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Introduction of Ghee/Oil Industry
hee industry was introduced in the sub continent in mid thirties, and since then it has grown tremendously in face of all environmental hazards. It has been subjected to serious edible Oil shortages, government inconsistent policies and severe variations between demand and supply in the domestic market.
The country which was self sufficient in edible Oil production (0.154 million MT), till 1960, and paying not a single dollar against the import bill, is today importing well over 1.160 million MT against an import bill of no less that Rs.33000 million per year, being the third largest edible Oil importing country of the world, after China and the European Union. All these imports originated from Malaysia. During the past 21 years of interrupted and partially half hearted efforts of successive governments since 1979, the country has been able to procure only 0.5 million MT of edible Oil from indigenous resources while the rest of the 1.1 million MT is procured from imports. The structure of Ghee/Oil industry is just like all the other developing industries of Pakistan. There are certain well-established companies working with good brand names, serving the nation as a whole. Along with them there are certain units, which are working in limited areas, meeting the requirements of these niche markets. Some of the vegetable Ghee mills are working under the control of government and other are held privately. The raw material required for the production of Ghee/Oil is imported from different countries and this is the biggest imported item in food category. The prices of Ghee/Oil are very much influenced by the duties on these imports and the international price fluctuations of these items.
In early 1990¶s there had been a serious crisis in the Ghee industry, and the main reason for this was that production of Ghee was greater than the demand. In this period due to the heavy looses on account of these units government privatize so many Ghee producing units. Vegetable Ghee is the commercial term for vegetable Oil hardened by the process of hydrogenation. Cottonseed, soybean Oil, Sun Flower Oil, corn Oil, is being mainly used in Pakistan for the manufacturing of Oil/Ghee. Pakistan is importing Palm Oil and Soyabean Oil from America, Indonesia and Malaysia. During 1999-2000 Pakistan imports of soyabean Oil and palm Oil has drastically decreased both in quantity and value. Pakistan imported soyabean Oil worth $75.8 million and Palm Oil $267.8 million in year 1999-2000.
Ghee Industry in Pakistan
In Pakistan ghee industry is flourished over the years. Today there are many Locals and National companies as well as international companies engage in the production of ghee and oil working in Pakistan. Among multinational companies includes Lever Brothers (Pvt.) Ltd. They manufacture DALDA and PLANTA cooking oil and ghee. Some other companies are as follows. 1) Al Hilal Vegetable Ghee Mills engages in the production of Sultan Banaspati Ghee. It is situated in Multan. 2) Shehbaz Ghee Mills is engage in the production of Shebaz Banaspati. It is situated in Rahim Yar Khan. 3) Wazeer Ali Industries Ltd. engages in the production of Tallo Banaspati ghee and cooking oil. It is situated in Hyderabad. 4) Fatima Enterprises Ltd. 5) Refahan Maize Product Company involved in the production of Rafhan Corn Oil and it is situated in Faislabad. 6) Ahmad Food Industries manufactures Ahmad Soyabean Oil. 7) Ghee Corporation of Pakistan (G.C.P) under which 26 units engaged in the production of ghee are working all over the country.
Asia Ghee Mill has a very attractive outlook because they have wide variety of plants and flowers in the lawn and nursery. MAJEED GROUP OF INDUSTRIES Mr. and packaging of Ghee and Oil in different sizes. Asia Ghee Mill is not incorporated in Stock Exchange. Non Production Area Non-production area consists of offices. . Majeed Group of Industries involved in the following businesses: MAJOR BUSINESSES . The area of Asia Ghee Mill is divided in two heads: a. printing. Asia Ghee Mill has a capacity of 150 tons per day but currently they are using 50% of their total capacity. stores. This Ghee and Oil manufacturing unit was established in 1994 and start production in 9th June 1997. and a big lawn. Chuadry Abdul Majeed is the chairman of Asia group of industries. In non-production area they have their own nursery. parking facility. In production area there are different sections related to productions. Introduction of Asia Ghee Mills Asia Ghee Mill is situated 15km away from Bahawalpur at Karachi Road. who is one of the best businessmen in Bahawalpur region. Production Area b. The office interior of Asia Ghee Mill is very good because the offices are fully air-conditioned and heaters are also available in cold weather. Asia Ghee Mill occupied a land area of approximately 3 acres.Apart from these combines there are many other firms manufacturing ghee.
