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NUTRITION

LIPID-SOLUBLE VITAMINS

VITAMIN SOURCES ROLE DISEASE (IF DEFICIENT)

RETINOL -
liver, egg RETINOL - glycoprotein
MILD - follicular
yolk, synthesis required for growth &
hyperkeratosis /
butter, mucus secretion / visual cycle /
A anaemia / susceptible
milk down-regulate synthesis of
RETINOL / CAROTENOID to infection / night
β-CAROTENE keratin, synthesis of iron
blindness
- dark green transport protein transferrin
SEVERE - xerophtalmia
& yellow β-CAROTENE - antioxidant
vegetables

when plasma Ca2+ low, PTH rickets (improper bone


converts D3 to active form mineralization) in
D3 - mobilises Ca2+ from bone – ↑ children /
UV, red meat
CHOLECALCIFEROL renal absorption of Ca2+ - ↓ osteomalacia (bone
renal excretion of Ca2+ - ↑ demineralization) in
intestinal absorption of Ca2+ adults

E antioxidant against lipid


vege oil,
TOCOPHEROL / peroxidation of membrane – lipoproteinaemia
seed oil
TOCOTRIENOL prevent damage of cells

carboxylation of glutamic acid


in synthesis of prothrombin & common in newborns
green vege, clotting factors [Prothrombin (haemorrhagic
K intestinal (II), clotting factors VII, IX and X] disease)
MENAQUINONE
bacteria in adults if fat
Increased need in patients on malabsorption
medication with cholestyramine
WATER-SOLUBLE VITAMINS
HELP IN ATP PRODUCTION

VITAMIN SOURCES ROLE DISEASE (IF DEFICIENT)


↓ production of ATP, thus impaired
cellular function
beri-beri - nervous degeneration & often
outcome is death from heart failure [Wet
beriberi- accumulation of tissue fluid
(edema) / Dry beriberi- extreme
emaciation / Infantile beriberi- signs -
beef, pork,
tachycardia, vomiting, convulsion & if not
liver, coenzymes to: pyruvate
treated death.
spinach, dehydrogenase, -
B1 green peas, ketoglutarate
(rapid onset in nursing infants whose
THIAMINE mother is deficient in thiamine)]
whole dehydrogenase,
Wernicke-Karsokoff Syndrome – mental
grains & transketolase
confusion, delirium with paralysis of the
legumes
eye muscles
Most commonly seen in:
- chronic alcoholism [dietary insufficient or
impaired intestinal
absorption]
- old age patient
- individuals with GIT diseases
flavin mononucleotid
(FMN) & flavin adenin
dinucleotid (FAD) can
reversibly accept 2 H
atoms not associated with major human disease
milk, eggs,
B2 liver, green
forming FMNH2 or FADH2 but frequently accompanying other
RIBOFLAVIN - bound tightly/covalently vitamin deficiencies
vegetables to flavoenzymes that symptoms: dermatitis, chielosis, glossitis
catalyse the oxidation /
reduction of a substrate -
easily destroyed by the UV
light
unrefined & same role as
enriched nicotinamide adenine
grains &
B3 cereals,
dinucleotide (NAD+) & pellagra [commonly found in population
NIACIN milk, lean
nicotinamide adenine whose main staple diet is corn]
meat esp. dinucleotide phosphate
liver (NADP+)
widely component of coenzyme A
distributed, which functions in the
B5 mostly in transfer of acyl groups rare
PANTOTHENIC ACID eggs, liver [acetyl CoA, succinyl CoA,
& yeast fatty acyl CoA]
MAINLY
does not occur naturally
from
However, addition of raw egg-white to the
intestinal coenzyme in diet as source of protein will induce symptoms
bacteria,
carboxylation reactions of biotin deficiency – dermatitis, glossitis, loss
B7 present in
- bound covalently to a of appetite & nausea - raw egg white contains
BIOTIN almost all
lysyl-residue of a biotin- avidin, which binds tightly to biotin & prevent
food
dependent enzyme from absorption from intestine [with normal
particularly
diet ≈ 20 eggs per day would be required to
liver, milk &
induce the deficiency syndrome]
egg yolk
WATER-SOLUBLE VITAMINS
FACILITATE PRODUCTION OF BLOOD CELLS, PARTICULARLY RBCs

VITAMIN SOURCES ROLE DISEASE (IF DEFICIENT)

absorbed & reduced


to tetrahydrofolate
(THF) which is a
carrier of one-carbon
units
- acquire one-carbon
unit during catabolic
reaction
- THF bound one-
carbon unit is
mushrooms, oxidized/reduced in
green enzymatic reaction
B9 vegetables, - THF bound one- megaloblastic anaemia due to
FOLATE / FOLIC ACID peanuts, carbon unit is immature RBC DNA
legumes, citrus transferred to
fruits, liver another molecule

