields. Get a
complete package with our welding bags. VIKING Auto Darkening Helmets are
lightweight, comfortable and full of features. Welding tools include rod ovens to
prevent moisture pick up in stick electrode, wire brushes for cleaning steel, curtains
and blankets for protection.

Accessories for your welders and welding equipment include add-ons and options to
improve the functionality of your welding equipment and expendable parts to
maintain your welding equipment properly. Select rugged optional features for your
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