25KG) Plastic Pack Tin Pack Tin Pack Tin Pack Tin Pack 1 Carton (12 pack of 1KG) PRICES RS. Ltd.Asia Ghee Mills Asia Flour Mills Bismillah Cotton Industries Rohi Cotton Mills Rasool Model Industry Pvt. 736 460 250 127 549 549 549 45.5 KG 12 KG 12 KG 12 KG 1 KG ASIA PURE COOKING OIL 16 KG 10 KG 5 KG 2. MAJOR BRANDS WEIGHT 16 KG 10 KG PACKS Tin Pack Tin Pack Tin Pack Tin Pack 1 Carton (12 pack of 1KG) 1 Carton (24 pack of 0.75 736 460 250 127 549 ASIA BANASPATI 5 KG 2. The brand names of the product are given in the table along with their respective weights and prices.5 KG 12 KG .5KG) 1 Carton (48 pack of 0. Ltd (Oil & Cotton) Majeed Brothers Pvt. PRODUCTS OF ASIA GHEE MILLS Asia Ghee Mill is manufacturing both Ghee and Oil.
which are: Laundry Soap CO2 Asia Ghee Mill has sold the laundry soap under the brand name of ³Asia Laundry Soap´ where as they dispose off the carbon dioxide into the air. who always think about the development of people of the country specially living in Bahawalpur through the creation of employment and meeting their basic necessities of clothes and foods (Flour.12 KG 12 KG 1 KG 1 Carton (24 pack of 0. Ghee & Oil).5KG) 1 Carton (48 pack of 0. the superlative purity and best quality oil & ghee at comparable prices and continually .25KG) Plastic Pack 549 549 45.´ Proposed mission Asia Ghee Mill don¶t have any written mission statement but through our discussion we came at. STRATEGIC INTENTION Vision ³Mr. Majeed is very social person and has an industrial mind. and the mission of the Asia Ghee Mill should be: ³We care the health of our customers by providing them.75 BY PRODUCTS OF ASIA GHEE MILLS Asia Ghee Mill has two types of by products. wherever they live.
d) To provide two bonuses to every employee in a year and 25% of basic pay as performance reward. Objectives of Asia Ghee Mill a) They have financed the whole capital through equity and no debt. d) To improve the morale and efficiency of employees.improve our products to meet their needs which help us to maximize the wealth of owners who in turn. e) To increase market share in Multan division. b) To increase production of ghee and oil from 27000 tons last year to 35000 tons this year. b) To utilize maximum production capacity. . They have 10 crore authorized capital and 7 crore paid up capital. c) To ensure quality at each step of production for both ghee and oil to care the health of our consumers. create more employment opportunities and provide maximum benefits to employees. And to provide minimum 10% increment on their basic pay per year to each employee. c) Installation of Levi bond Tento Meter Model to check the color of oil and Spector Photo Meter to assure zero percentage of Nickel in ghee. Goals of Asia Ghee Mill a) To eliminate the burden of debt. f) To develop long lasting good relationships with distribution dealers. g) To dispose and utilize the wastage in a better way.
Furthermore firm is relying on private dealers for distribution of its final products. Problem statement In start the organization has faced a plenty of problems but due to proper planning and well implementation problems are decreasing day by day. and mia channoo. Which are PEST Analysis´ and ³Structural Analysis´. specially in Malsey. PEST Analysis . Wehari. and facing a problem. So because of limited market some times these dealers refuse to take the supply because of having old stock unsold. But still the organization is not totally out of trouble. PROBLEM The major problem is related with the distribution network and utilization of production capacity of the organization. two techniques are used. And for the specific analysis of company ³Value chain analysis´. so that¶s why inventory remains in the stores which cause the increase in holding cost and cash shortage problems for the organization.e) To sell 8000 tons of ghee and oil in coming year in Multan division. f) To give bonuses to dealers Rs. SITUATION ANALYSIS ANALYSIS OF ASIA GHEE MILLS First to analyze the environment as a whole. The organization is utilizing limited production capacity because it has a limited market and not supplying its products all over the country but only in Bahawalpur and Multan. g) To manufacture the laundry soap from the wastage of ghee & oil and recycle the water for reuses purposes in the production. ³SWOT´ and ³Financial Analysis´ is used. 5/ 16kg beyond the sales target of 200 tons per month. Khanewal.
