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FOOD SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY

SWEET POTATO
PRODUCTION, NUTRITIONAL
PROPERTIES AND DISEASES

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FOOD SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY

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FOOD SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY

SWEET POTATO
PRODUCTION, NUTRITIONAL
PROPERTIES AND DISEASES

DORIS SULLIVAN
EDITOR

New York
Copyright © 2016 by Nova Science Publishers, Inc.

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CONTENTS

Preface vii
Chapter 1 Sweet Potato: Production, Nutritional Properties
and Diseases 1
O. A. T. Namo and O. J. Akinbola
Chapter 2 Boron Management in Sweet Potato Crops 35
Fábio Rafael Echer and José Eduardo Creste
Chapter 3 Food Applications and Health Benefits Related
to Antioxidant Activity of Phenolic Compounds
from Sweet Potato Peels and Leaves:
Review of Literature and Patents 47
Ana Anastácio and Isabel S. Carvalho
Index 121
PREFACE

Sweet potato is a short-cycle, dicotyledonous plant in the morning glory


family Convolvulaceae. It is a vegetable crop with roots that are sweet-tasting,
starchy and tuberous. It is native to the tropical regions in America, from
where it spread to other parts of the world. Chapter One of this book focuses
on the production, nutritional patterns and diseases of sweet potatoes. Chapter
Two studies boron management in sweet potato crops. Chapter Three provides
a review of the food applications and health benefits related to antioxidant
activity of phenolic compounds from sweet potato peels and leaves.
Chapter 1 – Sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam.) is a short-cycle,
low input crop in the family Convolvulaceae. It originated from tropical areas
of Central and South America, from where it spread to other parts of the
world. It is a minor crop in most parts of Africa, where it is regarded as a
„backyard‟ crop or found in the fringes of other crops. The food situation in
different parts of the world is influencing a shift towards sweet potato such
that it is no longer treated as a minor crop. It is a nutritious root crop with
reasonable amount of fibre, beta carotene and vitamin C, especially in orange-
fleshed cultivars. The crop thrives well in warm summer days and nights,
which are required for optimal growth and root development. Production is
influenced by variety, husbandry practice, propagation methods, pests and
diseases. With proper management, the crop has the potential to be one of the
most profitable vegetable crops. The tubers can be stored for many months
when properly cured and held under proper conditions. With the introduction
of improved production technology, pest and disease management, the crop
has the potentials to contribute to food security and industrial development.
This chapter focuses on production, nutritional properties and diseases of the
sweet potato.
viii Doris Sullivan

Chapter 2 – Boron (B) is an essential micronutrient required for plant


growth and development. Boron is necessary for the tissue development and
differentiation, particularly growing tips, phloem and xylem. Soil organic
matter (OM) is the main B source to the plants, and hot (or cold), dry weather
can reduce OM decomposition at the soil surface, which decrease the release
of B to crops. Boron toxicity is a worldwide problem that limits crop yield in
agricultural areas under alkaline and saline soils with a low rainfall and poor
leaching. On the other hand, B deficiencies are common in poor OM and
sandy soils subjected to high rainfall. Boron deficiency has been associated
with disorders in sweet potato such as “internal brown spot” and “sweet potato
blister”. Additionally, sweet potato tubers with severe B deficiency show less
sweet and bitter flavor. The effect of severe B deficiency is the growth of
terminal bud cessation, which becomes short in size and bunchy in
appearance. Finally, tips start wilting and drying. There is no tuber formation.
Studies have reported the positive response of B application on sweet potato
yield, especially in low organic matter and acid soils. B recommendation
varies from 1-2 kg ha-1 in sandy/acid soils to 4 kg ha-1 for alkaline soils.
Chapter 3 – Sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas L.) is widely cultivated
throughout the world, being a favourite staple of many cultures, it is a
favourite ingredient in many ethnic cuisine. In 2013, it ranked as the 14th top
commodity by quantity production with 1.11 x 108 ton. Peels are one of the
major wastes generated during the processing of sweet potato and sweet potato
leaves, although consumed in Asia and Africa, are considered a waste in many
countries. To join the trend on the recycling of agro wastes into value added
products, research lines for the valorisation of sweet potato peels and leaves
were defined by literature and patents review. Focus was on food applications
and health benefits related to phenolics compounds and antioxidant activity
from sweet potato. Articles and patents were selected for the period 2003-2014
from Web of Science™ and Espacenet databases, respectively. Information
taken from the whole documents was gathered in contingency tables for the
different parts of the plant – tuber, leaf, stem, stalk, vine, and peel. Articles
were categorized in the type of study, phenolic compounds antioxidant assays,
statistical analysis, food applications and health benefits. Articles presented a
demarked trend towards preclinical studies but research on new foods that did
not include sweet potato peels or leaves. DPPH radical scavenging method
was most used in vitro antioxidant activity assay and hydroxycinnamic acids
were the main phenolic compounds analysed. Enhancement of antioxidant
defence and anticancer were health benefits verified by clinical trials for
leaves while studies on peel were absent. Among the food applications studied
Preface ix

in articles, flour/powder was the most studied for tuber, leaf and peel.
Beverage and extract were the top patented foods for tuber and leaf,
respectively. Text mining tools were applied to articles and patents abstracts to
provide a global vision for main themes and knowledge gaps. A functional
beverage development using design of experiment tools was identified as
relevant new research line for the valorisation of sweet potato peels and
leaves.
In: Sweet Potato ISBN: 978-1-63484-461-1
Editor: Doris Sullivan © 2016 Nova Science Publishers, Inc.

Chapter 1

SWEET POTATO: PRODUCTION,


NUTRITIONAL PROPERTIES AND DISEASES

O. A. T. Namo, PhD, and O. J. Akinbola


Cytogenetics and Plant Breeding Unit,
Department of Plant Science and Technology,
University of Jos, Jos, Nigeria

ABSTRACT
Sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam.) is a short-cycle, low input
crop in the family Convolvulaceae. It originated from tropical areas of
Central and South America, from where it spread to other parts of the
world. It is a minor crop in most parts of Africa, where it is regarded as a
„backyard‟ crop or found in the fringes of other crops. The food situation
in different parts of the world is influencing a shift towards sweet potato
such that it is no longer treated as a minor crop. It is a nutritious root crop
with reasonable amount of fibre, beta carotene and vitamin C, especially
in orange-fleshed cultivars. The crop thrives well in warm summer days
and nights, which are required for optimal growth and root development.
Production is influenced by variety, husbandry practice, propagation
methods, pests and diseases. With proper management, the crop has the
potential to be one of the most profitable vegetable crops. The tubers can
be stored for many months when properly cured and held under proper
conditions. With the introduction of improved production technology,
pest and disease management, the crop has the potentials to contribute to
2 O. A. T. Namo and O. J. Akinbola

food security and industrial development. This chapter focuses on


production, nutritional properties and diseases of the sweet potato.

1.1. INTRODUCTION
Sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas (L.)Lam.) is a short-cycle, dicotyledonous
plant in the morning glory family Convolvulaceae. It is a vegetable crop with
roots that are sweet-tasting, starchy and tuberous. It is native to the tropical
regions in America, from where it spread to other parts of the world (Tewe et
al., 2003).
The genus Ipomoea also includes several garden flowers called morning
glories, though the term is not usually extended to Ipomoea batatas. Some
cultivars of Ipomoea batatas are grown as ornamental plants; the name
tuberous morning glory may be used in a horticultural context (Tewe et al.,
2003).
The plant is a herbaceous perennial vine, bearing alternate heart-shaped or
palmately lobed leaves and medium-sized sympetalous flowers. The edible
tuberous root is long and tapered, with a smooth skin whose colour ranges
between yellow, orange, red, brown, purple and beige. Its flesh ranges from
beige to white, red, pink, violet, yellow, orange or purple. Sweet potato
cultivars with white or pale -yellow flesh are less sweet and moist than those
with red, pink or orange flesh (Gad and George, 2009).
Sweet potato is a root crop native to the tropics and requires warm days
and nights for optimum growth and root development. It yields better quality
roots on well drained, light, sandy loam or silt loam soils (Gad and George,
2009).
Sweet potato is reported to be one of the world‟s most important food
crops; the tuber is high in food value, fibre and energy (ACIAR, 2012). The
tubers contain a high level of vitamins A, C and B6, potassium, phosphorus
and niacin (WHfoods, 2013). Johnson and Pace (2010) reported that the leaves
of sweet potato contain high amounts of vitamins, minerals, antioxidants,
dietary fibre and essential fatty acids which play a vital role in promoting
health.
The utilization of the crop as animal feed has been reported to be on the
increase especially in developing countries (Scott, 2000). The usage of the
crop as a livestock feed aside from human consumption cannot be
unconnected with its high nutritional content and palatability to livestock.
Sweet Potato: Production, Nutritional Properties and Diseases 3

The crop thrives well during warm summer days and nights, which are
required for optimal growth and root development. Sweet potato production is
influenced by factors such as cultivar, husbandry practice, pests and diseases
as well as propagation methods. With the introduction of improved production
technology, pest and disease management, the crop has the potentials to
contribute to food security and industrial development. This chapter focuses
on production, nutritional properties and diseases of the sweet potato.

1.2. CLASSIFICATION
The systematic classification of the sweet potato is as follows (Huaman,
1999):

Family: Convolvulaceae
Tribe: Ipomoeae
Genus: Ipomoea
Sub‐genus: Eriospermum
Section: Eriospermum
Series: Batatas
Species: Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam.

Common name: Sweet potato (English), batata (Spanish), potata


(Setswana)

This species was first described in 1753 by Linnaeus as Convolvulus


batatas. However, in 1791 Lamarck classified the species within the genus
Ipomoea on the basis of the stigma shape and the surface of the pollen grains.
Therefore, the name was changed to Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam. Within the
Series batatas, there are 13 wild species that are considered to be related to the
sweet potato. These are: I. cordatotriloba (= I. trichocarpa), I. cynanchifolia,
I. grandifolia, I. lacunosa, I. leucantha, I. littoralis, I. ramosissima, I.
tabascana, I. tenuissima, I. tiliacea, I. trifida, I. triloba and I. umbraticola.
The number of chromosomes in the sweet potato is 2n = 6x = 90,
indicating that it is a hexaploid with a basic chromosome number x = 15.
Among the wild species, I. tabascana and I. tiliacea are tetraploids with 2n =
4x = 60. The other species are diploids with 2n = 2x = 30. Polyploid species
are I. cordatotriloba with 2x and 4x and I. trifida with 2x, 3x, 4x and 6x
(Huaman, 1999).
4 O. A. T. Namo and O. J. Akinbola

1.3. ORIGIN AND DISTRIBUTION


Sweet potato is native to the tropical Americas, where it was first
cultivated about 5,000 years ago. It spread very early throughout the region,
including the Caribbean and what is now the south-eastern United States. It
was brought to Europe by the Spanish and Portuguese explorers and then
spread throughout much of the Old World (CGIAR, 2006).
When Europeans visited Polynesia, they found sweet potatoes being
cultivated there, but when and how they first got there has been a subject of
debate among anthropologists and historians (CGIAR, 2006).

1.4. PRODUCTION
1.4.1. Major Production Areas in Nigeria

Nigeria produces 2.5% of the world‟s sweet potato, being the third largest
producer after China and Uganda (FAO, 2004; Bergh et al., 2012). Sweet
potatoes are grown in all parts of the country in the different agro-ecological
zones, from the tropical rainforest to semi-arid and arid zones. While the crop
is considered as a cash crop in certain parts of Nigeria, in most areas, it is
grown as a secondary crop. It is a staple crop in northern Nigeria where it is
mostly produced (Namo, 2005; Amienyo and Ataga, 2007).
The production of sweet potato has expanded in the last decade to almost
all ecological zones in Nigeria (NRCRI, 2009). Presently, 381,000 – 510,000
hectares of land are used for sweet potato cultivation in Nigeria with an annual
production figure of 3.46 million metric tonnes (NRCRI, 2008). Estimated
yields in research fields vary from 40 to 70 t/ha for improved cultivars, while
in multi-locational trials average yields of 23.5 t/ha across seasons and
locations have been reported (Tewe et al., 2003).
The production cycle in Nigeria involves the following activities (Tewe
et al., 2003):

I. Land clearing, packing and burning: Land preparation can be manual


or mechanized.
II. Tilling/ploughing and mounding or ridging: Tilling/ploughing is done
to create loose soil for optimal sweet potato productivity. Ridge
Sweet Potato: Production, Nutritional Properties and Diseases 5

planting is the most common method of growing sweet potato in


Nigeria.
III. Planting materials: Vines serve as major planting materials.
IV. Planting: Planting begins at the onset of the rainy season and
continues until two months before rains stop. Sweet potatoes may be
planted on mounds, ridges, beds, or on flat ground. The crop performs
best on mounds and poorest on flat ground Tewe et al., 2003).
V. Weeding: Most sweet potato farmers practise hoe-weeding. The effect
of weeds is critical during the first two months of growth. After this
period, intense vine growth causes rapid and effective coverage of the
ground, smothering the weeds present. A second weeding may be
necessary to ensure that weeds do not interfere with tuberous root
growth.
VI. Fertilizer Application: Generally, farmers do not apply fertilizer.
However, studies have shown that fertilizer application could increase
tuber yields (Namo and Christopher, 2002).
VII. Harvesting: The tubers are harvested 3-8 months after planting,
depending on the cultivar. Harvesting entails cutting off shoots,
carefully digging out tubers while avoiding bruises, using a fork
shovel, long wooden sticks, metal rod with flattened end or hoes.
Harvest time is flexible and often staggered. However, harvesting at
the earliest maturation period is recommended to avoid attacks by
weevils (beetles) as moisture in the soil decreases. In times of adverse
conditions, only mature tubers are harvested for consumption or for
sale. Small tubers are left to continue growing. Knowing when to
harvest enables farmers to obtain tubers with a desirable dryness
composition. Farmers often leave storage roots in the soil during the
dry season and harvest when food supplies are short.

Sweet potato production generally follows the activities listed above but
the timing varies from one agro-ecological zone to another. The table below
summarizes the production patterns in different regions of Nigeria.

1.4.2. Plant Biology


The stem cuttings that are used as planting material in the tropics are
planted on mounds or ridges. New shoots and roots arise from the nodes of the
cuttings (Onwueme, 1978; Namo, 2005). The stems are thin and may be
prostrate or climbing. Latex occurs in all parts of the plant.
6 O. A. T. Namo and O. J. Akinbola

Leaves are spirally arranged on the stem without stipules. The petiole
ranges in length from 5 to 30 cm depending on the cultivar (Namo, 2005). The
petiole has a groove on the upper surface. Laminae vary in shape between
cultivars and may be large or small, erect or horizontal (Namo, 2005).

Table 1. Sweet potato production patterns in Nigeria

Region States Activity


Northwest Sokoto, Kano, Kebbi, Planting from July to August.
Katsina, Kaduna Possible second crop irrigated
from November to December
Northeast Jigawa, Yobe, Borno, Planting from May to July
Adamawa, Bauchi
Central Niger, Kwara, Kogi, Ridges made from May to July
Benue, Plateau, Taraba Vines planted from July through
August
Southwest Oyo, Osun, Ondo, Ogun, Planting from March to August
Lagos, Delta, Edo
Source: Tewe et al., 2003.

Adventitious roots develop at an early stage from the nodes at and near the
attachment of the first expanded leaf (Namo, 2005). The total number of roots
formed reaches a maximum 10 to 15 days after planting. Roots are divided
into four classes, namely young roots, fibrous roots, pencil-form and tuberous
roots, depending on the primary cambial activity and the amount of
lignifications of cells of the stele. Environmental conditions during early
growth influence the proportion of roots that are formed in each class. The
number of tuberous roots may be determined as early as 30 days after planting.
Cool temperatures (22-24°C) and an adequate supply of potassium lead to
rapid activity in the cambium and little lignifications of the roots, a condition
that favours the development of tubers (Onwueme, 1978). Further
development of the tuberous roots depends on an increase in both the number
and size of cells in the stele and on the development of starch granules in the
cells. The number of cells increases slowly until 40 days after planting.
Flowering or anthesis is a process by which plants produce stamens (male
sex organs) and pistils (female sex organs) on structures called flowers.
Flowering is influenced by daylight and temperature; vegetative growth is a
pre-requisite for flower initiation (Rieger and Sedgley, 1996).
Photoperiodically-controlled flowering causes flowering to be extremely rare
Sweet Potato: Production, Nutritional Properties and Diseases 7

in the temperate regions. Consequently, sweet potato breeding in such regions


relies on artificially-induced flowering (Onwueme, 1978; Namo, 2005).
Cultivars which are adapted to tropical environments flower more readily than
those adapted to temperate environments. Artificially-induced flowering
involves subjecting the plants to artificial short-day conditions by grafting the
sweet potato onto a cultivar that flowers more readily and by applying the
growth regulator (e.g., 2,4-dichloro-phenoxy-acetic acid) at 500 ppm. In the
tropics, however, sweet potato breeding relies on the natural and readily
produced flowers (Namo, 2005; Namo and Mwanja, 2014).
The fruit is a capsule, more-or-less spherical with a terminal tip, and can
be pubescent or glabrous. The capsule turns brown when mature. Each capsule
contains from one to four seeds, which are slightly flattened on one side and
convex on the other (Namo and Mwanja, 2014). Seed-shape can be irregular,
slightly angular or rounded; the seed colour ranges from brown to black. The
seed-size is between 2 and 4 mm depending on the cultivar (Namo and
Mwanja, 2014). The embryo and endosperm are protected by a thick,
impermeable testa. Seed germination is difficult and requires scarification by
mechanical abrasion or chemical treatment. Sweet potato seeds do not have a
dormancy period but can maintain their viability for many years.
Seed production in sweet potato is generally low especially in temperate
environments, due to low pollen viability, short flower life, slow rate of pollen
tube-growth and poor seed-setting. Results of the trial conducted in Jos, north-
central Nigeria, showed that the pattern of flowering and the potential for seed
production in the sweet potato varied with cultivar (Namo and Mwanja, 2014).

1.4.3. Climatic Requirements


Because sweet potato is of tropical origin, it adapts well to warm climates
and grows best during summer. It is cold-sensitive and should not be planted
until all danger of frost is past. The optimum temperature to achieve the best
growth is between 21°C and 29°C, although they can tolerate temperatures as
low as 18°C and as high as 35°C. Storage roots are sensitive to changes in soil
temperature, depending on the stage of root development (Biswal, 2008).
A well-drained sandy loam is preferred and heavy clay soils should be
avoided as they can retard root development, resulting in growth cracks and
poor root shape. Lighter soils are more easily washed from the roots at harvest
time. Wet season green manure cropping with sterile forage sorghum is
recommended and should be thoroughly incorporated and decomposed by
planting time. Soil pH should be adjusted to about 6.0 by applying lime or
dolomite. The soil should be deep ripped and then disk cultivated to break up
8 O. A. T. Namo and O. J. Akinbola

any large clods and provide enough loose soil for hilling of beds. A yearly soil
test is recommended to assess soil properties, pH and nutrient levels before
land preparation (Biswal, 2008).

