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third edition

third edition

A. Ivanovic MBA
P.H. Collin



Originally published by Peter Collin Publishing

Third edition published 2003
Second edition published 1996
First edition published 1989

Bloomsbury Publishing Plc
38 Soho Square
London W1D 3HB

© Copyright A. Ivanovic & P H Collin 1989, 1996

This edition © copyright Bloomsbury Publishing Plc 2003

All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced
in any form or by any means without the permission of the publishers

British Library Cataloguing-in-Publication Data

A catalogue record for this book is available from the British Library

ISBN 0-7475-6621-6
eISBN-13: 978-1-4081-0213-8
Text computer typeset by Bloomsbury Publishing
Printed in Italy by Legoprint


This dictionary provides the user with a comprehensive vocabulary of terms used in
marketing. It covers such aspects of the subject as market research, advertising,
promotional aids and selling techniques.

The main words are explained in simple English, and, where appropriate, examples
are given to show how the words are used in context. Quotations are also given from
various magazines and journals, which give an idea of how the terms are used in real

The Supplement at the back of the book gives some further information which may
be of use to the user.

We are particularly grateful to Margaret Jull Costa and Stephen Curtis for valuable
comments which they made on the text.


Business terminology changes rapidly, and this second edition includes a variety of
new terms and expressions which have come into use since the first edition was
published. We have also included new examples and quotations from recent

Also included is a pronunciation guide for the main entry words.


This third edition of the dictionary takes into account the many new terms that have
come into marketing with the growth of e-commerce and the Internet. The
supplement at the back of the book has also been comprehensively updated.

We are grateful to the following for their valuable comments on the text: Ian Linton,
Georgia Hole, Dinah Jackson and Sandra Anderson.

Vowels Consonants  back b buck ɑ harm d dead ɒ stop ð other a type d jump aυ how f fare aə hire  gold aυə hour h head ɔ course j yellow ɔ annoy k cab e head l leave eə fair m mix e make n nil eυ o s save  word ʃ shop i keep t take i happy tʃ change ə about θ theft  fit v value ə near w work u annual x loch u pool  measure υ book z zone υə tour & shut . Note that these are only guides as the stress of the word changes according to its position in the sentence. Stress has been indicated by a main stress mark (  ) and a secondary stress mark (  ).Pronunciation The following symbols have been used to show the pronunciation of the main words in the dictionary.

and finally absolute monopoly /bsəlut mə- closes the deal.g. as a by an area of the world which can pro. ing a smaller business part of a larger creases in fine weather 쑗 Low produc. one. noun the actual cost of placing an adver- tomer’s attention is attracted. iary company’s loss into the group ac- Compare below-the-line advertising counts 왍 a business which has been (NOTE: as opposed to direct marketing) absorbed by a competitor a small busi- ness which has been made part of a absenteeism /bs(ə)ntiz(ə)m/ larger one noun staying away from work for no good reason 쑗 the rate of absenteeism absorption /əbzɔpʃən/ noun mak- or the absenteeism rate always in. 쑗 Absenteeism is high in absorption costing /əbzɔpʃən the week before Christmas. seləretd dpriʃeʃ(ə)n/ noun a plete or total system of depreciation which reduces absolute advantage /bsəlut əd. to invest in new duce a product more cheaply than other equipment areas 쑗 For climatic reasons. Full form attention. 쑗 The supplier’s absolute noun the part of a webpage which is monopoly of the product meant that cus- seen first without having to scroll.ABC method 1 accelerator A ABC method /e bi si meθəd/ absolute cost /bsəlut kɒst/ noun a sales method. tropical accelerator /əkseləretə/ noun the countries have an absolute advantage in theory that a change in demand for con- that type of production. nɒpəli/ noun a situation where only benefit. so is preferred for advertising absorb /əbzɔb/ verb to take in a above-the-line advertising /əb v small item so as to form part of a larger ðə lan dvətazŋ/ noun advertising one 왍 overheads have absorbed all for which a payment is made and for our profits all our profits have gone in which a commission is paid to the ad. close one producer or supplier produces or ABCs abbr Audit Bureau of supplies something 쑗 The company has Circulations an absolute monopoly of imports of above-the-fold /əb v ðə fəυld/ French wine. kɒstŋ/ noun costing a product to in- ‘…but the reforms still hadn’t fundamentally clude both the direct costs of production changed conditions on the shop floor: absenteeism was as high as 20% on some days’ and the indirect overhead costs as well [Business Week] accelerated depreciation /ək- absolute /bsəlut/ adjective com. and tomers had to accept his terms. paying overhead expenses 왍 to absorb vertising agency. tisement in a magazine or other adver- person then shows the benefits of the tising medium product to the customer. the sales. sumer goods will result in a greater . the value of assets at a high rate in the vɑntd/ noun an advantage enjoyed early years to encourage companies. an advertisement a loss by a subsidiary to write a subsid- in a magazine or a stand at a trade fair. result of tax advantages. e. so that the smaller company in ef- tivity is largely due to the high level of fect no longer exists absenteeism. where the cus.

(in a shop) an arrangement noun a transaction where the seller takes which a customer has to buy goods and charge of the shipping documents for a pay for them at a later date. the money owed on an account 왍 to stop and therefore accepted by the buyer an account to stop supplying a cus- tomer until payment has been made for acceptor /əkseptə/ noun a person goods supplied 3. end of the month 쑗 to have an account cepts a bill of exchange 쑗 Acceptance or a charge account or a credit account against documents protects the seller with Harrods 쑗 Put it on my account or when sending goods which are not yet charge it to my account. acceptance sampling /əkseptəns to supply goods which you will pay for sɑmplŋ/ noun testing a small sample at a later date 왍 to open an account or of a batch to see if the whole batch is to close an account (of a shop) to start good enough to be accepted or to stop supplying a customer on accepted bill /əkseptd bl/ noun a credit 왍 to settle an account to pay all bill of exchange which has been signed. cause of the great distances involved. thus making a commitment to pay count to pay to settle part of a bill 왍 ad- it by a specified date vance on account money paid as a part access /kses/ noun 왍 to have ac. 쐽 verb one of our largest accounts.accept 2 account change in demand for the capital goods the computer. a record of cific terms apply 왍 we have his letter of financial transactions over a period of acceptance we have received a letter time. where the person signing (the ‘drawee’) fer 왍 to give an offer a conditional is helping another company (the acceptance to accept an offer provided ‘drawer’) to raise a loan that specific things happen or that spe. such as money paid. 쑗 The terms time taken by a computer to find data of the contract of employment are not stored in it acceptable to the candidate. account /əkaυnt/ noun 1. deʃ(ə)n bl/ noun a bill of exchange ceptance of an offer agreeing to an of. account (of a customer ) to ask a shop . accommodation bill /əkɒmə- acceptance /əkseptəns/ noun 왍 ac. people call on their best accounts twice puter 쑗 She accessed the address file on a month. market 2. mally to receive something or to be re. bor- from him accepting the offer rowed or owed 쑗 Please send me your acceptance against documents account or a detailed or an itemized ac- /əkseptəns ə"enst dɒkjυmənts/ count. 왍 to open an paid for. be- £2000 in lieu of notice 3. to agree for. the legal right to sell in a particular accept /əksept/ verb 1. part of the MasterCard network is being offered or to say ‘yes’ or to accessibility /əksesblti/ noun agree to something 쑗 to accept an offer the ability of a market to be reached by of employment 쑗 she accepted the offer promotion and distribution 쑗 There is of a job in Australia 쑗 he accepted much demand in the market. 쑗 Our sales to call up data which is stored in a com. a customer who does a large cess to something to be able to obtain amount of business with a firm and has or reach something 쑗 She has access to an account with it 쑗 Smith Brothers is large amounts of venture capital. but. 앳 access to the market used in their production 1. accessibility is a problem. which can be accepted 쑗 Both parties access time /kses tam/ noun the found the offer acceptable. usually the consignment of goods when a buyer ac. to take something which banks. 5. 쑗 We must sponsible for something analyse the geographical aspects in as- acceptable /əkseptəb(ə)l/ adjective sessing the market’s accessibility. 2. of a total bill 왍 to pay money on ac- ing it. 왍 to keep the accounts to . to take some. payment 4. the ability to reach a market thing which is being offered 왍 to accept by promotion and distribution delivery of a shipment to take goods Access /kses/ a credit card system into the warehouse officially when they formerly operated by some British are delivered 2. 왍 on account as part who accepts a bill of exchange by sign. received.

account director /əkaυnt da. advertisement or catalogue 쑗 As the ad- a person who examines accounts vertisement was clearly not an accurate description of the product. 2. as mndə/ noun the manager of an ac- the company had decided to switch its counts department account. responsible for specific clients achiever /ətʃivə/ noun a person who account executive /əkaυnt ". accredited agent /əkredtd edənt/ noun an agent who is ap- accountancy /əkaυntənsi/ noun the pointed by a company to act on its work of an accountant 쑗 They are study. STOCK EXCHANGE a period during an advertising agency. borrowed or owed marketing approach. company decided it needed a different received. 쑗 The designers accountant /əkaυntənt/ noun 1. accurately /kjυrətli/ adverb cor- rektə/ noun a person who works in an rectly 쑗 The second quarter’s drop in advertising agency and who oversees sales was accurately forecast by the various account managers who are each computer. 쐽 verb 왍 to account for to ex- plain and record a money transaction 쑗 accounts payable /əkaυnts to account for a loss or a discrepancy 쑗 peəb(ə)l/ noun money owed by a The reps have to account for all their company expenses to the sales manager. person who keeps a company’s accounts 쑗 The chief accountant of a manufactur.accountancy 3 achiever write each sum of money in the account account handler /əkaυnt book 쑗 The bookkeeper’s job is to enter hndlə/. work of recording money paid. is successful or who tends to achieve his zekjυtv/ noun an employee who or her objectives 쑗 It was her reputation looks after customers or who is the link as a high achiever that made us think of between customers and the company headhunting her. and who is re- which shares are traded for credit. and at sponsible for a particular client the end of which the shares bought must ‘…we have moved the account because we be paid for (NOTE: On the London thought it would be better suited in a smaller Stock Exchange. a no. 쏡 VALS . where the and have a degree in Commerce or Accounting’ agency deals with all promotion for the [Australian Financial Review] company 쑗 The company has moved its accounts department /əkaυnts $3m account to another agency. the company account book /əkaυnt bυk/ noun a had to pay a fine. there are twenty-four agency’ [Marketing Week] accounts during the year. 쑗 Three agencies accounts manager /əkaυnts were asked to make presentations. behalf ing accountancy or They are accoun- tancy students.) 7. machine an arrangement which a company has ‘…applicants will be professionally qualified with an advertising agency. (NOTE: American accurate /kjυrət/ adjective correct English is accounting in this meaning) 쑗 The sales department made an accu- rate forecast of sales. a person who advises a skrpʃən/ noun an honest and true de- company on its finances 쑗 I send all my scription of a product or service in an income tax queries to my accountant. each running accounting /əkaυntŋ/ noun the usually for ten working days. 쑗 It is not an accurate book with printed columns which is description of the product to state that it used to record sales and purchases gives out more light than the sun. mndə/ noun a person who works in 6. account manager /əkaυnt all the money received in the accounts. accurate description /kjυrət d- ing group. borrowed or owed 쑗 accounting take inflation into account to assume methods or accounting procedures 쑗 that there will be a specific percentage accounting system 쑗 accounting of inflation when making calculations 8. re- tice 왍 to take account of inflation or to ceived. a produced an accurate copy of the plan. 3. 쑗 The dpɑtmənt/ noun a department in a small agency lost the account when the company which deals with money paid.