In last year the Asia Ghee Mills paid income tax 43% of net profit to the Government. but if in future it become so. But in this year Asia Ghee Mills has to pay income tax of 45% of net profit. Taxation Policy The Asia Ghee Mills is paying tax each year. So if Government bring any change in its foreign policy. The analysis of Asia Ghee Mills is as under: POLITICAL AND LEGAL FACTORS Industrial Laws Industrial laws regarding unions has no impact upon the Asia Ghee Mills because no union exit in the organization. they will not be hampering for Asia Ghee Mills. because in Asia Ghee Mills all the wastes are considered as by products and used or sold. bonuses. economical. then it will be very much important to cope with that. Employment and Government Stability . which is within the prescribed range of pollution.PEST analysis is used to assess what environmental factors are affecting the organization. It is an indicator of political. Foreign Trade This matter will be of a key concern for Asia Ghee Mills. Environmental Protection Laws Although the laws regarding environment are not very sophisticated in Pakistan but even if they become so. which is equal for all the private companies. which are not available locally. Because the Asia Ghee Mills is importing four different types of oil from Singapore and Malaysia. The water is also recycled for reuses purposes. The only emission is of the carbon dioxide. but the Government don¶t provide any support to import these raw materials and don¶t provide any relaxation in import duty upon the imported raw materials. then the company has to consider these laws in their decision making concerning wage rates. and benefits of the employees. social and technological influences on organization. which of them are most important and how they will effect in next years.
because this is a private company. Inflation At the moment inflation rate does not seem to be very much related matter. so the sales will not be affected. But it in future the company need to take the loan then it must has to consider this issue. Because there is no close substitute of Ghee and cooking oil. So the pan of export will be adversely affected by the inflation. because the company has no loan of any bank. Disposable Income Within the country the demand will be affected if the disposable income will be reduced. Ghee and Cooking oil is a basic food ingredient and its primary demand cannot be eliminated. ECONOMIC FACTORS Among the many of economic factors some are more important for Asia Ghee Mills.Employment is not a matter of high concern for the organization because it is already following all the labor laws. But other than its direct use. So any decrease in disposable income of the consumers will also be affecting Asia Ghee Mills negatively. But they are paying more than the Government announced. the detail of these factors is in following: Interest Rates Interest rates increase and decrease has no impact upon the financial performance of the Asia Ghee Mills. it is also used in bakery and confectionery items and so many other foods whose demand is dependent on disposable. But recently the Government increases the wages of the employees but Asia Ghee Mills has not affected by that. TECHNOLOGICAL FACTORS . which will increase the sale price. And at high sale price the product will become in-competitive in the international market if the company will involve in the export. But if we take it in longer perspective the inflation in the country will increase the cost of production. because any increase in oil prices will be off set by the increase in price of Ghee and cooking oil.
