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Works Cited

Primary Sources

Churchill, Winston. Address. ​Operation Paperclip: The Secret Intelligence Program That

Brought Nazi Scientists to America​, by Annie M. Jacobsen, Little, Brown, 2014.

This primary source is words from Winston Churchill, saying that Hitler “is an outlaw”.

He said this because he wanted everybody to be against Hitler. I am going to use this for part of

the controversy in this topic. This is a primary source because Churchill said it in 1945, which

was at the end of WWII, also about when Operation Paperclip started. This source is credible

because it was said by the British Prime Minister, the leader of Great Britain, one of the Allied

Powers. It is also credible because I found it from the credible book, Operation Paperclip by

Annie Jacobsen.

Dr. Wernher von Braun at NASA. ​Smithsonian National Air and Space Museum​, 20 Mar. 2012,

airandspace.si.edu/stories/editorial/remembering-wernher-von-braun-his-100th-birthday.

Accessed 5 Feb. 2018.

This primary source is a picture of Wernher von Braun. I am going to use this for the

long-term impact Operation Paperclip had on America. This is a primary source because the

image was taken at the time von Braun was alive. The Smithsonian National Air and Space

Museum is the database I accessed it from. This is a credible source because the Smithsonian is
an education website, and it is not trying to sell me anything. The picture is related to space, so it

is trustworthy since the Air and Space Museum is where I accessed the image.

Henry Kolm. ​Henry Kolm​. ​WBUR​, 19 Aug. 2010, legacy.wbur.org/2010/08/19/kolm-last-story.

Accessed 2 Feb. 2018.

This primary source is a picture of Henry Kolm. He had to smuggle German scientists

into America at Boston Harbor. I am going to use this image for how America brought the

scientists into the country. This is a primary source because it was taken at the time when Kolm

was alive. This is a credible source because he is the one who provided WBUR with the image of

himself.

Hitler, Adolf. Speech. Feb. 1945. ​Operation Paperclip: The Secret Intelligence Program That

Brought Nazi Scientists to America​, by Annie M. Jacobsen, Little, Brown, 2014.

This primary source is a speech from Adolf Hitler to his chief architect, Albert Speer. He

said this about Germany most likely losing the war. I am going to use this for the downfall of

Germany during WWII. This is a primary source because it came from right before the end of

WWII, which is when Operation Paperclip started. This source is credible because it was from

Adolf Hitler, who was the leader of Germany at that time, and it was to his chief architect, who

then took over as minister of weapons. I found this in Annie Jacobsen’s book called Operation

Paperclip: The Secret Intelligence Program That Brought Nazi Scientists to America.
Operation Paperclip Crew​. ​WSMR Army​, 4 Oct. 2016,

www.wsmr.army.mil/PAO/WSHist/V2/Pages/ThePaperclipCrew.aspx. Accessed 7 Dec.

2017.

This primary source is a picture of the Operation Paperclip crew. These are some of the

people the United States brought over to America after World War II. I am going to use this for

the main part of my website. This is a credible source because the website is a .mil, which is one

of the sponsored top level domains, so it is a trustworthy website. This is a primary source

because the image was taken during the time period of Operation Paperclip, and is just put the

website.

Putt, Donald L. “Letter to Major General Hugh Knerr.” Received by Hugh Knerr, ​Operation

Paperclip: The Secret Intelligence Program That Brought Nazi Scientists to America​, 1st

ed., Little, Brown, 2014, pp. 52–52.

This primary source is a letter from Donald Putt to his boss, Major General Hugh Knerr.

He wrote about how helpful the German scientists would be to our country, hoping that we could

get access to their technology. This is a primary source because it was written during the time

period when Operation Paperclip took place. This source is credible because I accessed it from

Annie Jacobsen’s credible book, called Operation Paperclip: The Secret Intelligence Program

That Brought Nazi Scientists to America, in which she cited all of her sources.
Rickhey, Georg. Interview. By Peter Beasley. 1945.

This primary source is an interview, or rather an interrogation of Georg Rickhey by Peter

Beasley. He conducted this to get more information about the V-2 rockets Germany was

producing. This is a primary source because this was at the time of Operation Paperclip. This

source is credible because I accessed this source from Operation Paperclip: The Secret

Intelligence Program That Brought Nazi Scientists to America.