line with changes in consumer re- tory is our latest acquisition. is sold.acknowledge 4 ad hoc acknowledge /əknɒld/ verb to tell was carried out to see how fast the ma- a sender that a letter. 쑗 We (informal ) 쑗 We put an ad in the paper. adaptation /dpteʃ(ə)n/ noun 1. 2. are deducted bolic Instruction Code. which is keeping the loy. 2.. nɒldmənt/ noun the act of Ad-A-Card /d ə kɑd/ noun US a acknowledging 쑗 She sent an acknowl. Full form a classifica. will help us plan where to concentrate our sales visits. acknowledge receipt of your letter of 쑗 She answered an ad in the paper. being the difference between catchy acronym. etc. He found his job through an ad in the acknowledgement /ək. type of perforated card bound into a edgement of receipt. thing a little to fit in with changing cir- tion of residential areas into categories. (NOTE: no plural) ment has arrived 쑗 He has still not ac. carried out at surveys to test customer reaction when random intervals 쑗 Activity sampling products are launched. e. much cal developments. Wages. 쏡 across-the-board /əkrɒs ðə bɔd/ Value Added Tax adjective (of an advertisement) running add-on sales /d ɒn selz/ noun for five consecutive days from Monday the sale of items which complement to Friday items being bought. taxes. adapt /ədpt/ verb to change some- ACORN /ekɔn/ noun a classifica. paper. the machine will cut square acquire /əkwaə/ verb to buy 쑗 to ac. package or ship. banner taining and classifying data 3. 쑗 BASIC is an acro. 쑗 Shipping by . from the added value to give the profit. 쑗 June 14th. the action of acquiring new customers. chinists worked. tion of residential neighbourhoods a small change 쑗 With a few minor ad- aptations. 쑗 The company magazine which a reader can tear off sent a letter of acknowledgement after I and return to the advertiser sent in my job application. for planning advertising expenditure in something bought 쑗 The chocolate fac. quire a company 쑗 We have acquired a something which has been adapted 쑗 new office building in the centre of This machine is an adaptation of our town.g. its cost and the amount received when it nym for Beginner’s All-purpose Sym. 쑗 The device has used in consumer research 쑗 ACORN been adapted for use on board aircraft. ad /d/ noun same as advertisement knowledged my letter of the 24th. washing pow- action shot /kʃən ʃɒt/ noun a der sold with a dishwasher scene with movement either in a film or address label /ədres leb(ə)l/ noun on TV a label with an address on it activity sampling /ktvti ad hoc /d hɒk/ adjective ‘for this sɑmplŋ/ noun an observation of tasks particular purpose’ 쑗 They run ad hoc and their performances. holes as well as round ones. original model. the act sponses to advertising of getting or buying something 왍 data ad banner /d bnə/ noun same as acquisition or acquisition of data ob. cumstances 쑗 This product must be based on the type of people who live in adapted in line with recent technologi- them. the type of houses. . etc. as opposed ad click /d klk/ noun same as to retention. click-through alty of existing customers ad click rate /d klk ret/ noun acronym /krənm/ noun a word same as click-through rate which is made up from the initials of added value /dd vlju/ noun an other words 쑗 The name of the company amount added to the value of a product was especially designed to provide a or service. acquirer /əkwaərə/ noun a person adaptive control model /ədptv or company which buys something kəntrəυl mɒd(ə)l/ noun US a model acquisition /kwzʃ(ə)n/ noun 1.

output of hoc research 5 advance airfreight was an ad hoc arrangement of other employees in a business 쑗 After initially. paid her an advance on account. a noun research carried out for a particu. manage or direct the whole of an adspend /dspend/ noun the organisation or part of one 쑗 She admin. advance early. djuti/ noun the duty calculated on the tion between businesses sales value of the goods administered price /ədmnstəd advance /ədvɑns/ noun 1. (NOTE: plural is admen) a poster site for advertisements in a bus shelter administer /ədmnstə/ verb to or- ganise. 쑗 Can pointed by the courts I have an advance of £100 against next administration costs /ədmn. same as click-through mnstəd tʃn(ə)l/ noun a distribu. 2. ad transfer /d trnsf&/ noun administered channel /əd. ad valorem duty /d vəlɔrəm tion channel in which there is coopera. early 쑗 advance booking 쑗 advance ministrative details 쑗 administrative payment 쑗 Advance holiday bookings expenses are up on last year. works in advertising (informal ) 쑗 The . 쑗 Widespread ‘…inflation-adjusted GNP moved up at a 1. she ad hoc research /d hɒk rs&tʃ/ hopes to become an administrator. money pras/ noun US a price fixed by a man. steel and paper product at various time periods after the decreased’ [Business Week] launch date 쑗 The adoption curve shows that most people who buy the product do adman /dmn/ noun a man who so at a fairly late stage. 왍 in management. adoption /ədɒpʃən/ noun the deci- thing to fit new conditions 쑗 to adjust sion to buy or use a particular product 쑗 prices to take account of inflation 쑗 More promotion was needed to speed up prices are adjusted for inflation adoption of the product. Adshel /dʃel/ noun a trademark for tional material. prices fixed in advance 쐽 adjective jective referring to administration 쑗 ad. several years as a college teacher. before something hap- marketing or distribution costs pens 쑗 freight payable in advance 쑗 administrative /ədmnstrətv/ ad.3% adoption of its new shampoo range has annual rate’ [Fortune] made the company the market leader. admen are using balloons as promo. 쐽 verb 1. electric power. ‘Saudi Arabia will no longer adjust its adoption curve /ədɒpʃən k&v/ production to match short-term supply with noun a line on a graph showing how demand’ [Economist] many consumers adopt or buy a new ‘…on a seasonally-adjusted basis. a person who directs the work drawals from the account. month’s salary? 2. if she could have a cash advance. amount of money spent on advertising isters a large pension fund. paid as a loan or as a part of a payment ufacturer which cannot be varied by a to be made later 쑗 to receive an advance retailer (NOTE: the British equivalent is from the bank 쑗 to make an advance of resale price maintenance) £100 to someone 쑗 to pay someone an administration /ədmnstreʃ(ə)n/ advance against a security 쑗 She asked noun the running of a company in re. 쑗 We ceivership by an administrator ap. to . person appointed by a court to manage lar client or in a particular market the affairs of someone who dies without leaving a will ad impression /d mpreʃ(ə)n/ noun same as ad view adopt /ədɒpt/ verb to agree to some- thing or to accept something adjacency /ədes(ə)nsi/ noun a commercial which is run between two adopter /ədɒptə/ noun a customer TV programmes who adopts a particular product adjust /əd st/ verb to change some. an increase 쑗 an ad- vance in trade with Eastern European streʃ(ə)n kɒsts/ noun the costs of countries 쑗 an advance in prices 3. not including production. 쑗 You must give administrator /ədmnstretə/ seven days’ advance notice of with- noun 1.

catalogue gives a list of advertisers. cannot afford as large an advertising vert in the paper 쑗 classified adverts 쑗 appropriation as last year. other companies advance freight /ədvɑns fret/ noun freight which is payable in advertising appeal /dvətazŋ ə- advance pil/ noun the appeal of an advertise- ment to the intended audience advance man /ədvɑns mn/ noun US a person who publicizes a perfor. advertising . /dvətazŋ kmpen/ noun ager in charge of the advertisement sec. advertising appropriation mance and sells tickets for it before the /dvətazŋ əprəυprieʃ(ə)n/ noun performers arrive money set aside by an organisation for its advertising 쑗 The marketing director advert /dv&t/ noun GB same as and the chief accountant have yet to fix advertisement (informal ) 쑗 to put an . 쑗 The advertising brief was advertisement /ədv&tsmənt/ not detailed enough and did not show noun 1. man distributors has been advanced designs and manages advertising for from 11. given by an advertiser to an employees 쑗 to advertise a vacancy 쑗 advertising agency 쑗 The brief stressed to advertise for a secretary 쑗 to adver- the importance of the market segment to tise a new product be targeted. that someone wants something or that a job is vacant 2. display adverts advertise /dvətaz/ verb to arrange advertising brief /dvətazŋ brif/ noun basic objectives and instruc- and pay for publicity designed to help tions concerning an advertising cam- sell products or services or to find new paign. to increase 쑗 Prices generally to take advertising space in a paper to advanced on the stock market. a short film on advertising budget /dvətazŋ television or a short announcement on b dt/ noun money planned for the radio which tries to persuade people spending on advertising 쑗 Our advertis- to use a product or service ing budget has been increased. 3. advertisement manager /əd. 쑗 Their new advertising amount a company spends on its campaign is being launched next week. then the government will son or company that advertises 쑗 The step in with legislation. 쑗 We advert in the paper 쑗 to answer an ad. to book space for an advertisement in a make something happen earlier 쑗 The newspaper date of the AGM has been advanced to advertising agency /dvətazŋ May 10th. advertising campaign v&tsmənt mndə/ noun the man.30. 2. the advertising appropriation. that a service is tiser wanted to create. advertising control /dvətazŋ v&tsmənt pn(ə)l/ noun a specially kəntrəυl/ noun legislative and other designed large advertising space in a measures to prevent abuses in advertis- newspaper ing 쑗 If voluntary advertising control advertiser /dvətazə/ noun a per.000 against the security of his ing agent to prepare a presentation. advertising department advertising /dvətazŋ/ noun the /dvətazŋ dpɑtmənt/ noun the business of announcing that something department in a company that deals with is for sale or of trying to persuade cus.advance freight 6 advertising expenditure lend 쑗 The bank advanced him 쑗 The company has asked an advertis- £100. a notice which shows that what sort of product image the adver- something is for sale. 쑗 The meeting with the Ger- edənsi/ noun an office which plans.00 to 09. doesn’t work. 왍 house. the company’s advertising tomers to buy a product or service 쑗 She advertising expenditure works in advertising or She has a job in /dvətazŋ kspendtʃə/ noun the advertising. offered. co-ordinated publicity or advertising tion of a newspaper drive to sell a product advertisement panel /əd.

e.g. 쑗 The poster does not arrive at Southampton on the morning use words to get its advertising message of the 10th. T-shirts. pany’s advocacy advertising had great ity /dvətazŋ stndədz ɔθɒrəti/ influence. a TV commercial 쑗 The prod. of its prestige as a producer. more financial of advertising a company’s products directors are getting involved in the advertising advertising medium /dvətazŋ process’ [Marketing Week] midiəm/ noun a type of advertise. products’ [International Journal of Advertising] advertising manager /dvətazŋ ‘…in 1987. ad view /d vju/ noun the number advertising rates /dvətazŋ of times an advertisement is down- rets/ noun the amount of money loaded from a webpage and assumed to charged for advertising space in a news. the advertising expenditure total was £6. specifying time and place of ment 쑗 Bad copywriting made the ad. been sent. etc. across. Abbr ASA cacy advertising has changed the pub- advertising time /dvətazŋ lic’s attitude to smoking. 쑗 Giant adver. (NOTE: plural for this on the advice note meaning is media) advice of dispatch /ədvas əv d- advertising message /dvətazŋ sptʃ/ noun communication from mesd/ noun whatever a company is seller to buyer stating that goods have trying to communicate in an advertise. 쑗 How much hɔdŋ/ noun a billboard or wooden advertising time does this programme surface onto which advertising posters allow for? are stuck 쑗 Advertising hoardings have advertising weight /dvətazŋ been taken down in the town since the wet/ noun the amount of advertising council banned posters. have been seen by a potential customer paper or advertising time on TV advise /ədvaz/ verb to tell someone advertising space /dvətazŋ what has happened 쑗 We have been ad- spes/ noun a space in a newspaper set vised that the shipment will arrive next aside for advertisements week. given to a brand tising hoardings were placed in fields on either side of the road. ‘The objective of advertising for new products membered tune or song to advertise a differs from that of advertising for improved product on television. cacy advertising condemned unhealthy sees the system of self-regulation in the additives in canned produce. telling someone what has happened 왍 as uct was advertised through the medium per advice according to what is written of the trade press. dvətazŋ/ noun advertising dis- ing time is cheapest in the afternoon. 쑗 The as yet have received no advice of dis- advertising message was aimed at the patch. the com- Advertising Standards Author. e. 쑗 The advice of dispatch in- wrong target audience and therefore got formed the buyer that the goods would little response. aerial advertising /eəriəl dio set aside for advertising 쑗 Advertis.advertising hoarding 7 aerial advertising advertising hoarding /dvətazŋ time over the telephone.264m’ [Precision Marketing] mndə/ noun the manager in charge ‘…as media costs have spiralled. advertising specialities advocacy advertising /dvəkəsi /dvətazŋ speʃiltiz/ plural noun dvətazŋ/ noun advertising by a special items given away as part of an business that expresses a particular advertising campaign. umbrellas.g. advice /ədvas/ noun a notification ment. etc. 쑗 The food company’s advo- noun the independent body which over. arrival 쑗 We have paid for the goods but vertising message unclear. 쑗 played in the air from balloons or planes They spent a month selling advertising or in smoke designs 쑗 Aerial advertis- . tam/ noun the time on television or ra. 쑗 Advo- British advertising industry. point of view on some issue 쑗 Because mugs. advertorial /dvətɔriəl/ noun text in a magazine which is not written by advertising jingle /dvətazŋ the editorial staff but by an advertiser dŋ"(ə)l/ noun a short and easily re.

