R. W. Connell's "Masculinities": Reply Author(s): R. W. Connell Source: Gender and Society, Vol. 12, No. 4 (Aug., 1998), pp.

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Secretariestalk: Sexuality. varied femininities and with what effects to themselves and others (see Pringle 1988). R. gender.1984.a kind that is frequentlyburdensometo women and girls. women are normatively.she may be criticized. for its preservation. 1990. Pringle. power. may offer a place from which to begin creating Connell's favored "complex and equality"thatsavorsoptions. they are also normativelyassociatedwith men and masculinity/ies. and discourses of identity in a Japanese workplace. Philadelphia: Ferguson.Althoughmany also. TempleUniversityPress.1987. they must (and do) engage it.Catherine. . MA: Harvard MacKinnon. REFERENCES Connell. W.Sydney:Allen and Unwin."as well as men's place in patriarchy. Business School. whether sociologists study it or not.being competent.Except perhapsas mothers. Yet. Connell suggests that women can "do masculinities.474 GENDER & SOCIETY / August 1998 ninity is a continuousgender projectin the lives of girls and women.A girl knows that these standards culturallyadmiredyet she knows or learns. arguing is also normativefemininity.being strong. Cambridge. masculinitiesarepositivefor bothgenders. Crafting selves: Power.Rosemary. avoidsextensive differentiation based on gender. Palo Alto.Kathy. 233). 1995. Masculinitiesare culturalvalues in additionto practices. three men on a raft.1988.edited by M. Kondo.discouragedfrom these are practices.and standingup for one's beliefs arevalorizedin society.Berkeley:Universityof CaliforniaPress. So what about my question? The answer is: He can! If masculinities and femininities are practices.Leading.manyfemininitieshave a mixed valence for women and are largelynegative for men (see Connell 1987). Dorrine. Schrank. Thefeminist case against bureaucracy. everyone can do both (limited by a few bodily conon Connelladmiresthe masculinitypracticeof "sacrifice behalfof others" straints). Masculinities. Gentile.and work. which are culturallyavailable to both genders.Chicago:Universityof Chicago Press.I wantto know moreabouthow women practice.R. CA: StanfordUniversityPress. yearsthe problems . I hope Masculinities on stimulatesnew scholarship femininities. Boston: Harvard PATRICIA YANCEYMARTIN Florida State University Reply in The first stirringsof Men's Liberation the early 1970s launcheda debateabout For withinthe "malerole. 1994. In Differencesthat work.thatwhen she achievesthem. UniversityPress. practiceslike this one. Genderandpower. and resist.and often empirically. 1987.toleratesvariability."I that want to understand dynamicand how men "do femininities"as well. This practicemay be ideal masculinitybut it (p. Two women. Feminismunmodified.

which are fairly statedand important. offer a theoreticalframeworkfor understanding and assay its intellectualand political it. Wearinga shortpleatedskirtwas a masculinepracticein early 18th-century So Scotland. a mass media image. and I am pleased that suchjudges should think it useful.a formalorganization. here are brief responses to some main points (space preventsme from respondingto others). Our models should not privilege the symbolic dimension of social practice over all others. The metaphorof But is "place"is partof the conceptionof genderas structure. pregnancyand child rearing. My rathercomplicateddefinition of masculinityarose from a strong sense of the multileveled and multidimensionalcharacterof gender. No masculinitywill do. Martinis right thatthe meaningof any place arises from the structure. which arose in history and could change in history. and from a research literature thatidentifiedmasculinitiesin such differentthingsas a neuroticpersonand ality. consequences. single-level notion of "core"or "true" Have I stretchedthe termtoo far?Martinquerieswhethermasculinitycan be a "place"or an "effect. a situationin which fantastictales about masculinitycould be thoughta revelation.the accumulation wealth.such as the division of labor-a point of importance.When my colleagues (Tim Carriganand John Lee) and I were first trying to define it.I would arguethatthe circuitof interactionbetween social and bodily processes is of such importancethat these effects should be includedin the definitionof "masculinity" (and "femininity"). Social practicesincludingdress and laborhave bodily effects. But conceptions of gender that emphasize performancerisk truncating the whole field. the termhas come . Martinis quiterightthatthe termhegemonicmasculinityhas come to have more than one meaning. a feminine practicein 20th-centuryManhattan. far I would go with Kondo. When a man dresses "like a woman. The man in drag need not be occupying a feminine place in other parts of the structure. One of the main purposes of Masculinities was to document and evaluate this research (much of which was not well known).COMMENT AND LETTERS 475 debateremainedfact short. is not it fixed.the of materialitiesof violence and power.But in some writingsince."he is preciselyoccupyinga feminineplace in thatsegmentof the structure of gender relations that defines semiotic oppositions in dress. place it in historical context. By the early 1990s.it involves the materiallaborof houseworkandmachineminding. the spiritof testing argumentsto improve them.and so on. we thought of hegemony as a situation."Her example is to the point.in understanding the differentforms of genderambiguityand transgression. and a good many (from pumpingiron andplaying ball to cosmetic surgeryandlearningdeportment) are intendedas partof the constructionof gender. the structure complex. Genderis not only a system of signs andmeanings. Patricia Yancey Martin and Judith Lorber are generous in their appraisalof this effort.if not fact free. I In welcome theircriticismstoo. a certain volume of research on men and gender had accumulated-Gender & Society playing an honorablerole in the process. a subcultural peer group.