1.4.4. Cultivar
Philpott et al., (2004) divided sweet potato cultivars which are commonly
used for commercial production into three categories:

I. Orange/copper skin with orange flesh, e.g., Beauregard, Hernandez,


Beerwah Gold, NC-3, LO-323, Centennial, Darby and Jewel. South
African orange cultivars such as Beauregard have long, cylindrical to
heavy elliptic tubers. They have high beta-carotene content and grow
very fast. The tubers may become very big when the growing period
is extended.
II. White/cream skin with white/cream flesh e.g., Hawaii and Kestel.
Blesbok, which has cream flesh colour, has a high yield and a good
storage life. It can produce good yield in a relatively short growing
period (4 months), which is important for cold regions. It produces
long, curved tubers, especially in sandy soils.
III. Red/purple skin with cream/white flesh, e.g., Northern Star, Red
Abundance and Rojo Blanco. Koedoe, which has tapered tubers, is a
very attractive and tasty cultivar when cooked. Its tips break off
easily. It requires a growing period of 5 months to produce a good
yield. Selection of a cultivar to grow should be based on market
demand. Cultivars are assessed on a number of parameters, including
root shape and uniformity, marketable yield, skin and flesh
attractiveness and plant vigour.

Purple-fleshed sweet potatoes have purple colour in the skins and flesh of
the storage root due to the accumulation of anthocyanin (Philpott et al., 2004;
Terahara et al., 2004). Anthocyanins are natural soluble food pigments which
contribute to the red, blue or purple colouration of leaves, flowers and other
parts of the plant. Red and purple pigmentation in various parts of sweet potato
is caused by the presence of acylated anthocyanins (Fan et al., 2008).

1.4.5. Cultural Practice


Sweet potato is usually propagated through vine cuttings obtained either
from freshly harvested plants or from nursery. However, recurrent use of vines
Sweet Potato: Production, Nutritional Properties and Diseases 9

can cause increased weevil infestation, even though there may be no


significant reduction in yield (Nair, 2006). Vines obtained from nursery should
be healthy and vigorous for maximum root production.
Cut vines with intact leaves are stored under shade for two days prior to
planting in the main field to promote better root initiation, easy establishment
of vines and higher root yield (Amamma, 2006; Biswal, 2008). The leaves of
the vines can be removed when the vines are to be transported to distant places
to reduce bulkiness. This method can be adopted for multiplication of planting
materials which involves transportation costs.
Terminal cuttings of about 30 to 40 cm long with approximately eight
nodes are collected from the nursery bed, or the last established planting
(Namo and Michael, 2006). Terminal cuttings are taken from crops that are old
enough to provide material without excessive damage. “Back cuts” are
avoided as these will have variable maturity and result in significant yield
reduction. The lower leaves are cut away as tearing these off may damage the
nodes that will produce the roots. Cuttings can be left under a moist cloth in
the shade for a couple of days to promote nodal rooting before planting in the
field. At the recommended plant spacing, 330 cuttings are required for a 100 m
row (Scott, 2000).
Cuttings are planted at about a 45° angle into heaps as this promotes good,
even root development. Half of the cutting or three to four nodes should be
buried at a spacing of 30 cm between plants. Mechanical planters are available
and can be used on large-scale plantings; manual planting is widely practised.
This can be as easy as pushing the cutting into the heap with a forked stick.
The labour requirement for hand-planting is estimated at 32 man-hours/ha.
Cuttings need to be watered at or immediately after planting. Plantings should
be scheduled to allow for progressive fortnightly harvests over the desired
production period (Scott, 2000).
Sprouts are taken from the plant beds when 6 to10 leaves and a strong root
system have developed on each one. They are set out into the field as early as
possible when the soil has warmed and the risk of frost or a cold weather
period has passed. Plants should be spaced 30 to 38 cm apart in rows that are 1
m apart. This requires approximately 14,520 plants per hectare. Management
of water is very critical to avoid transplant shock (Scott, 2000).
Sweet potato is grown on raised beds or mounds. This provides the
developing roots with loose, friable soil to expand to their potential size and
shape without restriction. It also allows adequate drainage and provides easy
harvesting with a mechanical digger. Mounds should be approximately 30 cm
high and 40 cm wide at the base. The main consideration is that the developing
10 O. A. T. Namo and O. J. Akinbola

roots remain under the soil within the heaps. If a mechanical digger is used at
harvest time, it is important to match the width of the mound with the width of
the digger mouth. Spacing the mounds at 1.5 to 2.0 m apart (depending on the
tractor width) with a roadway every six rows allows access for boom spray.
Mounds are formed, using hilling discs, and the base fertilizer can be
incorporated during this operation (Ngoan, 2006).
Time of planting has been identified as one of the most important factors
affecting growth, yield and quality of roots (Nedunchezhiyan and Byju, 2005).
Planting time is mainly determined by the climate of a location. The best crop
yields generally occur in areas of 750 to 1,000 mm annual precipitation, with
at least 500 mm falling during the growing season (Tewe et al., 2001).
Generally, planting takes place from February through July in the central to
southern regions, where rainfall is heavier. However, planting along
riverbanks in the central zone, or in swampy areas („fadama‟) in the north can
extend the season to permit planting from September to December (Tewe
et al., 2001).
Optimum plant density depends on cultivar, but it may vary from 33,000
to 40,000 plants per hectare. Inter-row spacing may vary from 1 to 1.25 m
while intra-row spacing is usually between 25 and 30 cm (Thomas, 2005;
Salawu and Mukhtar, 2008).
Sweet potato removes appreciable quantities of plant nutrients, hence
incorporation of considerable amount of organic manure at the time of
planting is recommended to maintain soil productivity. Application of organic
or inorganic fertilizers has significant impact on growth and root yield of
sweet potato (Namo and Christopher, 2002; Salawu and Mukhtar, 2008).
Usually, farmyard manure/cow dung compost or green manure is used as
organic manure for sweet potato. Application of green manure has been
observed to be an alternative to farm-yard manure (Kaggawa et al., 2006).
The application of nitrogen fertilizer has been reported to increase the root
yield (Namo and Christopher, 2002; Satapathy et al., 2005). However,
excessive amount of nitrogen application encourages vine growth rather than
storage root development. A moderate dose of 50-75 kgN/ha is optimum for
root production in sweet potato (Sebastiani et al., 2006; Biswal, 2008). The
response of sweet potato to phosphorus is very low. A dose of 25-50
kg P2O5/ha is considered optimum for sweet potato (Mohanty et al., 2005;
Akinrinde, 2006; Sebastiani et al., 2006). Potassium is essential for the
synthesis and translocation of carbohydrates from the tops to the roots (Byju
and Nedunchezhiyan, 2004). A moderate dose of 75-100 kg k2O/ha is
recommended (John et al., 2001).
Sweet Potato: Production, Nutritional Properties and Diseases 11

Sweet potato needs sufficient soil moisture at the time of planting to


ensure proper sprouting and establishment of vines. It is grown mostly under
rain-fed conditions. It can also be grown in dry season under irrigation. Gomes
and Carr (2003) observed that sweet potato required an average of 2 mm of
water per day in the early parts of the growing season and 5-6 mm of water per
day prior to harvest. Irrigation generally increases yields and improves the
grade and quality of marketable tubers.
The major weeds of sweet potato plant beds and fields are annual grasses,
pigweeds, common cocklebur, common lamb squarters, common ragweed,
Pennsylvania smartweed and yellow and purple nut sedge. Weeds are more
common in sweet potato plant beds than in fields. Weeds in plant beds can
reduce plant number and tuber weight. In fields, severe weeds can reduce yield
by 100 per cent, as well as diminish root quality and interfere with harvest.
Sweet potato producers have only two options for controlling weeds in plant
beds: hand weeding and herbicides. Annual grasses are easily controlled in
plant beds with the use of herbicides, but broadleaf weeds are difficult to
control. In fields, growers have four options of tackling weeds: pre-plant
tillage, herbicides, cultivation and hand- weeding (Seem et al., 2003).
Sweet potato is a fast-growing, shallow canopy crop that can cover the
soil quickly. It suppresses most of the weeds when grown closely by reducing
availability of light and physical interference (Ravindran et al., 2010).
However, weeding may become necessary particularly in the early stages of
the crop growth, when grown for root yield with wider spacing. At least two
weedings are recommended between 15 and 35 days after planting
(Nedunchezhiyan and Ray, 2010).
A number of control strategies may be used: after bed formation, irrigation
should be applied to germinate any weed seed. Spraying with a knock-down
herbicide before planting has been an effective method. Rotary finger
cultivators are effective in removing small seedling weeds during early crop
growth. Early vigorous growth is encouraged to smother weeds.
A fallow period may follow each crop to prevent a build-up of soil-borne
pests and diseases. Planting a green manure crop after harvest helps to
suppress any regrowth and weeds as well as improving soil structure, and is
essential for the long-term health of the soil.
Sweet potato weevil is the most serious pest of sweet potato. Adults are
ant-like and lay eggs on stems and roots. The larvae burrow into the roots,
making them unmarketable. They can pupate in the stems and be transferred in
planting material. Once established in a crop, this pest is difficult to control.
Research has shown that a pre-plant treatment of cuttings with chloropyrifos
12 O. A. T. Namo and O. J. Akinbola

combined with foliar applications of chloropyrifos at 5 and 10 weeks from


planting provides significant control. Planting material collected from an
infected crop would require insecticide dipping before planting. Destroying all
crop residues after harvest and crop rotations are the best ways to keep weevil
numbers down.
Termites can be a major problem, especially on newly cleared ground
where the activity of established colonies has not been identified. Avoiding
known termite-infested areas may be successful in the short term. Aggregation
techniques to locate and concentrate termite activity followed by a baiting
programme is the best way to clear future planting areas of this pest.
Leaf-feeding caterpillars may also cause problems if infestation is severe
enough to cause significant leaf reduction. At the start of the wet season,
hungry magpie geese can cause serious damage by trampling crops and eating
the roots. Black-footed tree rats are also a problem.
Harvesting is done progressively as root yields are not significantly
affected by delaying harvesting few days after maturity. Environment and
cultivar may play a significant role in determining the time of harvest (Bourke,
2006).
In North India, sweet potato takes 5-6 months to mature while in the South
it matures within 4 months. Within limits, the yield per hectare will increase if
the tubers remain longer in the ground but they become less palatable and
more vulnerable to weevil damage and rots. The maturity of the roots can be
determined by cutting them open. The cut surface of the immature roots gives
a dark greenish colour, while in mature roots the cut ends dry clearly. The field
is irrigated 2-3 days prior to harvesting to facilitate easy lifting of the roots.
After removing the vines, the roots are dug out without causing injury (Nair,
2006). In the tropics, sweet potato harvesting is usually done manually.
The tuberous root yield varies with cultivar, season of planting, soil
conditions and fertility. In general, the storage root yield varies from 20-25
t/ha for promising cultivars with improved crop management practices (Nair,
2006). Nedunchezhiyan et al., (2008) reported that in sandy loam soils sweet
potato recorded tuber yield of 13.1 t/ha under rain-fed conditions, whereas
Nath et al., (2006) reported 26 t/ha tuber yield under irrigation. Namo (2005)
reported an average tuber yield of 42 t/ha in Jos, north-central Nigeria.
According to Andersen (2009), sweet potatoes that are to be stored for
later marketing or as seed stock must be cured immediately after harvesting to
minimize storage losses. Curing involves controlling temperatures and relative
humidity and providing ventilation for seven to ten days. Curing is a wound-
healing process which occurs most rapidly at 26 to 32°C, a relative humidity
Sweet Potato: Production, Nutritional Properties and Diseases 13

of 85 to 90% and good ventilation to remove carbon dioxide from the curing
area. Wounds and bruises heal and a protective cork layer develops over the
entire root surface. Properly cured roots can store for 12 months or longer with
15 to 25% losses under the best conditions. After curing, the tubers must be
stored at a temperature of 13 to 16°C for long-term storage at a relative
humidity of 85 to 90% (Lerner, 2001).
The tubers are sensitive to chilling injury and should not be stored below
120C. Storage at freezing temperatures will severely damage the tubers; the
damage usually does not show until the tubers are returned to a warmer
temperature. Storage temperature is between 12 and 15°C. Relative humidity
should be maintained between 75 to 80% to prevent excessive water loss from
the roots. Some ventilation should be provided to prevent carbon dioxide
build-up. Post-harvest storage rots such as that caused by Rhizopus can infect
damaged areas on roots, which can spread to other roots on contact. The best
control is to avoid skin damage and packing of damaged roots. Roots should
be dried before packing. Optimum storage conditions are at 14 to 160C in a
high humidity cool store. Storage below 100C may cause chilling injury, and
above 160C it can lead to weight loss and sprouting (Lerner, 2001).

1.5. NUTRITIONAL PROPERTIES


Sweet potato is an important staple food crop in Nigeria (FAO, 2002;
Tewe et al., 2003; Ukpabi, 2009). It is one of the starchy root crops that are
generally consumed in the country as an energy-giving food. Sweet potatoes
are usually consumed without special processing. Ojeniyi and Tewe (2001)
observed that the tubers and leaves contain high carbohydrate, which serves as
a good source of energy. The fresh tuber is boiled, roasted, baked or fried as
chips, which may be sold as snacks or salted and eaten as potato crisps in most
parts of Nigeria. The boiled tubers are sliced, sun-dried and eaten as a delicacy
known as “Kambar” in Plateau State, north-central Nigeria. An overview of
the nutritional composition of sweet potato is as shown in Table 2.
The nutritional composition of the three major categories of sweet potato
is as shown in Table 3.
The Table shows that the nutrient composition is similar in the three
categories of sweet potato except for vitamin A. Of the three categories, the
raw root of the orange- fleshed sweet potato contains a high amount of vitamin
A (727ug/100 g) as compared to the yellow-fleshed (150ug/100 g) or white-
fleshed type (3ug/100 g).
14 O. A. T. Namo and O. J. Akinbola

Table 2. Nutritional composition of sweet potato

Nutrient Composition
Dry matter (% FW) 19-40
Starch (%FW) 6-20
Total sugars (%FW) 1.5-5.0
Protein (% FW) 1.5-2.5
Lipids (% FW) 0.5-6.5
Ash (% FW) 1.0
Energy (KJ/100 g) 490
Beta-carotene (ug/100g) 0-30,000
Vitamin A (ug RAE/100g FW) 0-2500 (300-1200)*
Vitamin C (mg/100g FW) 22-35
Iron (mg/100g) 0.19-0.65
Zinc (mg/100g) 0.09-0.46
Vitamin B1 (mg/100g) 0.078
Vitamin B2 (mg/100g) 0.061
Vitamin B3 (mg/100g) 0.557
Vitamin B5 (mg/100g) 0.800
Vitamin B6 (mg/100g) 0.209
Vitamin E (mg/100g) 0.26
Vitamin K (mg/100g) 1.8
Calcium (mg/100g) 30
Anti-nutritional factors Trypsin inhibitors
Starch Extraction Rate (% FW) 10-15
Starch Grain Size (microns) 2-42
Amylose (% total Starch) 8-32
Gelatinization temp. (◦C) 58-85
Source: Stathers et al., 2013.

On dry matter basis, the non-carbohydrate nutrient composition of the


edible tuberous roots includes: 1.4 - 8.6% protein, 3.4 - 5.9% crude fibre, 0.3 -
1.9% lipid and 1.5 - 6.3% ash (Degras, 2003). The pro-vitamin A or
β- carotene pigment (a dietary precursor of vitamin A) is known to be
responsible for the yellow to orange colouration of the flesh of tuberous roots
of some sweet potato cultivars (Degras, 2003; Rodriguez-Amaya and Kimura,
2004).
In Nigeria, most of the sweet potato landraces have white-fleshed roots
with negligible amount of the pro-vitamin A pigment. However, Ijeh and
Sweet Potato: Production, Nutritional Properties and Diseases 15

Ukpabi (2004) observed that a popular local yellow-fleshed landrace (Ex-


Igbariam) has appreciable but relatively limited quantity of β-carotene (3 µg/g
fresh root sample). Researchers have advocated the necessity for increased
production and consumption of the orange-fleshed sweet potato (Stathers
et al., 2013).

Table 3. Nutritional composition of three categories of sweet potato

Nutrient Unit/ Orange fleshed Yellow fleshed White fleshed


100 g raw roots raw roots raw roots
Vitamin A (RAE) Ug 727 150 3
Iron Mg 0.61 0.61 0.61
Zinc Mg 0.3 0.3 0.3
Thiamine (B1) Mg 0.078 0.078 0.078
Riboflavin (B2) Mg 0.061 0.061 0.061
Niacin (B3) Mg 0.557 0.557 0.557
Vitamin B6 Mg 0.209 0.209 0.209
Folate (total) Ug 14 14 14
Vitamin E Mg 0.26 0.26 0.26
Vitamin C Mg 22.7 22.7 22.7
Protein G 1.57 1.57 1.57
Fibre G 3 3 3
Source: Stathers et al., 2013.

Sweet potatoes are now being used in Africa to combat widespread


vitamin A deficiency in 250,000 – 500,000 children. About two-thirds of the
children with xerophthalmia, resulting from lack of vitamin A, die within a
year of losing their sight. The strategy of increasing orange-flesh sweet potato
consumption helps to alleviate vitamin A deficiency (Anderson et al., 2007).
Sweet potato is fed to livestock or processed industrially into alcohol,
starch, noodles, candy, desserts and flour. Orange-fleshed sweet potatoes are
rich in β – carotene (precursor for Vitamin A). It has also been reported that
sweet potato leaves contain protein and crude fibre which are important for
addressing protein deficiency diseases and colon diseases (Hiroshi et al.,
2000).

1.6. DISEASES OF SWEET POTATO


Sweet potato is susceptible to a variety of field and storage diseases,
which are caused by viruses, fungi, bacteria and nematodes.
16 O. A. T. Namo and O. J. Akinbola

1.6.1. Viral Diseases

The common sweet potato diseases caused by viruses as reported by


Carey et al., (2003) include:

a. Sweet Potato Feathery Mottle Virus (SPFMV), Transmitted by


the Aphid Potyvirus
Symptoms of SPFMV on the foliage of sweet potato are generally slight
or absent. If present, they appear as faint, irregular chlorotic spots occasionally
bordered by purplish pigment. Chlorosis (feathering) along midribs and faint-
to-distinct chlorotic spots with or without purple margins occur in some
cultivars.
The SPFMV is transmitted by a wide range of aphid species in the non-
persistent manner through brief feeds of only 20–30 seconds. Both colonizing
species of aphids and winged aphids of non-colonizing species may transmit
the disease. It is also perpetuated between cropping cycles in infected cuttings,
but the lack of symptoms in the foliage makes it difficult for farmers to select
SPFMV-free cuttings.
Aphid control is not economically feasible. Control measures include the
use of disease-free cuttings as planting material, sanitation and use of resistant
cultivars.

b. Sweet potato Sunken Vein Virus (SPSVV): This Is Transmitted by


the Whitefly, Closterovirus
The symptoms of SPSVV vary geographically; in East Africa, the disease
may cause stunting and colour change in leaves (usually reddening or
yellowing) depending on the cultivar. Symptoms may also include mild vein
yellowing, sunken secondary veins on adaxial leaf surfaces and swollen veins
on abaxial surfaces. In some cases, no symptoms are observed.
The SPSVV is transmitted by the whitefly Bemisia tabaci in a semi-
persistent manner, needing feeds of several hours to acquire or transmit
efficiently. It may also be perpetuated through cropping cycles via infected
cuttings. SPSVV is generally identified in combination with SPFMV, causing
the severe disease SPVD.
Control measures include the use of disease-free planting material and
resistant cultivars (Carey et al., 2003).
Sweet Potato: Production, Nutritional Properties and Diseases 17

c. Sweet Potato Virus Disease (SPVD)


The Sweet Potato Virus Disease (SPVD) is a serious disease of sweet
potato. Diseased plants become severely stunted and the leaves become small
and narrow (strap-like), often with a distorted edge. Puckering, vein-clearing
and mottling may occur. The mottling is often so pale that the whole plant may
appear chlorotic.
This disease is believed to be caused by a synergistic combination of
SPFMV and SPSVV; it is unclear whether other virus combinations are
involved (Carey et al., 2003).
Controls include the use of disease-free planting material and resistant
cultivars. Farmers usually avoid diseased planting material because symptoms
are so severe.

d. Sweet Potato Mild Mottle Virus (SPMMV): Whitefly-Transmitted


Potyvirus
The predominant symptoms associated with SPMMV are leaf mottling
and stunting of the plant. Vein clearing and distortion may also occur. None of
these symptoms is easily diagnosed in the field and the virus can be latent. The
SPMMV is transmitted non-persistently by the whitefly Bemisia tabaci. It is
also carried in infected cuttings.
Some sweet potato cultivars appear to be immune while others are
tolerant. Sanitation and selection of symptomless planting material by farmers
also help to control the disease (Carey et al., 2003).