after-sight /ɑftə sat/ noun a type rektəri/ noun a directory that lists of bill of exchange which is due to be websites belonging to affiliate paid on a specific day after acceptance programmes (NOTE: Affiliate directories agate /"ət/ noun US a measurement provide information both to companies of advertising space in a newspaper. of time allowed for payment after a spe- affiliate /əfliet/ noun a local TV sta. but won’t help me a list of properties for sale. an office and buttons advertising its products or or job of representing another company services on their websites and pays them in an area 쑗 They signed an agency a commission on any purchases made agreement or an agency contract. after-sales service /ɑftə selz nected with or owned by another com. that want to subscribe to a programme equal to one-fourteenth of an inch and to those who want to set up their own affiliate programmes. rather than what you person in charge of an agency 쑗 an ad- want to achieve 쑗 Affordable method vertising agent 쑗 The estate agent sent appeals to accountants. What age groups is this product meant filiate programmes to appeal to? 쑗 Research shows an in- affiliate partner /əfliət pɑtnə/ crease in smoking among the 18–20 age noun a company which puts advertising group. affiliated /əfletd/ adjective con. which is based on what in an area 쑗 to be the agent for IBM 2. in which a business per- suades other businesses to put banners agency /edəns/ noun 1. a you can afford. 쑗 after-date /ɑftə det/ noun a refer- Aerial advertising was used to attract ence on a bill of exchange to the length the attention of people on the beach. onto its website for other companies. an by their customers office or business which arranges things for other companies affinity card /əfnti kɑd/ noun credit card where a percentage of each agency commission /edəns purchase made is given by the credit kəmʃ(ə)n/ noun the commission card company to a stated charity charged by an advertising agency affluent /fluənt/ adjective very rich agency mark-up /edənsi mɑk 쑗 We live in an affluent society. after the machine has been bought affiliate directory /əfliət da.) age group /ed "rup/ noun a cate- gory including all people whose ages affiliate marketing /əfliət fall between two established points 쑗 mɑktŋ/ noun marketing that uses af. which forms money in liquid assets parts of the agency’s commission affluent society /fluənt səsaəti/ agency roster /edənsi rɒstə/ noun a type of society where most peo. age limit /ed lmt/ noun the top who pay for this service age at which you are allowed to do a job affiliate programme /əfliət 쑗 There is an age limit of thirty-five on prəυ"rm/ noun a form of advertising the post of buyer. s&vs/ noun a service of a machine pany 쑗 Smiths Ltd is one of our carried out by the seller for some time affiliated companies. travel agent. . on the web. a person who how much can be spent on marketing represents a company or another person and promotion.affiliate 8 agent ing proved to be an effective gimmick. noun a group of different advertising ple are rich agencies all working for a large affordable method /əfɔdəb(ə)l company meθəd/ noun a method of budgeting agent /edənt/ noun 1. cific date 쑗 The after-date allowed the tion which is part of a national network buyer three months in which to pay. 왍 the p/ noun an amount added by an adver- mass affluent people with large sums of tising agency to purchases. 2. 쑗 Our us achieve a high enough market share trip was organised through out local for the product.

aided recall /edd rkɔl/ noun a thing 쑗 She agreed to be chairman. paid to an agent the buyer and seller aggregate /"r"ət/ adjective total. action something to say that you will do some. 쑗 The agreed ing and advertising 쑗 The recession has terms of employment are laid down in affected aids-to-trade and the industries the contract.agent’s commission 9 aid-to-trade agent’s commission /edənts agreed price /ə"rid pras/ noun a kəmʃ(ə)n/ noun money. 2. price which has been accepted by both centage of sales. 왍 to agree to/on some. agreement /ə"rimənt/ noun a spo- with everything added together 쑗 ag. ‘…after three days of tough negotiations the pla/ noun all goods and services on the company has reached agreement with its 1. compa. 쑗 Aided recall has strategy.200 market 쑗 Is aggregate supply meeting unionized workers’ [Toronto Star] aggregate demand? agreement of sale /ə"rimənt əv aggregator /"r"etə/ noun a sel/ noun a written contract that sets website which collects news from other out in detail the terms agreed between websites. often a per. to approve 쑗 The that your opinions are the same as some- auditors have agreed the accounts. to be the same as 쑗 The auditors’ fig- gets for next year.000. agreement 쑗 to sign an agreement 쑗 to nies and the government 쑗 Economists witness an agreement 쑗 to reach an are studying the recent fall in aggregate agreement or to come to an agreement demand. arouse a Desire and provoke company £250. 쑗 The boss has ures do not agree with those of the ac- agreed your prices. 쑗 The terms of the counts department. desire. 3. 2. bers an advertisement by giving the re- sign? 왍 to agree on something (of a spondent some help such as a picture group of people) to come to a joint deci. bank- is leased on agreed terms. 쑗 Even aided recall brought no reaction nally agreed on a new marketing from the respondent. 쑗 one else’s 쑗 I agree with the chairman The figures were agreed between the that the figures are lower than normal. act 쑗 a written agreement 쑗 an unwrit- mɑnd/ noun total demand for goods ten or verbal agreement 쑗 to draw up or and services from all sectors of the to draft an agreement 쑗 to break an economy. ment on trade 쑗 a collective wage agreement 쑗 a marketing agreement aggregate supply /"r"ət sə. which he or she might associate with it sion about something 쑗 They have fi. to say agree /ə"ri/ verb 1. interest. Full form atten- the need for action. (NOTE: also called agreed /ə"rid/ adjective which has prompted recall) been accepted by everyone 쑗 We pay an aid-to-trade /ed tə tred/ noun a agreed amount each month. two parties. to say aid /ed/ noun something which helps yes to something that is suggested 쑗 It 쐽 verb to help has been agreed that the lease will run for 25 years. such as individuals.e. 쑗 At that time. 쑗 The shop service which supports trade. e. 왍 to agree to do tion. i. they support and supply. so on something 쑗 an international agree- has aggregate demand. you attract their Attention. contract are still to be agreed.g. AIDA noun a model showing stages in thing to approve something 쑗 After the effects of advertising on consumers. . 쑗 As incomes have risen. 쑗 We all agreed on Action to purchase. 쑗 We have agreed the bud. 쑗 Can we agree on a date for shown that we must make our advertis- the new product launch? ing more striking. 쑗 test to see how well someone remem- Will the finance director agree to re. keep their 쑗 The bank will never agree to lend the Interest. some discussion he agreed to our plan. allowing rapid syndication of the buyer and the seller when a property information is sold AGM abbr annual general meeting agree with /ə"ri wð/ verb 1. ken or written contract between people gregate output or groups which explains how they will aggregate demand /"r"ət d.

magazine inserts. etc. all-in price /- pany which sends cargo or passengers ɔl n pras/ noun a price which cov- by air ers all items in a purchase such as deliv- air forwarding /eə fɔwədŋ/ noun ery. [Business Traveller] air letter /eə letə/ noun a special ‘…the compensation plan includes base. sheet of thin blue paper which when incentive and car allowance totalling $50. alternate /ɔlt&nət/ adjective differ- ing letters or parcels by air 쑗 to send a ent from what is actually used package by airmail 쑗 Airmail charges alternate media /ɔlt&nət midiə/ have risen by 15%. adjective forms of advertising which are ters or parcels by air 쑗 We airmailed the not direct mailing. TV commercials.g. 1 in the market within two à la carte / l kɑt/ noun a system years. tax and insurance. etc. airtime noun the aid-to-trade. 쑗 All the air time in the company has done all the things it had world won’t sell this product.000+’ [Globe and Mail (Toronto)] folded can be sent by air mail without an envelope (NOTE: American English is alpha activity /lfə ktvti/ noun aerogramme) the measurement of a person’s brain ac- airline /eəlan/ noun a company tivity as a way of measuring their reac- which carries passengers or cargo by air tion to an advertisement airmail /eəmel/ noun a way of send. allowance for exchange loss ment to Mexico 쑗 We airfreighted the ‘…most airlines give business class the same shipment because our agent ran out of baggage allowance as first class’ stock. all-in rate /ɔl n ret/. airmail envelope /eəmel alternative close /ɔlt&nətv envələυp/ noun a very light envelope kləυz/ noun an act of ending a sales ne- for sending airmail letters gotiation by asking the customer to airmail transfer /eəmel trnsf&/ choose something such as a method of noun sending money from one bank to payment another by airmail ambient media /mbiənt midiə/ airtight /eətat/ adjective which does noun advertising media outdoors.aim 10 ambient media advertising was the fastest expanding air time /eə tam/. e. not allow air to get in 쑗 The goods are posters. hoped to do 쐽 verb to try to do some. document to New York. 쐽 verb to send let. as well as the the process of arranging for goods to be goods themselves shipped by air allowable expenses /əlaυəb(ə)l air freight /eə fret/ noun a method kspensz/ plural noun business ex- of shipping goods in an aircraft 쑗 to penses which can be claimed against tax send a shipment by air freight 쑗 air allowance /əlaυəns/ noun money re- freight tariffs are rising moved in the form of a discount 쑗 an al- airfreight /eəfret/ verb to send lowance for depreciation 쑗 an goods by air 쑗 to airfreight a consign. aisle /al/ noun a space or passageway thing 쑗 Each sales rep must aim to dou. . between the shelves of products on dis- ble their previous year’s sales. buses. we need for this commercial? 쑗 We crease the quality of our products. whereby advertisers use the services of air /eə/ noun a method of travelling or a whole range of businesses rather than sending goods using aircraft 쑗 to send a relying on one agency over a long letter or a shipment by air period air carrier /eə kriə/ noun a com. time set aside for advertising on televi- aim /em/ noun something which you sion or radio 쑗 How much air time do try to do 쑗 One of our aims is to in.g. 왍 the should look for air time on the new ra- company has achieved all its aims the dio station. e. 쑗 We play in a supermarket aim to be No. advertisements on the sides of packed in airtight containers.