structuralism. Lynne Segal. more cooperative and peaceable.Foucault. Yet. as a response to feminism. the best workon men's sexualityis a responseto the HIV/AIDSepidemic.and a weak asset politically.Carol Hagemann-White.in some usages I refer in a shorthand way to hegemonic masculinity when the topic is men behavingbadly (with respectto genderequality). That was partof Gramsci's original conception of hegemony in class relations. But I do thinkit possible for hegemonyto be a positive force.And this gives an opening to the notion of a fixed negativecharacter type.Lorberdoes not thinkmuch of this approach.andsome of the best historicalwork on masculinitygrows out of concernswith colonialism and race. My workon genderissues began men andmasculinity. That is. than the currenteditions. The concept of significant parts hegemonic masculinity was adapted from Gramsci's Marxism. Lorberbegins and ends her remarkswith a categorizinggesture("men'sfeminism") which has considerableimplications. and indeed.a good deal of it (and not the least influential) is done by women: Nancy Chodorow." of The politicalargument Masculinitiesis not a Pollyannahope of makingthings betterfor everyone.Sartre.476 GENDER & SOCIETY / August 1998 to standfor a fixed character type.I think everyone would agree that for feminismhas been of crucialimportance the developmentof recentresearchon Thatis certainlytruefor me. the evidence ranges from the .since "few women" have benefited from progressivesocial policies. otherideas have of Some of and come from Freud. and has been conducted in constant dialogue with feminists. The nonfeministand antifeministmen's movefeminist theoriesthatit "applies. "the sackcloth and ashes brigade. The term is defined in relationto the legitimacy of patriarchy. There may be other reasons for being wary of alliances. Men's feminism-as she senses. ElisabethBadinter. to I thinkit important recognizethe multiplesourcesof the recentwork on men and masculinityin orderto grapplewith the politicaldilemmaLorberposes. but that is not a good one. especially Pam Benton but includingmany others. of the work do not stem from feminism at all.Although I have tried to be consistent in defining it historically.First. to quote a current Australianbook. I must take some responsibilityfor this.Which leads to questionsof political strategy. somethinglike a TypeA personality-and almost always with negative connotations. in her comments on men's inability to share women's "angerand resentment"-can only be tail-endism. the concept of and hierarchies masculinitywas workedout by Gay Liberation. but an argumentabout the significance of social alliances in gender reform.(It since it will reflectthe already will also be a weak asset for feminismintellectually.") ments share this view of men's feminism and ridicule profeministactivists and researchersas. acknowledgingthis in the fullest termsis not to accept the categorization of the work on masculinityas men's feminism. Second. and it is quite conceivablethata certainhegemonycould be constructed masculinitiesthatare for less toxic. Ursula and Mueller. poststructuralism.among others.a useful way of formulating goals for educational politicalwork.

ratherthan a tail-end relationwith feminism. then it is important formallianceswith othersocial movements.CONNELL Universityof Sydney . I shouldthinkthatMartin.Lorber.and I are in agreementon this: For any form of progressivegenderpolitics. and to think how to bring groups of men into them. Whateverone's view of alliancepolitics. And it is a politics of social justice. What such alliances need as bindingis a robustconceptionof social justice. that provides the ground on which progressivegenderpolitics among men can stand.COMMENT AND LETTERS 477 historicalgains for women from the growthof public educationin Americato the currentlosses women are sufferingas the welfare state is trashedby reactionaries in Britainand Australiaand the regime of formalequalityis trashedin the former Soviet states. R. multisourcedmovementof researchand activism on issues aboutmen and masculinity will be a long-termasset. W. If one is concerned with building social majoritiesin supportof progressive to genderpolitics. a vigorous.