as it will reduce the cost of production. This is almost unbearable for the company. are as under: Government Spending on Research Usually in order to support some industry and improve economy. are becoming more and more health conscious. It gives less recovery and more wastage. The technological factors. Life Style Changes The consumption of ghee is very much related with the life styles of people. is suffering very much. Due to this non-serious behavior of government this sector along with others. In fact the company has made much investment in latest plant and machinery in 1994. which leads to heart disease.Technology in ghee industry can be divided into two sectors. and almost 80% of its total fixed cost is stuck up in this area. But. which can give better recovery. a significant change in the consumption of ghee is being observed in last many months. income distribution. or process development than it will be very difficult for the company to cope with that change. So adopting any change means a loss of all these assets. First is cotton seed and second is ghee mills. Now people. government allocates some fund to R & D. The varieties which now a days are being cultivated are of sub-standard qualities. which are more concerned with Asia Ghee Mills. New Discoveries and Developments New discoveries in the field of raw material will be very much beneficial for the company. Let¶s see which of them are more concerned to Asia Ghee Mills. They are well aware that a high consumption of ghee will increase the cholesterol. can also affect the company in different ways. if there will be any change in the technology of ghee mills. There is a need to find out the seeds. Although the use of ghee cannot be fully eliminated but if this life style grows at same speed it will surely . all around the world. No single mill owner can support R & D especially in the field of Cottonseed varieties. life style etc. Unfortunately our government doesn¶t have any money for R & D. SOCIO-CULTURAL FACTORS Socio cultural factors like demographics. That is why.
One is a local supplier. THREAT OF NEW ENTRANCE Threat of entry depends upon the extent to which there are barriers to entry. The structural analysis draws on Five Forces approach prepared by Porter. which are more immediate. Ghee mills require a big manufacturing unit which requires a huge capital investment. Because of many reasons the suppliers of oil have no powers. In countries where education rate is high the ghee consumption rate is low. Structural analysis The PEST analysis concerned with broad aspects of the environment while there is always a set of external influences. The suppliers can affects on strategic freedom of an organization and can influence the margins of that organization. Level of Education Level of education is directly related with awareness and health consciousness. So we can say that ghee-manufacturing unit is highly capital intensive and because of high capital investment it has high risk for new to enter into production. The reasons are: . like Asia Ghee Mills has 10 crore authorized capital and 7 crore paid up capital. In Pakistan. and directly affecting the organization.decrease the demand of ghee but on the other hand the demand of the cooking oil is gradually increase in last many months due to the same reason. In Asia Ghee Mills. and others are foreign suppliers. there are two types of suppliers. High level of literacy will lead to low level of ghee consumption and people started switch towards cooking oil. SUPPLIERS· POWER All organizations have to obtain resources and provide goods or services. It is a structured mean of assessing the competitive environment. as well as in foreign markets the rate of literary is increasing which will effect the organization negatively.
It could be concluded from previous discussion that the ghee market is highly competitive.a) As well as the foreign suppliers are concerned they have power of bargain because the material is not available locally and the buyer don¶t have any option other than import. The extent of competitive rivalry depends upon the nature of four forces described earlier. c) There are large numbers of oil suppliers in Bahawalpur and in other cities so the buyer checks the quality of suppliers¶ oil and make contract with any one which meet their requirements regarding quality or price. because the prices of the products are fix. COMPETITIVE RIVALRY Organizations will also be concerned with the extent of rivalry between themselves and competitors. b) As well as the local suppliers are concerned they have small oil mills. which separate oil from seed. Ghee mills are highly capital intensive so they don¶t have any power because they can¶t do forward integration. This process involves the analysis of all the activities starting from the raw material provisions to the distribution of final product. That is why it is necessary to understand the complete procedure of production and distribution (please see chapter # 1) before doing such analysis. Value chain analysis Value chain analysis is widely used to determine where cost improvements could be made or value creation improved. so the supplier charge the high prices and transaction is done through banks by opening letter of credit and buyer also has to bear high transportation cost and import duties. BUYERS· POWER The buyers don¶t have any power. but high competition among ghee/oil mills leads the company to minimize the prices. Organization Value Chain .