a job pared at the end of a financial year 쑗 appraisal /əprez(ə)l/ noun a calcu- The annual accounts have been sent to lation of the value of someone or the shareholders. a film made from drawings any other business /eni ðə annual /njuəl/ adjective for one bzns/ noun an item at the end of an year 쑗 an annual statement of income 쑗 agenda. anti-dumping /ntid mpŋ/ adjec- animatic /nmtk/ noun a rough tive intended to stop surplus goods be- outline version of a television commer. 쑗 Advertising was the of ours? fastest expanding ancillary-to-trade at anti. 쑗 The anti-inflationary measure /nti animatic impressed the advertiser be. profit sharing and a company car together with four weeks annual holiday’ application form /plkeʃ(ə)n [Times] fɔm/ noun a form to be filled in when annual accounts /njuəl ə. ‘…real wages have risen at an annual rate of appeal /əpil/ noun being attractive only 1% in the last two years’ [Sunday Times] apperception /pəsepʃən/ noun 쒁 ‘…the remuneration package will include an thematic apperception test attractive salary. where any matter can be raised. chooses the anonymous product instead port and supply. e. applying for a new issue of shares or for kaυnts/ plural noun the accounts pre. the cre. sent to all the examination and report 쑗 a job analysis shareholders 쑗 market analysis 쑗 Her job is to pro- anonymous product /ənɒnməs duce a regular sales analysis. 쑗 What happens if the respondent ies-to-trade and the industries they sup. sure taken to reduce inflation 쑗 If the animatic is approved. used in advertise- analyst /nəlst/ noun a person who ments to highlight the product being analyses 쑗 a market analyst 쑗 a systems promoted 쑗 Brand X is the anonymous analyst product which never gets your washing ancillary-to-trade /nsləri tə completely white. The recession has affected ancillar. dpriʃieʃ(ə)n/ noun a reduction in the tion campaign to an event such as a book value of an asset at a particular sporting contest which is sponsored by rate per year. competition 쑗 anti-trust laws or animation /nmeʃ(ə)n/ noun a legislation cartoon film. analyze verb to noun money received during a calendar examine someone or something in detail year 쑗 to analyse a statement of account 쑗 to annual report /njuəl rpɔt/ noun analyse the market potential a report of a company’s financial situa- analysis /ənləss/ noun a detailed tion at the end of a year. 쏡 straight line another manufacturer without paying a depreciation fee annual income /njuəl nk m/ analyse /nəlaz/. 쑗 Abbr AOB The company has an annual growth of AOB abbr any other business 5%. They have six weeks’ annual leave.g. (NOTE: prɒd kt/ noun a product with no ap- plural is analyses) parent brand name./nti/ prefix against that time. something . banking and advertising 쑗 ymous product was as bad is it seemed. 쑗 No one watching tred/ noun a service which supports the commercial would believe the anon- trade. anti-trust /nti tr st/ adjective at- ative team will begin work on the final tacking monopolies and encouraging product. ing sold in foreign markets at a price cial shown to the advertiser for approval that is lower than their marginal cost 쑗 The animatic was sent back to the agency with several criticisms.ambush marketing 11 appraisal ambush marketing /mbυʃ annual depreciation /njuəl mɑktŋ/ noun the linking of a promo. nfleʃ(ə)n(ə)ri meə/ noun a mea- cause it put the message over stylishly.

2. how much is in arrears owing money which should being put into the reserves etc. 쑗 You must not allow the mort- as how much has been given to the gage payments to fall into arrears. 쑗 We have had an approach from a Japanese company to buy our arithmetic mean /rθmetk car division. s&tʃ/ noun looking for information posal 쑗 He approached the bank with a that has already been compiled and pub- request for a loan. have been paid earlier 쑗 The payments approval /əpruv(ə)l/ noun 1. 쑗 After three years as is good 쑗 The chairman approves of the an agency photographer. 2. agree. Most managers now take it for granted that they will appraise and be APR abbr annual percentage rate appraised’ [Personnel Management] area /eəriə/ noun 1. 쑗 She has had an approach min/ noun same as average from a firm of headhunters. but which has not been a special purpose 쑗 appropriation of paid at the right time 쑗 a salary with ar- funds to the reserve rears effective from January 1st 쑗 ar- rears of interest 쑗 to allow the payments appropriation account /əprəυpri. to fall into arrears 쑗 salary with arrears eʃ(ə)n əkaυnt/ noun the part of a effective from January 1st 쑗 We are profit and loss account which shows pressing the company to pay arrears of how the profit has been dealt with such interest. problem area or an area for concern 2. on the market 쑗 a black market in lux- . are six months in arrears. (NOTE: also called offer of a job.appraiser 12 article ‘…we are now reaching a stage in industry and prove the terms of a contract 쑗 The commerce where appraisals are becoming part proposal was approved by the board. 2. son who estimates how much money a part of a country. sales staff do not approve of interfer. 쐽 verb to armchair research /ɑmtʃeə r- get in touch with someone with a pro. 왍 shareholders as dividends. to thing for sale 쑗 to launch a new article agree to something officially 쑗 to ap. desk research) appropriation /əprəυprieʃ(ə)n/ arrears /ərəz/ plural noun 1. 쑗 The company was lished in reference books such as direc- approached by an American publisher tories 쑗 Most of our armchair research with the suggestion of a merger. 쑗 She was search. coordinator of creative work in advertis- tory 쑗 to buy a photocopier on approval ing 쑗 The art director briefed the copy- approve /əpruv/ verb 1. 쑗 He finds it difficult to appro /prəυ/ noun same as ap. 왍 on approval a sale where the buyer art director /ɑt darektə/ noun a only pays for goods if they are satisfac. 쑗 The art director. touch with someone with a proposal 쑗 area manager /eəriə mndə/ The company made an approach to the noun a manager who is responsible for a supermarket chain. 쑗 We can be done in libraries. a product or ence from the accounts division. a division for com- something is worth mercial purposes 쑗 Her sales area is the North-West. proval 왍 to buy something on appro to buy something which you will only area code /eəriə kəυd/ noun a spe- pay for if it is satisfactory cial telephone number which is given to a particular area 쑗 The area code for approach /əprəυtʃ/ noun getting in central London is 0207. 쑗 He is six ment 쑗 to submit a budget for approval weeks in arrears with his rent. of the management culture. he was made new company letter heading. money noun the act of putting money aside for which is owed. cover all his area in a week. 쑗 If we cannot have been approached several times but find all the data through armchair re- have turned down all offers. article /ɑtk(ə)l/ noun 1. 쑗 The board turned company’s work in a specific part of the down all approaches on the subject of country mergers. a subject 쑗 a appraiser /əprezə/ noun US a per. 왍 to ap. we shall have to do a market approached by a headhunter with the survey of our own. writer and illustrator on the main points prove of something to think something of the campaign.

it would have a factory with new sections added to it as branch network at least 20 times larger than any it goes along 쑗 She works on an assem. 쑗 prəυ"rm/ noun same as affiliate Artificial obsolescence means that no programme product can be fashionable for very assortment /əsɔtmənt/ noun a long. 쑗 Her assets are ment such as a contract. combination of goods sold together 쑗 artwork /ɑtw&k/ noun an original The box contains an assortment of choc- work to be used for an advertisement. etc. the pro. a way of encouraging customer inter- belongs to a company or person. a section of a legal agree.000 group outlets nationwide. the effect that the medium itself culation of value 쑗 an assessment of through which an advertisement is pre- damages 쑗 a property assessment 쑗 as. and then ask- price which the seller is hoping will be ing further details of payments.article numbering system 13 atmospherics ury articles 2. sented has on the audience sessment of damages 쑗 a tax assessment atmospherics /tməsferks/ noun asset /set/ noun something which 1.000. drawings. of the major banks’ [Nikkei Weekly] bly line or She is an assembly line atmosphere /tməsfə/ noun 1. price is £24. 쑗 only £640 as against liabilities of see article 8 of the contract £24.g. etc. using a series of digits which can be expressed as bar codes asset stripping /set strpŋ/ noun the practice of buying a company artificial obsolescence at a lower price than its asset value. 2. machine together because the instruc. article numbering system ‘…many companies are discovering that a well-recognised brand name can be a priceless /ɑtk(ə)l n mbərŋ sstəm/ noun a asset that lessens the risk of introducing a new universal system of identifying articles product’ [Duns Business Month] for sale. photographs assumptive close /əs mptv ASA abbr Advertising Standards kləυz/ noun an act of ending the sales Authority negotiation by assuming that the cus- asking price /ɑskŋ pras/ noun a tomer has agreed to buy. by putting an asterisk against their cess of putting an item together from names in the phone book various parts 쑗 There are no assembly instructions to show you how to put the ATM abbr automated telling machine computer together. Spain. olates with different centres. and est by using the senses such as smell and which has a value 쑗 He has an excess of sound 2. assets over liabilities. tions for assembly are in Japanese. Denmark. With the bank setting up ATMs at such as a car moves slowly through the 7. paid for the item being sold 쑗 the asking delivery. creating an overall image of a . 쑗 We can’t put the ‘Swiss banks are issuing new cards which will allow cash withdrawals from ATMs in Belgium. general feeling in a shop or shopping assessment /əsesmənt/ noun a cal. and /ɑtfʃ(ə)l ɒbsəles(ə)ns/ noun the then selling its assets practice of deliberately making old models seem out of date by bringing out asset value /set vlju/ noun the new ones with changes and additional value of a company calculated by add- features which will attract the customer ing together all its assets 쑗 Artificial obsolescence is making our associate programme /əsəυsiət products seem cheap and disposable. treaty. area 2. the Netherlands. e. France. an Portugal and Germany’ [Banking Technology] official meeting ‘…the major supermarket operator is planning a assembly line /əsembli lan/ noun new type of bank that would earn 90% of its a production system where a product revenue from fees on automated teller machine transactions.000 asterisk law /stərsk lɔ/ noun a assay mark /se mɑk/ noun a law which prevents telemarketing agen- mark put on gold or silver items to show cies from trying to sell to people who that the metal is of the correct quality have indicated that they do not want to be approached by telephone salesmen assembly /əsembl/ noun 1. the worker. layouts.

g. etc. 쑗 They an- it and then buys it again when he finds it nounced a sale by auction of the is satisfactory. company they work for.ATR 14 Audit Bureau of Circulations company through the design of its pre. attitude survey /ttjud s&ve/ noun 1. e. the number of people /ttjud testŋ/ noun the act of as. 쑗 Attri. media that can be seen and heard. to carry out the annual audit tion showed the company that brand Audit Bureau of Circulations loyalty could not be taken for granted. US auction rooms tisement a person’s reaction to an audience /ɔdiəns/ noun 1.e. the num- advertisement ber of people who watch a TV attitude measurement /ttjud programme or listen to a radio meəmənt/. desire audit /ɔdt/ noun the examination of for a change 쑗 We must adapt our prod. in the loyalty of consumers to a product. lifestyles. s&tʃ/. attitude testing programme 2. attitude research /ttjud r. ment was sold by auction or at auction. sex. which the machinery was auctioned off. fire-damaged stock. especially of items such as attitude /ttjud/ noun the way in antiques or paintings which a person behaves or thinks 왍 a auction mart /ɔkʃən mɑt/ noun person’s attitude towards an adver. linking auctioneer /ɔkʃənə/ noun the per- shopping and office areas and son who conducts an auction restaurants auction house /ɔkʃən haυs/ noun attention /ətenʃən/ noun careful a company which specialises in holding thought or consideration auction sales. who are exposed to an advertisement certaining the way in which a person audience accumulation /ɔdiəns views something by assigning scores to əkjumjυleʃ(ə)n/ noun the building various factors 쑗 Attitude measurement up of an audience by repeating adver- has given us a good idea of how con. repeat up for auction to offer an item for sale atrium /etriəm/ noun a very large at an auction 쐽 verb to sell something at open space in a building. where the customer becomes 쑗 Their furniture will be sold in the auc- aware of the product. i. /ɔdt bjυərəυ əv s&kjυleʃ(ə)nz/ . and the item is sold to the person who ATR noun a model showing stages in makes the highest offer 쑗 The equip- the effects of advertising on the con. of an audience to an advertising panies producing them 2. are positive or which records details of a viewer’s negative viewing habits attitude scale /ttjud skel/ noun audiovisual /ɔdiəυ vuəl/ noun a device which measures or tests atti. Full form awareness. buys it once to try tion rooms next week. sumer. research that campaign attempts to discover whether people’s audimeter /ɔdmitə/ noun an elec- feelings about something. fountains and plants. usually with a an auction 쑗 The factory was closed and glass roof. the act of carrying out audience research /ɔdiəns r- a survey to discover people’s attitudes s&tʃ/ noun research into the attitudes to products. a tudes by analysing a subject’s responses TV commercial 쑗 The exhibition was devoted to the latest in audiovisual attrition /ətrʃ(ə)n/ noun a decrease equipment. advertisements or the com. 왍 to put an item trial. tisements over a period of time sumers view our product. acts as a central meeting point. auction /ɔkʃən/ noun a method of mises and products selling goods where people make bids. due to factors such as boredom. the books and accounts of a company 쑗 ucts if we are to avoid attrition. such as the tronic device attached to a TV set. 쑗 Will attitude testing lead to the redesigning of these audience composition /ɔdiəns heaters? kɒmpəzʃ(ə)n/ noun the way an audi- ence is made up. the age range.