Increased need in
patients as so:
- alcoholics
- inflammatory
bowel disease
- on medication (eg.
methotrexate,
anticonvulsants,
cholestyramine)

flavin mononucleotid
(FMN) & flavin folate trap -> megaloblastic
adenin dinucleotid anaemia due to immature RBC
animal products
(FAD) can reversibly DNA -> bcz demethylation of
derived from
accept 2 H atoms methyl tetrahydrofolate
microorganisms,
forming FMNH2 or (MTHF) to tetrahydrofolate
plants contain
B12 FADH2 - bound (THF) cannot occur so methyl
trace amount, a
COBALAMIN tightly/covalently to tetrahydrofolate (MTHF)
small amount is
flavoenzymes that accumulates and traps
synthesized by
catalyse the
colon bacteria /
oxidation / reduction vegan easily develop
flora (trace)
of a substrate - easily deficiencies unless individual
destroyed by the UV always eat outside food
light
WATER-SOLUBLE VITAMINS

VITAMIN SOURCES ROLE DISEASE (IF DEFICIENT)


rare but have been observed
All 3 compounds are
in:
precursors for biologically
- new-borns fed with formulas
active coenzymes -
low in vit. B6
pyridoxal phosphate (PLP)
- women taking oral
which functions as
contraceptives
coenzymes for a large
- alcoholics
wheat, number of enzymes
B6 corn, egg particularly those
can be induced by drug to
PYRIDOXINE / PYRIDOXAL yolk, liver, catalysing
treat TB (Isoniazid) by forming
/ PYRIDOXAMINE muscle reactions involving amino
an inactive derivative with PLP
meats acids [transamination,
deamination,
toxicity can happen when
decarboxylation,
intake is > 2g/day causing
condensation]
neurological symptoms - when
vit. is discontinued, substantial
So, dietary requirement ↑
improvement but not a
when protein intake ↑
complete recovery

- antioxidant – radical O2
quencher
- reducing agent in
biochemical reactions
- co-enzyme in
C hydroxylation reactions of defective collagen synthesis ->
most citrus
ASCORBATE / ASCORBIC proline and lysine residues scurvy (symptoms incl.
fruits
ACID [initial step of collagen petechiae)
biosynthesis]
- maintenance of normal
CT & wound healing
- facilitates dietary Fe
absorption from intestine
MINERAL

MINERAL SOURCES ROLE DISEASE (IF DEFICIENT)


DAILY NEEDED AMOUNT > 100mg/day

- bone formation
- enzyme function
dairy products, soybean, - hormonal responses
MACROMINERAL

Ca spinach, kale - coagulation


osteopenia -> osteoporosis
- muscle contraction
- neuromuscular irritability

associated with diabetes,


beans, nuts, whole grains,
Mg green leafy vegetables
for enzyme activity hypertension, coronary
heart disease, osteoporosis

The body contains 20-50mg,


which 8mg is found in the
seafood, vegetables, deficiency in adults – goitre,
meat, eggs, dairy
thyroid gland because only
hypothyroidism
products, cereals the thyroid gland is able to
I2 [I2 content of particular food use it for hormone synthesis
excess (toxicity) -
varies widely according to the
geographical location, type of hyperthyroidism or Grave’s
Essential constituent of 2
soil, use of fertilizers] disease
hormones thyroxine(T4) &
triiodothyronine(T3)
Haem - derived from Hb & when Fe is scarce, storage
myoglobin in animal products
(meat, fish, poultry)
Fe is mobilized first without
any ill effects
O2 transport throughout
Fe Non-haem - Fe bound to food
components → hydrolysed, body
microcytic hypochromic
digested in GIT before
absorption anaemia (small RBC
(plant foods, dairy products) with low Hb content)
DAILY NEEDED AMOUNT < 100mg/day

dermatitis, poor wound


healing, hair
loss, neuropsychiatric
MICROMINERAL

- antioxidant - cofactor of impairment, decreased


enzyme (Eg: superoxide taste acuity
meat, nuts, beans,
Zn wheat germ
dismutase)
- provide structural stability *Topical application of
to proteins ‘calamine’ lotion with Zn
promotes healing & it has
been shown to be
absorbed through the skin
- antioxidant - associated microcytic hypochromic
with several oxygenase anaemia, leukopenia,
enzymes (Eg: cytochrome haemorrhagic vascular,
oxydase & superoxide bone demineralization,
widely distributed, mostly
Cu in eggs, liver & yeast
dismutase) hypercholesterolemia,
- associated with neurological problems,
ceruloplasmin Menkes syndrome, Wilson’s
- required for the crosslinking disease (symptoms incl.
of collagen Kayser-Fleischer ring)
- antioxidant - cofactor of
glutathione peroxidase rare - Keshan disease [along
- part of type I iodothyronine with I2 deficiency]
Se organ meats, fish (tuna), 5-deiodinase (hepatic
SELENOMETHIONINE shellfish & cereals deiodination of thyroxine) excess (toxicity) – liver
/ SELENOCYSTEINE - component of muscle cirrhosis, splenomegaly, GI
proteins selenoprotein P & bleeding & depression
selenoprotein W in animals