Unit Five: Biological Diversity
Chapter 26 - Origin of Life MULTIPLE CHOICE. Choose the one alternative that best completes the
statement or answers the question. 1) What is the strongest evidence that protobionts may have formed spontaneously? A) The fossil record found in the stromatolites. B) The discovery of ribozymes, showing that prebiotic RNA molecules may have been autocatalytic. C) The production of organic compounds within a laboratory apparatus simulating conditions on early Earth. D) The abiotic synthesis of polymers. E) The relative ease with which liposomes can be synthesized in laboratories. 2) Current theories of prebiotic evolution are based on evidence for all of the following except the abiotic A) production of small organic molecules. B) production of liposomes. C) replication of oligopeptides. D) origin of DNA-protein interactions. E) polymerization of amino acids. 3) The first genetic material was most likely a(n) A) DNA polymer. B) protein enzyme. C) DNA oligonucleotide. D) RNA polymer. E) protein.
Use the following information to answer the questions below. According to the Miller-Urey experimental results, chemical evolution leading up to and including the formation of living matter is believed to have occurred during the early history of Earth. Below are four pairs of events that might have occurred during this period. Judge the relative time of each of these pairs of events according to the key below. A. Event I occurred before Event II. B. Event II occurred before Event I. C. Events I and II occurred simultaneously. 4) Event I: nitrogen oxides and carbon dioxide in the atmosphere Event II: free oxygen in the atmosphere 5) Event I: formation of photosynthetic organisms Event II: formation of heterotrophic organisms 6) Event I: formation of amino acids Event II: formation of enzymes 7) Event I: atmosphere of water, methane, and ammonia Event II: reducing atmosphere 8) Approximately how far does the fossil record extend back in time? A) 6,000 years B) 3,500,000 years C) 6,000,000 years D) 3,500,000,000 years E) 5,000,000,000,000 years 9) Which of the following is the strongest evidence that prokaryotes evolved before eukaryotes? A) the primitive structure of plants B) meteorites that have struck the Earth C) abiotic experiments that constructed liposomes in the laboratory D) Liposomes look like prokaryotic cells. E) The oldest fossilized cells resemble prokaryotes.
10) In his laboratory simulation of the early Earth, Miller observed the abiotic synthesis of A) liposomes. B) complex organic polymers. C) amino acids. D) nucleoli. E) DNA. 11) Which of the following factors was most important in the origin of life on Earth? A) competition for oxygen B) biotic synthesis of organic molecules C) low levels of solar energy D) natural selection acting on molecules and protobionts E) low-intensity electrical discharges in the upper atmosphere 12) Which of the following has not yet been synthesized in laboratory experiments studying the origin of life? A) oligopeptides and other oligomers B) protobionts that use DNA to program protein synthesis C) liposomes with selectively permeable membranes D) amino acids E) lipids 13) What condition would have made the primitive atmosphere of Earth more conducive to the origin of life than the modern atmosphere of Earth? The primitive atmosphere A) had more oxygen than the modern atmosphere, and thus it successfully sustained the first living organisms. B) had a layer of ozone that shielded the first fragile cells. C) may have been a reducing one that facilitated the formation of complex substances from simple molecules. D) had less free energy than the modern atmosphere, and thus newly formed organisms were less likely to be destroyed. E) removed electrons that impeded the formation of protobionts.
D) The early Earth had no water. C) Less ultraviolet radiation penetrated the early atmosphere. D) plug gaps in membranous bilayers so that electrical differences could be maintained across them. E) remain suspended in solution.
. C) assemble into liposome membranes.14) A key role that clay may have played in the origin of life is the tendency for clay to A) provide a catalytic surface for the polymerization of organic monomers. E) The early Earth had an oxidizing atmosphere. B) The early atmosphere had significant quantities of ozone. B) generate life through spontaneous processes. 15) In what way were conditions on early Earth different from those on modern Earth? A) The early Earth was intensely bombarded by large space debris.
Choose the one alternative that best completes the
statement or answers the question. a hospital patient who is receiving broad-spectrum antibiotics is most likely to become __________. at least initially. E) All life would eventually perish because of increased global warming due to the greenhouse effect. E) There would be little change in Earth's ecosystems. 1) Which of the following would most likely occur if all prokaryotes were suddenly to perish? A) Very little change would occur because prokaryotes are not of significant ecological importance. D) Only the organisms that feed directly on prokaryotes would suffer any harmful effects. C) Many organisms would perish as nutrient recycling underwent dramatic reduction. which of the following would be the most likely and most direct result? A) Recycling of nutrients would be greatly reduced. 3) Broad-spectrum antibiotics inhibit the growth of most intestinal bacteria. C) Earth's total photosynthesis would decline markedly. B) Human populations would thrive in the absence of disease. 2) If all the bacteria on Earth suddenly disappeared. B) All life would eventually perish due to disease.Prokaryotes MULTIPLE CHOICE. A) antibiotic resistant B) deficient in certain vitamins C) unable to fix nitrogen D) unable to synthesize peptidoglycan E) unable to digest cellulose
. Consequently. D) The number of organisms on Earth would decrease by 10-20%.Chapter 27 . assuming that nothing is done to counter the reduction of intestinal bacteria.