average 쑗 sales average or average of maximal awareness . 왍 on average in general 쑗 On publishes the circulation of magazines average. the average cost of producing one unit tomatic vending /ɔtəmtk of a product vendŋ/ noun selling through a ma- average due date /v(ə)rd dju chine 쑗 Automatic selling is popular be- det/ noun the average date when sev- cause of the low labour costs involved. au. eral different payments fall due automatic telling machine average frequency /v(ə)rd /ɔtəmtk telŋ məʃin/ noun a ma. ‘…the average price per kilogram for this season to the end of April has been 300 cents’ ary 1st. crease in prices 쑗 the average price 쑗 tion service etc. average quarter-hour figure being easily obtained 왍 offer subject to /v(ə)rd kwɔtər aυə f"ə/ adjec- availability the offer is valid only if the tive the average number of people goods are available 2. automatic /ɔtəmtk/ adjective ‘…a share with an average rating might yield 5 which works or takes place without any per cent and have a PER of about 10’ person making it happen 쑗 There is an [Investors Chronicle] automatic increase in salaries on Janu. 쑗 What average fre- /ɔtəmtk vendŋ məʃin/ noun a quency do we need to get this advertise- machine which provides drinks. 쑗 The average sales per representative aural signature /ɔrəl s"ntʃə/ are rising. ment across to the target audience? rettes etc. 쏡 ATR. not very good 쑗 The com- noun musical sounds used as a signature pany’s performance has been only aver- to identify a product or service age. 2. the middle of a augmented product /ɔ"mentd set of figures 쑗 the average figures for prɒd kt/ noun a product with added the last three months 쑗 the average in- benefits such as warranties or installa. of being conscious of an advertise- ber calculated by adding several figures ment’s message or of a brand’s exis- together and dividing by the number of tence and qualities 쑗 The survey after figures added 쑗 the average for the last the campaign showed advertising three months or the last three months’ awareness had remained low. auto. watching a TV programme during a ber of advertising slots which are avail. kɒst prasŋ/ noun pricing based on matic selling /ɔtəmtk selŋ/. ciga. advertisement 쑗 We will have to buy a structions given lot of advertising time to attain a high automatic vending machine average frequency.augmented product 15 awareness noun an organisation which verifies and sales 2. 쑗 He’s only an average worker. The average cost per unit is too high. frikwənsi/ noun the average number chine which gives out money when a of times a consumer will see a particular special card is inserted and special in. 15-minute period able to be used awareness /əweənəs/ noun the state average /v(ə)rd/ noun 1. [Australian Financial Review] automatic merchandizing average cost pricing /v(ə)rd /ɔtəmtk m&tʃəndazŋ/. 쐽 adjective 1. 쑗 Sales very little supervision by people increases have averaged out at 15%. the time and num.. availability /əveləblət/ noun 1. Abbr ABCs every day. when a coin is put in average out /v(ə)rd aυt/ verb automation /ɔtəmeʃ(ə)n/ noun to come to a figure as an average 쑗 It the use of machines to do work with averages out at 10% per annum. a num. £15 worth of goods are stolen and newspapers.

rather than with indi.) pany’s backers has withdrawn. increased rapidly ers (NOTE: The word is most commonly back /bk/ noun the opposite side to used of business-to-business dealings the front 쑗 Write your address on the conducted over the Internet. 쑗 She is looking for someone Businesses have to register to take to back her project. 쑗 One of the com- dealings conducted over the Internet. past work or experience 쑗 My back- . part in B2B auctions by providing their ‘…the businesses we back range from start-up credit-card information and shipping ventures to established companies in need of preferences.) back of the envelope. 쑗 The conditions B2B auction /bi tə bi ɔkʃən/ of sale are printed on the back of the in- noun a web marketplace where supplier voice. a piece of publicity material to consumers via its website placed at the back of a display or stand baby boomer /bebi buməz/ noun background /bk"raυnd/ noun a market composed of people born dur. which can be noun business done by companies with used for advertising other companies. 쑗 The pay increase is backdated to January 1st. Internet 쑗 The chairman was asked out for a B2C /bi tə si/ adjective referring to meal by the sales director of the other advertising or marketing that is aimed at company to try a little backdoor selling. consumers rather than at other busi. a person or nesses (NOTE: The word is most com. while the buyer company someone to help someone financially 쑗 waits until the sellers have reduced the The bank is backing us to the tune of price to one that it can afford (NOTE: £10. 2.000. and also have to agree to further capital for expansion’ [Times] the site’s code of conduct. past 쑗 a back payment 쐽 verb 왍 to back uct or service.B2B 16 background B B2B /bi tə bi/ adjective referring to ing the period from 1945 to 1965. 왍 the B2C website /bi tə si websat/ backer of a bill the person who backs a noun an online shop that sells products bill 3. the back. cheque or an invoice 쑗 Backdate your tʃend/ noun same as exchange invoice to April 1st. 쐽 adjective referring to the fer the lowest price for a particular prod. when advertising or marketing that is aimed at the population of the UK and the USA other businesses rather than at consum. backdate /bkdet/ verb to put an vidual consumers earlier date on a document such as a B2B exchange /bi tə bi ks. company that backs someone 쑗 He has monly used of business-to-consumer an Australian backer.) back cover /bk k və/ noun the B2B commerce /bi tə bi kɒm&s/ back of a magazine cover. B2B web exchange /bi tə bi web kstʃend/ noun same as backdoor selling /bkdɔ selŋ/ exchange noun the practice of bypassing an or- ganisation’s bureaucracy and selling di- B2B website /bi tə bi websat/ rect to the chief decision-maker in it 쑗 If noun a website that is designed to help we did not resort to backdoor selling the businesses trade with each other on the right department might never hear of us. backer /bkə/ noun 1. 쑗 Please endorse the cheque on companies bid against one another to of.

쑗 Backward integra- for the results of the survey’ [Lloyd’s List] tion will ensure cheap supplies but for- ward integration would bring us nearer backload /bkləυd/ verb to make to the market. US a metal holder on wheels. used to at- /bk əv ðə haυs s&vsz/ plural tract customers into a shop noun services which are in the back part of a shop bait and switch /bet ənd swtʃ/ noun a sales technique where the sales- back orders /bk ɔdəz/ plural person offers what looks like an attrac- noun orders received and not yet ful.e.g. backlog /bklɒ"/ noun work which baggage cart /b"d kɑt/ noun has piled up waiting to be done. gether. integration) so that they can be regulated according to the response received.. counts 쑗 The company has written off pare frontload £30. at a loss to attract customers 쑗 This is an attractive enough product to use as bait. e. where most of the costs which has to be written off in the ac- are incurred in the early stages. 쑗 Who with different stages in the production is providing the backing for the project? or sale of the same product join to- 쑗 Where does the backing for the pro. atrium backup copy /bk p kɒpi/ noun a etc. Com. usually because the item is out of minute that it is not available and re- stock 쑗 It took the factory six weeks to places it with something inferior clear all the accumulated back orders. tive bargain and then says at the last filled. The campaign bad debt /bd det/ noun a debt can then be cut back if the response rate which will not be paid. on which ders or letters 쑗 The warehouse is trying baggage can be placed to be moved eas- to cope with a backlog of orders. the sales ground. sales tours by representatives. a business becomes its own ject come from? supplier 쑗 Buying up rubber plantations ‘…the company has received the backing of a is part of the tyre company’s backward number of oil companies who are willing to pay integration policy. supermarket. advertisements bait ad /bet d/ noun an advertise- back-of-the-house services ment for low-priced goods. 쑗 What is his background? or director sends backup letters to all the Do you know anything about his contacts. usually because is inadequate – this is opposed to the debtor has gone out of business. or. as a means of calming potential copy of a computer disk to be kept in customers case the original disk is damaged backing /bkŋ/ noun financial sup. etc. We’re finding it hard to cope with the bait /bet/ noun an article which is sold backlog of paperwork.background music 17 balance of payments ground is in the steel industry.000 in bad debts. backward integration /bkwəd port 쑗 He has the backing of an Austra. and frontloading. nt"reʃ(ə)n/ noun a process of ex- lian bank. 쑗 ily in an airport. 쑗 She has a publishing back. 쑗 The backup /bk p/ adjective supporting company is looking for someone with a or helping 쑗 We offer a free backup ser- background of success in the electronics vice to customers. i. Compare forward inte- sure that most of the costs of a promo- gration (NOTE: also called vertical tional campaign come in the later stages. train station. balance of payments /bləns əv back payment /bk pemənt/ pemənts/ noun a comparison between noun paying money which is owed total receipts and payments arising from . 쑗 After a series of industry. 쑗 The company will succeed pansion in which businesses which deal only if it has sufficient backing. back of book /bk əv bυk/ noun 쑗 The shop’s best bargains were dis- the last pages of a magazine containing played in the window as bait. background? backup ad /bk p d/ noun an ad- background music /bk"raυnd vertisement designed to accompany edi- mjuzk/ noun music played over the torial material in a publication tannoy in a shop.

(NOTE: American English is service sisted of a full-sized bottle of shampoo charge) along with a small bottle of hair bank credit /bŋk kredt/ noun conditioner. the profit and loss account shows flap that tucks in the movements which have taken place bankable paper /bŋkəb(ə)l since the end of the previous accounting pepə/ noun a document which a bank period. will accept as security for a loan with the basic equation that assets (i. that is by a bank for use instead of cash when made when repaying a balloon loan buying goods or services (NOTE: There band /bnd/ noun a strip of paper or are internationally recognised rules plastic or a rubber ring put round arti. that govern the authorisation of the use cles to attach them together of bank cards and the clearing and set- tlement of transactions in which they banded /bndd/ adjective attached are used. including money bank account /bŋk əkaυnt/ noun owed to the company) must equal liabili. US a piece of others printed paper money balloon payment /bəlun bank card /bŋk kɑd/ noun a credit pemənt/ noun the last payment. what the company owns. and capital at the bot- bank base rate /bŋk bes ret/ tom. it is the reverse) or in the vertical form. A balance sheet can be account 쑗 to close a bank account 쑗 drawn up either in the horizontal form. the faster information half-year. or with an additional dif. . in your bank account fall below £100. company at a particular time such as the bandwidth /bndwdθ/ noun a mea- end of the financial year or the end of a surement of the capacity of a fibre-optic quarter showing the company’s assets cable to carry information to and from and liabilities 쑗 Our accountant has the Internet (NOTE: The higher the prepared the balance sheet for the first bandwidth. loans or overdrafts from a bank to a banded pack /bndd pk/ noun a customer pack which includes two items attached bank draft /bŋk drɑft/ noun an to form a pack. order by one bank telling another bank. an account which a customer has with a ties (i.) with a band banded offer /bndd ɒfə/ noun a bank charges /bŋk tʃɑdz/ plu- type of sales promotion involving the ral noun charges which a bank makes offer of an additional item along with for carrying out work for a customer the main one 쑗 The banded offer con. ferent item bound along with the main services and financial transactions one 쑗 These banded packs have been balance sheet /bləns ʃit/ noun a specially designed for our sales promo- statement of the financial position of a tion drive. with a pocket for an in- COMMENT: The balance sheet shows the state of a company’s finances at a certain formation card or reply coupon and a date. with assets at the top of the page. usu.) for the last financial year shows a worse position than for the previous year. you have to pay bank charges. bangtail /bŋtel/ noun US a type of folded mailer. as opposed to the more the actual rate a bank charges on loans old-fashioned horizontal style. fol- lowed by liabilities. where the customer can deposit creditors) plus capital (i. what the company owes to its bank.e. GB the last repayment is larger than the same as banker’s bill 2. Most are usually drawn up in the noun a basic rate of interest on which vertical format. what it owes to and withdraw money 쑗 to open a bank its shareholders). to its customers is calculated balloon /bəlun/ noun a loan where bank bill /bŋk bl/ noun 1. 쑗 The company balance sheet passes through the cable.balance sheet 18 bank draft a country’s international trade in goods.e. How much money do you have in your with (in the UK) liabilities and capital on bank account? 쑗 If you let the balance the left-hand side of the page (in the USA.e. A balance sheet must balance. card or debit card issued to a customer ally much larger than the others.

