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STD Comparison Chart

Chlamydia Gonorrhea HPV – Genital Warts Genital Herpes Syphillis


Transmission Chlamydia Neisseria gonorrhoeae condylomata Herpes simplex 2 Treponema pallidum
trachomatis – most – usu. have with acuminata (spirochete)
common STD; usu. Chlamydia
have with Caused by human Sexual activity
chlamydia papilloma virus (HPV) Skin-to-skin Sexual activity and
Sexual activity contact intimate touching or
Sexual activity Sexual activity kissing, also needle
Highly contagious sharing; open lesions are
highly contagious
Symptoms Women – Women – May be asymptomatic Ulcerating blisters s/s – 1st stage – painless
asymptomatic asymptomatic (50%) on genitals or anus sores or open ulcers
(50%) s/s – visible painless area that itch, crust, (chancres) on anus, vagina,
s/s – thick, yellow- warts that are on the and can scar; can penis, mouth, or other
s/s in women – green discharge from genitals or anus (can spread to the places; 2nd stage – 3 weeks
vaginal discharge, penis or vagina bunch and look like mouth; fatigue, to 3 months later, flu-like
pain or burning cauliflower), may have fever symptoms, hair loss, rash
with urination, Throat can also be itching on soles of feet and palms,
bleeding between infected Women can also brain infection
periods, pain or have purulent
bleeding during sex, s/s in women – vaginal discharge
low abdominal irritation/ discharge
pain, nausea from the anus,
abnormal vaginal
s/s in men – bleeding, low
white/cloudy, abdominal/pelvic
watery discharge tenderness, pain or
from penis, pain or burning with
burning with urination, nausea
urination, testicular
pain or swelling s/s in men – irritation
or discharge from the
anus, ureteral itch,
pain or burning with
urination

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Chlamydia Gonorrhea HPV – Genital Warts Genital Herpes Syphillis
Lab Tests Urine and discharge Urine and discharge Pap smear Culture VDRL – screening test
culture culture DNA testing HSV-2 blood test RPR – screening test
NAAT NAAT FTA-Abs - confirmatory
EIA EIA Can’t culture TP-PA – confirmatory
DFA DFA (these tests can have false
negatives and false
Women – smears/ positives)
gram stains not helpful Culture of secretions from
b/c it looks a lot like chancres
normal flora Also test for HIV
Test all pregnant women
Treatment 7 days – oral 1 dose – oral or IM Gardisil vaccine for 5 days – oral 1 dose – IM Penicillin G or
Doxycycline or Rocephin females age 9-26 for acyclovir (can oral doxycycline
1 dose – oral prevention (3 IM shots continue to use as
Zithromax Also need to treat for over 6 months) suppressive tx) Treat sex contacts for past
chlamydia 90 days
Also need to treat Chemical treatment, No sex while there
for gonorrhea cryotherapy, are lesions
electrocauterization,
laser, surgery Must use latex
condoms even
when no lesions

Cotton underwear,
sitz baths, keep
genitals dry

Cure Yes – won’t come Yes – won’t come back No No – chronic and Yes
back unless they unless they get recurrent (virus
get reinfected reinfected hides in the nerve
endings)
Do have some
resistant strains

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Chlamydia Gonorrhea HPV – Genital Warts Genital Herpes Syphillis
Complications Infertility Infertility Cervical or bladder Doesn’t affect If untreated can lead to
PID PID cancer in women fertility damage to skin, bone,
Ectopic pregnancy Ectopic pregnancy Anorectal and penile Keratitis (eye heart, brain
Chronic pelvic pain Chronic pelvic pain cancer in men infection) Dementia
Reiter’s syndrome Testicular Does not affect fertility Blindness
(inflammation of inflammation Greater risk for HIV
joints, eyes, Can develop heart, infection
urethra) brain, or liver infection
Testicular Arthritis
inflammation
Greater risk for HIV
infection

Risk to Can cause Need to treat with Can be transmitted to Need C-section if Stillbirth
fetus/newborn miscarriage, erythromycin or silver fetus active lesions Serious birth defects
premature birth nitrate eye drops Blindness
(state law) Can block the birth
Can have blindness canal if large
or pneumonia

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General Information for all STDs

Infection
Can’t catch from toilet seats, simple kissing, sharing towels, sharing utensils/cups
Asymptomatic does not mean they are a carrier, they are still infected
All STDs can have a latent (asymptomatic but infected) phase in which transmission can still occur

Treatment
No sex until treatment complete (usu. takes 7 days even with single dose therapy)
No alcohol during treatment
If able to cure symptoms recur because of reinfection not treatment failure
Must treat sexual partners to avoid reinfection
Creams are not effective, give oral, IM, or IV (only in severe cases) antibiotics

Prevention
Condom (latex) use is the best protection
Oral contraceptives actually increase the risk of contracting STDs
Use of spermicidal jellies and creams will not prevent STDs

Assessment
Always ask about sexual partners (determines exposure and partners need treatment)
Ask how many partners, type of birth control used, condom use, history of STDs, use of IV drugs, sexual preference

Teaching
Clean genitals and urinate after sex
Take all antibiotics as directed
Return for follow-up and reculture to ensure you have been fully treated
Douching is contraindicated (can spread infection and decrease immune response)
Wear cotton underwear (not synthetic)

Gonorrhea, syphilis and oftentimes Chlamydia are reportable diseases


Screening programs are targeted to women because they are asymptomatic with the most common diseases