thus causing diseases
. B.5 billion years.4) Which is the least accurate statement about the evolution of prokaryotes and the changing environment of Earth? A) Although prokaryotes have a diverse morphology. they basically have the same metabolic pathways and products. 5) In which of the following ways can prokaryotes be considered to be more successful on Earth than humans? A) Prokaryotes occupy more diverse habitats than humans. E) Cyanobacteria evolved before aerobically respiring bacteria. D) Bacteria are among several kinds of organisms that recycle chemical elements in ecosystems. 6) Carl Woese of the University of Illinois and his collaborators identified two major branches of prokaryotic evolution. What was the basis for dividing prokaryotes into two domains? A) microscopic examination of staining characteristics B) metabolic characteristics such as the production of methane gas C) ecological characteristics such as the ability to survive in extreme environments D) molecular characteristics such as ribosomal RNA sequences E) metabolic characteristics such as chemoautotrophy and photosynthesis 7) What is the primary ecological role of prokaryotes? A) metabolizing materials in extreme environments B) adding methane to the atmosphere C) the decomposition of organic matter D) serving as primary producers in terrestrial environments E) parasitizing eukaryotes. B) Oxygen-producing photosynthesis favored the evolution of cells capable of performing aerobic respiration. and C are correct. C) Prokaryotes are much more numerous and have more biomass than humans. E) A. D) Only B and C are correct. C) Prokaryotes have interacted with the environment for more than 3. B) Prokaryotes have survived on Earth for billions of years longer than humans have.
8) Prokaryotic organisms have recently been divided into two domains. E) are analogous to the cell walls of many protists. C) Some have cell walls only for support. D) Only species of archaea lack the noncoding parts of genes (that is. B) differences in cell wall composition. which lack cell walls. C) provide the cell with a degree of physical protection from the environment. This division is based primarily on A) kind of inhibitor amino acid for start of protein synthesis. C) Structural data show that bacteria are more closely related to eukaryotes and that archaea differ in a greater number of characteristics. we classify them in different taxonomic units. bacteria and archaea. D) Some have cell walls only to control osmotic balance. D) Only B and C are correct. fungi. 10) Why do biologists now reject the use of a single kingdom Monera for all prokaryotic organisms? A) Molecular evidence shows that archaea and eukaryotes share a more recent common ancestor than archaea and bacteria. D) prevent cells from bursting in hypoosmotic environments. E) Some have cell walls only for protection from herbivores. and prokaryotes all have cell walls. fungi. 9) Though plants. C) presence or absence of introns. E) Only prokaryotic organisms show growth inhibition in the presence of antibiotics. and C are correct. E) A. and plants. B) Only eukaryotic organisms have membrane-enclosed organelles. 11) The following statements about bacterial cell walls are all true except they A) prevent cells from dying in hyperosmotic conditions. B) Some closely resemble animals. introns). B) differ in molecular composition from plant cell walls. B.
. Which of these observations comes closest to explaining why these organisms are placed in different taxa? A) Their cell walls are constructed from very different biochemicals.
On the basis of this structural anomaly. honey. D) synthesize proteins. E) based on DNA analysis. 13) Mycoplasmas are bacteria that lack cell walls. E) form spores. D) undergo death by plasmolysis. E) possess typical prokaryotic flagella. C) undergo ready fossilization in sedimentary rock. E) suffocate once the lid is replaced. B) undergo death by lysis. B) replicate DNA. C) are unable to swim through these thick and viscous materials. C) some archaeans can inhabit solutions that are nearly 30% salt. B) some archaeans are adapted to waters with temperatures above the boiling point. C) synthesize cell walls. jellies. 14) The following statements are all true of the domain Archaea except A) archaean cell walls are composed of peptidoglycan. This is because bacteria that encounter such an environment A) are unable to metabolize the glucose or fructose and thus starve to death. and other foodstuffs with a high-sugar content hardly ever become contaminated by bacteria. archaea are probably more closely related to eukaryotes than they are to bacteria. one should expect mycoplasmas to A) be subject to lysis in hypoosmotic conditions. B) lack a cell membrane as well. preserves. even when the food containers are left open at room temperature. 15) The antibiotics known as penicillins inhibit the ability of certain bacteria to A) perform respiration. D) some archaeans can reduce elements to methane.
. D) be gram-negative.12) Jams.
and 5 C) 2. 2) A unicellular. C) Multicellularity has evolved independently in different groups of protists. and 4 E) All of the statements are correct. E) protozoan. 2. most likely to be A) tremendously limited in structure and function.Eukaryotes MULTIPLE CHOICE. B) an exceedingly complex generalist. are important members of communities surrounding deep-sea hydrothermal vents.Chapter 28 . B) Various combinations of prokaryote ancestors gave rise to different lineages of protists. and 4 D) 1. E) multinucleate. D) Chloroplasts in different eukaryotes are similar to different prokaryotes.