bargaining /bɑ"nŋ/ noun the act ing which runs across the top of a of discussing between two persons or webpage.) banking account /bŋkŋ ə. I’m selling this at a bargain basement vices are being advertised (NOTE: Ban. noun moving money from a bank ac. bargain /bɑ"n/ noun 1. bargaining position /bɑ"nŋ pə- tʃend/ noun an agreement between zʃ(ə)n/ noun the statement of position two or more businesses. similar to newspaper groups. to a product or container (NOTE: Bar codes are use- bank giro /bŋk darəυ/ noun GB ful for stock control and order picking a method used by clearing banks to and can be used to trace a product transfer money rapidly from one ac. bank telling another bank. to achieve a settlement. over the price. 쑗 They banner /bnə/ noun 1. 2. running across a page barrier /briə/ noun anything which bar chart /bɑ tʃɑt/ noun a chart makes it difficult for someone to do where values or quantities are shown as something. in which each by one group during negotiations allows the others’ advertising banners to bargaining power /bɑ"nŋ be displayed on its website paυə/ noun the strength of one person banner headline /bnə hedlan/ or group when discussing prices or noun a headline set in very large black wage settlements type. a loan.) noun a person who looks for cheap banner advertising /bnə deals dvətazŋ/ noun a website advertis. material spent two hours bargaining about or stretched between two walls or build. the different lengths express. usually in an. 쐽 verb to discuss a price for something count to another account 쑗 You will have to bargain with the dealer if you want a discount. carrying an advertising message 쑗 someone over or about or for There were banners across the street something) advertising the charity run. and contains a link to the website shop where goods are sold cheaply 왍 of the business whose products or ser. usually at the top or bot. to pay bar code /bɑ kəυd/ noun a system money to someone of lines printed on a product which. to pay money to someone able to be read by a scanner. give a refer- in an important position in a bank ence number or price banker’s bill /bŋkəz bl/. price I’m selling this very cheaply ner ads often use graphics images and bargain hunter /bɑ"n h ntə/ sound as well as text. usually headlines wage increases for workers banner exchange /bnə ks. trade barriers on certain goods to re- ing the quantity of the item or unit strict the import of some goods by . through every stage of a transaction count to another from packaging to customer delivery. an agree- kaυnt/ noun US an account which a ment on the price of something 쑗 to customer has with a bank strike a bargain or to make a bargain 왍 bank manager /bŋk mndə/ to drive a hard bargain to be a difficult noun the person in charge of a branch of person to negotiate with 왍 it is a bad a bank 쑗 He asked his bank manager for bargain it is not worth the price 2. written in machine-readable code and other country.banker 19 barrier usually in another country. something which is cheaper than usual bank transfer /bŋk trnsf&/ 쑗 That car is a (real) bargain at £500. especially sending goods columns of different heights set on a from one place to another 왍 to impose base line. an online interactive advertisement that appears bargain basement /bɑ"n on a webpage. bank bar coding /bɑ kəυdŋ/ noun the bill /bŋk bl/ noun an order by one process of attaching an identifying label. besmənt/ noun a basement floor in a tom. (NOTE: you bargain with ings. banker /bŋkə/ noun a person who is when read by a computer.

rice. wine. 쏡 ness (NOTE: Barriers to exit may be cre. sugar. against which changes market where it is currently doing busi. steel or agriculture . 쑗 Our overseas barrier to entry /briə tυ entri/ branch is based in the Bahamas. or a place where a businessper- denounced Japanese trade barriers. has invested in specialist equipment most important 3. a sys- tem in which advertising space or time basic discount /besk dskaυnt/ is exchanged for goods from the adver. is the or unprofitable for a company to try to rate at which banks lend to their top corporate start selling its products in a particular borrowers’ [Wall Street Journal] market (NOTE: Barriers to entry may be ‘…other investments include a large stake in the created. simple. makes it difficult for a company to enter but started from a low base. noun a factor that makes it impossible ‘…the base lending rate. but we offer 5% extra for rapid a deal to barter tractors for barrels of settlement. the lowest or first entry into a market something which position 쑗 Turnover increased by 200%. technical and tax office in Madrid which he uses as a base barriers to free movement of trade between while travelling in Southern Europe. a place a new market. a system in produce. basic industry /besk ndəstri/ ‘…under the barter agreements.g. 왍 barrier to base /bes/ noun 1. e. database ated. 쐽 member states had to be removed. have a bad effect on the sales of other products in the range. 2. or the cash desk. when a company basic /besk/ adjective 1. or from which that is only suited to manufacturing everything starts 쑗 He has a basic one product. food. base line /bes lan/ noun the part of when the cost of the advertising promotional material that contains basic needed to gain a market share is too information about the organisation such high. or prime rate. occurring in later years are measured.000 barrels a day of crude oil in country. e. produced in large quantities. start-up costs where a company has its main office or ‘…a senior European Community official has factory. 쑗 To work at ing its workforce would be very high. etc. knowledge of the market. for example.) basic commodities /besk kə- mɒdtiz/ plural noun ordinary farm barter /bɑtə/ noun 1.g.) basement /besmənt/ noun a section barrier to exit /briə tυ e"zt/ of a shop which is underground noun a factor that makes it impossible base year /bes jə/ noun the first or unprofitable for a company to leave a year of an index. 쑗 He has an ‘…to create a single market out of the EC member states. Nigeria will noun the most important industry of a export 175. or when an existing product com. you need a basic qualifi- when withdrawing one product would cation in maths. goods and not sold for money 2. 왍 to lift trade barriers from bartering /bɑtərŋ/ noun the act of imports to remove restrictions on im. corn.g. physical.barrier to entry 20 basic industry charging high duty 쑗 They considered exchange for trucks. when the costs of retrain. normal 2. which goods are exchanged for other e. when companies Chicago-based insurance company’ [Lloyd’s List] already in a market have patents that prevent their goods from being copied. coal. for example. exchanging goods for other goods and ports 쑗 The government has lifted trade not for money barriers on foreign cars. planes and imposing trade barriers on some food chemicals’ [Wall Street Journal] products. as its name and address mands very strong brand loyalty. noun a normal discount without extra tiser 쐽 verb to exchange goods for other percentages 쑗 Our basic discount is goods and not for money 쑗 They agreed 20%. Imposing verb to set up a company or a person in VAT on importation of goods from other a place 쑗 a London-based sales execu- member states was seen as one such tax barrier’ [Accountancy] tive 쑗 The European manager is based in our London office. saying they son’s office is located 쑗 The company cost European producers $3 billion a year’ [Times] has its base in London and branches in all the European countries.

products pointed on a short-term basis. extraordinary items batch number on the packet. of- clothing 쑗 Being unemployed makes it ten applied to new product develop- difficult to afford even the basic ment. d kʃən/ noun production in batches as opposed to exceptional items which battle /bt(ə)l/ noun a fight 왍 battle are included in the figure for profit be- of the brands competition in the market fore taxation between existing product brands 쑗 This benchmark /bentʃmɑk/ noun 1. 2. work by staff who are batch of shoes has the serial number manning an exhibition.g. standard used to measure performance matic price-cutting. (NOTE: A benchmark was originally a . batch number /btʃ n mbə/ noun payments which do not arise from a a number attached to a batch 쑗 When company’s normal activities.g. well-known short or long period 쑗 He has been ap. ences for our product. 쐽 verb to put items together in groups 쑗 to batch invoices or cheques below-the-line expenditure /b- ləυ ðə lan kspendtʃə/ noun 1. price. which are shown in the profit and loss batch production /btʃ prə.g. We forecast the turnover on the basis of a 6% price increase.basic necessities 21 benchmark basic necessities /besk Bayesian decision theory nəsestiz/ plural noun the very least /beziən ds(ə)n θəri/ noun a that people need to live. Compare above-the-line advertising 25–02. ws(ə)lz/ plural noun every possible lance basis. behind schedule with the promotional ber from which calculations are made 쑗 material. below-the-line advertising /bləυ rencies used to establish the value of a ðə lan dvətazŋ/ noun advertising particular unit of currency which is not paid for and for which no batch /btʃ/ noun a group of items commission is paid to the advertising which are made at one time 쑗 This agency. 쑗 Please make clear whether BDI abbr brand development index £1. e. basic product /besk prɒd kt/ behaviouristic segmentation noun noun the main product made from a raw the segmentation or division of the mar- material ket according to customers’ buying hab- its and usage of a product 쑗 basics /besks/ plural noun simple Behavioural segmentation will mean and important facts 쑗 She has studied there are several distinct target audi- the basics of foreign exchange dealing. the general believer /blivə/ noun in the VALS terms of agreement or general principles lifestyle classification. e. 쑗 We bells and whistles /belz ənd have three people working on a free. food and method for helping decision-making. a point or num. 왍 to get back to basics to consider the main facts again behind schedule /bhand ʃedul/ noun late 쑗 The agency is way basis /bess/ noun 1.000 is the basic rate or whether it is behavioural segmentation /b- inclusive of spare parts. alternatives. basic advantages or disadvantages of the al- rate /besk ret/ noun the price of a ternatives. someone with on which something is decided 왍 on a conventional values and strong princi- short-term or long-term basis for a ples who buy traditional. e. The decision-maker is aware of necessities. account below net profit after taxation. can work out the probable basic price /besk pras/ . hevjərəl se"mənteʃ(ə)n/. a battle of the brands will lead to dra. feature that has been included in an ad- basket of currencies /bɑskt əv vertising campaign k rənsiz/ noun a group of other cur. and makes up his or her mind product or service that does not include according to the value of the best any extras 쑗 This is a rather high basic alternative. redun- making a complaint always quote the dancy payments 2.

