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In this paper a neuro-fuzzy-sliding mode control (NFSMC) with extended state observer (ESO) technique is

designed to ensure the traction of an electric vehicle with two separate permanent magnet synchronous

motor (PMSM). Each PMSM systems ( source-converter-motor) are coupled to an electronic differential

(ED) in order to compensate the tendencies of direction of the vehicle and maintain a steady speed by

adjusting the difference in speed of each motor-wheel according to the direction in the case of a turn. To

ensure the control and performance of the vehicle a hybrid control scheme employs two types of controllers

, neuro-fuzzy sliding mode control on the direct current loop and disturbance rejection control laws (ESO)

on the Speed loop ,and quadrature current loop of the PMSM by taking into account the dynamic of the

vehicle. Simulation under Matlab/Simulink to evaluate the efficiency and robustness of the proposed control

method and ED on the closed loop system.

INTRODUCTION

The The number of vehicles in circulation continues to increase, and even though new engines are

becoming less polluting, pollution problems are increasingly critical, especially for the greenhouse gases

responsible for global warming of the planet.

Currently, the most effective way to combat these emissions is the implementation of increasingly

restrictive standards for new vehicles. Despite the technological advances, the limits imposed by the

standards will be too restrictive to be respected by the thermal engines, in more or less long term. These

restrictive standards are forcing automakers to introduce new technologies that will make vehicles less

polluting. Electric vehicles have emerged, by definition an electric vehicle is a vehicle whose propulsion is

provided by an engine operating exclusively with electrical energy. The electric car is advanced by all

players in the automotive field as one of the cleanest and greenest transportation solutions. It could indeed

be an alternative to this alarming pollution, especially since the road transport sector emits more pollutants

into the atmosphere than the industry sector. However, despite the extensive research on the power train and

batteries, the electric vehicle is still in the experimental stage and is subject to modification or improvement.

Like anything else, cars adopting this type of consumption have advantages as well as disadvantages. The

greatest strength of this class of cars lies in the electric nature of their engine. At the same time for technical

reasons because the electric motors are more flexible than the thermal engines (high torque at low speed).

Much research has been done on electric vehicles in particular the control of its traction chain, which in

turn translates into the control of these engines wheels. The performance-dependent operation of the engine-

wheel assembly system is characterized by smooth rotation throughout the engine speed range, total torque

control at zero speed, and rapid acceleration and deceleration.

On a classic vehicle the drive wheels are connected by half-shafts controlled by a bevel gear. On each of

the wheels there is a torque equal to half of that provided by the return angle. Because of the rigid

connection formed with the drive shaft, the two drive wheels rotate at the same angular speed, which has no

particular disadvantage in walking in a straight line [5] [6]. The path of the inner wheel is reduced compared

to that of the outer wheel; these two distances to be performed in the same time interval, it is necessary that

the angular velocity of the two wheels is different. If the wheels are not driving, no problem, otherwise it is

necessary to interpose a differential mechanism allowing the wheels to rotate at different speeds. there is a

system in conventional vehicles called a mechanical differential that ensures the difference in speeds while

ensuring torque for the two driving wheels [7].

In this work we will replace the mechanical differential with an electronic differential in order to reduce

the drive line components, thus improving the overall reliability and efficiency. This option will also reduce

the drive line weight since mechanical differential and gear reduction are not used. However, one of the

main issues in the design of these EVs (without mechanical differential) is to ensure vehicle stability in

particular while cornering or under slippery road conditions [8] . This calls for a specific traction control

system . The control of the traction effort transmitted by each wheel is at the base of the command strategies

aiming to improve the stability of the vehicle. Each wheel is controlled independently by using an electric

motorization.

in this context a Permanent magnet synchronous motor has been adopted as the electric vehicle (EV)

propulsion. Permanent magnet synchronous motors (PMSMs) have extensive industrial applications

including electric vehicles, robotics, and wind energy conversion systems[1],[2],[3].

This can be attributed to desirable performance characteristics including high power density, high torque

to weight ratio, high reliability and high efficiency [1]. Many control techniques for PMSMs have been

developed in literature studies. While the PI controller is still a popular choice due to its simplicity and ease

of implementation, it does not take disturbances and uncertainties into account, leading to poor performance

[4].

Due to the development of digital signal processor technology, power electronics, control theories, more

and more advanced control methods are introduced to the PMSM control problem, e.g., adaptive control [9],

robust control [10], sliding mode control [11], neural network control [12], and fuzzy control [13], etc.

These methods can improve the performance of the electric vehicle based on the PMSM from different

aspects.