. D) Euglenozoa. 4) Which of the following statements are true about living phytoplanktonic organisms? They 1. 4. B) moneran. are important primary producers in most aquatic food webs. contain photosystems that are embedded within plastid membranes. 3. are important partners in maintaining oxygen in Earth's seas and atmosphere. 3. relative to other individual cells. 3. 5. by its very nature. noncolonial. 2. D) highly specialized. Choose the one alternative that best completes the
statement or answers the question. free-living protist is. C) protist. Which of the following statements is consistent with this conclusion? A) Archaezoa are intermediate and should not be considered part of the Protista. 1) Biologists have discovered the kingdom Protista to be paraphyletic and therefore obsolete. 3) None of the following terms continue to have taxonomic significance except A) alga. plants. A) 1 and 4 B) 2. E) Animals. are most often found attached to underwater surfaces. C) destined to become an endosymbiont. and fungi arose from different protistan ancestors.
D) cilia and flagella. D) ribosomes and cilia. 9) The strongest evidence for the endosymbiotic origin of eukaryotic organelles is the similarity between extant prokaryotes and A) cilia and mitochondria. B) type of habitat they occupy and the frequency of reproduction that can occur. C) nonparasitic. D) marine. and C are correct. B. E) A. complex organelles of eukaryotic cells probably arose by A) serial endosymbiosis. D) freshwater systems. B) ribosomes and nuclei.
. E) number of cells that can be associated in organized colonies. E) antarctic dry valleys. D) number of simultaneous metabolic activities and the number of genes present. C) endoplasmic reticulum.5) Protists are ecologically important in all of the following ecosystems except A) parasitic ones. D) Both A and C are correct. 6) In what ways are all protists alike? They are all A) photosynthetic. E) mitochondria and chloroplasts. C) pathogenic systems. B) competition for engulfing organelles in the environment. 7) The small size and simple construction of prokaryotes imposes limits on the A) type of reproduction and the number of offspring that can be produced. B) eukaryotic. 8) The multiple. 10) All of the following might have arisen by endosymbiosis except A) chloroplasts. E) basal bodies and centrioles. C) specialization of existing membranes. B) marine phytoplankton. C) ability to reproduce. E) multicellular. B) mitochondria. C) nuclei and chloroplasts.
C) one or more chromosomes. D) Only A and C are correct. B) Chloroplasts evolved before the endoplasmic reticulum. 14) The endoplasmic reticulum and Golgi apparatus are very similar among the groups of alga-like protists.11) If certain organelles of modern eukaryotes were derived from endosymbioses involving what were once free-living prokaryotes. coupled with mutations of genes for oxygen-using metabolism B) from engulfed. how might eukaryotes be different today? They would A) be unable to photosynthesize. What do these facts imply about the evolution of the endomembrane system of eukaryotic cells? A) Endomembrane systems evolved after chloroplasts. E) all be unicellular. C) It possessed an endomembrane system. D) lack mitochondria. E) A. B) It was heterotrophic. C) Endomembrane systems evolved before chloroplasts. D) Endomembrane systems evolved from symbiotic prokaryotes. B. how did mitochondria originate? A) from infoldings of the plasma membrane. originally free-living prokaryotes C) by tertiary endosymbioses D) when a protoeukaryote becomes symbiotic with a protobiont E) from the nuclear envelope folding outward and forming mitochondrial membranes 13) If eukaryotic cells had first evolved in an environment much lower in O2 than was actually the case. D) a plasma membrane. B) ribosomes. 15) All eukaryotic cells have the following structures except A) organelles of the endomembrane system. E) plastids. then what ought to have been true of the ancestral prokaryote that served as host? A) It lacked a cell wall. C) lack ribosomes. 12) According to the endosymbiotic theory of the origin of eukaryotic cells. E) The Golgi apparatus evolved before the endomembrane system. and C are correct.
. but chloroplasts differ significantly and appear to be related to different prokaryotes. B) be more motile.
C) multicellularity. apical meristems 4. E) chlorophyll pigments in green algae are different from those in plants. D) a protected. 3) Arrange these adaptations to terrestrial existence in the order in which they first appeared during the evolution of land plants: 1. 3 C) 3. 3. B) a reduced. 1 B) 2. 4. 4. stationary egg cell. Choose the one alternative that best completes the
statement or answers the question. D) meiosis proceeds at a faster pace in green algae than in plants. 2. vascular tissues 3. flowers A) 2. 3. B) only green algae have flagellated. 1 D) 3. 2) One of the major distinctions between plants and the green algae is that A) only plants form a cell plate during cytokinesis. 1. 4 4) The most recent common ancestors of all land plants were most likely similar to modern-day members of which group? A) Phaeophyta (brown algae) B) Cyanobacteria C) Chrysophyta (golden algae) D) Rhodophyta (red algae) E) Charophycea
.Plant Colonization of Land MULTIPLE CHOICE.Chapter 29 . C) embryos are not retained within parental tissues in green algae. E) lignified vascular tissue. 1) Bryophytes have all of the following characteristics except A) specialized cells and tissues. 2. 1. 1. seeds 2. swimming sperm. 4. dependent sporophyte. 4 E) 2.