light weight five-year period.000. down 13/32 food product. with a services to the public in the most effi- competitive benefits package’ cient and cost-effective way possible [Washington Post] (NOTE: Best value. which is the last date on from Monday’ [Wall Street Journal] which the product is guaranteed to be of benchmarking /bentʃmɑkŋ/ good quality. (CCT).) 2. and to consult with local bour where a ship can tie up 쐽 verb to taxpayers and service users. product or service itself that is by comparing the method one ‘…what benefits does the executive derive organisation uses to carry out a task from his directorship? Compensation has with the methods used by other similar increased sharply in recent years and fringe organisations and determining which benefits for directors have proliferated’ method is most efficient and effective.benchmarking 22 bias set of computer programs that was bespoke /bspəυk/ adjective made used to measure how well a particular to order or made to fit the requirements computer performed in comparison of the customer with similar models. or person rather than another 쑗 A postal . performance. 쏡 sell-by date. plus car and a benefits package appropriate to this senior which sells very well 쑗 These computer post’ [Financial Times] disks are our best-selling line. It requires local authorities to tomer from a product such as ease of review all their services over a availability. which came into benefit segmentation /benft force with the Local Government Act se"mənteʃ(ə)n/ noun the division of 1999. bzns bjυərəυ/ US an organisation of berth cargo /b&θ kɑ"əυ/ noun local business executives that promotes cargo carried at especially low rates 쑗 If better business practices in their town we do not send the goods as berth cargo bias /baəs/ noun favouring one group we will have to charge the buyer more. bespoke tailoring /bspəυk dex which is important. a point in an in. cially in acquiring and processing dience’s response at the beginning of an materials and in delivering products or advertising campaign which is then services to customers. date sponse using a benchmark best-in-class /best n klɑs/ adjec- benchmark measure /bentʃmɑk tive more effective and efficient. from 10½% to 10%’ [Financial Times] best-before date /best b fɔ det/ ‘…the benchmark 11¾% Treasury due noun the date stamped on the label of a 2003/2007 was quoted at 107 11/32.) tie up at a berth 쑗 The ship will berth at Better Business Bureau /betə Rotterdam on Wednesday.189.957 – $81. to set standards of berth /b&θ/ noun the place in a har. the measurements or requirements benchmark corporate lending rate. best practice is the particular important aspects of the often determined by benchmarking. replaced the previous system of a market into segments according to the compulsory competitive tendering types of benefit obtained by the cus. than any other or- compared to responses at the end of the ganisation in the same market or indus- campaign to test its efficiency trial sector benefit /benft/ noun the way in best practice /best prkts/ noun which a product or service will improve the most effective and efficient way to the quality of life of the purchaser. to fit their individual ‘…the US bank announced a cut in its prime. as do something or to achieve a particular opposed to ‘features’ which highlight aim (NOTE: In business.) [Duns Business Month] best-selling /best selŋ/ adjective ‘…salary is negotiable to £30. espe- meə/ noun the measure of a target au. use-by noun the testing of an audience’s re. ‘California is the latest state to enact a program best value /best vlju/ noun a forcing welfare recipients to work for their system adopted by the UK government benefits’ [Fortune] to ensure that local authorities provide ‘…salary range is $54. and can be used telərŋ/ noun the making of clothing to compare with other figures for customers.

7% from a year or do a piece of work at a specific price earlier’ [Nikkei Weekly] 쑗 She made the lowest bid for the job. 쑗 A to it and considers the future conse. a written paper promising to pay the bidding started at £1. up 29. new idea behind an advertising cam. made the highest bid or who offered the 쑗 She left the country without paying most money 왍 the tender will go to the her bills.000 for the jewels he offered to pay bilateralism will put an end to the trade £1. for something 왍 to put in a bid for ‘…trade between Japan and China will probably something or to enter a bid for some. 쑗 The big-ticket /b" tkt/ adjective cost- trainee interviewers were taught how to ing a lot of money control bias and its effects. crease in press advertising.000 bills receivable (B/R) bills. for something to offer to buy some.000 the first money 왍 bills payable (B/P) bills. especially 왍 the auctioneer started the bidding bills of exchange. the successful bid.000 the last bid. bidder /bdə/ noun a person who bill /bl/ noun 1. a short . noun a system whereby a country bal- tion) to offer to buy something 왍 he bid ances its trade with another 쑗 With luck. was for £ 23 billboard survey will do away with bias. usually at an auction 왍 vice. 왍 minister signed a bilateral trade to make a cash bid to offer to pay cash agreement. usually at an auction 쑗 charges to be paid 쑗 The sales assistant Several bidders made offers for the wrote out the bill. a car. 쑗 Does the bill in- house. £1. a written list of makes a bid. which a com- ding stopped at £250. US a should be £100 piece of paper money 쑗 a $5 bill (NOTE: big box store /b" bɒks stɔ/ noun British English is note or banknote) 5. a list of charges in a restau- lowest bidder to the person who offers rant 쑗 Can I have the bill please? 쑗 The the best terms or the lowest price for bill comes to £20 including service. noun a large expensive item. etc. 쑗 The builder sent in his bill. exceed $30 billion this year to mark a record thing to offer to buy something. site of double crown size (30 x 20 tential customers inches) 2. which are due to be at £100 he suggested that the first bid paid by a company’s debtors 4. e. thing at a specific price 왍 to make a bid washing machine. 3. pany will have to pay to its creditors 왍 i. a poster paign.g.e. a small poster 왍 ies to refrigerators or televisions ‘stick no bills’ a notice prohibiting un- authorised sticking of posters 쐽 verb to big business /b" bzns/ noun present a bill to someone so that it can very large commercial firms be paid 쑗 The plumbers billed us for the big idea /b" adə/ noun the main repairs. cially bills of exchange. waiter has added 10% to the bill for ser- ing offers to buy. 쑗 services Does the bill include service? 쑗 The bidding /bdŋ/ noun the act of mak.000 for the jewels war. a large retail superstore that sells a very a draft of a new law which will be dis- wide range of merchandise from grocer. cussed in Parliament 6. 쑗 tween two parties or countries 쑗 The The company made a bid for its rival. shortage of billboards has led to an in- quences of action taken now (informal ) . 2. an offer to buy some. 3. Ministry of Finance trade statistics show that bilateral trade in the first half of the year in writing 2. 쐽 bilateralism /balt(ə)rəlz(ə)m/ verb 왍 to bid for something (at an auc. billboard /blbɔd/ noun 1.60 billion. usually high. bilateral /balt(ə)rəl/ adjective be- thing 쑗 We made a bid for the house.000 왍 the bid. an offer to sell something totalled $16. espe- and lowest bid was £1. big ticket item /b" tkt atəm/ bid /bd/ noun 1. 왍 the property was sold to the clude VAT? 쑗 The bill is made out to highest bidder to the person who had Smith Ltd. US a large outdoor poster site big picture /b" pktʃə/ noun a (measuring 12 x 25 feet) 쑗 The railway broad view of a subject that takes into track was lined with billboards specially account all the factors that are relevant set up for election propaganda. the aim of which is to attract po.

which tells an. ber of children born per 1. but signed by the drawer Bingo card /bŋ"əυ kɑd/ noun a printed card bound into a magazine. blanket agreement /blŋkt with a squared grid of numbers and let. which the law 쑗 There is a flourishing black mar- transporter gives to the person sending ket in spare parts for cars. or in the in credit 쑗 The company has moved into breaks of a broadcast the black. The num. been blacked change to show that you promise to pay blacklist /blklst/ verb to put it 왍 to discount a bill to buy or sell a goods. a blank cheque /blŋk tʃek/ noun a separate section of shelves in a cheque with the amount of money and warehouse the payee left blank. people or a company on a black bill of exchange at a lower price than list 쑗 Their firm was blacklisted by the that written on it in order to cash it later government. through customs black economy /blk kɒnəmi/ bill of exchange /bl əv ks. or part of an economy. end. 쏡 fly illegally trading goods that are normally poster subject to official controls bin /bn/ noun 1. a household name. noun goods and services which are paid tʃend/ noun a document signed by for in cash. 쐽 verb to forbid trading in invoices or bills specific goods or with specific suppliers 쑗 Three firms were blacked by the gov- bill of entry /bl əv entri/ noun the ernment.000 of the blanket insurance (cover) population /blŋkt nʃυərəns k və/ noun . 왍 to pay the goods to show that the goods have black market prices to pay high prices been loaded to get items which are not easily bill of sale /bl əv sel/ noun a docu.billing 24 blanket insurance announcement which identifies an ad. who passes the or line of products the same brand name card to the advertiser for further 쑗 Blanket branding will make the brand response. 왍 to retire a bill to pay a bill of ex. and the card is returned post brndŋ/ noun giving a whole group free to the publisher. kind of people buy the product. for tax other to pay money unconditionally to a named person on a certain date (usually black list /blk lst/ noun a list of used in payments in foreign currency) 왍 goods. black market /blk mɑkt/ noun change when it is due the buying and selling of goods or cur- bill of lading /bl əv ledŋ/ noun a rency in a way which is not allowed by list of goods being shipped. bipolar scale /bapəυlə skel/ blanket coverage /blŋkt noun a scale used in questionnaires k v(ə)rd/ noun advertising to the which contains two extreme points be. a large container 2. general public with no particular target tween which an interviewee can choose audience in mind 쑗 We will go for blan- an answer ket coverage first and then see what birth rate /b&θ ret/ noun the num. that functions by son who sticks up small posters. bill poster /bl pəυstə/ noun a per. covers many different items bers refer to products advertised in the blanket branding /blŋkt magazine. ə"rimənt/ noun an agreement which ters which a reader can mark. people or companies which have to accept a bill to sign a bill of ex. available ment which the seller gives to the buyer black-market economy /blk to show that the sale has taken place mɑkt kɒnəmi/ noun an economy. 쑗 The union has blacked a written details of goods that have to go trucking firm. and therefore not declared the person authorising it. 쑗 My bank account is still in billing /blŋ/ noun US the writing of the black. black /blk/ adjective 왍 in the black vertiser at the beginning.

blue-hair /blu heə/ adjective US re. 쑗 Hotel noun gestures.g. though the com. one mium offer which is hidden away in an free item for each one bought.blanket refusal 25 booking insurance which covers various items sponse is to a situation 쑗 Trainee sales- such as a house and its contents men learn how to interpret a customer’s blanket refusal /blŋkt r. booking /bυkŋ/ noun the act of re- body language /bɒd lŋ"wd/ serving a room or a seat etc. bonus offer /bəυnəs ɒfə/ noun a ered with a stiff plastic cover sealed to a special offer. bubble ment in addition to a normal payment pack /b b(ə)l pk/ noun a type of packing where the item for sale is cov. e. but her body language was printed page 쐽 verb to allow advertising saying the opposite. Full form advertisement so as to find out how buy one get one free many readers read the advertisement boilerplate /bɔləplet/ noun a basic blindside /blandsad/ verb to attack standard version of a contract that can a competitor unexpectedly and in a way be used again and again which it is difficult to respond to bonded warehouse /bɒndd blind testing /bland testŋ/ noun weəhaυs/ noun a warehouse where the practice of testing a product on con. often unconventional ideas blur /bl&/ noun a period in which a bonus spot /bəυnəs spɒt/ noun a great many important changes take free television or radio spot offered to place in an organisation very quickly an advertiser as part of an advertising package blurb /bl&b/ noun a brief description of a book. printed in a publisher’s cata. book club /bυk kl b/ noun a group pany’s address needn’t be included. . 쑗 The interviewer of fjuz(ə)l/ noun a refusal to accept prospective marketing managers ob- many different items served the body language of the candi- dates very carefully. and move. but are θŋkŋ/ noun extremely idealistic and sold at the normal price. bookings have fallen since the end of the ments which show what somebody’s re. as bonus pack /bəυnəs pk/ noun a opposed to a gradual build-up pack with extra contents or extra items blow-in /bləυ n/ noun US a post. giving free gifts to customers. which includes a bonus or free gift blitz /blts/ noun a marketing cam- paign which starts at full pressure. 쑗 of people who pay a small subscription The body copy on the poster is too long and buy books regularly by mail order for passers-by to read it all. book /bυk/ noun a set of sheets of pa- logue or on the cover of the book itself per attached together 왍 a company’s books the financial records of a body copy /bɒdi kɒpi/ noun the company main part of the text of an advertisement 쑗 The body copy is OK. 쑗 The candidate bleed /blid/ noun an illustration or claimed to be very confident about tak- text which runs right to the edge of the ing the job. especially one to launch a card backing new product. expressions. for which no extra charge is made 쑗 We card-size advertising card inserted in a are offering bonus packs in order to at- magazine tract new customers to the product. space to run to the edge of a printed page bogof /bɒ"ɒf/ noun the practice of blind offer /bland ɒfə/ noun a pre. goods are stored until excise duty has sumers without telling them what brand been paid it is bonus /bəυnəs/ noun an extra pay- blister pack /blstə pk/. body language. bonus size /bəυnəs saz/ noun an ferring to elderly women extra large size of pack sold at the usual price as a form of sales promotion 쑗 Bo- blue-sky thinking /blu ska nus size packs are 20% larger. tourist season.