Sliding mode control is a popular control due to its ability to reject internal parameter variations and

external disturbances. SMC has found extensive applications in the areas of power electronics and electric

machines [14]. Consequently, SMC has been widely and successfully applied into the position and velocity

control of PMSM. However, SMC has its own disadvantage, i.e., chattering phenomenon, which originated

from the interaction between parasitic dynamics and high frequency switching control [15]. In order to avoid

the phenomenon, a control method was proposed to reduce or completely eliminate the chattering, such as a

neuro-fuzzy-sliding mode control (RNFSMC) with extended state observer (ESO) to ensure the traction of

the electric vehicle. The hybrid neuro-fuzzy sliding mode control with extended state observer [16] is one of

the most common controls associated several techniques: fuzzy control [17] and sliding mode control [18],

neural network , and disturbances rejection laws to exploit the advantages of all the techniques to limit the

disadvantages of regulation by conventional adjustment algorithms and to improve the performance of the

controller system (stability, accuracy, speed, robustness, etc...).

The FIS forms are a useful computing framework based on the concepts of fuzzy set theory, fuzzy if–then

rules and fuzzy reasoning. The ANFIS [19],[20] is a FIS implemented in the framework of an adaptive fuzzy

neural network. It combines the explicit knowledge representation of a FIS with the learning power of

ANNs. Usually, the transformation of human knowledge into a fuzzy system (in the form of rules and

membership functions) does not give the target response accurately. So, the parameters of the FIS should be

determined optimally [21].

Extended state observer (ESO) [22],[23] regards the lumped disturbances of the system, which consists of

internal dynamics and external disturbances, as a new state of the system. This observer can estimate both

the states and the lumped disturbances. Based on the ESO, a feed forward compensation for the disturbances

can also be employed in the control design.

In this work, combining the extended state observer (ESO) with the adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference

system technique together, a robust control for the whole system is developed to improve the adaptation of

the closed-loop system.

The reminder of this paper is organized as follows: section 2 reviews the principle components of the

traction system and their model equations (vehicle dynamic, Electronic differential , electric motor model).

Section 3 shows the theory of control ( sliding mode control and Neuro-fuzzy-sliding mode control with

disturbance rejection law model ) to remedy the chattering phenomena. Section 4 a simulation results verify

the validity of the proposed technique of control. Finally we terminate by a the conclusion is in section 5

ELECTRIC VEHICLE TRACTION SYSTEM

This section is dedicated to the dynamics of the electric vehicle and the different components on board the

vehicle and their equations models.

Vehicle dynamics

In this work the proposed control strategy takes into account the dynamic vehicle, so the first step in

vehicle performance modeling is to write an electric force model. This is the force transmitted to the ground

through the drive wheels, and propelling the vehicle forward. This force must overcome the road load and

accelerate the vehicle [24].

The elementary equation describing the longitudinal dynamics of a vehicle in the road is in the

following form:

The speed gear ensures the transmission of the motor torque to the driving wheels. The gear is modeled

by the gear ratio i , the transmission efficiency and its inertia.

Several types of batteries can be distinguished, but for the current electric vehicles, lithium-ion, lead-acid

and nickel-cadmium batteries are frequently used .

Modeling of The Electronic Differential

The proposed archictecture propulsion system allows one to develop an electronic differential to ensure that

the over astraight trajectory of the two wheel drives roll exactly at the same velocity; and in a curve

trajectory the difference between the two wheel velocities ensure the vehicle trajectory over the curve. See

Figure 3. Since the two rear wheels are directly driven by two separate motors, If the vehicle is turning right,

the left wheel speed is increased and the right wheel speed remains equal to the common reference speed

r _ ref . If the vehicle is turning left, the right wheel speed is increased and the left wheel speed remains equal

to the common reference speed r _ ref [8],[30],[31]. this helps the tyres from losing traction in turns. Figure

3(b) shows the vehicle structure describing a curve, where L represents the wheelbase, the steering

angle, d the distance between the wheels of the same axle and r _ L and r _ R the angular speeds of the left

and right wheel drives, respectively.

When the vehicle begins a curve, the driver imposes a steering angle to the wheels. The electronic

differential however acts immediately on the two motors reducing the speed of the inner wheel and increases

the speed of the outer wheel.

Sliding modes is phenomenon may appear in a dynamic system governed by ordinary differential

equations with discontinuous right-hand sides. It may happen that the control as a function of the system state

switches at high frequency, this motion is called sliding mode.

SMC has its own disadvantage, i.e., chattering phenomenon, which originated from the interaction between

parasitic dynamics and high frequency switching control.

In order to avoid the phenomenon, several control methods were proposed in the literature.