which is not a shared derived character)? A) ribosomal RNA base sequences B) chloroplast structure C) alternation of generations D) cell plate formation during cytokinesis E) sperm cell structure 8) Which of the following is a true statement about plant reproduction? A) Eggs and sperm of primitive plants swim toward one another. D) in plants. would make it unlikely to be a charophycean? A) peroxisome B) apical meristem C) phragmoplast D) chlorophylls a and b E) rosette cellulose-synthesizing complex 6) Which kind of plant tissue should lack phragmoplasts? A) fern gametophyte tissues B) diploid tissues C) bryophyte tissues D) tissues performing nuclear division without intervening cytokineses E) spore-producing tissues 7) A number of characteristics are very similar between green algae and members of the kingdom Plantae. B) gametophytes produce spores that develop into gametes. either the gametophyte or the sporophyte is unicellular. Of the following. B) Both male and female primitive plants produce gametangia. if observed in an unidentified green plant.5) Which of the following characteristics. Consequently. E) sporophytes and gametophytes are typically similar in appearance. there is true alternation of generations. D) Gametangia protect gametes from excess water. C) haploid sporophytes make haploid spores. C) "Embryophytes" are small because they are in an early developmental stage. which characteristic does not provide evidence for an evolutionarily close relationship between these two groups (that is. E) It is limited to asexual reproduction in primitive plants. 9) In the life cycles of all land plants.
. A) meiosis in sporophytes produces haploid spores.
14) Peptidoglycan is to the structural integrity of bacteria as __________ is to the structural integrity of plant spores. No charophyceans exhibit alternation of generations. C) any nutrients from maternal tissues being used by the zygotes. one should not expect to observe A) the zygotes undergoing nuclear division. D) seeds. C) alternation of generations cannot be beneficial to charophyceans. or in the tissues of the zygotes. E) sporophytes. All land plants exhibit alternation of generations. Keeping in mind the recent evidence from molecular systematics. B) zygotes. B) land plants evolved directly from the green algae that perform alternation of generations.10) Some green algae exhibit alternation of generations. the correct interpretation of these observations is that A) charophyceans are not related to either green algae or land plants. E) mitochondria in the maternal tissues. C) gametophytes. 11) Whereas the zygotes of charophyceans may remain within maternal tissues during their initial development. 12) Which putative taxon is essentially equivalent to the "embryophytes"? A) Streptophyta B) Plantae C) Viridiplantae D) Pteridophyta E) Charophycea 13) Plant spores give rise directly to A) gametes. A) starch B) cellulose C) sporopollenin D) lignin E) tannin
. B) the zygotes avoid digestion by enzymes from maternal lysosomes. D) plants evolved alternation of generations independently of green algae. D) specialized placental transfer cells surounding the zygotes.
E) They may temporarily contain sporophyte embryos. D) They are asexual reproductive structures. B) They are the sites where male gametes are produced.
.15) Which of the following statements is true of archegonia? A) They are the ancestral versions of animal gonads. C) They are the same things as sporangia.
2) Which of the following is an ongoing trend in the evolution of land plants? A) the elimination of sperm cells or sperm nuclei B) a decrease in the size of the leaf C) the replacement of roots by rhizomes D) the reduction of the gametophyte phase of the life cycle E) avoiding being eaten by dinosaurs 3) The following cellular structures are all found in cells of angiosperm or gymnosperm gametophytes except A) haploid nuclei. E) a nutrient supply for the embryo. they lose less water. the gametophyte generation is not photosynthetic. C) endomembrane system. C) diploid plants are more protected from the effects of mutation than are haploid plants. B) desiccation resistance.Chapter 30 . D) unlike ferns. D) mitochondria. 1) The following are all true concerning the sporophyte or gametophyte generations in flowering plants except A) the flower is composede of gametophyte tissue only.
. 5) The following are all advantages of seeds for survival except A) dormancy. B) the sporophyte generation is what we see when observing a plant.Plant Evolution of Seed Plants MULTIPLE CHOICE. E) the sporophyte generation is dominant. D) eggs and sperm need not be produced. C) the gametophyte generation consists of relatively few cells within the flower. 4) Plants with a dominant sporophyte are successful on land partly because A) having no stomata. B) they all disperse by means of seeds. Choose the one alternative that best completes the
statement or answers the question. E) cell walls. E) their gametophytes are all parasitic on the sporophytes. D) a choice of germination location. C) dispersal. B) chloroplasts.