Then they transfer oil from main storage to refinery section where first of all the oil pass through pre-neutralizer then through post-neutralizer then after filtration they pass ghee and oil from pre-bleacher and then post bleacher. Asia Ghee Mills has its own cotton factories which provide required quality of cottonseeds. which are Primary activities and Support activities. The company owner believes that marketing has no benefit until unless they don¶t utilize the enough production capacity.All these activities are broadly categorized into two main heads. So in order to receive good quality of oil. Then they pass ghee and oil from deodorization then after deodorization they got the oil in the final stage where as for ghee they pass for hydrogenation at particular temperature in the presence of nickel then after filtration they got ghee in the final stage which is free from nickel. The operations are the production process of ghee/oil where the major value addition is made (production process of Asia Ghee Mills is given on next page). The company doesn¶t perform sales and services rather through dealers. operations. and the distribution is through dealers. This activity should be efficient in order to increase recovery rate by obtaining good quality oil. The production process of Asia Ghee Mills is shown below SUPPORT ACTIVITIES . which provide basic raw oil to firm. The only thing they do for their marketing is to have good relationship with the dealers and somewhat advertisement in print media in Ramzan. outbound logistics. The management subcontracts the outbound activity. Cottonseed oil mills perform the inbound activity in Asia Ghee Mills. PRIMARY ACTIVITIES The primary activities of the organization are grouped into five main areas: inbound logistics. marketing and sales & services. PRODUCTION PROCESS When decanting tanks of oil entered in the factory first of all they have stored in main storage tanks with the help of pumps.
rather it has a big contribution in total value addition. which is locally available. So the whole process needs to be analyzed.The support activities can be divided into four groups. The whole of the profitability depends upon the quality of raw material. R & D and Process development researches are very important in ghee/oil industry in Pakistan. quality control systems and future orientation. which although does contribute directly in value addition and increase the effectiveness of whole process. Human resource management involves the training and development of workers and employees in order to increase their productivity and efficiency. So in the company value chain this thing should be emphasized much. But good relationship with the suppliers and fair and prompt payment can enforce the grower to cultivate better variety. organization and channel members. ANALYSIS All the value creation does not happen in the organization itself rather much of it can be occur in the supply and distribution chains. The organization has the policy that the dealer who distributes their product will not distribute the products of any other competitors or substitute. For this purpose we can divide it into three areas: suppliers. Where as the material that has to be import the company has a lead-time of 2-3 months. technology development. if supplier does not provide the good quality of oil then the desired level of quality of ghee/oil cannot be achieved. human resource management and infrastructure. Organization . For this purpose company make their employees to work with the senior worker to get the experience. Suppliers Suppliers play a very vital role in total value creation. So procurement for long time is not possible in case of raw material. but they don¶t have any separate training program for new employees. The price structure of the country demotivates the grower to produce better quality of cottonseed. which are procurement. The company has good planning. So the department of inbound logistics is sufficiently performing the activity of procurement. As the prime input of ghee is available locally and some material has to import from out side countries.
Also the professionalism is lacking in most of the cases. And everyone involves in this process take its share in terms of commission.e. Currently the company is using traditional distribution network for ghee/oil sale but with a forward integration the company can increase the profit margin. As shown in the distribution network diagram. Channel Members There is a difference of 1-2 rupees per Kilogram in the Ex-mill price and market price and the middlemen create this difference. Here the value addition takes place in terms of price increase. Skilled Labor With High Morale .Within the organization the value addition activity is focused only on ghee/oil production. After taking charge of many responsibilities Mr. Ch. Asia Ghee Mills pass the raw material from two different machines for oil and ghee i. But Asia Ghee Mills is clearly different in this aspect from other organizations. With a little effort and investment. But they do nothing for by-products of ghee/oil. Due to his professional abilities and leadership qualities he has also achieved many of his objectives. Now the further addition in ghee/oil is not possible due to the market conditions but there is a lot of space to improve in by-products. the ghee/oil is not directly sold to the ultimate consumer rather it goes through a long process. Abdul Majeed has worked very hard for the success of the mill. The carbon dioxide has directly released in the air and the laundry soap has been packed and sold under the brand name of ³Asia Laundry Soap´. which is their core competence. In order to provide the superior quality of ghee/oil to customers. PostNeutralizer and Post-Bleacher. SWOT Analysis STRENGTHS OF ASIA GHEE MILLS Professional Leadership Usually in such kind of traditional organizations leadership is deficient. People are usually guided through specified rules and regulations. And now this is the result of his efforts that the company is showing very good performance and operating on professional basis. Which are not performed by other mills.