1.6.2. Bacterial Diseases

a. Bacterial Stem and Root Rot (Erwinia chrysanthemi)


Aerial symptoms include water-soaked brown to black lesions on stems
and petioles. One or two branches may wilt and eventually the entire plant
collapses. Localized lesions on fibrous roots may also be present. On fleshy
roots, localized lesions with black margins can be observed on the surface, but
more frequently the rotting is internal, with no symptoms on the outside. The
pathogen has several other hosts in warm, humid areas of the world, where it
remains in the soil on plant debris and weeds. Infection occurs through
wounds.
Cuttings for transplanting should be taken above the soil line. Using less-
susceptible cultivars and taking care to avoid wounding can reduce disease
incidence.
18 O. A. T. Namo and O. J. Akinbola

b. Bacterial Wilt (Pseudomonas solanacearum)


Infected stands usually contain some wilted plants. The disease starts at
the base of the stem as yellowish water-soaked lesions that soon turn brown.
The vascular bundles of affected stems and sprouts are discoloured. In storage
roots, vascular discolouration is also present; longitudinal brown streaks as
well as brown water-soaked lesions appear on the surface. Slightly affected
fleshy roots, when stored, can rot completely and develop a distinctive odour
(Carey et al., 2003).
The bacterium is soil-borne, but it is usually carried with the propagative
material. Once the soil is infested, the bacterium can persist from one to three
years. Dissemination in the field can also occur via irrigation water.
The use of less-susceptible cultivars and disease-free planting material
reduces disease incidence. When the bacterium is already present in the soil,
flooding and crop rotation with graminaceous hosts are recommended.

c. Soil Rot (Streptomyces ipomoea)


The first symptom of the disease is an extensive chlorosis and bronzing of
the foliage as a result of the destruction of fibrous roots. On storage roots,
besides dark brown necrotic lesions, cracks radiating from the centre and
malformations such as dumbbell-shaped roots are observed. Soil rot causes
more damage in dry alkaline soils. The pathogen can survive in soil for a long
period.
Planting material should come from areas where the disease is not present.
Maintaining low soil moisture helps reduce disease incidence. The use of large
amounts of sulfur to reduce soil pH is another alternative (Carey et al., 2003).

1.6.3. Fungal Diseases

a. Leaf and Stem Scab (Elsinoe batatas, Sphaceloma batatas)


Brown to tan raised corky lesions, with purple to brown centres, appear
along the stems. Coalescing tiny lesions cover the leaf veins, thus making
them shrink and curl.
Control measures include the use of resistant cultivars and disease-free
planting material as well as good sanitation. The use of resistant native and
exotic material is being evaluated in Southeast Asia and the Pacific (Stathers
et al., 2005).
Sweet Potato: Production, Nutritional Properties and Diseases 19

b. Alternariosis, Anthracnose or Blight (Alternaria bataticola)


The fungus survives in the soil and in plant remains. The airborne spores
are spread through infected planting material, wind, splashing rain and water.
During the rains, the increased humidity often leads to high levels of infection.
The disease incidence and lesion size increase in wetter, high altitude areas
(Stathers et al., 2005).
Brown lesions with a typical bull‟s-eye appearance of concentric rings
occur on especially older leaves. Black lesions appear on petioles and stems.
Bases and middle sections are more affected than the vine terminals. Death of
vines can occur. The ground under affected vines is often carpeted with
blackened leaf debris.
Disease and lesion size increase with altitude. High relative humidity or
free water is necessary for infection and sporulation. The fungus survives in
debris and the spores are spread through infected planting material, wind,
splashing rain and water. Although Alternaria spp. can be found infecting
sweet potato in all agro-ecological zones, the form known as alternariosis or
anthracnose occurs at mid to high elevations.
Susceptibility to the pathogen varies among cultivars. The use of disease-
free planting material, resistant cultivars and good sanitation practices help in
controlling the disease.

c. Phomopsis Leaf Spot or Phyllosticta Leaf Spot (Phomopsis ipomoea-


batatas, Phyllosticta batatas)
Whitish, tan or brown lesions, usually less than 10 mm in diameter, form
on the upper and lower surfaces of leaves. The lesions usually have a dark-
brown or purple margin. Pycnidia are visible in the centre of the lesions.
The fungus survives in debris and is not known to have other hosts. Spores
spread through infected planting material, wind, splashing water and possibly
insects.
The disease is not known to depress yield, but it can reduce the quality of
vines used as planting material and fodder. No control measures are known as
this is not normally necessary.

d. Minor Leaf Spot Fungi


Other fungi cause leaf spots which can be identified by observing the
spores under a microscope. These fungi are Alternaria spp., Cercospora sp.,
Septoria sp., Ascochyta sp., Curvularia sp., Colletotrichum sp. and Pestalotia
batatae. No control measures are known as this is not necessary.
20 O. A. T. Namo and O. J. Akinbola

e. Chlorotic Leaf Distortion (Fusarium lateritium)


The first noticeable sign or symptom is a white, waxy (crusty)
mucilaginous layer, which contains mycelium and sporodochia that cover
newly expanded leaves. Microscopic examination reveals the symptoms on
apical meristems and axillary buds. As the leaves age, the waxy covering
spreads along the leaf margin and eventually disappears. In some cultivars and
environments, leaves become chlorotic or distorted and plants are stunted.
The pathogen may be present on the entire surface of the aerial part of the
plant and it can be transmitted through true seed. It cannot be eliminated by
surface disinfection of the seed. Symptoms are more severe in hot, dry
weather. There is a long latent period (3–6 weeks) from infection to expression
of symptoms.
The use of disease-free planting material or resistant cultivars is
recommended as a control measure. Seeds should not be harvested from
diseased plants, especially if they are to be shipped to areas where chlorotic
leaf distortion is not present. No chemical control is known.

f. Fusarium Wilt (Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. batatas)


The first symptom of this disease is dullness and yellowing of the leaves,
followed by wilting and death of the vine. Affected vines show vascular
discoloration typical of this disease
The fungus is soil-borne and specific to sweet potato and a few close
relatives as well as barley and flue-cured tobacco. It can survive in the soil and
in debris for several years. Though terminal cuttings are usually disease- free,
roots and cuttings from the base of the vine can be infected. Movement of
infested soil on tools and by animals can lead to outbreaks in new areas. The
disease occurs under a variety of environmental conditions. Yield reduction
depends on the stage of plant growth when disease occurs.
Good sanitation helps in reducing the impact of the disease and limit its
spread. Some varietal resistance has been observed, and breeding programmes
in some countries have resulted in the release of resistant varieties.

g. Violet Root Rot (Helicobasidium mompa)


Affected plants become chlorotic and may defoliate. Fibrous roots rot and
become covered with thick whitish threads of mycelium that soon become
pink and finally violet. Storage roots start rotting apically and then they
completely decay and are covered by the same mycelial mat as the fibrous
roots. At the same time, flat black sclerotia are formed. This violet mat of
Sweet Potato: Production, Nutritional Properties and Diseases 21

coarse mycelium and sclerotia may be found on the ground in places where
plants have rotted.
The fungus has a wide host range besides sweet potato. It can survive in
the soil for at least 4 years as mycelium or as sclerotia. Infected transplants
and irrigation water can disseminate the fungus. Temperature is not a limiting
factor for disease development, but considerable moisture in the soil favours
the disease.
Planting material should come from healthy plants. The use of early-
maturing cultivars helps in disease escape. Rotation with cereals also helps to
prevent the disease.

h. Sclerotial Blight and Circular Spot (Sclerotium rolfsii)


Sclerotial blight and circular spot are two diseases caused by the same
pathogen. Blight symptoms start in both seedbeds and newly planted stands.
Shoots emerging from the mother root suddenly collapse and die. Affected
shoots are easily pulled and separated from the rest of the plant. A mat of
white mycelium and numerous round brown sclerotia resembling rapeseed are
found at the base of affected plants. Circular spots are observed only in fleshy
roots. Symmetric brown sunken lesions that sometimes show cracking are
present.
The fungus attacks several plant species. It is soil-borne and survives for a
long period as sclerotia. Moisture and organic matter in the soil favour attack.
Disease incidence can be reduced by avoiding growing sweet potato in
infected soils and using disease- free planting material. The use of good
sanitation and less-susceptible cultivars also helps in controlling the disease.

i. Black Rot (Ceratocystis fimbriata)


Black rot (Ceratocystis fimbriata) is a dry rot caused by a fungus. Sunken
grayish-black lesions form on the surface of the storage root. A smell of
alcohol like that of fermenting fruit is often present. In severe infections,
yellowing, wilting, stunting and death of affected plants can occur. The disease
can be serious on both young vines and adult plants. Infected vines develop
black sunken necrotic lesions or cankers at the point of attachment to the
mother root.
On storage roots, small brown lesions with black margins can be observed
on the surface, but more frequently the rotting is internal with no signs on the
outside. Affected tissue becomes watery. There is often a strange smell
produced in infected tissues (Stathers et al., 2005).
22 O. A. T. Namo and O. J. Akinbola

The use of infected cuttings for planting perpetuates the disease.


Transmission occurs through wounds made by sweet potato weevils (such as
Cylas spp.), wireworms, crickets and mice. The fungus is a soil inhabitant that
can remain 1–2 years in crop debris. Moisture does not affect disease
development.
The use of disease-free planting material serves to control the disease. In
places where it is difficult to find healthy mother plants, cuttings should be
made 2 cm above the soil line to avoid infected portions of the plant. Crop
rotation with non-host plants for at least 2 years and the use of good sanitation
practices are recommended. The tubers should be cured the five days
following harvest at 30–35°C and 85–90% relative humidity (Stathers et al.,
2005).

1.6.4. Storage Root and Post-harvest Diseases

a. Foot Rot (Plenodomus destruens)


Brown lesions form on the stem at or below the soil line. Wilting and
death occur in severe cases. Black pycnidia can be seen. A canker extends
down the stem and affects the proximal end of the storage root. This decay is
dark-brown, firm and dry.
The fungus does not survive well in the soil except in infected roots and
stems. It is spread by infected cuttings, especially those from the base of the
vine, and by contact with spores from infected roots in storage. Other hosts
include members of the Convolvulaceae. Sanitation and the use of healthy vine
tips for planting are the best means of control in the field.

b. Java Black Rot (Lasiodiplodia theobromae, Diplodia gossypina)


This rot is firm and moist initially, but storage roots soon become totally
blackened and mummified. Rot starts at either or both ends of the storage root
and is initially brown, before turning black. Eruptive black stromatic masses
that bear pycnidia are a diagnostic feature.
Java black rot is spread by infested soil, infected storage roots and
contaminated storage boxes, baskets or tools. Infection occurs via wounds,
especially the cut stem end. Yields can be reduced in the field or through
storage losses. Timely harvesting, good sanitation and careful handling can
reduce losses.
Sweet Potato: Production, Nutritional Properties and Diseases 23

c. Charcoal Rot (Macrophomina phaseolina)


The disease is found only on fleshy roots during storage. The fungus does
not attack other plant parts. Infection starts on the surface of the root and
progresses through the vascular ring toward the pith.
The fungus is distributed world-wide and attacks several plant species. It
is soil-borne and can survive saprophytically on plant debris or freely as
sclerotia. No control measures are known.

d. Soft Rot (Rhizopus stolonifer, Mucor sp.)


Soft rotting occurs after harvest. Storage roots become soft, wet and
stringy, often starting at one end. A strong alcohol-like odour is produced.
These fungi are commonly seen sporulating on the surface of rotting storage
roots.
The disease is spread by infested soil or air-borne spores that enter
wounds. Optimum relative humidity and temperature for progress of infection
and disease vary with cultivar, but are usually high. Soft rot can destroy
harvested roots in 48 hours if they are left unprotected under sunlight.
Washing storage roots is especially conducive to rot. Care in handling and
proper curing can reduce disease incidence. So far, no resistance has been
found, but some cultivars rot faster than others because they are more
susceptible. Curing is accomplished by storing after harvest at 29–32°C and
95–100% relative humidity for 5–7 days with adequate ventilation (at least 8
cubic feet of air per tonne per day). Subsequent storage is best at around 13°C
and 95% relative humidity (Stathers et al., 2005).

1.6.5. Diseases Caused by Nematodes

a. Root-Knot Nematode (Meloidogyne spp.)


Affected plants become stunted, foliage turns yellow and flagging and
flower production is abnormal. Round to spindle-shaped swellings (galls) are
produced on fibrous roots together with egg masses on the surface. Large
portions of the root system can become necrotic. The storage roots of some
cultivars react with longitudinal cracking, whereas in others, blister-like
protuberances emerge through the epidermis.
Meloidogyne spp are distributed world-wide on several hosts, such as
potato and tomato. These nematodes survive in the soil as egg masses and in
plant debris as infective juveniles. They can be transported by irrigation water
and disseminated through infested propagating material. The root-knot
24 O. A. T. Namo and O. J. Akinbola

nematode is one of the most destructive on sweet potato because of its wide
distribution and damage caused to storage roots.
The use of disease-free planting material, resistant cultivars and crop
rotation can help to control this disease.

b. Brown Ring (Ditylenchus destructor, D. dipsaci)


Fleshy roots under storage show symptoms as depressed areas. In cross
sections, initial infections appear as necrotic isles of brown tissue scattered
throughout the flesh. In advanced stages, the pulp becomes completely
blackened, slightly soft and corky. These nematodes affect fleshy roots only
during storage. No symptoms have been found in the field.
The two species of Ditylenchus are distributed world-wide and have a vast
host range. They are migratory endo-parasites. No control measures are
known.

c. Reniform Nematode (Rotylenchulus reniformis)


Symptoms are not distinctive and can be confused with those caused by
other nematodes. Affected plants are stunted because of destruction of fibrous
roots. Foliage becomes chlorotic and transitorily wilted. Fleshy roots, when
attacked early, develop cracks that enlarge as the roots grow. In mature roots,
deep suberized cracks are the most noticeable symptom.
This nematode can survive in dry soil and live and infect roots under dry
conditions. Rotation with non-host crops is recommended to reduce the soil
population of the nematode.

d. Lesion Nematode (Pratylenchus spp.)


Affected plants are stunted because of a reduced feeder root system.
Small, necrotic lesions are produced on fibrous roots. Affected fleshy roots
also show blackish brown lesions that are often invaded by saprophytic fungi
and bacteria.
Different species of these nematodes are found world-wide parasitizing
several plant species. They are migratory endoparasites and leave the roots
when the lesions they produce are parasitized by secondary organisms.
Damage is more severe in sandy soils with high temperature.
Organic amendments such as manure increase the natural enemies of the
nematode in the soil and reduce its population. The use of resistant cultivars is
also recommended.
Sweet Potato: Production, Nutritional Properties and Diseases 25

1.7. ECONOMIC IMPORTANCE OF


SWEET POTATO DISEASES
Yield losses caused by pests, diseases and weeds in the field and during
post-harvest storage are of paramount importance. The yield losses are
estimated to range between 10 to 30% of crop production (Kumar and Gupta,
2012).
Direct and indirect losses caused by plant diseases include reduced quality
and quantity of crop produce, increased cost of production, threat to animal
health and environment, limitation to the type of crops/varieties grown and
loss of natural resources (Kumar and Saxena, 2009). It is, therefore, important
to prevent or control the diseases in order to avoid loss of valuable food.

1.8. MANAGEMENT OF SWEET POTATO PESTS


AND DISEASES

The management of crop diseases is directed at preventing the


establishment of diseases and minimizing the development and spread of any
diseases that become established in the crop. Managing pest problems is
directed at preventing the pest populations from becoming too large and
uncontrollable (Kumar and Saxena, 2009).
Integrated pest management (IPM) is a term used to describe an evolving
process where cultural, biological and chemical controls are included in a
holistic approach to control pests and diseases (Kumar and Gupta, 2012). Key
components of effective pest and disease control programmes include crop
monitoring, cultural control, the use of resistant cultivars, biological control
and chemical control (Kumar and Saxena, 2009; Kumar and Gupta, 2012).

1.8.1. Crop Monitoring

Crop monitoring is the continually on-going surveillance to detect the


presence of a pest or disease at the very early stages of development of the
disease or pest population, before economic damage occurs (Kumar and
Gupta, 2012). There should be an awareness of common pests and diseases
and what to look for. Besides the general surveillance, dedicated monitoring of
26 O. A. T. Namo and O. J. Akinbola

the crop should be included in the weekly work schedule (Kumar and Saxena,
2009; Kumar and Gupta, 2012).
Crop monitoring should begin when the crop is still at the seedling or
transplant stage (especially when transplants are obtained or purchased from a
propagator) (Kumar and Gupta, 2012).

1.8.2. Cultural Control

Cultural control involves providing the conditions that favour the growth,
development and health of the crop, and wherever possible, providing
conditions that work against pests and diseases (Kumar and Saxena, 2009).
Many disease-causing fungi and bacteria require the presence of free water or
condensation on the plants in order to cause disease (Kumar and Saxena, 2009;
Kumar and Gupta, 2012). High relative humidity promotes the development of
disease (Kumar and Saxena, 2009; Kumar and Gupta, 2012). Good crop
sanitation is another important component of successful cultural control.

1.8.3. Use of Resistant Cultivars

Plant breeders have recorded considerable success in developing cultivars


with genetic resistance or tolerance to diseases. When selecting the cultivars to
be grown, it is important to consider the genetic resistance to prevalent
diseases in the region. The techniques of genetic engineering have made
inroads in conferring pest resistance in plants (Kumar and Saxena, 2009).

1.8.4. Biological Control

Biological control uses beneficial organisms, primarily predators and


parasites, to control pest populations below economically important levels.
The goal is to establish a balance between the pest population and its parasites
and predators so that the pest population is kept under control.
Effective biological control of diseases is a more difficult goal and to-date
has rarely been achieved. The primary strategy of biological control for plant
diseases is to introduce fungal parasites to control populations of disease-
causing fungi so that they are unable, or have a reduced ability to infect the
plants. Some of the promising biological control agents, for example fungi in
Sweet Potato: Production, Nutritional Properties and Diseases 27

the Genus Trichoderma, are also strong competitors of the disease-causing


fungi such as Botrytis cinerea; they can be used to protect wound sites to
prevent Botrytis from colonizing them (Kumar and Saxena, 2009).

1.8.5. Chemical Control

Pesticides are valuable tools when used as a component of an integrated


pest management programme. Insecticides should be applied only as part of
biological control programme, to deal with localized pest outbreaks in the
crops that have escaped the biological control agents. When insecticides are
used, care must be taken to ensure that they are compatible with biological
control agents and that there will be minimal long-term adverse residual
effects on biological control programmes. Fungicides are used only when a
disease problem is detected (Kumar and Saxena, 2009).
Pesticides are used as the last resort because their misuse can create high-
profile environmental and food safety problems (Kumar and Saxena, 2009).
The application of some pesticides to a crop can cause stresses that decrease
the productivity of the crop or make the plants susceptible to other pests and
diseases (Kumar and Saxena, 2009). If the use of biological control agents is
to create a balance between pests and predators so that the yield potential of
the crop is not threatened, the indiscriminate use of pesticides can create
imbalance and uncertainty in the crop.