B. 10) Conifers are noted for all of the following except A) size. B) utility to humans. D) cell walls. C) hermaphroditic fern gametophyte. the pollen grains of seed-producing plants are equivalent to a A) fern gametophyte that will bear only antheridia.
. B) fern sporophyte. D) success in cold climates. B) waxy cuticle. 7) In addition to seeds. 8) In seed plants. 9) In terms of alternation generations. C) seeds. E) moss gametophyte bearing both male and female gametangia. which of the following characteristics are unique to the seed-producing plants? A) a haploid gametophyte retained within tissues of the diploid sporophyte B) lignin present in cell walls C) pollen D) Both A and C are correct. E) great diversity of species.6) The following plant structures are all adaptations specifically for a terrestrial environment except A) xylem. C) longevity. which structure/material is properly considered part of a pollen grain? A) sporophyll B) male gametophyte C) sporopollenin D) stigma E) Both B and C contribute to the structure of the pollen grain. and C are correct. D) moss sporophyte. E) roots. E) A.
D) seeds are produced in ovulate cones. E) male and female gametophytes come together for fertilization. B) have macrophylls. 12) What is the main way that pine trees disperse their offspring? They use A) spores. 14) Which of the following terms is equivalent to fertilization? A) spore dispersal B) fusion of gametes C) meiosis D) fruit formation E) pollination 15) The following statements are all true of the pine life cycle except A) the pine tree is a sporophyte. C) produce seeds. B) pollen grains are very different from pine male gametophytes. D) flagellated sperm swimming through water. B) pollen grains are male gametophytes. 13) The following statements all correctly describe portions of the pine life cycle except A) female gametophytes have archegonia. B.11) Gymnosperms differ from ferns in that gymnosperms A) have pollen. C) meiosis occurs in sporangia. E) squirrels to bury cones. leaflike structures. D) Both A and C are correct. D) cones are short stems with spore-bearing.
. E) pollination and fertilization are the same process. C) pine trees have a simpler vascular tissue than flowering plants. B) wind-blown seeds. C) fruits that are eaten by animals. E) A. and C are correct.
parasitic plants. Choose the one alternative that best completes the
statement or answers the question. D) symbionts. B) eukaryotic heterotrophs with cell walls. 5) If all saprobic fungi in an environment were to suddenly die.Chapter 31 . 1) Which of the following do all fungi have in common? A) meiosis in basidia B) absorption of nutrients C) symbioses with algae D) sexual life cycle E) coenocytic hyphae 2) What is a characteristic of all fungi? A) dikaryotic hyphae B) parasitism C) saprobic lifestyle D) multicellularity E) heterotrophic nutrition 3) What is true of all fungi? They are A) saprobic plants. B) absorptive heterotrophs. C) autotrophs.Fungi MULTIPLE CHOICE. then which group of organisms should. benefit? A) mutualistic fungi B) plants C) protists D) animals E) prokaryotes
. C) eukaryotic. 4) Fungi are all of the following except A) decomposers. as a whole. D) eukaryotic. E) predators. heterotrophic plants. E) saprobic heterotrophs.
D) antigens. fungi featuring hyphae) except A) they acquire their nutrients by absorption.
. C) antibiotics. B) sexual reproduction. C) they may be saprobes. D) asexual reproduction. E) aflatoxins. E) The haploid state is dominant in both groups. or mutualistic symbionts. E) the nuclei of the mycelia are typically haploid. 9) The primary role of the mushroom's underground mycelium is A) anchoring. D) their body plan is a netlike mass of filaments called a mycelium. E) absorbing nutrients. B) Both groups have cell walls. B) antibodies. 8) The following are all characteristic of hyphate fungi (that is. B) their cell walls consist mainly of cellulose microfibrils. C) protection.6) When a mycelium grows into an unexploited source of dead organic matter. parasites. 10) What do fungi and arthropods have in common? A) Both groups are commonly coenocytic. C) Both groups are predominantly saprobic in nutrition. D) Both groups use chitin for the construction of protective coats. what is most likely to appear within the food source soon thereafter? A) soredia B) larger bacterial populations C) haustoria D) increased oxygen levels E) exoenzymes 7) Chemicals secreted by soil fungi that inhibit the growth of bacteria are known as A) hallucinogens.
B) referred to as a mycelium. D) Only A and B E) A. relative to the septate species? It should have A) fewer nuclei. D) less chitin. D) true but restricts the movement of fungal mycelia. What should be true of the coenocytic species.