Roosevelt, Franklin Delano. Speech. Dec. 1944. ​Washington Post​, edited by John M. Goshko,

28 May 1987,

www.washingtonpost.com/archive/politics/1987/05/28/roosevelt-memo-barred-protection

-for-nazis/b3495db0-2927-4929-ba8b-9a4e740930b7/?utm_term=.b9daac97776b.

Accessed 4 Jan. 2018.

This primary source is a memo from Franklin Delano Roosevelt to Major General

William J. Donovan, saying how he will not allow German scientists into America. He said this

to stress the importance on how we could not let Nazis into our country, no matter who they are.

I am going to use this quote as one side of the conflict of bringing in the German scientists for

Operation Paperclip. This is a primary source because it was at the time around Operation

Paperclip, it was a little bit before. This source is credible because I accessed it off of the
Washington Post, and they provide lots of facts. Also, Franklin D. Roosevelt was the president at

the time, which means that he is a very important person.

United States, Congress. ​Memorandum for the Attorney General​. Government Printing Office,

1947. ​National Archives and Records Administration​,

www.archives.gov/atlanta/exhibits/item452-full.html. Accessed 17 Feb. 2018.

This document is a report about immigration relating to the German scientists. It says one

of the reasons why America wouldn’t let some German scientists in: because they don’t have

enough information about each specific German scientist. I am going to use this for my page

titled The People. This is a primary source because it was created in 1947, which is shortly after

Operation Paperclip commenced. This source is credible because I found it from the National

Archives, which keeps records of information related to the United States government.

Von Braun, Wernher. Interview. 1945.

This primary source is when the international press asked him about the V-2 rocket. He

said that he was “its founder and guiding spirit”. Everybody else was secondary to him. He said

that to show that he created this piece of warfare, and nobody else could take that away from

him. This is a primary source because the interview happened in 1945, during Operation

Paperclip, right after their “capture”. This source is credible because I accessed this from

Operation Paperclip: The Secret Intelligence Program That Brought Nazi Scientists to America.
Secondary Sources

Borei, David. “Looking Out: Nazis on the Harbor.” ​WBUR​, 19 Aug. 2010,

legacy.wbur.org/2010/08/19/project-paperclip. Accessed 9 Dec. 2017.

This secondary source is about Boston Harbor and how America smuggled German

scientists into the United States. The reason why David Borei talked about this subject is to tell

about the history of Boston Harbor during Operation Paperclip. This is secondary source because

it wasn’t made during the time when Operation Paperclip was in effect. This is a credible source

because the author and the publisher are known, which means that they are standing by their

information, and it has primary sources in the article.

CIA Logo. ​Nebraska Library Commission​, Nebraska.gov, 3 Feb. 2017,

nlcblogs.nebraska.gov/nlcblog/2017/02/03/cias-secret-stash-now-online/. Accessed 2

Feb. 2018.

This image is about the CIA logo. The reason this image was on the web page is to help

enhance what the author was writing about. This is a secondary source because this image of the

CIA was created after Operation Paperclip, even though the CIA was created during that time.

This image is credible because I accessed this off of a government website, more specifically the
state of Nebraska’s website. The article that the image was in is related to the CIA, so it makes

sense for an image of it to be on the page.

Dean, Mack. “Operation Paperclip.” ​World War Two Facts​, Disqus, 4 Oct. 2017,

www.worldwar2facts.org/operation-paperclip.html. Accessed 12 Dec. 2017.

This secondary source is more specifically about the scientists who were involved with

Operation Paperclip. The author, Mack Dean, wrote this to show what Operation Paperclip was,

and its part in the Cold War. I am going to use this to talk about why Operation Paperclip

happened. This is a secondary source because it wasn’t made during the time this happened, and

it tells what happened with some of the authors own words also. This is a credible source

because the author, publisher, and date are known, and is very recent. The published date was

about two months ago. Disqus, the publisher of the site’s, CEO went to the University of

California to study computer engineering in college.