Asia Ghee Mills use . because the Asia Ghee Mills don¶t go for any type of advertising program. The other strength of the company is that they take the oil from their own cotton factories but their cotton factories meet only 10% of the total raw material required for the current capacity utilization WEAKNESSES OF ASIA GHEE MILLS Lack of Awareness The major weakness of the Asia Ghee Mills is the lack of awareness among the consumers. They have the career opportunity to move upward to become an operator because helper has known all the responsibilities of the operator. so it is using the most modern technology available in Pakistan. Asia Ghee Mills has placed its new employees with the senior employees and trained them before they actually placed on job. because all the ghee/oil industries working in Pakistan are using ³By Pass´ operations means that the same machinery is used for the production of ghee and oil. This machinery also gives an edge to the organization over its competitors.In most of the factories skilled and semi skilled labor along with unskilled labor is hired from outside. which are available in Pakistan. are mostly available in Bahawalpur. So this will create the most loyal employees with high morale. There is always a risk associated with them that whether they work properly or not. which are more productive. you can take the example that they require at least Matric pass candidate for the post of helper. Sophisticated Technology There are no hard and fast rules in ghee/oil industry regarding the technology or process implied. As it is one of the latest ghee/oil mills build in Pakistan whose machinery is locally available from Multan & Lahore. In fact the owner of the company is big business man of Bahawalpur. Backward Linkages Generically the company has got an advantage of access to the sources of raw material. Asia Ghee Mills has the latest machinery and plant. First of all Asia Ghee Mills always hire the educated people. Where as the only Asia Ghee Mills have separate processes for both ghee and oil to assure the good quality products. Even in some factories fifty years old machinery is also used. The raw materials. Such type of machinery affects the quality of oil/ghee.
Limited Distribution Network The other weakness of the Asia Ghee Mills is of having limited distribution network. so people have to buy it in any case. As we have already told that Asia Ghee Mills is distributing their products only in Bahawalpur. which the company is enjoying. In Pakistan. Because of this limited distribution network the company is unable to utilize its full capacity because currently Mill is utilizing 50% of its full capacity which is enough to meet the need of consumers in Bahawalpur. These are the natural opportunities. OPPORTUNITIES Generic Opportunities The ghee/oil has so many opportunities due to its product nature. because the dealers and retailers take their margin which cause a 1-2 rupees difference in the Ex-factory price and Retail price.print media one time in a month. so that¶s why majority of the people even don¶t listen the name of company. THREATS Low Production of Cottonseed . where they are distributing their products at mass level and having a market share of 70-80%. and as the population growth rate is also very high so the company has an opportunity to meet the demand of local market. the consumption rate of ghee/oil is high in the world. and absence of distribution network which forced the company to operate half capacity. where as they had used electronic media in start but now they don¶t have any advertisement for their products. Dealership Marketing Asia Ghee Mills distribute its products through outside dealers which cause increase in price of the products which the consumers receive. but in Multan division the firm has started its distribution. and other than Bahawalpur the company don¶t have so much demand because of no advertisement. Also the product has no substitute. It is a necessity and no one can avoid it.
which is always a problem for the company. The company has authorized capital of 10 crore. Due to this low production the mill faces a shortage of raw oil. Decrease in Consumption Due to the increase in awareness level of the people the consumption rate is decreased. The reduction in disposable income is also a cause of decrease consumption of ghee. PROFITABILITY RATIO A profitable company will have to be expanded further. In this analysis we calculate financial ratio and some financial indicators. Financial Analysis is necessary. This is a source of continuous threat for the company. Net Profit Margin . which restrict the people to use ghee. Financial Analysis In order to see the viability of the company. It is due to the low productivity of the varieties and due to the less area cultivation. The high rate of heart disease in the country is another cause. So we can analyze its profitability through following indicators. and the paid up capital of 7 crore. the profit for the company is enough to pay its operating expenses. Gross Profit Margin Gross Profit Margin = Gross Profit / Net Sales Gross Profit Margin = 114270750 / 761805000 = 15% Asia Ghee Mills is getting 15% profit margin after paying its cost of goods sold.The cotton is not produced sufficiently in the country. Because of all these factors the consumption rate of ghee is decreasing in Pakistan. From that 15% margin company can easily pays its operating expenses and taxes. so. As firm is not raising any long-term debts.