. E) more pores. 15) Consider two hyphae having equal dimensions: one from a septate species and the other from a coenocytic species. and C 14) Coenocytic refers to fungi (and other organisms) whose tissues are not clearly divided into cells. synthesized compounds. B) reduced cytoplasmic streaming. B) false. The above statement is A) true but refers to only some fungi. what structures allow cytoplasmic streaming to distribute needed nutrients.11) In septate fungi. C) less cytoplasm. C) true and describes all fungi. C) composed of hyphae. E) true but only for parasitic fungi. and organelles throughout the hyphae? A) pores in septal walls B) chitinous layers in cell walls C) tight junctions that form in septal walls between cells D) complex microtubular cytoskeletons E) two nuclei 12) What accounts for the extremely fast growth of a fungal mycelium? A) a long tubular body shape B) the readily available nutrients from their predatory mode of nutrition C) a dikaryotic condition that supplies greater amounts of proteins and nutrients D) their lack of motility that requires rapid spread of hyphae E) a rapid distribution of synthesized proteins by cytoplasmic streaming 13) The vegetative (nutritionally active) bodies of most fungi are A) usually underground. B.
rather than dead. eat different foods. Choose the one alternative that best completes the
statement or answers the question. B) multicellularity. E) nervous and muscle tissue.Animal Evolution MULTIPLE CHOICE. D) from organic matter.Chapter 32 . 1) The following are all generally observed among animals except A) autotrophic nutrition. C) by using enzymes to digest their food. C) unique types of intercellular junctions such as tight and gap junctions. What distinguishes animal heterotrophy from fungal heterotrophy is that only animals derive their nutrition A) by consuming living. 2) Which of the following terms or structures are not associated with animal cells? A) zygote B) desmosomes C) eukaryotic D) cell wall E) blastula 3) Both animals and fungi are completely heterotrophic. E) by ingesting it. and may even live in different environments. whereas the larvae of certain other insects look radically different from adults. prey. B) by preying upon animals. 4) The larvae of some insects are merely small versions of the adult. What condition should most directly favor the evolution of the more radical kind of metamorphosis? A) volcanoes in the environment B) the felt need to introduce variety into the species C) increasing oxygen content of the biosphere D) the evolution of meiosis E) limited resources
. D) sexual reproduction.
D) multiphyletic. B) polyphyletic. 1 6) According to the evidence collected so far. C) prokaryote. 4. metamorphosis 3. fertilization 4. Animals are thought to have evolved from flagellated protists similar to modern choanoflagellates. Only animals reproduce by sexual means. 4. 7) The common ancestor of all animals was probably a A) plant. 5. Animals are more closely related to plants than to fungi. the animal kingdom is A) paraphyletic. D) fungus. E) protist. 1 D) 3. C) euphyletic. 8) Which of the following statements concerning animal taxonomy is true? 1. 5 B) 5 C) 2. 5
. 1. 2 C) 3. 3. 3. A) 3. cleavage A) 4.5) Assuming that all of the following events occur. 4. 1. E) monophyletic. 2. 2 E) 3. 2. B) bacterium. 4 D) 1. 4. gastrulation 2. 3. 2. Kingdom Animalia is monophyletic. 3 E) 3. 2. what is the correct sequence in which the following processes occur during the development of an individual animal? 1. 4. All animal clades based on body plan have been found to be incorrect. 1 B) 4.
2 D) 1. homeobox A) 3. 11) The number of legs an insect has. or the number of joints in a digit (such as a finger). 4. 3. genome 4. 4
. 2 B) 1. or the number of vertebrae in a vertebrate's vertebral column. C) The dispersal of spores from fungi. chromosome 2. 3. autotrophic. E) The movement of a fungal mycelium through organically rich soil is the result of cytoplasmic streaming. 2. 1. bladderworts. 1. and sensitive plants (Mimosa pudica) are the result of primitive nervous conduction. eukaryote E) sexual reproduction 10) Which of the following statements is true? A) The rapid movements of Venus's flytraps. is explained by the existence of mesodermally derived smooth muscle filaments. 2. D) The amoeboid motion observed in certain protists is the result of neuromuscular interactions within pseudopodia. 4 E) 3. 4. from most inclusive to least inclusive. 3. A) heterotic B) homeotic C) heterogeneous D) introns within E) haploid 12) Rank the following. B) Sunflower blossoms generally follow the motion of the sun in the sky by detecting stimuli using their nervous receptors. such as Pilobolus. are all strongly influenced by __________ genes. 1.9) Which of the following is not consistent with distinguishing an animal from other life forms? A) regulatory genes called Hox genes B) structural proteins such as collagen C) impulse conduction and movement D) multicellular. Hox gene 3. 2 C) 1. 4.
D) true tissues or no tissues. 14) What should animals as diverse as corals and monkeys have in common? A) body cavity between body wall and digestive system B) type of body symmetry C) number of embryonic tissue layers D) presence of Hox genes E) degree of cephalization 15) The most ancient branch point in animal phylogeny is that between having A) a well-defined head or no head. C) horse. the organism with the greatest number of Hox genes should be a(n) A) earthworm. E) diploblastic or triploblastic embryos. E) flatworm. C) a body cavity or no body cavity. B) jellyfish. D) sponge.13) Among the following.
. B) radial or bilateral symmetry.