“Europe before World War I.” ​Delaware Division of Historical & Cultural Affairs​, Drawing

America to Victory, 2018, history.delaware.gov/exhibits/online/WWI/world-war-1.shtml.

Accessed 23 Jan. 2018.

This image is a map of the Allied and Central powers during World War I. This image

was made to show which countries were in opposition at the time of World War I. I am going to

use this for my “Before Operation Paperclip” page on my website. This source is a secondary
source because it was created after the time when Operation Paperclip was in effect. This source

is credible because the website is a government website, and only certain websites that are

approved or related to the government can receive that domain.

Jacobsen, Annie M. ​Operation Paperclip: The Secret Intelligence Program That Brought Nazi

Scientists to America​. Little, Brown and Company, 2015.

This secondary source focuses on the time period when America was preparing for “total

war” with Russia, between 1945 and 1952, and what impact the German scientists had between

the Cold War with the Soviet Union. They want the reader to know more about how and why

Operation Paperclip was given. I am going to use this book for sources and for information about

why America brought German scientists in during this time. This book is credible because it was

one of the Boston Globes best books of 2014. The New York Times says that it is “The most

in-depth account yet of the lives of Paperclip recruits.” She also went to Princeton College and

was a finalist for the 2016 Pulitzer Prize for history.

Lichtblau, Eric. “Nazis Were Given ‘Safe Haven’ in U.S., Report Says.” ​New York Times​, 13

Nov. 2010, www.nytimes.com/2010/11/14/us/14nazis.html?_r=2. Accessed 12 Dec.

2017.

This secondary source is about why Operation Paperclip happened. The reason the

author, Eric Lichtblau, wrote this article, is to give people a better understanding about why the
United States let Nazi scientists into the country. This is why I am going to use this article. This

is a secondary source because it wasn’t produced at the time this event happened. This is a

credible source because the website I obtained it from is the New York Times, which is a

credible website that has been awarded 117 Pulitzer prizes, which is more than any other

newspaper.

May, Sandra. “What Was the Saturn V?” ​National Aeronautics and Space Administration​, 7

Aug. 2017,

www.nasa.gov/audience/forstudents/5-8/features/nasa-knows/what-was-the-saturn-v-58.h

tml. Accessed 9 Jan. 2018.

This secondary source is about all of the information on the Saturn V rocket. This website

was used to inform the public about how important the Saturn V was to America. I am going to

use this as a long-term effect of Operation Paperclip. This is a secondary source because it was

not made during the time period of Operation Paperclip, nor did this person have the first-hand

experience with the topic. This source is credible because I got this information from the NASA

website, which is a database that stores information about their projects like the Saturn V. The

website is a government website, which means that only certain people or organazations can hold

that domain name.


NASA. ​Saturn V Rocket​. ​National Aeronautics and Space Administration​, 7 Aug. 2017,

www.nasa.gov/audience/forstudents/5-8/features/nasa-knows/what-was-the-saturn-v-58.h

tml. Accessed 22 Jan. 2018.

This secondary source is an image of the Saturn V rocket during liftoff. This image was

created to show the Skylab station being launched on the rocket. I am going to use this on the

short-term impact on my website. This source is credible because the rocket was launched by

NASA, and that is where I accessed the image online. NASA is also a government website, and

only certain websites can acquire that domain name. This source is a secondary source because

the image was taken after Operation Paperclip was fully in effect.

Watkins, Ali. “Nazis Helped Get Us to the Moon. the Reagan White House Helped Keep Them

in the U.S.” ​Huffington Post​, Oath, 12 Nov. 2014,

www.huffingtonpost.com/2014/11/08/operation-paperclip_n_6123746.html. Accessed 9

Jan. 2018.

This newspaper article is about how Nazi scientists helped our space program. The

author, Ali Watkins, wrote this article to inform people about what these German scientists did to

help America. This is a secondary source because it was an article that was written after the time

of Operation Paperclip. I am going to use this source as a long-term effect that Operation

Paperclip had on America. This source is credible because of this author on the Huffington Post,
Ali Watkins. She mainly writes about national security, which is a broader topic that has this

article in it. She also has been nominated for a Pulitzer Prize for National Reporting.