CONCLUSION
Sweet potato is a minor crop in most parts of Africa, where it is regarded
as a „backyard crop‟ or found at the fringes of other crops. In such instances, it
is resorted to in times of famine and thus regarded as life-safer. This situation
is fast changing as the potential of the crop is now being realized. The food
situation in Nigeria, for example, is influencing a shift towards sweet potato
such that it is no longer treated as a minor crop. Projections show that given its
efficient biological production and low input requirements, the crop has the
potential of overtaking yam. This is more so that urban dwellers have acquired
a taste for sweet potato fries as a breakfast menu.
Sweet potato production is influenced by many factors such as cultivar,
spacing, pests and diseases, land preparation and propagation methods. With
the introduction of improved production technology, pest and disease
28 O. A. T. Namo and O. J. Akinbola

management, the crop has the potentials for contributing to food security,
especially in developing countries.

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Editor: Doris Sullivan © 2016 Nova Science Publishers, Inc.

Chapter 2

BORON MANAGEMENT IN SWEET


POTATO CROPS

Fábio Rafael Echer and José Eduardo Creste


São Paulo Western University (UNOESTE),
Presidente Prudente, SP, Brazil

ABSTRACT
Boron (B) is an essential micronutrient required for plant growth and
development. Boron is necessary for the tissue development and
differentiation, particularly growing tips, phloem and xylem. Soil organic
matter (OM) is the main B source to the plants, and hot (or cold), dry
weather can reduce OM decomposition at the soil surface, which decrease
the release of B to crops. Boron toxicity is a worldwide problem that
limits crop yield in agricultural areas under alkaline and saline soils with
a low rainfall and poor leaching. On the other hand, B deficiencies are
common in poor OM and sandy soils subjected to high rainfall. Boron
deficiency has been associated with disorders in sweet potato such as
“internal brown spot” and “sweet potato blister.” Additionally, sweet
potato tubers with severe B deficiency show less sweet and bitter flavor.
The effect of severe B deficiency is the growth of terminal bud cessation,
which becomes short in size and bunchy in appearance. Finally, tips start
wilting and drying. There is no tuber formation. Studies have reported the
positive response of B application on sweet potato yield, especially in

Corresponding author: Fábio Rafael Echer, Professor and Researcher at São Paulo Western
University (UNOESTE), Brazil. fabioecher@gmail.com.
36 Fábio Rafael Echer and José Eduardo Creste

low organic matter and acid soils. B recommendation varies from 1-2 kg
ha-1 in sandy/acid soils to 4 kg ha-1 for alkaline soils.

BORON IN THE SOIL


Available forms of B to plants include inorganic borate complexes of Ca,
Mg and Na, and as organic compounds formed from plant and microbe
decomposition. Boric acid (H3BO3) is the most common form of B in the soil.
Additionally, soil organic matter (OM) is the main B source to the plants, and
hot (or cold), dry weather can reduce OM decomposition at the soil surface,
which decrease the release of B to crops. Coarse-textured soils (sandy soils)
are typically low in minerals that contain B or OM (less than 15 g kg-1) and are
susceptible to B leaching/deficiency. Water stress also reduces root activity,
being another cause for temporary B deficiency, and it can disappear as soil
humidity increases.

BORON IN PLANTS
Boron is transported through xylem, but it can also be transported via
phloem, depending on plant species, to both reproductive and vegetative
tissues in a process mediated by transpiration stream (Shelp et al., 1995). B is
immobile in the plant so deficiency symptoms appear in the youngest leaves as
abnormal growth and growing tips with apical growing points eventually
becoming stunted and dead.

B TOXICITY AND DEFICIENCY CAUSES IN


SOILS AND PLANTS
Boron toxicity is a worldwide problem that limits crop yield in
agricultural areas under alkaline and saline soils with a low rainfall and poor
leaching. Additionally, irrigation water with high B contents and B over-
fertilization can lead to B toxicity (Nable et al., 1997). On the other hand, B
deficiencies are common in poor OM and sandy soils subjected to high
rainfall.
Boron Management in Sweet Potato Crops 37

BORON AND CARBOHYDRATES TRANSLOCATION


Boron is involved in sugar transport, plant respiration and carbohydrates
metabolism (Camacho-Cristótal et al., 2008). Also, B promotes structural bio-
membranes structural integrity and lipid rafts formation. Boron deficiency has
been associated with disorders in sweet potato such as “internal brown spot”
and “sweetpotato blister” (Figure 10). Additionally, sweet potato tubers with
severe B deficiency show less sweet and bitter flavour (O‟Sullivan, 1997).

BORON RESPONSES ON SWEET POTATO


YIELD AND QUALITY
Boron fertilization has been recommended for sweet potato crop in a
gamma of soil types in several countries. For example, in Australia, B rates of
1.0 to 1.5 kg ha-1 has been indicated for sandy and acid soils. In addition, as a
result of the lower availability of B as pH increases, particularly above 7, rates
of 4 kg ha-1 are required for alkaline soils (O‟sullivan et al., 1997) In other
countries, rates can vary: rates of 1.12 kg ha-1 are reported on sandy loams or
fine sandy loams soils in USA (Granberry et al., 2007). Indian soils present a
high response to B application, and rates of 1.0 kg ha-1 are recommended
(Sakal and Singh, 1995), since an average of 33% of Indian soils are deficient
in B (Singh, 2008). According to Sheeja (1994), India sweet potato growing
soil types are poor in B, so that a decrease in available nutrient status with
increase in depth were observed. Also, sweet potato yield decline in Papua
New Guinea was associated to low soil fertility, including low B content.
(Hartemink et al., 2000).
Studies have reported the positive response of B application on sweet
potato yield, specially in low organic matter and acid soils (Echer, 2015; Echer
and Creste, 2011; Byju et al., 2007). A recent study compared B sources,
application form and rates. Results are showed on Figure 1. There was neither
significant increase of tuber yield as a result of B sources, nor application
forms, with a small yield increase when acid boric was applied via soil.
Additionally there was an increase of 15 and 28% with application of 1 and 2
kg ha-1, compared to control treatment, respectively. This response was
obtained in a soil with low content of B (0.15 mg dm-3), and according to
others (Silva et al., 2002), B rates of 1-2 kg ha-1 tend to solve the lack of this
nutrient.
38 Fábio Rafael Echer and José Eduardo Creste

Figure 1. Sweet potato yield responses to Boron sources, application form and rates.
From Echer et al., (2011).
Boron Management in Sweet Potato Crops 39

400

Leaves
Vines
Tuber
300
B uptake (g ha-1)

200

100

0
40 55 70 85 100 115 130 145

Days after emergence

Figure 2. Boron uptake partitioning among sweet potato organs. Adapted from Echer
et al., (2009a).

Each gram of sweet potato contains about 1,08 µg of B, and the


exportation might achieve 1.32 kg of B for yields of 20 Mg ha-1 (Byju et al.,
2007). According to Echer et al., (2009a), in a B unfertilized soil, and for a dry
matter production of 15.4 t ha-1 the extraction was 0.378 kg of B, and the
major part was allocated in leaves > vines > tubers (Figure 2). Considering the
average B uptake from 20 to 130 days after emergence average, leaves counts
for about 72% of boron uptake, followed by vines (16%) and tubers (12%). On
the other hand, at harvest, only 23% of all amount of B is exported by tubers
(Figure 3). Considering that leaves and vine return to the soil, the major part of
B (77%) returns to the soil as well.
Byju et al., (2007) reported an increase in sweet potato yield as a result of
B rates. They found the higher tuber yield at 1.5 kg ha-1 of B in a three year
sudy (Figure 4). Comparing B rates, yield increased about 40% from 0 to
1.5 kg ha-1, and it was attributed to the low B soil content (0.35 mg dm-3). In
addition, there was a decrease in the yield of cracked tuber yield as B rate
increased, showing that B fertilization can improve tuber quality. Studies by
Maini et al., (1973) reported an increase in tubers protein content and
flowering enhancement due to the application of 10 ppm boron in sweet
potato.
40 Fábio Rafael Echer and José Eduardo Creste

100
Leaves
Vines
Tubers
Boron uptake (% of total) 80

60

40

20

0
20 40 60 80 100 120 140 160

Days after emergence

Figure 3. Boron uptake partitioning among sweet potato organs. From Echer et al.,
(2009a).

18

16

14
Tuber yield
Cracked tuber yield
12
Mg ha-1

10

0
0,0 1,0 1,5 2,0 2,5
-1
B rate (kg ha )

Figure 4. Sweet potato yield and cracked tuber yield as affected by B rates. From Byju
et al., (2007).
Boron Management in Sweet Potato Crops 41

DEFICIENCY DIAGNOSTIC
Soils with low B content (<0,5 mg dm-3 in hot water extraction, at the
depth 0-20 cm), commonly show response to B application. Leaf diagnosis
(sample the youngest fully expanded leaf of 15 plants/area at 60 days after
planting) can be useful for the diagnostic of B deficiency and critical leaf level
concentration reported in field conditions is 25-75 mg kg-1 (Lorenzi et al.,
1997). Additionally, O‟ Sullivan et al., (1997) determined a critical
concentration of 40 mg kg-1 in the 7th to 9th youngest leaf blades in solution
culture studies. Echer et al., (2009b) in a study involving B and potassium
rates, observed leaf boron concentration increase as B rates were increased
(Figure 5). They reported sufficiency ranges of B in leaves with 1 and
2 kg ha-1 of 53 and 69 mg kg-1, respectively. On the other hand, the highest
rate proportioned boron excess on sweet potato leaves and at no B application
leaf B content was 40 mg kg-1 in a soil with low content of B. A sequency of
images showing deficiency syntoms is showed in Figures 6 to 10.

120

a
100
Leaf B concentration (mg kg -1)

80
b

60 bc

c
40

20

0
0 1 2 3
-1
B rate (kg ha )

Figure 5. Concentration of B in sweet potato leaves as affected by boron rates. From


Echer et al., (2009b).
42 Fábio Rafael Echer and José Eduardo Creste

The effect of severe B deficiency is the growth of terminal bud cessation,


which becomes short in size and bunchy in appearance. Finally, tips start
wilting and drying. There is no tuber formation (Pillai et al., 1986).

A B

Figure 6. Compact growth, mottled chlorosis, mild puckering and downward curling of
young leaves on a B-deficient plant (A). Deformity of a young leaf, including
thickening, reduction in lobes and irregular margins (B) (J. O‟Sullivan).

Figure 7. Boron-deficient leaves generally become thickened and brittle, and tend to
curl downwards. Tip death is common (J. O‟Sullivan).
Boron Management in Sweet Potato Crops 43

A B
Figure 8. Symptoms on a B-deficient crop, including small tubers with splits, vine tip
death and small, thickened, chlorotic young leaves (A) (R.M. Bourke). A vine showing
short internodes to the right of marker, and lengthened internodes on growth since
boron was applied (B) (L. Loader).

A B
Figure 9. Short, blunt-ended roots from a B-deficient crop (left) and normal, spindle-
shaped roots developing on a younger crop to which boron was applied (A) (L.
Loader). Healed and overgrown cracks on B deficient storage roots (B) (C. Asher).

A B
Figure 10. Blisters on storage roots caused by boron deficiency (A) (C. Clark, APS).
Short, highly branched lateral roots with thickened, club like ends are characteristic of
severe boron deficiency (B) (J. O'Sullivan).
44 Fábio Rafael Echer and José Eduardo Creste

REFERENCES
Byju, G.; Nedunchezhiyan, M.; Naskar, S. K. Sweet potato response to boron
application on an Alfisols in the subhumid tropical climate of India.
Communications in Soil Science and Plant Analysis, New York, v. 38, n.
17-18, p. 2347-2356, 2007.
Camacho-Cristóbal, J.J., J. Rexach, A. González-Fontes. Boron in Plants:
Deficiency and Toxicity. J. Integrative Plant Biol. 50:1247–1255. 2008.
Echer, F.R. Nutrição e adubação da batata-doce. Presidente Prudente: Ed. do
Autor, 2015. 94 p.: il. (In Portuguese).
Echer, F.R.; Creste, J.E.. Boron fertilization on sweet potato: effect of soruces,
rates and application forms. Semina, v.32, n.4 2011. http://dx.doi.org/
10.5433/1679-0359.2011v32n4Sup1p1831. (In portuguese with abstract in
English)
Echer, F. R.; Dominato, J. C.; Creste, J. E. Absortion march of nutrients and
distribution of fresh and dry matter among organs of sweet potato.
Horticultura Brasileira, Brasília, v. 27, n. 2, p. 172-178, 2009a. http://dx.
doi.org/10.1590/S0102-05362009000200010. (In Portuguese with abstract
in English).
Echer, F. R.; Dominato, J. C.; Creste, J. E.; Santos, D. H.Fertilization with
boron and potassium on sweet potato nutrition and yield.. Horticultura
Brasileira, Brasília, v. 27, n. 2, p. 167-171, 2009b. http://dx.doi.org/
10.1590/S0102-05362009000200009 (In Portuguese with abstract in
English).
Granberry, D. M.; Kelley, W. T.; Boyhan, G. Sweet potato: commercial
vegetable production. The University of Georgia College of Agricultural
and environmental sciences and the U.S. Department of Agriculture
cooperating. 2007. 8 p. (Circular, 677).
Hartemink, A. E.; Poloma, S.; Maino, M.; Powell, K.S.; Egenae, J.;
O‟sullivan, J.N. Yield decline of sweet potato in the humid lowlands of
Papua New Guinea. Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment,
Columbus, v. 79, n.2-3, p. 259-269, 2000.
Lorenzi, J.O., Monteiro, D.A., Miranda Filho, H.S.; Raij, B.V. Raí- zes e
tubérculos. In: Raij, B.V., Cantarella, H., Quaggio, J.A., Furlani, A.M.C.
Recomendações de adubação e calagem para o Estado de São Paulo
(Boletim Técnico no 100). 2 ed. p. 221-230. 1997. (In Portuguese).
Maini, S.B., Indira, P. And Mandai, R.C. Effect of boron, magnesium and iron
on flowering, yield and quality of sweet potato. Madras agric. J., 60 (8):
1024-1025. 1973.
Boron Management in Sweet Potato Crops 45

Nable Ro, Bañuelos Gs, Paull Jg (1997) Boron toxicity. Plant Soil 193, 181-
198.
O‟sullivan, J. N.; Asher, C. J.; Blamey, F. P. C. Nutrient disorders of sweet
potato. ACIAR, Monograph n. 48, Australian Centre for International
Agricultural Research, Canberra. 1997. p. 136.
Pillai, N.G., Mohankumar, B., Kabeerathumma, S. And Nair, P.G. 1986.
Deficiency symptoms of micronutrients in sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas
L.). J. Root Crops, 12:91-95.
Sakal, R.; Singh, A.P. Boron research and agricultural prodcu-tion. In
Micronutrient Research and Agricultural Production. Ed. H L S Tandon.
pp 1-31. Fetilizer Development and Consultation Organization, New
Delhi, India. 1995.
Sheeja, S. Micronutrient status and their distribution in major tuber crops
growing soils of India in relation to soil properties. PhD Thesis, Kerala
University, 188 p. 1994.
Silva, J. B. C.; Lopes, C. A.; Magalhães, J. S. Cultura da batata-doce. In:
Cereda, M. P. (Ed). Agricultura: tuberosas amiláceas Latino Americanas,
São Paulo: Cargill, 2, 2002. p. 449-503. (In Portuguese).
Singh, M. V. Micronutrient deficiencies in crops and soils in India. In B. J.
Alloway (Ed.), Micronutrient deficiencies in global crop production (pp.
93–126). Dordrecht: Springer. 2008.
Monteiro, D. A.; Peressin, V. A. Raízes e tubérculos - batata-doce e cará. In:
RAIJ, B. V.; Cantarella, H.; Quaggio, J. A.; Furlani, A.M. C. (Ed.).
Recomendações de adubação e calagem para o Estado de São Paulo. 2.
ed. Campinas: [s.n.], 1997. p. 226. (Boletim técnico, n. 100). (In
Portuguese).
Shelp Bj, Marentes E, Kitheka Am, Vivekanandan P (1995) Boron mobility in
plants. Physiol. Plant. 94, 356-361.
Silva, J. B. C.; Lopes, C. A.; Magalhães, J. S. Cultura da batata-doce. In:
Cereda, M. P. (Ed.). Agricultura: tuberosas amiláceas Latino Americanas.
São Paulo: Cargill, 2002. cap. 2, p. 449-503. (In Portuguese).
In: Sweet Potato ISBN: 978-1-63484-461-1
Editor: Doris Sullivan © 2016 Nova Science Publishers, Inc.

Chapter 3

FOOD APPLICATIONS AND HEALTH


BENEFITS RELATED TO ANTIOXIDANT
ACTIVITY OF PHENOLIC COMPOUNDS
FROM SWEET POTATO PEELS AND LEAVES:
REVIEW OF LITERATURE AND PATENTS

Ana Anastácio and Isabel S. Carvalho


MeditBio-Center for Mediterranean Bioresources and Food,
Faculty of Sciences and Technology, University of Algarve,
Campus de Gambelas, Faro, Portugal

ABSTRACT
Sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas L.) is widely cultivated throughout
the world, being a favourite staple of many cultures, it is a favourite
ingredient in many ethnic cuisine. In 2013, it ranked as the 14 th top
commodity by quantity production with 1.11 x 10 8 ton. Peels are one of
the major wastes generated during the processing of sweet potato and
sweet potato leaves, although consumed in Asia and Africa, are
considered a waste in many countries. To join the trend on the recycling
of agro wastes into value added products, research lines for the
valorisation of sweet potato peels and leaves were defined by literature
and patents review. Focus was on food applications and health benefits


icarva@ualg.pt.
48 Ana Anastácio and Isabel S. Carvalho

related to phenolics compounds and antioxidant activity from sweet


potato. Articles and patents were selected for the period 2003-2014 from
Web of Science™ and Espacenet databases, respectively. Information
taken from the whole documents was gathered in contingency tables for
the different parts of the plant – tuber, leaf, stem, stalk, vine, and peel.
Articles were categorized in the type of study, phenolic compounds
antioxidant assays, statistical analysis, food applications and health
benefits. Articles presented a demarked trend towards preclinical studies
but research on new foods that did not include sweet potato peels or
leaves. DPPH radical scavenging method was most used in vitro
antioxidant activity assay and hydroxycinnamic acids were the main
phenolic compounds analysed. Enhancement of antioxidant defence and
anticancer were health benefits verified by clinical trials for leaves while
studies on peel were absent. Among the food applications studied in
articles, flour/powder was the most studied for tuber, leaf and peel.
Beverage and extract were the top patented foods for tuber and leaf,
respectively. Text mining tools were applied to articles and patents
abstracts to provide a global vision for main themes and knowledge gaps.
A functional beverage development using design of experiment tools was
identified as relevant new research line for the valorisation of sweet
potato peels and leaves.