Existing STRATEGIES Corporate Level Strategiees C orporate level strategy focuses on strategies for enterprises consisting of more than one business. including consumer goods and industrial goods. Company is utilized its equity very well.4 times It means the firm is able to sell its inventory 3 to 4 times a year. they have to keep some inventory as safety stock. Asia Ghee Mills. Which shows good performance the main reason for that is the increase in sales from previous year.Net Profit Margin = Net Profit / Net Sales Net Profit Margin = 29966640 / 761805000 = 3. As firm is utilizing its capacity about 50% and from that. Shareholder¶s value is also increased. and it is improved from previous year by 0. comprises several businesses.93%. Asia Ghee Mills involve more than one business is said to be diversified. Due to uncertainty they have to keep about 25% inventory as ending inventory. Inventory Turnover Inventory Turnover = CGS / Inventory Inventory Turnover = 647534250 / 190451250 = 3. ACTIVITY RATIO From available data we are only able to calculate inventory turnover ratio. CONCENTRIC DIVERSIFICATION . for instance.93% Company is earning very good profit margin.
Asia Ghee Mills involved in backward integration because they receive the cottonseed oil from their own cotton factories. BACKWARD INTEGRATION ³Seeking ownership or increased control of a firm¶s suppliers´. Instead of selling laundry soap as a raw soap to any other soap manufacturer.) 48 47 Weights 16 kg 16 kg Prices (Rs. strategic management at this level is crucial to the overall success of the firm. Asia Ghee Mills has developed a setup to sold laundry soap under brand name of ³Asia Laundry Soap´ so Asia Ghee Mills is adding new but related products in to the market. they themselves start cutting and packaging of the soap and sold in the market as their own new products under their own brand name. Asia Ghee Mills involved in concentric diversification because Asia Ghee Mills has two by products. Although these three cotton factories provide only 10% of its total requirement but this will increase the bargaining power of the Asia Ghee Mills if it has to negotiate upon the prices of oil purchasing from other factories. laundry soap and CO2 gas. In fact cost reduction is the only way to stay in the industry. Asia Ghee Mills has cost leadership strategy. Asia Ghee Mills has the following two major competitors: Major Competitors Sultan Banaspati Shehbaz Banaspati Weights 1kg 1kg Prices (Rs. COST LEADERSHIP In manufacturing and especially in industries where the product differentiation is not possible the only strategy the organization is left with is "Low Cost Production" or cost leadership. Then we said it concentric diversification because they manufacture the soap from the by products they receive.) 740 736 . Business Level Strategy Firms compete directly with one another at what is called the business level of strategic management.³Adding new. Because competition takes place at the business level. so we will focus on crafting successful competitive strategies. but related products or services´.
RECOMMENDed strategies . the low cost strategy is good when. the level at which work inside the organization actually takes place. but in Multan division the sale of Sultan Banaspati and Shehbaz Banaspati has more sales than Asia Banaspati. because the Asia Ghee Mills is continuously improving the quality of the ghee/oil for the consumers. But in Bahawalpur the sale of Asia Banaspati is more than Shehbaz Banaspati. so that¶s why they are improving their products through TQM. Asia Ghee Mills has a good image in the Bahawalpur. Operation Level Strategy Operation level strategy focuses at how to develop capabilities in process execution that will yield competitive advantages for a firm. Currently Asia Ghee Mills is following the product development strategy. including both total quality management and core process reengineering. industry is producing standardized product. This involves applying strategic management concepts to what is known as the operations level. We focus on how organizations go about improving their process capabilities. So company is using right strategy. Here from the above table we can see that the price of the Shehbaz Banaspati is equal to the prices of the Asia Banaspati.Asia Ghee Mills is following cost leadership because the competitors especially Sultan Banaspati has a very old name in the ghee industry so Asia Ghee Mills has to charge the low prices to compete with the competitors. product has same usage and switching cost is low. PRODUCT DEVELOPMENT ³Seeking increased sales by improving or modifying present products or services´. All the characteristics are fully applied in ghee industry. product cannot be differentiated. and they try to develop the same good image in all over the country. According to the text.