C) osculocytes. D) cnidarians.Invertebrates MULTIPLE CHOICE. 4) Which of the following are not found in sponges? A) spicules B) amoebocytes C) spongocoels D) cnidocytes E) oscula 5) Muscles and nerves in their simplest forms occur in the A) flatworms. 2) A radially symmetrical animal that has two embryonic germ layers belongs to which phylum? A) Cnidaria B) Porifera (parazoa) C) Echinodermata D) Platyhelminthes E) Aschelminthes 3) All of the following are characteristics of the phylum Cnidaria except A) a pseudocoelom. C) nematodes. 1) The cells in a sponge responsible for trapping food particles from circulating water are called A) pore cells (porocytes). D) amoebocytes. D) a medusa stage.
. B) choanocytes.Chapter 33 . E) cnidocytes. B) a gastrovascular cavity. B) ribbon worms. Choose the one alternative that best completes the
statement or answers the question. C) a polyp stage. E) mesophyl cells. E) sponges.
6) The best way to describe the brain of a sea anemone would be as A) a thick ring around the mouth. C) encysted in human muscle.
. and C 9) Which characteristic is shared by cnidarians and flatworms? A) B and D below B) flame cells C) radial symmetry D) a gut with a single opening E) dorsoventrally flattened bodies 10) The larvae of many common human tapeworms are usually found A) in the human intestine. C) a series of ganglia at the base of the tentacles. D) a pair of ganglia at the anterior end. B) a single ganglion in the body wall. E) are the simplest organisms with a complete gut (two openings). E) nonexistent. B) in the abdominal blood vessels of humans. E) encysted in the muscle of an animal such as a cow or pig. which of the following classes is (are) mostly nonparasitic? A) Turbellaria B) Cestoidea C) Trematoda D) B and C E) A. D) in the intestines of cows and pigs. C) come in two body forms: mobile polyps and sessile medusae. B. 8) In the phylum Platyhelminthes. 7) Which of the following is a correct statement about the members of the phylum Cnidaria? They A) are primarily filter feeders. D) are not capable of locomotion because they lack contractile tissue. B) have a hydrostatic skeleton.
14) The proboscis of a ribbon worm (phylum Nemertea) is operated hydraulically by a fluid-filled sac. 12) All of the following characterize the phylum Rotifera except A) a crown of cilia at the anterior end that seems to rotate. 13) A lophophore is used by bryozoans. E) nemertean. B) echinoderm.11) All of the following statements about the method of feeding in the Cestoidea are true except: A) They are parasites. C) as a skeletal system. a student encounters large numbers of eggs in her samples.
. C) They absorb nutrients across the walls of their body. D) arthropod. they live in a digestive tract. B) for feeding. E) relatively large size. She rears some of the eggs in the laboratory for further study and finds that the blastopore becomes the mouth in a complete digestive system. D) a complete digestive tract. C) mollusk. This sac is thought by some biologists to be homologous to what protostome structure? A) pseudocoelom B) blastopore C) digestive tract D) coelom E) heart 15) While sampling marine plankton. E) They lack a digestive tract. and brachiopods A) for sensory reception. D) for locomotion. C) parthenogenic reproduction. These eggs belonged to a(n) A) annelid. The embryo develops into a trochophore larva and eventually has a coelom and open circulation. D) They subsist on undigested food. phoronids. B) life stages resistant to desiccation. B) As adults. E) as a larval stage.
B) the opening to the digestive system or mouth. B. which becomes the anus 3) Which of these are characteristics of all members of the Vertebrata during at least a portion of their development as individuals? A) pharyngeal slits B) A and B only C) a dorsal hollow nerve cord D) post-anal tail E) A.Vertebrates MULTIPLE CHOICE. E) portions of the inner ear.Chapter 34 . and C 4) Pharyngeal gill slits appear to have functioned first as A) gill slits for respiration. Choose the one alternative that best completes the
statement or answers the question. 1) Which of the following is not a shared characteristic of all chordates? A) pharyngeal slits B) notochord C) four-chambered heart D) post-anal tail E) dorsal. C) suspension-feeding devices.
. D) components of the jaw. hollow nerve cord 2) What is one characteristic that separates chordates from all other animals? A) true coelom B) segmentation C) hollow dorsal nerve cord D) bilateral symmetry E) blastopore.
D) Recent work in molecular systematics supports the hypothesis that cephalochordates are the most recent common ancestor of all vertebrates. C) Modern cephalochordates are contemporaries of vertebrates. B) The first fossils resembling cephalochordates appeared in the fossil record at least 550 million years ago. and C
. E) The ample supply of fossil evidence enables biologists to retrace the origin of urochordates and cephalochordates. hollow nerve cord D) B and C E) A. not their ancestors. B) Molecular studies indicate that cephalochordates and vertebrates evolved from a common sessile ancestor by adaptative radiation. 7) Which chordate group is postulated to be most like the earliest chordates in appearance? A) Amphibia B) Cephalochordata C) Reptilia D) adult Urochordata E) Chondrichthyes 8) Which of the following structures is (are) characteristic of vertebrates? A) open circulation B) pharyngeal slits C) dorsal. B.5) Which of the following statements would be least acceptable to most zoologists? A) Cephalochordates display the same method of swimming as do fishes. E) The modern cephalochordates are the immediate ancestors of the vertebrates. D) It indicates that chordate characteristics are present in both the larval and adult forms of urochordates and cephalochordates. C) It supports the idea that a small number of genes may regulate development and thus influence evolution. 6) How does the study of urochordates and cephalochordates provide clues to the origin of vertebrates? A) It proves the hypothesis that chordate segmentation evolved independently of segmentation in annelids and arthropods.