Keywords: sweet potato, peels leaves, antioxidant activity, phenolic


compounds, food applications, health benefits, text mining

INTRODUCTION
Sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas L.) is a favourite staple of many cultures
and ethnic cuisines (Huntrods, 2013). Originated on the American continent at
least 5000 years ago, it was brought to Europe in 1492. Portuguese explorers
of the sixteenth century took it to Africa and Asia (Loebenstein, 2009) and
sweet potato has as well a long history cultivation in Oceania (Lebot, 2009).
The tuberous root of the plant is most commonly consumed in the Western
part of the world, but sweet potato leaves, rich in nutrients and functional
compounds, are consumed primarily in the islands of Pacific Ocean and in
Asian and African countries, (Johnson and Pace, 2010). In 2013, sweet potato
ranked as the 14th top commodity by quantity production, 1.11 x 108 ton.
According to 2011 proportions, the main destination of total amount produced
was food supply (53%), followed by feed (40%) and waste (7%) (FAOSTAT,
2014). There are no official data for sweet potato tops, however the harvested
Food Applications and Health Benefits … 49

area of 8.2 million hectare can be used for the estimation of vines production.
Considering an average yield of 30 ton of fresh vines per hectare from
Hartemink et al., (2000), 2.46 x 108 tons of fresh vines could have been
produced during 2013. Peels are one of the major wastes generated during
processing of sweet potato with currently little market value (Maloney,
Truong, & Allen, 2012). The peeling step required in many SP tuber
processing methods can lead to losses up to 29% and 17% for abrasive and
manual peeling respectively (Oladejo, 2011). SP peels and leaves are residues
that should be included in the drive for recycling agro wastes as peels into
value added products (Peschel et al., 2006). SP peels possessed high levels of
phenolics (Zhu, Cai, Yang, Ke, & Corke, 2010) that can reach almost three
times more antioxidant activity than the other plant tissues (Cevallos-Casals &
Cisneros-Zevallos, 2001). Similarly, polyphenolic compounds from SP leaves
were biologically active and presented physiological functions which may be
helpful for maintaining and promoting human health (Islam, 2006). The
review of Bovell-Benjamin (2007) on sweet potato highlighted the tuber‟s
potential as value‐added products in human food systems while Panda &
Sonkamble (2012) work listed the phytochemical constituents and
pharmacological activities of SP and indicated health benefits as antioxidant,
antidiabetic, wound healing, anti-ulcer, antibacterial and anti-mutagenic. More
recently, Mohanraj & Sivasankar (2014) demonstrated sweet potato potential
as a medicinal food due to its health benefits, phytochemical composition and
medicinal properties. Regarding the leaf, Islam (2006) emphasised the
presence of higher amounts of polyphenolics compared with the major
commercial vegetables. More recently, Johnson and Pace (2010) summarised
the bioactive compounds that played a vital role in health promotion by
reducing oxidative stress and free radical damage. Considerable progress has
been made in diversifying usage of the SP for alternative foods as fries, chips,
flakes, yogurt, as well as juices or weight loss snacks (Barnes & Sanders,
2012). Innovative applications such as ice-cream (Gurgel, Farias, Farias, &
Moreira, 2011) and non-carbonated drinks (Wireko-Manu, Ellis, & Oduro,
2010) were studied in an academic context. Tea, noodles, breads,
confectioneries and nutritional supplement were food applications previously
mentioned for SP leaves (Islam, 2006). The development of SP alternative
foods was predicted to continue its upward climb trend as consumers are more
conscious about their health (Barnes & Sanders, 2012). The commencing
stages in new foods development involve the translation of an essential
concept originated research into a prototype (Jones & Jew, 2007). Although,
there are available some reviews on the phytochemical composition and health
50 Ana Anastácio and Isabel S. Carvalho

benefits of sweet potato tuber and leaf, the health benefits specifically related
to the antioxidant activity of phenolic compounds in the different food
applications were not focused yet. In addition, a framework for the
valorisation of agro wastes through the development of functional foods
requires the identification of knowledge gaps to favour early product
prototypes. Text mining tools as co-word clustering is a powerful method for
literature-review and knowledge discovery by exploring the co-occurrence and
co-absence of key words that appear in the titles or abstracts of texts
(Stegmann & Grohmann, 2003). Additionally, network analysis shows the
relationship among words as a visual network and therefore assists the
analyser in intuitively comprehending the overall structure of a document
database (Yoon & Park, 2004). The objective of this review was to identify
relevant research lines for the valorisation of SP peels and leaves into food
applications with health benefits. This will be accomplished by the analysis of
the state of the art and trends based on articles and patents published in the
period 2003-2014, using contingency tables and Text Mining tools.

MATERIALS AND METHODS


A qualitative approach was taken to analyse the selected documents by
summarizing information in tables, graphics and applying text-mining tools. A
search was performed on ISI Web of Science™ (http://wokinfo.com/) and
ESPACENET (http://worldwide.espacenet.com/#) electronic databases for the
period 2003-2014 to gather relevant documents on the topic of this study. The
databases Web of Science ™ Core Collection, Current Contents Connect®,
MEDLINE® and SciELO Citation Index were selected for articles search. For
patents, previous tests presented only one and zero results in the WIPO and
European collection, respectively.
Therefore, the worldwide collection of published application from 90
countries was chosen as database. The first criteria used in the Web of
Knowledge database was documents with “sweet potato” or “Ipomoea
batatas” in the title for the period 2003-2014. The following filters were
included: “science and technology” for the research domain, “food science and
technology” for the research area and “articles” (review were excluded) for the
document type. The first collection of documents were selected by the
presence of the terms “phenol,*” “antho,*” “flavon,*” “antiox*” and/or
“scaveng*” in document topic. This collection was narrowed by two reviews
Food Applications and Health Benefits … 51

to the theme antioxidant activity and/or phenolic composition of sweet potato


plant.
Finally, when essential information was absent from the article description
and could not be acquired by contact with the corresponding authors, it was
not included in the review. Regarding the selection of patents, the worldwide
collection of published application from 90 countries available in Espacenet
was chosen as database as previous search tests in other patent collections
(WIPO and European) delivered few results. Search was performed for
documents with “sweet potato” or “Ipomea batatas” in the title or in abstract
with publication date in the range 01/01/2003 to 31/12/2014 (20030101-
20141231). Patents published in the field that presented the terms “phenol,*”
“antho,*” “flavon,*” “antiox*” and/or “scaveng*” in their abstract were
selected. A patent was included in the review when the invention was related
to a food application with antioxidant activity and/or phenolic composition.
The body of information gathered from the selected documents were
synthetized into contingency tables for the different parts of the plant – tuber,
leaf, stem, stalk, vine, and peel (Supplementary data). Articles were classified
on variety (purple and not purple), type of study, antioxidant activity assays,
phenolic compounds, statistical analysis, health benefits and food applications.
For patents, documents categorization by the different SP plant parts was
made for variety and food applications. The free text mining software tool KH
coder (http://sourceforge.net/projects/khc/) was used to perform an automatic
text mining of articles and patents abstracts. Text pre-processing was done by
breaking sentences into component parts of speech (parsing), removal of
common words with little significance (stop words) and aggregation of similar
words (stemming or lemming). Only nouns and adjectives were used for
analysis and both term frequency and document frequency were adjusted so 27
to 31 words were used for graphical representation. A Hierarquical cluster
analysis (HCA) using the Ward method and Jaccard distance with automatic
detection of the number of clusters was applied to nouns and adjectives to
form groups of words that summarize documents major themes. Co-
occurrence networks were built to pattern high-frequency words occurring
together and identify content communities. Nodes size was proportional to
respective word frequency and links (edges) thickness was determined by
Jaccard coefficient.
Fruchterman-Reingold algorithm was used to determine the position of the
nodes in the network layout while community detection was performed using
the function “edge.betweenness.community” from the “igraph” package of R.
52 Ana Anastácio and Isabel S. Carvalho

RESULTS AND DISCUSSION


Articles and Patents Selection

A search on article titles with “sweet potato” or “Ipomoea batatas” in the


Web of Science™ Core Collection for the period 2003-2014 in the science and
technology domain and food science and technology research area delivered
443 results.
When refined to the topic terms “phenol,*” “antho,*” “flavon,*”
“antiox*” or “scaveng*” a total of 432 different articles was obtained. Thus,
most of the studies for the food science and technology research area
addressed SP phenolic compounds or antioxidant activity. The abstract of
these articles was verified for relevance, when one of the refining topic terms
was present in the article abstract, it was included in the review. The final
selection of articles on phenolic compounds with antioxidant activity from SP
totalized 122 articles (Table 1).
Search on Espacenet database delivered a total of 4895 patents with
“sweet potato” in the title or abstract for the period 2003-2014. When the
search was narrowed by including the presence of the terms “phenol,*”
“antho,*” “flavon,*” “antiox*” or “scaveng*” in the title or abstract, it
delivered 9, 137, 19, 76 and 11 results, respectively. Combined, a total of 217
different patents were obtained. After verification if invention was related to a
food application by analyzing abstract content, patents were reduced to 170
documents (Table 2).
Combined, articles and patents formed a collection of 292 documents with
the following main features: a) 58% of the documents were patents; b) 71% of
the documents were published in the period 2010-2014; c) 68% of the
documents were on the purple variety and d) tuber was the subject of 79% of
the documents, in opposition to the other plant parts (Figure 1).
Articles publication presented an average of 7 papers per year for the
period 2003-2009 that rose to an average of 16 articles per year to the period
2010-2013 (Figure 2). In 2014, the number or articles decreased to 10. Patents
presented a different time profile in comparison to articles. Until 2010, an
average of 6 patents were published per year. The number of patents on sweet
potato has increased since 2011, with a higher growth (70%) from 2013 to
2014.
Table 1. References of the selected articles for the review published during the period from 2003 to 2014

SP articles
a1 Ahmed et al., (2009) a41 Jeng et al., (2012) a83 Ray et al., (2012)
a2 Ahmed et al., (2010a) a42 Jiao et al., (2012) a84 Redovnikovic et al., (2012)
a3 Ahmed et al., (2010b) a43 Ju et al., (2011) a85 Roy et al., (2012)
a4 Ahmed et al., (2011a) a44 Jung, J.-K. et al., (2011) a86 Rumbaoa et al., (2009)
a5 Ahmed et al., (2010) a45 Jyothi et al., (2005) a87 Saigusa et al., (2007)
a6 Ahmed et al., (2011b) a46 Kano et al., (2005) a88 Saigusa et al., (2005)
a7 Ahmed et al., (2010) a47 Karna et al., (2011) a89 Sasaki et al., (2013)
a8 Anastácio and Carvalho (2013a) a48 Kawano et al., (2010) a90 Sasaki and Ohba (2004)
a9 Anastácio and Carvalho (2013b) a49 Kim et al., (2012) a91 San et al., (2009)
a10 Boo et al., (2005) a50 Koncic et al., (2013) a92 Shan et al., (2013)
a11 Carvalho et al., (2010) a51 Konczak et al., (2004) a93 Shao and Huang (2008)
a12 Cevallos-Casals and Cisneros-Zevallos a52 Konczak-Islam et al., (2003a) a94 Song et al., (2013)
(2004) a53 Konczak-Islam et al., (2003b) a95 Song et al., (2011)
a13 Chan et al., (2012) a54 Krishnan et al., (2010) a96 Suda et al., (2008)
a14 Chang et al., (2007) a55 Kurata et al., (2007) a97 Taira et al., (2013)
a15 Chang et al., (2010) a56 Li and Zhang (2013) a98 Takenaka et al., (2006)
a16 Chen et al., (2008) a57 Li, F. et al., (2009) a99 Teow et al., (2007)
a17 Cho et al., (2003) a58 Li, C. et al., (2013) a100 Tian et al., (2005)
a18 Choi et al., (2008) a59 Li, J.Y. et al., (2012) a101 Tokusoglu and Yildirim (2012)
a19 Chon et al., (2005) a60 Liao et al., (2011) a102 Truong et al., (2012)
a20 Cui et al., (2011 a61 Lien et al., (2012) a103 Wang et al., (2011)
a21 Dincer et al.,,(2011) a62 Lien et al., (2010) a104 Wang et al., (2012)
a22 Ding et al., (2010) a63 Lim et al., (2013) a105 Wu et al., (2012)
a23 Dini et al., (2006) a64 Lin et al., (2006) a106 Xu et al., (2010)
Table 1. (Continued).

SP articles
a24 Donado-Pestana et al., (2012) a65 Lu et al., (2010) a107 Ye et al., (2010)
a25 Fan et al., (2008a) a66 Min et al., (2006) a108 Ye et al., (2004)
a26 Fan et al., (2008b) a67 Montilla et al., (2010) a109 Zhang et al., (2009)
a27 Gan et al., (2012) a68 Nagai et al., (2011) a110 Zhang et al., (2013)
a28 Gundala et al., (2013) a69 Niwa et al., (2011) a111 Zhao, J.G. et al., (2013)
a29 Han et al., (2011) a70 Oki et al.,,(2003) a112 Zhao et al., (2007)
a30 Harada et al., (2004) a71 Padda and Picha (2007) a113 Chun et al., (2014)
a31 Harrison et al., (2003) a72 Panda et al., (2009a) a114 Kim, H. Y. and Mo (2014)
a32 Huang et al., (2004) a73 Panda et al., (2009b) a115 Li, J. et al., (2014)
a33 Huang et al., (2010) a74 Panda and Ray (2007) a116 Ojeda et al., (2014)
a34 Huang et al., (2013) a75 Panda et al., (2013) a117 Sasaki et al., (2014)
a35 Huang et al., (2006) a76 Park et al., (2010) a118 Soison et al., (2014)
a36 Hwang et al., (2011a) a77 Peng et al., (2013) a119 Sun et al., (2014a)
a37 Hwang et al., (2011b) a78 Philpott et al., (2009) a120 Sun et al., (2014b)
a38 Hwang et al., (2011c) a79 Pochapski et al., (2011) a121 Sun et al., (2014c)
a39 Ishiguro et al., (2007) a80 Qiu et al., (2009) a122 Zhao, J.G. et al., (2014)
a40 Islam et al., (2003) a81 Rabah et al., (2005)
a82 Rabah et al., (2004)
Table 2. References of the patents selected for the review published during the period from 2003 to 2014

SP patents
p1 Baek et al., (2004) p46 Li, J. et al., (2012) p91 Xiangdong (2012)
p2 Chen and Wang (2013a) p47 Li and Li (2013) p92 Xianxiang (2008)
p3 Chen and Wang (2013b) p48 Li, Z. et al., 2013 (2013) p93 Xiaoling et al., (2009)
p4 Chengyu (2009) p49 Lichao et al., (2009). p94 Xiaosong (2010)
p5 Cho et al., (2013) p50 Liming et al., (2011). p95 Xiaoyan (2012)
p6 Chuanbin and Xianxun (2011) p51 Lin and Jiping (2009) p96 Xiguang et al., (2012)
p7 Chun et al., (2007) p52 Liu, H. (2013) p97 Xingcang (2011)
p8 Dechao et al., (2010) p53 Liu, L. (2013) p98 Xuesong (2012)
p9 Defa (2009) p54 Lixin et al., (2011) p99 Yan et al., (2012)
p10 Dehua et al., (2012) p55 Ma (2013) p100 Yanxiang (2011)
p11 Fanzhong (2011) p56 Mingna et al., (2011) p101 Yasumoto et al., (2006)
p12 Ge et al., (2013) p57 Minyao et al., (2011) p102 Ye and Li (2004)
p13 Gong (2013) p58 Mu et al., (2013a) p103 Yin et al., (2003)
p14 Gongjian et al., (2008) p59 Mu et al., (2013b) p104 Yongbin et al., (2012b)
p15 Guangyou (2008) p60 Na et al., (2013) p105 Yongbin et al., (2012a)
p16 Hidaka and Obayashi (2009) p61 Ning et al., (2010) p106 Yuan et al., (2013)
p17 Hiramoto et al., (2005) p62 Not_acessible (2007) p107 Yuanzheng et al., (2011)
p18 Hong and (2011) p63 Not_acessible (2011) p108 Yubao (2010)
p19 Hong and Seonryu (2013) p64 Oba and Saegusa (2003) p109 Yubo (2010)
p20 Hongmei et al., (2008) p65 Oba and Sasaki (2006) p110 Yunli (2008)
p21 Hui et al., (2012) p66 Oba and Noujiyo (2008) p111 Zhang, L. W. (2007)
p22 In et al., (2004) p67 Oiwa and Oiwa (2007) p112 Zhang, Z. (2013)
p23 Iwata (2006) p68 Peng (2013) p113 Zhao, G. (2013)
p24 Jeong (2012) p69 Qiang (2012) p114 Zhao, X. et al., (2013)
Table 2. (Continued).

SP patents
p25 Ji (2013) p70 Qiuyun (2012) p115 Zhenchang et al., (2012)
p26 Ji et al., (2010) p71 Quanan et al., (2011) p116 Zheng et al., (2009)
p27 Jian et al., (2011) p72 Quanan and Yubo (2012) p117 Zhenxin et al., (2012a)
p28 Jianyi (2012) p73 Ryu and Lee (2013) p118 Zhenxin et al., (2012b)
p29 Jinglue (2011) p74 Saeki et al., (2006) p119 Zhichao (2011)
p30 Jingyu et al., (2012) p75 Seo et al., (2010) p120 Chen, R. (2014)
p31 Jingyu et al., (2012) p76 Shi (2013) p121 Chen, X. et al., (2014)
p32 Jinsong et al., (2012) p77 Shuhua et al., (2012) p122 Chen, Y. et al., (2014)
p33 Jinsong and Bing (2009) p78 Shuyong (2011) p123 Cheng et al., (2014)
p34 Jiping and Lin (2009) p79 Sugawara et al., (2005) p124 Choi et al., (2014)
p35 Jo et al., (2013) p80 Sun et al., (2013) p125 Dong (2014)
p26 Juanying (2012) p81 Suzuki et al., (2006) p126 Guan (2014)
p37 Jung et al., (2007) p82 Takagaki and Tsubata (2009) p127 Guo, C. (2014)
p38 Jung et al., (2011b) p83 Tang et al., (2005) p128 Guo, T. (2014)
p39 Jung et al., (2011a) p84 Tianyin (2011) p129 Han et al., (2014)
p40 Kamata (2006) p85 Tsukada et al., (2004) p130 Hou et al., (2014)
p41 Kim et al., (2010) p86 Wang, F. et al., (2013) p131 Jiang (2014)
p42 Kwon et al., (2012) p87 Wang, S. et al., (2013) p132 Jing et al., (2014)
p43 Lee (2013) p88 Wang, Z. W. (2006) p133 Kim et al., (2014)
p44 Li, Y. (2013) p89 Wong et al., (2013) p134 Kwon (2014)
p45 Li, C. et al., (2009) p90 Wu (2013) p135 Lee et al., (2014)
p136 Li, B. (2014a)
SP patents
p137 Li, B. (2014b) p148 Rao et al., (2014) p159 Xu, G. and Xu (2014a)
p138 Li, C et al., (2014) p149 Shao (2014) p160 Xu, G and Xu (2014b)
p139 Liu et al., (2014) p150 Sun, F. (2014) p161 Yang, R. (2014a)
p140 Lu, J. (2014a) p151 Tao et al., (2014) p162 Yang, R. (2014b)
p141 Lu, J. (2014b) p152 Tong et al., (2014) p163 Yao et al., (2014)
p142 Lu, K. (2014) p153 Wang, K. (2014) p164 Zeng et al., (2014)
p143 Luo et al., (2014) p154Wang, Q. (2014a) p165 Zhang, J. et al., (2014)
p144 Mou et al., (2014) p155 Wang, Q. (2014b) p166 Zhang, X. et al., (2014)
p145 Pi and Li (2014) p156 Wang, Y. (2014) p167 Zhao et al., (2014)
p146 Qin (2014) p157 Wei (2014) p168 Zhou (2014)
p147 Qiong (2014) p158 Xu, D. (2014) p169 Zhou et al., (2014)
p170 Zou, G. (2014)
58 Ana Anastácio and Isabel S. Carvalho

Figure 1. Main features of the documents used in the review regarding for document
type, publication year, sweet potato variety and plant part.