Three surface control strategy

We take the general equation Proposed by J.J.Slotine to determine the sliding surface :

n : Relative degree, equal to the number of times it derives the output for the command to appear.

Sliding mode control of the electric traction system using the principle of the cascade control method, the

structure comprises a speed control loop which generates the current reference iqref which imposes the control

vqref , the control vdref is imposed by the current regulation idref

Direct axis control design

The resulting error will be corrected by a regulator operating in the sliding mode and the surface of this

control is given by:

s1 idref id (18)

Considering the expression of the current id deducted in the equation system Eq. (6), the derivative of the

surface becomes:

A typical architecture of an ANFIS (Adaptive Neuro Fuzzy Inference System) is shown in Fig.6 , in which a

circle indicates a fixed node, whereas a square indicates an adaptive node. For simplicity, we consider two

inputs x, y and one output z. Among many FIS models, the Sugeno fuzzy model is the most widely applied

one for its high interpretability and computational efficiency, and built-in optimal and adaptive techniques

[34].

The principe of extended state observer method

Different kinds of disturbances appears in real applications of electric vehicle based on PMSM motors,

including internal disturbance of the motor, like parameters variation, back electromotive forces, torque

ripples, friction forces and unmodeled dynamics, and external disturbance, like load disturbances. These

disturbances may degrade the performance of the electric vehicle system if the controller does not have

enough ability to reject them. Since the control structure employed here is of cascade control loops for the

speed regulation problem, the control scheme includes a speed loop and two current loops. For the d-axis

current loop, Adaptif Neuro Fuzzy Sliding control algorithm is employed. For the speed loop and q-axis

current loop, two ESOs are introduced to estimate the different disturbances in each loop respectively.

ESO regards the lumped disturbances of system, which consists of internal dynamics and external

disturbances, as a new state of system. This observer is one order more than the usual state observer. It can

estimate both the states and the lumped disturbances. Based on the ESO, a feed-forward compensation for

the disturbances can also be employed in the control design.

Current controller design

It is well known that the current loops have parameters variations, e.g., variations of stator resistance,

inaccurate back-electromotive force (EMF) model. These parameter variations may primarily degrade the

control performance [36].

In order to eliminate unfavourable effects caused by these factors, an ESO-based controller is designed

for the q-axis current loop. The equation of q-axis current loop is written as follows:

It should be noted that the simulation run under a Japanese urban driving cycle 11 mode 4 that shall be

requested by the driver which shows wheel speed during steering for 0 < t < 481 sec. The 11 mode 4

Japanese cycle is being used for emissions and fuel consumption certification in Japan. It simulates both

urban and motorway cycle, including idling, accelerations, cruising and decelerations. The measurements

are performed while engine is hot, after a standard warming procedure.

During this cycle the vehicle approaches a right turn at 62 (positive steering angle) s and a left turn at 180

s (negative steering angle) .It is obvious that the electric vehicle operates satisfactorily according to the

complicated series of accelerations, decelerations, and frequent stops.

Referring to the figure 8 and figure 9, the vehicle turn right at t= 62 s, in compensation the torque of the

right wheel decreases, briefly becoming negative. Negative torque is, in essence, braking mode. This

working phase can be exploited for energy recuperation. Once the speed of the right wheel is stabilized , the

torque returns to its initial value, as it is shown in Figure 9. At t= 67 s the vehicle exits the curved section of

road; thus the driver applies an inverse steering angle to the front wheels. The electronic differential

subsequently acts to equalize the speed of the drive motors; The speed difference of the driving wheels is

shown in figure 8. At t= 180 s the vehicle approaches a left turn, it can be seen that the electronic

differential acts immediately on both electric motors by lowering the speed of the left wheel and, unlike that

on the right. This speed is illustrated in Figure 8. The variation of phase currents are shown in Figure 10.

CONCLUSION

This paper has dealt with an ED based EV. The ED system will reduce the drive line components, thus

improving the overall reliability and efficiency since mechanical differential and gear reduction are not used.

In this case, The EV traction drive system uses two separate PMSM back drive based wheels.

The proposed ED has been developed to handle the EV stability while cornering or under slippery road

conditions. For that purpose, a neuro-fuzzy-sliding mode control (NFSMC) with extended state observer

(ESO) technology is used to realize asymptotic tracking of speed trajectory and stator currents and

guarantee stability of whole the field-oriented PMSM drive system. The results obtained by simulation

show that this structure allows the design and implementation of an electronic differential and ensures

good dynamic and static performances. The paper shows that the electronic differential controls the

driving wheels speeds with high accuracy either in flat roads or curved ones. The disturbances do

not affect the performances of the driving motors.

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