recommeded Strategies A t this time when industry is fully mature. MARKET DEVELOPMENT ³Introducing present products or services into new geographic areas´. The firm should go for market development. This can increase the demand of the firm¶s products. topping out and loss of profitability. . In this dynamic and competitive environment the firm has to maintain its current position of cost leadership to be competitive. means that the firm should introduce their products in new markets or new geographical areas. Then increase in demand will lead the company to utilize the full capacity of the production. They can generate good cash flows if they use CO2 gas as the new product of the factory and sold to soda water or you may receive the application from different contractors. But they are disposing off the CO2 gas in the air. and the competition in terms of access to final consumer is very high the companies usually face the problems of slow demand growth. The firm should use their own distribution network because the motive behind that when they have their own distribution system the additional cost will be avoided which had been kept by dealers as their own margin. One is laundry soap and the other is CO2 gas. emphasize on cost and services. CONCENTRIC DIVERSIFICATION Asia Ghee Mills is involving in the concentric diversification because of having two by products. FORWARD INTEGRATION ³Gaining ownership or increased control over distributors or retailers´. As it is already mentioned that the firm is only distributing in Bahawalpur and Multan division. The Asia Ghee Mills is also facing the same problems. The firm is using laundry soap as the new product and is selling under their own brand name. Although it has tackled the major problems very well but still there is some room of improvement in its existing strategy.
Asia Ghee Mills must take some action to establish a full fledge dispensary for dealing the employees¶ injuries. This will provide the safety to the employees and they will be more satisfied. . ADVERTISEMENT Asia Ghee Mills is not using any mode of advertisement.When the company utilizes the full capacity its sales will increase along with the profitability of the owners. DISPENSARY Asia Ghee Mills has no dispensary in the factory for the employees¶ injuries during the production. ISO CERTIFICATE Although the firm is working better than required ISO certificate but the firm should take the ISO certificate. productive and having high morale. Through private dealers Through their own networks. implementation Asia Ghee Mills can implement on our proposed strategies in following ways: FORWARD INTEGRATION & MARKET DEVELOPMENT Asia Ghee Mills has following options available for distribution of its products. Because ISO certificate create a good image among the consumers. They believe that advertisement without availability of the product is useless and creates a bad image. In order to create awareness Asia Ghee Mills must go for advertisement. because of low demand and unavailability of their products.
Then these gases has to transferred to first converter then second converter where the converter absorb the CO2 gas. Asia Ghee Mills should take following measures: Construction of CO2 gas cracking plant and: Sold to Soda Water producers or any other contractor. Multan. ADVERTISEMENT Asia Ghee Mills has following options for advertisement: Electronic Medias o TV . The sales officers are required to sell the product of the company directly to the retailers. Bahawalpur. Gas cracking plant requires approximately 6. This plant has the capability to eject the CO2 gas from the disposable gases. Mianchannoo. Purchase its own vehicles. So for this it should take following steps. CONCENTRIC DIVERSIFICATION For establishment of CO2 Gas plant. which separate all the gases (H2. CO2. CO).5 lac of investment. Then the CO2 gas is ready to fill the cylinders.e.As we already suggested Asia Ghee Mills should distribute its products through its own networks. then after absorbing this CO2 gas again has to reboil at 100c which purify the CO2 gas and then CO2 gas has to transferred from low pressure tank to high pressure tank. Appoint more sales officers. Lahore. The disposable gases have transferred to sulpher tower where these gases are required to be refined at 800c. Establish its own distribution networks in major cities of Pakistan i. Sahiwal. When they got success in these cities then the company should approach to other cities of the country to explore new markets. Faisalabad. Khanewal. O2.
Because TV is more capable to create awareness about the company¶s product among the people and can facilitate its sales officers during sales to retailers.o Radio o Internet Print Medias o Newspapers o Magazines Asia Ghee Mills should advertise on electronic media especially on TV. . The timing of advertisement should be during Khawatin programs.
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