Figure 2. Time series map of selected articles and patents on sweet potato published
during the period from 2003 to 2014.
Food Applications and Health Benefits … 59

Sweet Potato Articles

The 122 selected articles for this review were published in 58 different
journals, where 4 - Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, Food
Chemistry, International Journal of Food Science and Technology and Food
Science and Technology Research - reached 33% in number. Articles were
classified by plant part and variety as presented in Supplementary Table S1.
Tuber presented the highest number of papers both on the purple and non-
purple variety. SP leaf was the second most studied plant part with more
articles than stem, vine, peel, cell line and processing waste together. Although
SP leaves are considered a waste in many parts of the world, they are
consumed in Asia as a leafy vegetable and therefore gaining high research
attention. All the SP plant parts with exception of the tuber presented more
articles on the non-purple varieties. The purple variety was mostly studied by
research centers from China that presented the highest number of papers (18),
followed by Korea (14). For other SP varieties than purple, research centers
from Asia counties were still dominant but authors‟ affiliations were from
other continents (Europe, America and Oceania) in ~ 35% of the papers
Articles on the purple and non-purple varieties presented a similar trend
regarding the publication date profile over the period 2003-2014 (Figure 3A).
The number of articles on the purple variety presented an average of 3 per year
in the period 2003-2005 that increased to an average of 9 per year in the period
2010-2013. In 2014, a decrease in the number of articles on the purple variety
decreased to 6. For non-purple SP, the average in the period 2003-2005 was of
4 articles per year that increased to an average of 7 per year in the period
2010-2013. As observed for articles on the purple variety, in 2014 the number
of articles published for the non-purple SP decreased. Research on the other
SP plant parts SP less or absent for the period 2003-2014. Regarding plant
part, SP tuber and leaf presented similar trends but tuber presented always
more publications per year than the other plant parts (Figure 3B). Concerning
the number or articles, antioxidant activity of phenolic compounds by SP plant
part had the following order: tuber>>leaf>>peel. Studies on SP peel received
much less attention than tuber of leaf. To respond to the growing interest of
agro- and food industries in value added recycling (Peschel et al., 2006), there
is a need for research on antioxidant activity of phenolic compounds from SP
leaves but specially peels. This could contribute to overcome this knowledge
gap and promote to the valorization of both peels and leaves into food
applications with health benefits.
60 Ana Anastácio and Isabel S. Carvalho

Figure 3. Time series map of the number of sweet potato articles published during the
period from 2003 to 2014 by A) variety and B) plant part.
Food Applications and Health Benefits … 61

Types of Studies

Articles on antioxidant activity of phenolic compound from sweet potato


were classified into thirteen different types of studies (Supplementary Table
S2). More than one type of study or plant part could be attributed to a paper in
accordance to their objectives. For SP tuber, the top four types of study were
in decreasing order: new food, preclinical (animal), processing method and
cultivar/genotype/variety (Figure 4).

Figure 4. Stacked bar chart of the number of articles on sweet potato tuber, leaf and
peel published during the period from 2003 to 2014 by types of studies. More than one
type of study could be attributed to an article.

Leaf presented a different order for the type of studies, namely


cultivar/genotype/variety > preclinical (animal) > plant part = clinical =
production cultivation. Tuber presented more preclinical (animal) studies than
leaf and an inverse order was observed for clinical studies. Regarding peels,
papers were on the phenolic composition, processing methods and processing
variables effects on antioxidant activity. SP processing waste (2 papers) was
the only plant part beside tuber that had articles on new food. Concerning the
distribution in time of the different types of studies, there was no
predominance of any type of study until 2009 but from 2010 until 2013, the
main types identified previously appeared. Preclinical (animal) studies reached
6 articles both in 2010 and 2013 and an increase in new food studies was also
observed for the period 2012-2014. Studies on the effect of processing
62 Ana Anastácio and Isabel S. Carvalho

variables on SP antioxidant activity reach 5 articles in 2010 while 4 articles on


formulation studies were published in 2004. Therefore, for the late period
2003-2014. there was a demarked trend towards preclinical studies followed
by research on new foods related to antioxidant activity of phenolic
compounds from SP. The effect of processing methods and phenolic
compounds represented a steady or positive trend from 2013 to 2014. The
knowledge gap was higher for SP peel than for leaves. Research on new foods
for peels and leaves combined with processing variables studies may benefit
from the body of knowledge already built for the tuber plant part. In addition,
the inclusion of optimization and formulation may accelerate the development
of food application with health benefits based on SP peels and leaves.

Figure 5. Stacked bar chart of the number of articles on sweet potato tuber, leaf and
peel published during the period from 2003 to 2014 by antioxidant assays. More than
one assay could be attributed to an article. See Table S4 for assays abbreviations.

Antioxidant Activity Assays

The antioxidant activity results from the collection of articles related to


phenolic compound from sweet potato were distributed by fourteen in vitro
antioxidant assays and nine in vivo assays (Supplementary Table S3).
Frequently, more than one assay was used in a paper. For SP tuber, the in vitro
assay 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) scavenging activity was
predominant, with ferric reducing-antioxidant power (FRAP) assay as the
Food Applications and Health Benefits … 63

second most used assay (Figure 5). DPPH assay was also the most frequent
used method for most of SP plant parts and this was also observed by Alam
et al., (2013). DPPH is often included in antioxidant studies as it is more rapid,
simple and inexpensive when compared to other free radical scavenging
methods. Regarding in vivo antioxidant estimation for the tuber plant part,
lipid peroxidation assay (LPO) was the most used for tuber followed by
reduced glutathione (GSH) estimation. The decreasing order for in vitro
antioxidant methods used to study SP leaf were DPPH, RP, thiobarbituric acid
method (TBA) and FRAP. The antioxidant activity of SP peels was only
published using the FRAP method so future research should include other
methods as DPPH and RP for comparison purposes with other SP plant parts.
The time series map of articles publication dates did not add significant
information so it was not presented here. Therefore, there it was identified a
knowledge gap between SP leaf and peel regarding in vitro antioxidant
activities and also between DPPH assay and the other in vitro assays.

Phenolic Compounds

The phenolic composition of the different SP plant parts published in the


selected articles was divided into two categories (Supplementary Table S4).
Three spectrophotometric methods were considered for the global phenolic
composition while individual compounds, obtained by methodologies as
HPLC or LC, were grouped in four classes. The spectrophotometric methods
considered were: total phenolic compounds (TPC), total monomeric
anthocyanins (TMA) and total flavonoid content (TFC). TPC and TMA results
were more frequent for SP tuber while TFC was used in lesser extent (Figure
6). For leaves, the decreasing order of articles was TPC > TFC > TMA. This
order was different than the observed for the tuber as a result of the less
number of articles for the purple variety for leaf so anthocyanin content was
not as much determined. The individual compounds were grouped into
hydroxycinnamic acids, hydroxybenzoic acids, flavonols and anthocyanins.
Tuber presented more articles on anthocyanins composition than
hydroxycinnamic acids, and no results for the other compounds groups were
identified. There were more articles with results on hydroxycinnamic acids
from SP leaf followed by flavonols.
Thus, there was a higher knowledge gap on phenolic compounds of SP
peel than leaf that should be reduced by future research on the development of
food applications with health benefits.
64 Ana Anastácio and Isabel S. Carvalho

Statistical Analysis

The statistical analysis used to examine the results of articles antioxidant


activity of phenolic compounds from sweet potato were summarized into
fifteen tools (Supplementary Table S5). Analysis of variance (ANOVA),
Duncan's test followed by Tukey‟s test and correlation analysis were the most
used statistical analysis for tuber plant part (Figure 7). This resulted from the
question of interest of articles was to evaluate whether one factor had a
significant impact on the response variables. The usual procedure was to
perform the analysis of variance to test whether the means of several groups
are equal followed by post hoc tests to check the difference significance group
by group. For SP leaf, analysis of variance, Student‟s t test and correlation
were the most used. Analysis tools as principal components analysis, response
surface methodology of factorial designs were absent or used in a reduced
number of articles. Multivariate analysis tools, based upon statistics, provide a
rigorous inferences from experimental data and an efficient and effective
planning of experiments for product excellence (Joglekar & May, 1987). The
use of design of experiments and multivariate statistical tools for the
development of food applications with health benefits form SP leaf and peels
will narrow this gap on statistical analysis.

Health Benefits

The health benefits related to antioxidant activity of phenolic compounds


from sweet potato were summarized from the clinical and preclinical (animal)
publication (Supplementary Table S6). SP tuber and leaf were the only plant
parts used and leaf presented more clinical studies than tuber. In general,
benefits of antioxidant activity were linked to the reduction of oxidative stress,
anti-diabetic and anti-cancer functions and related to the brain and liver.
Phenolic compounds from SP tuber, mostly anthocyanin fractions, decreased
oxidative stress, modulated antioxidative status, enhanced antioxidant defence,
reduced DNA oxidation, decrease pro-inflammatory cytokine secretion and
presented cytoprotective activity against γ-radiation.
Food Applications and Health Benefits … 65

Figure 6. Stacked bar chart of the number of articles on sweet potato tuber, leaf and
peel published during the period from 2003 to 2014 by phenolic compounds groups.
TPC: total phenolic compounds; TMA: total monomeric anthocyanins; TFC: total
flavonoid content.

Figure 7. Stacked bar chart of the number of articles on sweet potato tuber, leaf and
peel published during the period from 2003 to 2014 by statistical analysis methods.
ANOVA: analysis of variance; PCA: Principal Components Analysis; RSM: Response
Surface Methodology; DA: Discriminant Analysis; HCA: Hierarquical Cluster
Analysis.
Figure 8. Time line of sweet potato tuber health benefits published in articles during the period from 2003 to 2014. Only clinical
(marked with *) and preclinical (animal) studies were considered. t-BHP: tert-butyl hydroperoxide.
Figure 9. Time line of sweet potato leaf health benefits published in articles during the period from 2003 to 2014. Only clinical (marked
with *) and preclinical (animal) studies were considered.
68 Ana Anastácio and Isabel S. Carvalho

Anticancer benefits included effects in preventing cancers namely


colorectal cancer, growth suppression of cancer cells and apoptosis in prostate
cancer. Benefits for the liver include the decrease the serum levels of
biomarkers, attenuation of inflammatory response, attenuation of oxidative
stress induced by D-galactose, attenuation of dimethylnitrosamine-induced
injury, protection against tert-butyl hydroperoxide (t-BHP), protection on
induced lipid accumulation and attenuates hepatic insulin resistance via
blocking oxidative stress. Phenolic compounds via antioxidant activity
imparted neuroprotection by attenuation of oxidative damage, amelioration of
cognition deficits, and amelioration of inflammation in brain and also
pretended enhancing effects in memory and spatial learning. Finally, SP tuber
ameliorated diabetic disorders and presented anti-fatigue activity, and was also
considered a treatment of Alzheimer‟s disease. They were active in reducing
lipid oxidation and suppressing low-density lipoprotein oxidation.
The health benefits related to SP leaf were obtained by clinical studies
were enhancement of antioxidant defense, anticancer activity, and reduction of
lipid oxidation, of DNA oxidation and of inflammation. Health benefits as
anti-fatigue, antidiabetic activity and treatment of Alzheimer‟s disease were
established by animal testing.
Tuber presented studies distributed in the range of 2003 to 2014 (Figure 8)
while SP leaf studies were published between 2007 and 2013 (Figure 9). There
were no health benefits established for SP peel. Although the health benefits of
peels could be inferred from its antioxidant activity and phenolic composition
by comparison to the tuber, validation through clinical and preclinical (animal)
studies will be necessary. The information regarding the health benefits in SP
leaf should be tested for new food applications.

Food Applications in Articles

Food applications in SP articles on antioxidant activity of phenolic


compounds were registered in Supplementary Table S7. Articles were
distributed by a total of twenty five different food applications where
flour/powder was in majority. For tuber, anthocyanin extracts and extracts
were the second and third food applications, respectively (Figure 10). Articles
that studied beverages based on SP tuber where in equal number as the boiling
and as fresh products. Different home cooking preparations for tuber, as
Food Applications and Health Benefits … 69

boiling, steaming, stir frying (sautée), baked, frying, microwaving or roasted


were already addressed, although in a reduced number. SP tuber presented
different products in the beverage category, such as alcoholic drinks
(excluding wine), wine, nectar and a lactic acid beverage. The other parts of
sweet potato presented only eleven different Food applications products
(Supplementary Table S7).

Figure 10. Stacked bar chart of the number of articles on sweet potato tuber, leaf and
peel published during the period from 2003 to 2014 by food applications. More than
one food application could be attributed to an article.

As for SP tuber, flour/powder was the most classified food type for leaf
followed by extract. Regarding the distribution in time of the different food
applications, SP flour/powder presented more number of studies in the period
2010 to 2013. A large increase in articles about the SP flour/powder form was
observed from 2009 to 2010 but in 2014 number decreased abruptly. In 2014,
the food applications that were more mentioned in articles were extract and
anthocyanin extract. There is a lack of studies on food applications for other
SP plant parts than tuber or leaf. Research on applications for the valorisation
of SP wastes, a flour/powder or a beverage could benefits from knowledge
accumulated for tuber.
70 Ana Anastácio and Isabel S. Carvalho

Sweet Potato Patents

The 170 selected patents were predominantly from China (72%) with
Qingdao Agricultural University as the top applicant (11 patents). The
classification of the selected patents by plant part and variety was presented in
Supplementary Table S8. The number of patents on antioxidant activity of
phenolic compounds from SP was concentrated on the purple variety (79%)
and on the tuber plant part (91%).

Figure 11. Time series map of the number of sweet potato patents published during the
period from 2003 to 2014 by A) variety and B) plant part.
Food Applications and Health Benefits … 71

Figure 12. Stacked bar chart of the number of patents on sweet potato tuber, leaf and
peel published during the period from 2003 to 2014 by food applications. More than
one food application could be attributed to a patent. Anthocy: anthocyanin.

Inventions with SP leaf or peel occurred in a very small scale. As occurred


in articles, leaf was the second plant part most mentioned in patents. In
addition, inventions including peels were scare for the period 2003-2014. The
time series map of patent publication date showed that inventions including
the purple variety supplanted the non-purple varieties in 2006, with a large
growth from 2010 to 2014 (Figure 11. A). Tuber presented a similar trend than
the purple variety due to their prevalence on SP patents (Figure 211 B).
Therefore, research on SP peels and leaves for food applications have potential
to be considered an invention and protected by patent registration. As the
strategy of combining different SP plant parts presented a low intensity in the
period of time studied, it could be undertaken in future developments of value
added products.

Food Applications in Patents

Food applications of SP with antioxidant activity of phenolic compounds


reported in patents were summarized in Supplementary Table S9. The number
of different products – 43 – was higher than the one obtained for articles. The
product with more patents application for tuber was a beverage followed by
pasta (that including noodles products) (Figure 12).
72 Ana Anastácio and Isabel S. Carvalho

Although flour/powder products were the main food application found in


articles, it ranked 6th for patents. As expected, the traditional home cooking
preparations for tuber were absent in the patent food applications. The
beverage food category comprised more different products for patents than for
articles as juice, beer and liquor. SP tuber was also mentioned for healthy
foods, functional foods and supplements. As observed for articles, patented
food applications for the other SP plant parts were less miscellaneous than for
tuber with only seven different products. For SP leaf, extracts were the most
patented food application followed by beer. Three products that were patented
for leaf – essence, fiber and pickle – were absent in tuber. Concerning the date
of publication, there were only published 7 patents on phenolic compounds
and/or antioxidant activity of SP until 2007. Beverages patents grew in number
from 2007 to 2011. In 2014, the food applications that presented a positive
trend were healthy foods, pasta, flour/powder and beverage. Research on new
food development of beverage or extract for SP wastes as leaf and peel has the
potential to be protected by a patent due to the reduced number of food
applications.

Text Mining

HCA and co-occurrence analysis were performed on statistics obtained by


text mining pre-treatment of abstracts of selected articles and patents for the
period 2003 to 2014. The words selected were nouns and adjectives with a
minimum term and document frequencies of 23 for articles and 34 for patents
Dendograms obtained by HCA revealed five word groups for both articles and
patents and two major themes. For articles abstracts, “sweet” and “potato”
presented the closest similarity in Group 1 with higher term frequencies
(1st main theme) (Figure 13 A). “Acid” was the word more related to “sweet
potato” within the group. This may be associated to the different phenolic
compounds that did not enter in the analysis due to the criteria applied to term
and document frequencies. For the same reason, although “phenolic” ranked
high in adjectives frequency (5th) the word did not enter in the representation.
“Total content” was next to “sweet potato” and “acid”. The other words in
Group 1 group were “antioxidant activity” that were closely related to “result”
and “effect.” The second group of words with higher frequencies (2nd main
theme) was formed by “anthocyanin,” “purple,” level,” “concentration” and
“treatment” (Group 2).
Food Applications and Health Benefits … 73

Patents dendogram presented a group of words (Group 1) with much


higher frequencies than the others (Figure 13B). “Purple sweet potato,”
“anthocyanins” and “raw material” were the central subjects of patents (1st
main theme). The 2nd main theme was connected to patent food applications
namely “food,” “powder,” “weight” and “effect.”
74 Ana Anastácio and Isabel S. Carvalho

Figure 13. Dendograms from Text Mining analysis of A) articles and B) patents
abstracts published during the period from 2003 to 2014. Word frequencies are
indicated in the left side of each graph.

Co-occurrence networks patterns high-frequency words occurring together


and identify content communities. Words are depicted as nodes with a size
proportional to their frequency in the documents. Nodes are linked by edges
when they occur together and their thickness is proportional to the strength of
co-occurrence between them. For articles abstracts, three content communities
were detected (Figure 14A).
Food Applications and Health Benefits … 75

The community that included the words “sweet” and “potato” was located
at the centre of the network (number 1). The words “total,” “acid,” “phenolic”
and “content” were located closely in this group and presented high co-
occurrence. The words “activity” and “effect” belonged to the “sweet potato”
group but “antioxidant” and “results” formed a small community on their own
(number 2) with several links to core group. “Purple” and “anthocyanin” made
a community (number 3) that also was linked by several edges to words of the
main group. “DPPH” was a satellite node only linked to the word “activity.”
The co-occurrence network for patents abstracts presented a different
configuration than the one built for articles (Figure 14B).

Figure 14. (Continued).


76 Ana Anastácio and Isabel S. Carvalho

Figure 14. Co-occurrence network from Text Mining analysis of A) articles and B)
patents abstracts published during the period from 2003 to 2014.