SHORT ANSWER. It has the following characteristics: external "armor" of bony plates. evolved in late Carboniferous 14) three major groups: egg-laying. Chondrichthyes D. skin that resists drying. In addition to these characteristics. and a suspension-feeding mode of nutrition. more than once. For the following questions. A. Each choice may be used once. B) one or more of the bones of the cranium. or not at all. D) one or more gill slits. no paired fins. Write the word or phrase that best completes each statement
or answers the question. amniotic egg. pouched. C) scales of the lower lip. E) one or more of the vertebrae.9) A new species of aquatic chordate is discovered that closely resembles an ancient form. Amphibia B. match the characteristic or description with the class. and toads
. and placental 15) includes salamanders. it will probably have which of the following characteristics? A) legs B) metamorphosis C) an amniotic egg D) no jaws E) endothermy 10) In which class did jaws first occur? A) Agnatha B) Placodermi C) Ostracodermi D) Chondrichthyes E) Osteichthyes 11) The jaws of vertebrates were derived by the modification of A) one or more gill arches. Mammalia E. frogs. Reptilia 12) most members have a cartilaginous endoskeleton 13) internal fertilization.
Plant Evolution of Seed Plants
1) Answer: A 6) Answer: D 11) Answer: D 2) Answer: D 7) Answer: D 12) Answer: B 3) Answer: B 8) Answer: E 13) Answer: E 4) Answer: C 9) Answer: A 14) Answer: B 5) Answer: D 10) Answer: E 15) Answer: B
Chapter 31 .Fungi
1) Answer: B 6) Answer: E 11) Answer: A 2) Answer: E 7) Answer: C 12) Answer: E 3) Answer: B 8) Answer: B 13) Answer: E 4) Answer: C 9) Answer: E 14) Answer: A 5) Answer: E 10) Answer: D 15) Answer: D
Chapter 32 .Eukaryotes
1) Answer: B 6) Answer: B 11) Answer: E 2) Answer: B 7) Answer: D 12) Answer: B 3) Answer: D 8) Answer: D 13) Answer: D 4) Answer: B 9) Answer: E 14) Answer: C 5) Answer: E 10) Answer: C 15) Answer: E
Chapter 29 .Plant Colonization of Land
1) Answer: E 6) Answer: D 11) Answer: D 2) Answer: C 7) Answer: C 12) Answer: B 3) Answer: D 8) Answer: B 13) Answer: C 4) Answer: E 9) Answer: A 14) Answer: C 5) Answer: B 10) Answer: D 15) Answer: E
Chapter 30 .Animal Evolution
1) Answer: A 6) Answer: E 11) Answer: B 2) Answer: D 7) Answer: E 12) Answer: E 3) Answer: E 8) Answer: E 13) Answer: C 4) Answer: E 9) Answer: D 14) Answer: D 5) Answer: D 10) Answer: E 15) Answer: D
1) Answer: C 6) Answer: D 11) Answer: A 2) Answer: A 7) Answer: C 12) Answer: D 3) Answer: B 8) Answer: E 13) Answer: A 4) Answer: A 9) Answer: A 14) Answer: A 5) Answer: E 10) Answer: A 15) Answer: C
Chapter 28 .Origin of Life
1) Answer: E 6) Answer: A 11) Answer: D 2) Answer: D 7) Answer: C 12) Answer: B 3) Answer: D 8) Answer: D 13) Answer: C 4) Answer: A 9) Answer: E 14) Answer: A 5) Answer: B 10) Answer: C 15) Answer: A
Chapter 27 .Unit Five: Biological Diversity
Chapter 26 .
Chapter 33 .Vertebrates
1) Answer: C 6) Answer: C 11) Answer: A A 2) Answer: C 7) Answer: B 12) Answer: C 3) Answer: E 8) Answer: D 13) Answer: E 4) Answer: C 9) Answer: D 14) Answer: D 5) Answer: E 10) Answer: B 15) Answer:
1) Answer: B 6) Answer: E 11) Answer: D 2) Answer: A 7) Answer: B 12) Answer: E 3) Answer: A 8) Answer: A 13) Answer: B 4) Answer: D 9) Answer: D 14) Answer: D 5) Answer: D 10) Answer: E 15) Answer: C
Chapter 34 .