Four communities were identified. “Purple,” “sweet” and “potato”


belonged to the larger community (number 1) and were closely located and
strongly linked. The words “raw,” “material,” “effect,” “weight” and
“powder” also belonged to this community. All the other three communities in
the network were linked to the “purple sweet potato” community but not
among each other.
Table S1. Sweet potato articles published during the period from 2003 to 2014 by variety and plant part.
See Table 1 for article references

Variety Sweet potato plant part


Tuber Leaf Stem Leaf & stem Vine Peel Cell line Waste Other
Purple a1, a2, a5, a6, a17, a25-a27, a14, a15, a100 a48 Sweet
a29, a30, a35-a38, a41-a43, a16, a45, (1) (1)
a46, a49, a58, a61-a63, a65, a47 a68
a67, a70, a75-a77, a80, a83, (6)
a86-a94, a96, a99, a102-a105,
a107, a109-a111, a113-a115,
a118, a119, a122
(56)
Not purple a3, a4, a7, a12, a13, a21, a23, a9, a11, a18, a20, a8, a51-a53 a108 a44a
a24, a39, a54, a69, a71, a72, a28, a33, a66 a22, a31, (3) (1) a10b
a73, a74, a81, a82, a85, a98, a34, a50, (2) a40 a78 a19b
a101, a116 a55, a56, (3) (3) a32c
(21) a57, a59, (4)
a60, a64,
a79, a84,
a95, a97,
a106, a112,
a117, a120,
a121
(21)
a
Flower, leaf, stem, petiole and root. b Leaf, stem and root. c Leaf, vein and root.
Table S2. Sweet potato articles published during the period from 2003 to 2014 by type of study and plant part.
See Table 1 for article references

Type of Sweet potato plant part


study Tuber Leaf Stem Vine Peel Cell line Waste
Bioavailability a13
(1)
Clinical a30 a14, a15, a16, a47, a68
(1) (5)
Cultivar/ a19, a24, a35, a39, a41, a67, a70, a85, a19, a40, a44, a45, a60, a19,
genotype/ a86, a99, a102, a121 a64, a68, a84, a97, a106 a44
variety (12) (10) (2)
Formulation a2, a77, a103
(3)
New food a12, a26, a27, a41, a72, a73, a74, a75, a48,
a83, a87, a88, a90, a92, a94, a104, a105, a108
a113, a114, a115 (2)
(19)
Optimization a4, a6, a25, a61, a71, a102 a57, a95
(6) (2)
Phenolic a23, a42, a43, a58, a76, a80, a122 a33, a50, a79, a117 a22 a31, a53,
compounds (7) (4) (1) a78 a100
(2) (2)
Type of Sweet potato plant part
study Tuber Leaf Stem Vine Peel Cell line Waste
Plant part a10, a19, a32, a44 a9, a10, a19, a32, a44 a9, a10, a19,
(4) (5) a32, a44
(5)
Preclinical a17, a29, a30, a36, a37, a38, a63, a28, a47, a55, a56, a57,
(animal) a69, a82, a89, a91, a96, a109, a107, a112
a110, a111, a119 (7)
(16)
Processing a1, a3, a21, a24, a35, a44, a49, a44, a120 a44 a20 a8
method a65, a81, a93, a98, a101, a118 (2) (1) (1) (1)
(13)
Processing a3, a5, a7, a10, a54, a62 a9, a10, a34, a59 a9, a10, a18, a8
variables (6) (4) a66 (1)
(4)
Production/ a11, a40, a45, a64, a84 a51, a52
cultivation (5) (2)
Storage a39, a115
(2)
Table S3. Sweet potato articles published during the period from 2003 to 2014 by antioxidant assay and plant part.
See Table 1 for article references

Assay Sweet potato plant part


Tuber Leaf Stem Vine Peel Cell line Waste
In vitro DPPH a2, a5, a10, a13, a17, a21, a23, a24, a32, a35, a9, a10, a32, a10, a32 a20, a22 a53
a39, a41, a42, a43, a46, a65,a70, a75, a76, a77, a34, a40, a50, (2) (2) (1)
a81, a82, a83, a86, a88, a90, a99, a101, a104, a60, a64, a68,
a105, a113, a114, a115, a116, a118, a122 a95, a106
(36) (11)
H2O2 a60
(1)
NO a33
(1)
ABTS a13, a24, a41, a99, a114, a118 a33, a106
(6) (2)
FRAP a13, a23, a41, a43, a63, a76, a77, a104, a122 a9, a15, a106 a20 a8
(9) (3) (1) (1)
SOD a42, a105 a34, a60, a64 a22
(2) (3) (1)
HO• a34 a22
(1) (1)
ORAC a99, a105 a84, a120
(2) (2)
RP a32, a35, a42, a65, a86, a122 a9, a32, a33, a32
(6) a50, a60, a64 (1)
(6)
TAA a9, a79
(2)
Assay Sweet potato plant part
Tuber Leaf Stem Vine Peel Cell line Waste
FTC a32, a42, a44, a86, a114 a32, a44, a79 a32, a44
(5) (4) (2)
TBARS a10, a27, a44, a77, a91, a114 a10, a15, a33, a10, a44 a22
(6) a44, a68 (2) (1)
(5)
CBI a13 a50
(1) (1)
ICA a13, a43, a35, a86 a33, a60
(4) (2)
In vivo FRAP a63 a15
(1) (1)
GSH a14, a36, a38, a102, a110 a16, a50
(5) (2)
GSH Px a109, a111
(3)
GSt a36, a38, a119
(2)
SOD a105, a109, a110, a111, a91, a119 a112, a50
(6) (2)
CAT a109, a91
(2)
GGT a96
(1)
Table S3. (Continued).

Assay Sweet potato plant part


Tuber Leaf Stem Vine Peel Cell line Waste
TBARS a17, a36, a37,a38, a65, a77, a90, a91, a107, a15, a16
a109 (2)
(10)
LDL a17, a46, a76, a96 a14, a16, a112,
(4) a68
(4)
Other a29, a32, a36, a37, a38, a69, a76, a90, a91, a14, a15, a16, a32 a20, a32 a48,
a105, a107, a109, a110, a111, a119 a32, a33, a47, (1) (2) a108
(15) a50, a55, a60, (2)
a97, a112, a121
(12)
ABTS: 2-2‟-azino-bis (3 ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid). HO•: Hydroxyl radical.
CAT: Catalase. ICA: Iron (II) chelating activity.
CBI: β-carotene bleaching inhibition. LDL: Low-density lipoprotein.
DPPH: 2,2-diphenyl-1-Picrylhydrazyl. NO: Nitric oxide.
FRAP: Ferric reducing-antioxidant power. ORAC: Oxygen radical absorbance capacity.
FTC: Ferric thiocyanate. RP: Reducing power.
GGT: γ-Glutamyl transpeptidase. SOD: Superoxide.
GSH Px: Glutathione peroxidase. SOD: Superoxide dismutase.
GSH: Reduced glutathione. TAA: Total antioxidant activity.
GSt: Glutathione-S-transferase. TBA: Thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances.
H2O2: Hydrogen peroxide.
Table S4. Sweet potato articles published during the period from 2003 to 2014 by phenolic compounds and plant
part. See Table 1 for article references

Phenolic Sweet potato plant part


compounds Tuber Leaf Stem Vine Peel Cell line Waste
TPC a1, a2, a3, a4, a5, a6, a7, a13, a21, a24, a32, a9, a11, a14, a15, a16, a28, a18, a32 a8 a108
a35, a39, a40, a54, a63, a65, a71, a74, a75, a77, a32, a33, a47, a50, a60, (2) (1) (1)
a81, a82, a83, a85, a86, a87, a89, a99, 101, a64, a68, a79, a95, a97,
a103, a104, a105, a111, a113, a114, a118 a106, a120, a121
(37) (19)
TMA a1, a2, a5, a6, a25, a26, a27, a35, a40, a42, a58, a45, a47 a53
a61, a62, a65, a72, a73, a74, a77, a89, a94, a99, (2) (1)
a101, a102, a103, a104, a105, a118, a119
(29)
TFC a5, a13, a32, a35, a40, a65, a77, a83, a111 a9, a32, a33, a34, a50, a56, a32
(9) a57, a60, a64 (1)
(9)
Hydroxycinnamic a19, a23, a39, a44, a71, a89, a98, a116, a122 a10, a11, a19, a28, a33, a18, a19, a20 a31 a51, a52 a48
acids (9) a40, a44, a59 a44,a66 (1) (1) (2) (1)
a84, a106, a117, a120 (4)
(11)
Hydroxybenzoic a11 a18, a66
acids (1) (2)
Flavonoids a11
(2)
Flavonols a11, a28, a33, a59, a84 a20
(5) (1)
Anthocyanins a26, a42 a27, a30, a49, a58, a63, a67, a70, a80, a11 a78 a52, a53,
a87, a88, a94, a102, a115, a119, a122 (1) (1) a100
(17) (3)
TPC: total phenolic compounds, TMA: total monomeric anthocyanins; TFC: total flavonoid content.
TPC, TMA and TFC were determined by spectrophotometric methods.
Table S5. Sweet potato articles published during the period from 2003 to 2014 by statistical analysis tool and plant
part. See Table 1 for article references

Statistical analysis Sweet potato plant part


Tuber Leaf Stem Vine Peel Cell Waste
line
Student a43, a76, a82, a83, a89 a11, a15, a16, a17, a47,
t-test (5) a50
(6)
ANOVA a1, a2, a3, a4, a13, a24, a35, a9, a14, a15, a16, a33, a56, a66 a8, a31
a36, a37, a38, a39, a40, a42, a60, a64, a68, a84, a117 (1) (2)
a46, a63, a69, a72, a77, a85, (11)
a91, a93, a95, a113, a116
(24)
Duncan test a1, a2, a3, a4, a5, a6, a7, a21, a33, a34, a60 a18,
a35, a77, a81, a85, a86, a92, (3) a66
a99, a102, a103, a104, a105, (2)
a115, a118
(21)
Dunnet test a15, a97
(2)
Tukey‟s test a13, a24, a36, a37, a38, a39, a56, a84 a20
a46, a63, a91, a109, a110 (2) (1)
(11)
Fisher‟s LSD a13, a32, a41, a42, a72, a73, a32, a64, a68 a32 a31
a116 (3) (1) (1)
(7)
Statistical analysis Sweet potato plant part
Leaf Stem Vine Peel Cell line Waste
Scheffé test a69
(1)
Factorial design a24; a73, a118 a9
(3) (1)
Screening design a8
(1)
Optimization a4, a5, a25, a61, a102 a95
(5) (1)
Correlation a24, a39, a40, a72, a73, a74, a86, a60, a106, a120,
a99, a102, a116, a118 a121
(11) (4)
Hierarquical Cluster a8
Analysis (1)
Principal a72, a73, a74, a75, a83, a85 a9
Components (6) (1)
Analysis
Discriminant a72
analysis (1)
Regression analysis a70 a117 a8
(1) (1) (1)
Not mentioned a10, a12, a119, a122 a10 a10
Table S6. Sweet potato clinical and preclinal articles published during the period from 2003 to 2014 by health
benefits and plant part. See Table 1 for article references

Type of study Health benefits related to antioxidant activity Sweet potato plant part
Tuber Leaf
Clinical Anticancer activity a47
Decrease oxidative stress a15, a16
Decrease pro-inflammatory cytokine secretion a15
Enhance antioxidant defence a16
Modulate antioxidative status a14, a15
Reduce DNA oxidation a14
Reduce lipid oxidation a14
Selectively absorbed after ingestion a30
Suppression of low-density lipoprotein oxidation. a68
Preclinical Ameliorate diabetic disorders a69
(animal) Ameliorates cognition deficits a91
Ameliorates Inflammation in brain a91
Anticancer benefits a28,
Antidiabetic activity a57, a112
Anti-fatigue activity a56
Apoptosis in prostate cancer a47
Attenuates dimethylnitrosamine-induced liver injury a38
Attenuates hepatic insulin resistance via blocking oxidative stress a110
Attenuates inflammatory response in liver a109
Attenuates Oxidative Damage in brain a91
Attenuates oxidative stress induced by D-galactose in mouse liver a109
Cancer-preventing effects a82
Type of study Health benefits related to antioxidant activity Sweet potato plant part
Tuber Leaf
Cytoprotective activity against γ-radiation a29
Decreased the serum levels of hepatic biomarkers a96
Growth Suppression of Human Cancer Cells a55
Imparts neuroprotection a89
Improvement of Memory a89
Improvement of Spatial Learning a89
Inhibition of tumor growth a111
Memory enhancing effects a17
Prevention of Colorectal cancer a63
Preventive effect on acute and subacute alcoholic liver damage a119
Protection against t-BHP-induced hepatotoxicity a36
Protection on induced hepatic lipid accumulation a37
Selectively absorbed after ingestion a30
Treatment of Alzheimer‟s disease a107
t-BHP: tert-butyl hydroperoxide.
Table S7. Sweet potato articles published during the period from 2003 to 2014 by food application and plant part.
See Table 1 for article references

Sweet potato plant part


Food applications
Tuber Leaf Stem Vine Peel Cell line Waste
Alcoholic drink a87, a88
(2)
Anthocyanin extract a17, a26, a30, a36, a37, a38, a46, a67, a107,
a109, a110, a111, a115, a119, a122
(15)
Baked a21, a44, a49 a120
(3) (1)
Beverage a30, a41, a46, a94, a96
(5)
Boiled a20, a21, a44, a98, a101 a120 a20
(5) (1) (1)
Dried slices a103
(1)
Extract a11, a23, a28, a29, a82, a89, a100, a102, a55, a56, a51, a52,
a122 a117 a53
(9) (3) (3)
Fermented a20
(1)
Food applications Sweet potato plant part
Tuber Leaf Stem Vine Peel Cell line Waste
Flour/powder a1, a2, a3, a4, a5, a6, a7, a10, a13, a19, a24, a9, a10, a10, a22 a8,
a25, a27, a32, a35, a36, a39, a40, a42, a43, a19, a32, a18, (1) a31
a47, a54, a58, a61, a62, a63, a64, a69, a70, a33, a34, a19, (2)
a77, a85, a86, a93, a99, a118 a45, a50, a32,
(35) a57, a59, a66
a60, a68, (5)
a79, a84,
a95, a97,
a106,
a112
(18)
Fresh a21, a71, a76, a78, a80 a120,
(5) a121
(2)
Fresh cut a116
(1)
Fried a44, a101 a120
(2) (1)
Kneaded flour a35
(1)
Lactic acid a72, a74, a90
beverage (3)
Table S7. (Continued).

Food applications Sweet potato plant part


Tuber Leaf Stem Vine Peel Cell line Waste
Microwaved a44, a65 a120
(2) (1)
Milk a105
(1)
Nectar a104
(1)
Pastaa a92, a114
(2)
Pickle a73
(1)
Pigment a12, a91
(2)
Roasted a24
(1)
Steamed a35, a44, a49, a101 a120 a20
(4) (1) (1)
Stir fried a44 a14, a15,
(1) a16
(3)
Vinegar a113 a48,
(1) a108
(2)
Wine a75, a83
(2)
a
including noodles.
Table S8. Sweet potato patents published during the period from 2003 to 2014 by variety and plant part.
See Table 2 for article references

Variety Sweet potato plant part


Tuber Leaf Stem Vine Peel Leaf & stem Waste Other
Purple p1-p5, p7, p9-p14, p16, p19-p21, p23, p25- p6 p51,
p27, p29- p44, p46- p48, p50, p52-p54, p56- (1) p67
p58, p62, p63, p65, p66, p68, p71-p78, p80, (2)
p86-p100, p102-p107, p109-p118, p120-p122,
p125-p132, p139, p141-p145, p147-p149,
p151-p159, p162-p167, p169-p170
(131)
Not purple p8, p15, p18, p22, p24, p28, p55, p60, p64, p18, p81 p83 p45, p85 p17a
p70, p84, p108, p123, p124, p133, p134, p137, p61, (1) (1) p79, (1) (1)
p139, p140, p146, p150, p160, p161, p168 p69, p59,
(24) p82 p101
(4) (4)
a
Not mentioned.
Table S9. Sweet potato patents published during the period from 2003 to 2014 by type of study and plant part.
See Table 2 for article references

Food applications Sweet potato plant part


Tuber Leaf Stem Vine Peel Leaf & stem Waste
Alcoholic drink p16, p62, p75 p67
(3) (1)
Anthocyanin extract p10, p21, p31, p41, p52, p53, p58, p71, p78,
p87, p103, p110
(12)
Beer p29 p69 p6
(1) (1) (1)
Beverage p8, p84, p15, p4, p9, p20, p26, p30, p37, p38, p82
p48 p54, 91, p105, p118, p34, p122, p163, p170 (1)
(19)
Bread p13, p68, p128
(3)
Candy/toffee p121, p139, p153, p154
(4)
Capsule p77, p88
(2)
Chewing gum p113
(1)
Chip p140
(1)
Composition p7, p17, p76, p133
(4)
Food applications Sweet potato plant part
Tuber Leaf Stem Vine Peel Leaf & stem Waste
Cookie p135
(1)
Encapsulation material p166
(1)
Enriched oil p166
(1)
Essence p170 p101
(1) (1)
Extract p41, p102, p106, p145, p155, p162 p61 p81 p79, p59 p85
(6) (1) (1) (2) (1)
Fibre p83
(1)
Flour/powder p1, p36, p57, p70, p89, p94, p115, p126,
p150, p160. p161
(11)
Functional food p66, p80, p141
(3)
Gel p60
(1)
Healthy food p12, p44, p95, p98, p119, p120, p125, p127,
p142, p147, p151, p152, p156, p164, p165
(15)
Jelly p49
(1)
Table S9. (Continued).

Food applications Sweet potato plant part


Tuber Leaf Stem Vine Peel Leaf & stem Waste
Juice p22, 918, p40, p96, p99, p100, p116, p131, p144
(9)
Lactic acid beverage p65
(1)
Liquor p64
(1)
Milk p27, p107
(2)
Pastaa p108, p2,8, p42, p73, p33, p46, p114 p123,
p130, p137, p149, p157, p158, p159, p168
(15)
Paste p138
(1)
Pickle p45
(1)
Pigment p93, p92, p132
(3)
Pizza dough p43
(1)
Porridge p2, p3, p24,
(1)
Preserve p50, p111
(1)
Food applications Sweet potato plant part
Tuber Leaf Stem Vine Peel Leaf & stem Waste
Sauce p124
(1)
Sausage p148
(1)
Snack p11, p63, p90, p104,
(4)
Soup p25
(1)
Sugar p129
(1)
Supplement p5, p55, p134, p136
(4)
Tea p167
(1)
Tofu p97
(1)
Vinegar p23, p74, p117
(3)
Wine p14, p19, p32, p35, p39, p47, p72, p86, p109, p51
p112, p143, p169 (1)
(12)
Yogurt p56
(1)
96 Ana Anastácio and Isabel S. Carvalho

CONCLUSION
From the main food applications found in articles and patents for the
period 2003-2014, the development of a flour/powder or a beverage could
benefit from the knowledge already built for the tuber. As the strategy of
combining different SP plant parts presented a low intensity in the period of
time studied, it could be undertaken in future research. Rather than using result
means comparison tools as verified for the tuber, the use of design of
experiments and multivariate statistical tools during new food development
could narrow efficiently the knowledge gap found for peels and leaves. Design
responses should include DPPH assay combined with other in vitro antioxidant
assays and the determination of phenolic compounds by spectrophotometric
methods as well the content of individual anthocyanins and hydroxycinnamic
acids. These results could shape further research on health benefits, expected
to be related to the reduction of oxidative stress and improvement of brain and
liver functions. Although these health benefits could be inferred from the
antioxidant activity and phenolic composition of peels and leaves by
comparison to the tuber, validation through clinical and preclinical (animal)
studies will be necessary. In addition, text mining applied only to abstract texts
revealed the main research features of articles and claims of patents on
antioxidant activity of phenolic compounds of sweet potato. Dendograms and
co-occurrence networks form text mining analysis may be useful to compare
future research lines patterns and trends.

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INDEX

antioxidant activity, vii, viii, 31, 47, 48, 49,


A 51, 52, 59, 61, 62, 64, 68, 70, 71, 72, 82,
86, 87, 96, 97, 99, 100, 102, 103, 105,
access, 10
113, 114, 115, 116, 120
accessions, 30
antioxidant assays, viii, 48, 62, 96
acetic acid, 7
antioxidative activity, 106
acid, viii, 29, 36, 37, 63, 72, 75, 82, 89, 94,
apoptosis, 68, 101, 105, 112
99, 101, 109, 110, 111, 113, 115, 118,
aqueous solutions, 107
120
ascorbic acid, 96, 107
acidic, 28
Asia, viii, 47, 48, 59, 98
adenosine, 102
assessment, 112
adverse conditions, 5
attachment, 6, 21
Africa, vii, viii, 1, 15, 16, 27, 28, 31, 33, 47,
awareness, 25
48
age, 20
aggregation, 51 B
agro wastes, viii, 47, 49
algorithm, 51 B deficiencies, viii, 35, 36
amylase, 96 B deficiency, viii, 35, 36, 37, 41, 42
ANOVA, 64, 65, 84 bacteria, 15, 24, 26, 110, 113
anthocyanin, 8, 32, 63, 64, 68, 69, 71, 72, bacterium, 18
75, 97, 98, 99, 100, 104, 105, 106, 107, base, 9, 18, 20, 21, 22
108, 109, 110, 111, 112, 113, 114, 115, beer, 72, 99, 104, 111
116, 117, 118, 119 beetles, 5
anthropologists, 4 benefits, vii, viii, 32, 47, 48, 49, 51, 59, 62,
anti-cancer, 64 63, 64, 66, 67, 68, 69, 86, 87, 96
anticancer activity, 68 beta-carotene, 8, 96, 110, 115
antioxidant, vii, viii, 31, 48, 49, 51, 52, 59, beverages, 68, 103
61, 62, 64, 68, 70, 71, 72, 75, 80, 82, 86, biological activity, 101
87, 96, 97, 99, 100, 102, 103, 108, 110, biological control, 25, 26, 27
111, 112, 114, 115, 116, 119, 120 biomarkers, 68, 87
122 Index

biomass, 28 clusters, 51
bleaching, 82 coatings, 110
blends, 113 cognition, 68, 86, 113
blood, 108, 117 colon, 15
boron, vii, viii, 35, 36, 37, 38, 39, 40, 41, color, 104, 113, 119
42, 43, 44, 45 colorectal cancer, 68, 108
boron management, vii, 35 colour stability, 100
brain, 64, 68, 86, 96, 113 commercial, 8, 44, 49
Brazil, 35, 100 commodity, viii, 47, 48
breeding, 7, 20 communities, 51, 74, 76
community, 51, 75, 76
competitors, 27
C composition, 5, 13, 14, 15, 29, 49, 51, 61,
63, 68, 96, 101, 103, 105, 111, 112, 114
cabbage, 117
compost, 10
calcium, 119
compounds, viii, 48, 52, 59, 62, 63, 64, 65,
calorie, 110
68, 78, 83, 96, 111, 119
cambium, 6
Concise, 31
cancer, 68, 87, 106, 108, 116
condensation, 26
cancer cells, 68, 106
configuration, 75
capsule, 7, 114
constituents, 49, 102, 103, 108, 111
carbohydrate, 13, 14
consumers, 49
carbohydrates, 10, 37
consumption, 2, 5, 15, 98
carbon, 13
contingency, viii, 48, 50, 51
carbon dioxide, 13
control measures, 19, 23, 24
Caribbean, 4
convolvulaceae, vii, 1, 2, 3, 22
carotene, vii, 1, 14, 15, 82
cooking, 68, 72, 114, 115
carotenoids, 100
copper, 8
cash, 4
correlation, 64
categorization, 51
correlation analysis, 64
cation, 117
cost, 25
cell line, 59, 106, 115
covering, 20
chemical, 7, 20, 25, 29, 99, 103
cracks, 7, 18, 24, 43
chicken, 106
Croatia, 105
childhood, 117
crop(s), vii, viii, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 10, 11, 12,
children, 15
13, 18, 22, 24, 25, 26, 27, 28, 29, 31, 35,
China, 4, 59, 70, 99
36, 37, 43, 45
Chinese medicine, 98, 107
crop production, 25, 45
chromatography, 109, 112
crop residue, 12
chromosome, 3
crop rotations, 12
classes, 6, 63
cultivars, vii, 1, 2, 4, 6, 8, 12, 14, 16, 17, 18,
classification, 3, 70
19, 20, 21, 23, 24, 25, 26, 32, 97, 100,
climate(s), 7, 10, 44
110, 112
clinical trials, viii, 48
cultivation, 4, 11, 48, 61, 79, 108
cluster analysis, 51
culture, 41, 100, 106
clustering, 50, 114
Index 123

cycles, 16 environmental conditions, 20


cytotoxicity, 112 enzyme(s), 98, 103, 104
epidermis, 23
ESI, 119
D essential fatty acids, 2
Europe, 4, 48, 59, 97
danger, 7
evolution, 32
database, 50, 51, 52
exercise, 98
decay, 20, 22
extraction, 39, 41, 96, 97, 100, 102, 107,
decomposition, viii, 35, 36
108, 109, 114, 116, 118
defence, viii, 48, 64, 86
extracts, 28, 68, 72, 97, 100, 106, 108, 117,
deficiencies, viii, 35, 36, 45
119
deficiency, viii, 15, 28, 35, 36, 37, 41, 42,
extrusion, 114
43
Delta, 6
depth, 37, 41 F
derivatives, 115, 120
destruction, 18, 24 famine, 27
detection, 51 farmers, 5, 16, 17
developing countries, 2, 28, 29, 32 fat, 119
dicotyledonous plant, vii, 2 fermentation, 99, 105, 110, 111
diet, 115, 119 fertility, 12, 28, 37
discs, 10 fertilization, 28, 36, 37, 39, 44
diseases, vii, 1, 3, 11, 15, 16, 21, 25, 26, 27, fertilizers, 10, 32
29 fiber, 72
disinfection, 20 filters, 50
distillation, 105, 118 fine dried noodles, 107, 117
distribution, 24, 44, 45, 61, 69, 106 fish, 100
DNA, 64, 68, 86, 98 fish oil, 100
DNA damage, 98 flavonoids, 100, 107
dough, 94, 106 flavor, viii, 35, 101, 108
drainage, 9 flavour, 37, 116
drought, 108 flooding, 18, 108
dry matter, 14, 28, 39, 44 flour, ix, 15, 48, 68, 69, 72, 89, 96, 97, 98,
drying, viii, 35, 42, 96, 97, 109, 114 100, 104, 107, 113, 115, 117
flowers, 2, 6, 8
food, vii, viii, 1, 2, 3, 5, 8, 13, 25, 27, 28,
E 31, 47, 48, 50, 51, 52, 59, 61, 63, 64, 68,
69, 71, 72, 73, 78, 88, 93, 96, 98, 100,
economic damage, 25
103, 104, 105, 107, 109, 110, 115, 117,
ecosystem, 31
118, 120
egg, 23
food additive, 118
endosperm, 7
food application(s), vii, viii, 47, 48, 49, 51,
energy, 2, 13
52, 59, 62, 63, 64, 68, 69, 71, 72, 73, 88,
England, 29
89, 90, 92, 93, 94, 95, 96
environment(s), 7, 20, 25
food safety, 27
124 Index

food security, vii, 2, 3, 28 hepatotoxicity, 87, 102


formation, viii, 11, 35, 37, 42 herbicide, 11
formula, 117 highlands, 32
freezing, 13 history, 48
frost, 7, 9 host, 21, 22, 24
functional food, 50, 72, 115 human, 2, 49, 97, 102, 103, 106, 109
fungi, 15, 19, 23, 24, 26 human body, 109
fungus, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23 human health, 49, 103
human subjects, 109
humidity, 12, 13, 19, 22, 23, 26, 36
G husbandry, vii, 1, 3
hydrolysis, 99
gastric ulcer, 105
hydroxycinnamic acids, viii, 48, 63, 96
gel, 109
genetic engineering, 26
genotype, 61, 78, 102 I
genus, 2, 3
Georgia, 44 identification, 50, 105, 107, 119
germanium, 98, 103 images, 41
germination, 7 in vitro, viii, 31, 48, 62, 96, 97, 100, 104,
glucose, 106 105, 106, 108, 109
glutathione, 63, 82, 106 in vivo, 62, 97, 101, 105
gout, 99 incidence, 17, 18, 19, 21, 23, 30
granules, 99 India, 12, 28, 30, 31, 32, 37, 44, 45
graph, 74 induction, 112
grasses, 11 industries, 59
growth, vii, viii, 1, 2, 3, 5, 6, 7, 10, 11, 26, infection, 19, 20, 23
28, 31, 32, 35, 36, 42, 43, 52, 68, 71, inferences, 64
105, 116 inflammation, 68, 113
growth rate, 32 ingestion, 86, 87
Guinea, 37, 44, 101 ingredients, 100
inhibition, 82, 118
initiation, 6, 9
H injury, 12, 13, 68, 86, 102
insecticide, 12
harvesting, 5, 9, 12, 22, 29, 31
insects, 19
Hawaii, 8
insulin, 68, 86, 119
healing, 12
insulin resistance, 68, 86, 119
health, vii, viii, 2, 11, 25, 26, 29, 47, 48, 49,
integrity, 37
51, 59, 62, 63, 64, 66, 67, 68, 86, 96, 98,
interference, 11
99, 104, 114, 116, 117, 119
inventions, 71
health benefit(s), vii, viii, 47, 48, 49, 51, 59,
ionization, 115
62, 63, 64, 66, 67, 68, 86, 87, 96
Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam., vii, viii, 1, 3,
health care, 114, 116
28, 29, 30, 31, 32, 33, 45, 47, 48, 97,
health promotion, 49
100, 101, 102, 103, 105, 106, 107, 111,
hepatitis, 114
112, 114, 115, 116, 117
Index 125

iron, 44
irradiation, 101
M
irrigation, 11, 12, 18, 21, 23, 28, 36
magnesium, 44
Islam, 49, 53, 54, 103, 106
majority, 68
islands, 48
Malaysia, 31
isolation, 107, 109, 112
management, vii, 1, 3, 12, 25, 27, 28, 29,
Italy, 29, 32
31, 32
manufacturing, 99, 101, 106, 108, 113
J manure, 7, 10, 11, 24
marketing, 12, 31
Java, 22 mass, 115
juveniles, 23 mass spectrometry, 115
materials, 5, 9
matter, viii, 14, 32, 36
K Mediterranean, 47
membranes, 37
Kenya, 32 memory, 68, 99, 113
kinetics, 107 metabolism, 37
Korea, 59 methanol, 116
methodology, 29, 64, 96, 97, 100
L mice, 22, 102, 107, 119
micronutrients, 45
lactic acid, 69, 110, 113 microscope, 19
Lactobacillus, 116 misuse, 27
larvae, 11 model system, 105
lateral roots, 43 moisture, 5, 11, 18, 21
leaching, viii, 35, 36 Mozambique, 29
lead, 6, 13, 20, 36, 49 mucin, 118
leisure, 100 multiplication, 9
lesions, 17, 18, 19, 21, 22, 24 mycelium, 20, 21
light, 2, 11
lipid oxidation, 68, 86
N
lipid peroxidation, 63, 98
liquid chromatography, 115 natural enemies, 24
liver, 64, 68, 86, 87, 96, 102, 114, 117, 119 natural resources, 25
liver damage, 87, 114 nematode, 24
livestock, 2, 15, 31 neuroprotection, 68, 87, 113
low temperatures, 103 niacin, 2
low-density lipoprotein (LDL), 68, 82, 86, Nigeria, 1, 4, 5, 6, 7, 12, 13, 14, 27, 28, 30,
109, 115 31, 33, 110
LSD, 84 nitric oxide, 102
Luo, 57, 100, 108, 109, 112 nitrogen, 10, 32
nodes, 5, 6, 9, 51, 74
Nrf2, 102
126 Index

nutrient(s), 8, 10, 13, 14, 29, 37, 44, 48, 119 plant disease(s), 25, 26
nutrition, 44, 97, 99, 103, 117 plant growth, viii, 20, 35
plants, viii, 6, 8, 9, 10, 17, 18, 20, 21, 22,
23, 24, 26, 27, 35, 36, 41, 45, 104
O pollen, 3, 7
pollen tube, 7
obesity, 104
polyphenols, 114
Oceania, 48, 59
population, 24, 25, 26
oil, 93, 119
Portugal, 47
optimization, 62, 109, 110
potassium, 2, 6, 29, 41, 44, 112
organic compounds, 36
potato, vii, viii, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10,
organic matter, viii, 21, 35, 36, 37
11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 19, 20, 21, 22,
organs, 6, 39, 40, 44
23, 27, 28, 29, 30, 31, 32, 33, 35, 37, 38,
ornamental plants, 2
39, 40, 41, 44, 45, 47, 48, 50, 51, 52, 58,
oxidation, 64, 68, 86, 109, 115
60, 61, 62, 64, 65, 66, 67, 69, 70, 71, 72,
oxidative damage, 68, 113
73, 75, 76, 77, 78, 79, 80, 81, 82, 83, 84,
oxidative stress, 49, 64, 68, 86, 96, 98, 106,
85, 86, 87, 88, 89, 90, 91, 92, 93, 94, 95,
118, 119
96, 97, 98, 99, 100, 101, 102, 103, 104,
105, 106, 107, 108, 109, 110, 111, 112,
P 113, 114, 115, 116, 117, 118, 119, 120
precipitation, 10
p53, 55, 92, 101 predators, 26, 27
Pacific, 18, 48 preparation, 4, 8, 27, 98, 99, 100, 101, 103,
parasites, 24, 26 107, 108, 109, 111, 113, 114, 115, 116,
pasta, 71, 72 117, 118, 119, 120
patents, viii, 47, 50, 51, 52, 55, 56, 57, 58, prevention, 99, 108
70, 71, 72, 73, 74, 75, 76, 91, 92, 96 Principal Components Analysis (PCA), 64,
pathology, 30 65, 85
pathway, 97 processing variables, 61
peels leaves, 48 producers, 11
permit, 10 production technology, vii, 1, 3, 27, 117
peroxide, 82 pro-inflammatory, 64, 86
Peru, 33 proliferation, 101, 105
pest populations, 25, 26 propagation, vii, 1, 3, 27
pests, vii, 1, 3, 11, 25, 26, 27 prostate cancer, 68, 86, 101, 105
pH, 7, 18, 37, 98, 107 protection, 28, 68
phenol, 50, 51, 52 proteins, 112
phenolic compound(s), vii, viii, 47, 48, 50, prototype(s), 49, 50
51, 52, 59, 62, 63, 64, 65, 68, 70, 71, 72, puckering, 42
78, 83, 96, 104, 107, 112 pulp, 24, 118
phloem, viii, 35, 36 purification, 112, 116
phosphorus, 2, 10, 32
physicochemical properties, 96, 111, 113
Q
pigmentation, 8
pith, 23
quantification, 110, 116
Index 127

shape, 3, 6, 7, 8, 9, 96
R shock, 9
shoots, 5, 21
radiation, 64, 87
showing, 39, 41, 43
rainfall, viii, 10, 35, 36
signs, 21
rainforest, 4
skin, 2, 8, 13
raw materials, 117
software, 51
recycling, viii, 47, 49, 59
soil type, 37
red wine, 108
solution, 41, 118
regrowth, 11
South Africa, 8
relatives, 20, 32
South America, vii, 1
relevance, 52
Southeast Asia, 18
requirement, 9, 29
soymilk, 120
requirements, 27
spatial learning, 68, 113
residues, 49
species, 3, 16, 21, 23, 24, 31, 36
resistance, 20, 23, 26
spectrophotometric method, 63, 83, 96, 110
respiration, 37
speech, 51
response, viii, 10, 29, 35, 37, 41, 44, 64, 68,
spindle, 23, 43
86, 96, 97, 100, 119
sprouting, 11, 13
reticulum, 119
stability, 105
Rhizopus, 13, 23, 104
stamens, 6
rings, 19
starch, 6, 15, 109, 117
risk, 9
starch granules, 6
root(s), vii, 1, 2, 3, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12,
state, 50
13, 15, 17, 18, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24, 31, 32,
statistical analysis, viii, 48, 51, 64, 65, 84,
36, 43, 48, 77, 99, 101, 104, 110, 111,
85
113, 120
statistics, 64, 72
root crop, vii, 1, 2, 13, 28, 29, 30, 31, 32,
stele, 6
33, 45
sterile, 7
root crops, 13, 28, 29, 30, 31, 32, 33, 45
stigma, 3
root growth, 5
stock, 12
root system, 9, 23, 24
stomach, 101
storage, 5, 8, 10, 12, 13, 15, 18, 21, 22, 23,
S 24, 25, 32, 43, 101, 103, 111
stress, 36, 64, 68, 119
saline soil(s), viii, 8, 24, 35, 36 structure, 11, 50
science, 50, 52 subacute, 87, 114
SDS-PAGE, 112 sub-Saharan Africa, 28, 32
secretion, 64, 86 sulfur, 18
security, 2 Sun, 54, 56, 57, 109, 114, 115, 116, 117,
seed, 7, 11, 12, 20, 30 119
selenium, 103, 119 suppression, 68, 106
serum, 68, 87, 114 surveillance, 25
sex, 6 sustainability, 30
shade, 9
128 Index

sweet potato(es), vii, viii, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, transport, 37


8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 19, transportation, 9
20, 21, 22, 24, 25, 27, 28, 29, 30, 31, 32, treatment, 7, 11, 37, 68, 72, 96, 99, 102, 112
33, 35, 37, 38, 39, 40, 41, 44, 45, 47, 48, trial, 7
50, 51, 52, 58, 59, 60, 61, 62, 64, 65, 66, tumor, 87, 101, 119
67, 69, 70, 71, 72, 73, 75, 76, 77, 78, 79, tumor growth, 87, 101
80, 81, 82, 83, 84, 85, 86, 87, 88, 89, 90, types of studies, 61
91, 92, 93, 94, 95, 96, 97, 98, 99, 100,
101, 102, 103, 104, 105, 106, 107, 108,
109, 110, 111, 112, 113, 114, 115, 116, U
117, 118, 119, 120
U.S. Department of Agriculture, 44
sweet potato blister, viii, 35
ulcer, 49
sweet potato leaves, viii, 15, 29, 41, 47, 48,
United Kingdom, 29
98, 102, 104, 105, 107, 108, 110, 113,
United States, 4
114
urban, 27
sweet potato peels, vii, viii, 47, 97
USA, 28, 37
sweet potato starch, 106
swelling, 117
symptoms, 16, 17, 20, 21, 24, 36, 45 V
syndrome, 107, 115
synthesis, 10 vacuum, 109
validation, 68, 96, 113
valorization, 59
T
variables, 62, 64, 79
varieties, 20, 25, 29, 30, 31, 32, 59, 71, 103,
Taiwan, 102, 107
109, 112, 117
Tanzania, 28, 32
vascular bundle, 18
TBA, 63, 82
vegetables, 49, 102, 105
techniques, 12, 26, 30
vein, 16, 17, 77
technology, 50, 52, 99, 103, 118, 119
ventilation, 12, 13, 23
temperature, 6, 7, 13, 23, 24, 31, 97, 103,
Vietnam, 31
116
viruses, 15, 16
terminals, 19
vision, ix, 48
testing, 68
vitamin A, 13, 14, 15, 28
text mining, ix, 48, 50, 51, 72, 74, 76, 96
vitamin C, vii, 1
therapy, 109
Vitamin C, 14, 15
thermal stability, 107
vitamins, 2
time series, 63, 71
tissue, viii, 21, 24, 35, 106
tobacco, 20 W
toxicity, viii, 35, 36, 45
training, 98 Washington, 32
translation, 49 waste, viii, 47, 48, 59, 61
translocation, 10 water, 9, 11, 13, 17, 18, 19, 21, 23, 26, 29,
transpiration, 36 36, 41, 107, 108, 111, 112
transplant, 9, 26 weight loss, 13, 49
Index 129

word frequency, 51
worldwide, viii, 35, 36, 50, 51
Y
wound healing, 49
yield, viii, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 19, 25, 27, 28,
30, 31, 32, 33, 35, 36, 37, 38, 39, 40, 44,
X 49

xerophthalmia, 15
xylem, viii, 35, 36
Z

zinc, 119