쑗 the boom of the 1970s 왍 the boom years years when there is an economic bottom /bɒtəm/ noun the lowest part or point 왍 the bottom has fallen out of boom 쐽 verb to expand or to become the market sales have fallen below prosperous 쑗 business is booming 쑗 what previously seemed to be the lowest sales are booming ‘…starting in 1981. in which products are identified as and store webpages that they want to stars. bk kupɒn/ noun a coupon offer tential by analysing the relationship be. a small in the 1970s to help companies decide specialised shop. businesses with a low office market share and low growth rate are booking office /bυkŋ ɒfs/ noun called dogs. made to existing customers in order to tween its market share and its growth persuade them to continue purchasing rate (NOTE: The Boston Box was de.) special mental note of somebody or something so that you remember them Boston matrix /bɒstən metrks/ in future 쐽 noun a software tool in a noun a type of product portfolio analy- web browser that enables users to select sis. a section of a depart- In this system businesses with a high ment store selling up-to-date clothes . emails) to be returned to the sender be- boom share /bum ʃeə/ noun a cause the address is incorrect or the user share in a company which is expanding is not known at the mail server Boston Box /bɒstən bɒks/ noun a bounce-back coupon /baυns system used to indicate a company’s po. which slows down value of an asset as recorded in the com- the later stages of the operation and pany’s balance sheet business activity in general 쑗 a bottle- boom /bum/ noun the time when neck in the supply system 쑗 There are sales. the brand vised by the Boston Consulting Group boutique /butik/ noun 1. question marks. especially for which businesses they should invest in up-to-date clothes 쑗 a jeans boutique 쑗 and which they should withdraw from. bottleneck /bɒt(ə)lnek/ noun a situ- changed for books ation that occurs when one section of an operation cannot cope with the amount book value /bυk vlju/ noun the of work it has to clerk 26 boutique booking clerk /bυkŋ klɑk/ noun a market share and high growth rate are person who sells tickets in a booking called stars. a ski boutique 2. businesses with a high an office where you can book seats at a market share and a low growth rate theatre or tickets for the railway are called cash cows and businesses with a low market share and a high bookmark /bυkmɑk/ verb to make a growth rate are called question marks. the lowest price nology is a booming sector of the bounce back /baυns bk/ verb (of economy. a full-blown real estate point 왍 rock-bottom price the lowest boom took off in Texas’ [Business] price of all 쐽 verb to reach the lowest point boom industry /bum ndəstri/ noun an industry which is expanding bottom line /bɒtəm lan/ noun the rapidly last line on a balance sheet indicating profit or loss booming /bumŋ/ adjective which is expanding or becoming prosperous 쑗 bottom price /bɒtəm pras/ noun a booming industry or company 쑗 Tech. production or business activity are serious bottlenecks in the production increasing 쑗 a period of economic boom line. cash cows or dogs look at often and to access them quickly (NOTE: the full name is the Boston and conveniently Consulting Group Share/Growth Matrix) book sales /bυk selz/ plural noun sales as recorded in the sales book bottle hanger /bɒt(ə)l hŋə/ noun an advertisement in the form of a card book token /bυk təυkən/ noun a which hangs round the neck of a bottle voucher bought in a shop which is given as a present and which must be ex.

associate in their minds with the brand uct. existing brands with increased investment’ [Marketing Week] market like a warehouse. 쑗 With ties 쑗 How can you talk about brand low 27 brand image box /bɒks/ noun a cardboard. the com. where goods are brand awareness /brnd sold from their original packing cases 쑗 əweənəs/ noun consciousness by the The school bought stationery in large public of a brand’s existence and quali- quantities from the box store. brand image /brnd md/ noun pany branched out into car leasing. box stores can offer awareness when most people don’t even cut-rate prices. total awareness and sales of a brand in a ing has refused to attend the meeting given market BRAD abbr British Rate and Data brand champion /brnd tʃmpiən/ noun an executive who is brainstorming /brenstɔmŋ/ passionate about a brand and promotes noun an intensive discussion by a small it vigorously worldwide group of people as a method of produc- ing new ideas or solving problems brand development index /brnd dveləpmənt ndeks/ noun brainstorming session /bren. This two hundred to a box kind of activity is bad for the brand and we boxed /bɒkst/ adjective put or sold in cannot afford it’ [The Grocer] a box ‘…you have to look much further down the sales league to find a brand which has not been boxed set /bɒkst set/ noun a set of around for what seems like ages’ [Marketing] items sold together in a box ‘…major companies are supporting their best box store /bɒks stɔ/ noun a super. We had not agreed to this deal and they sold out very rapidly. an index that compares the percentage stɔmŋ seʃ(ə)n/ noun a meeting to of a brand’s total sales in a given market thrash out problems. customer as well as financial value to industrial and commercial products requires a branch manager to head up its mid-western the company Canada operations based in Winnipeg’ brand extension strategy /brnd [Globe and Mail (Toronto)] kstenʃən strtədi/ noun the apply- branch out /brɑntʃ aυt/ verb to ing of an existing brand name to a new start a new but usually related type of product business 쑗 From car retailing. an opinion of a product which people brand /brnd/ noun a make of prod. or deal in a product 쑗 We are boycotting brand development /brnd d- all imports from that country. know what the product is supposed to do? 쑗 Our sales staff must work harder boycott /bɔkɒt/ noun a refusal to to increase brand awareness in this buy or to deal in certain products 쑗 The area. 왍 paperclips come in boxes in some stores.49 play boxes. both value as seen by the ‘…a leading manufacturer of business. 쐽 verb to refuse to buy brand building /brnd bldŋ/. ‘…the multiple brought the price down to £2. where everyone to the percentage of the total population puts forward different ideas in the market. When they of two hundred paperclips are packed reordered we would not give it to them. Abbr BDI branch /brɑntʃ/ noun the local office branded goods /brndd "υdz/ of a bank or large business. 왍 the veləpmənt/ noun the expansion of the management has boycotted the meet. which can be recognised by a name name . union organised a boycott against or of imported cars. watches are prepacked in plastic dis. with not much service or promotion. or a local plural noun goods sold under brand shop which is part of a large chain names branch manager /brɑntʃ brand equity /brnd ekwti/ noun mndə/ noun a person in charge of a the extra value brought to a product by branch of a company being a brand. wooden or by a design 쑗 the top-selling brands or plastic container 쑗 The goods were of toothpaste 쑗 The company is launch- sent in thin cardboard boxes. 쑗 The ing a new brand of soap.

(NOTE: Breakeven analysis is usually ing one brand to another. which are found in all stores of one cate- ing and selling of a brand as an inde. 2. 쑗 We broke even in our first two brand positioning /brnd pə. but not make a profit brand name /brnd nem/ noun a 쑗 Last year the company only just broke name of a particular make of product even.broke. periods of work 쑗 She keyboarded for sible for the marketing of a particular two hours without a break. the analysis of fixed market. and which provide a solid basis of pendent item continuing sales brand manager /brnd mndə/ break /brek/ noun a pause between noun the manager or executive respon.has broken) production manager met to discuss 왍 break bulk to split into small quanti- changes to be made to the company’s ties for retail sale after having bought a leading brand of soap. set prices for their products and going on. There is increasing competition in hotels and amount of customer recognition which a reviews of brand image are commonplace’ brand enjoys [Marketing Week] brand X /brnd eks/ noun the anon- brand leader /brnd lidə/ noun the ymous brand used in TV commercials to brand with the largest market share compare with the named brand being advertised brand life cycle /brnd laf sak(ə)l/ noun stages in the life of a breach /britʃ/ noun a failure to carry brand in terms of sales and profitability. zʃ(ə)nŋ/ noun the practice of placing breakeven analysis /brekiv(ə)n a brand in a particular position in the ənləss/ noun 1. but do not show a profit . 쑗 Brand switching makes work out the effects of changes in pro- shopping more fun for consumers. duction or sales volume on their costs brand value /brnd vlju/ noun and profits.branding 28 breakeven point branding /brndŋ/ noun the act of branding as the only way to promote a giving brand names to products product ‘…marketing and branding are becoming more brandwidth /brndwdθ/ noun the important in the hotel and restaurant business. so that it is recognisable to the and variable costs and sales that deter- public 쑗 Intensive television advertising mines at what level of production the is a key part of our brand positioning breakeven point will be reached 쑗 The strategy. out the terms of an agreement from its launch to its decline breach of contract /britʃ əv brand loyalty /brnd lɔəlti/ noun kɒntrkt/ noun the failure to do some- the feeling of trust and satisfaction that thing which has been agreed in a makes a customer always buy the same contract brand of product bread-and-butter line /bred ən brand management /brnd b tə lanz/ noun a range of items mndmənt/ noun directing the mak.000 bicycles a month. at least 1. 쐽 verb brand 쑗 The brand manager and the (NOTE: breaking. gory. months of trading. a nʃ(ə)n/ noun the ability of the con.) the value of a brand name breakeven point /brekiv(ə)n brand wagon /brnd w"ən/ pɔnt/ noun a point at which sales cover noun the tendency for marketers to see costs. large quantity 왍 break even to balance costs and receipts. method of showing the point at which a sumer to recognise a brand on sight company’s income from sales will be equal to its production costs so that it brand switching /brnd swtʃŋ/ neither makes a profit nor makes a loss noun the practice of changing from buy. showing little shown in the form of a chart and can brand loyalty 쑗 We can’t rely on steady be used to help companies make deci- sales with such a lot of brand switching sions. (NOTE: also called product breakeven analysis showed that the positioning) company will only break even if it sells brand recognition /brnd rekə".

equipment. Compare tabloid The company was broken up and sepa. Compare white goods giving all relevant information about browser /braυzə/ noun a piece of their circulation. merchants were asked to estimate the brochureware /brəυʃəweə/ noun a tractors’ break-up value. lot.g. Compare incomplete set of goods for sale 쑗 We’ll clicks-and-mortar give you a discount since it is a broken bridge /brd/ verb to print an ad. Abbr BRAD (NOTE: the pack /b b(ə)l pk/ noun a type of comparable American publication is packaging. where the item for sale is Standard Rate and Data Service) covered by a stiff plastic sheet sealed to broadband /brɔdbnd/ noun a data a card backing transmission system that allows large bubble wrap /b b(ə)l rp/ noun a amounts of data to be transferred very sheet of clear plastic with bubbles of air quickly in it. used as a protective wrapping broadcast /brɔdkɑst/ noun a radio material or TV programme 쐽 verb to send out on bucket shop /b kt ʃɒp/ noun 1. with two items missing. the value of the material of a booklet 쑗 We sent off for a brochure fixed asset 쑗 What would the break-up about holidays in Greece or about value of our old machinery be? 쑗 Scrap postal services. radio or TV an firm of brokers or dealers that sells shares that may be worthless 2. hi-fi lists British newspapers and magazines. broadside /brɔdsad/ noun US a rate divisions sold off.) as shops and warehouses and not being broken lot /brəυkən lɒt/ noun an involved in e-commerce. broker’s the progress of the negotiations. ried out tend a sales briefing on the new product.breaking bulk 29 bucket shop breaking bulk /brekŋ b lk/ noun broadcasting media /- the practice of buying in bulk and then brɔdkɑstŋ midiə/plural noun me- selling in small quantities to many dia such as radio or TV customers broadsheet /brɔdʃit/ noun a large break up /brek  p/ verb to split size of newspaper page (as opposed to something large into small sections 쑗 tabloid). a dealer who double-page spread in a magazine acts as a middleman between a buyer brief /brif/ verb to explain something and a seller 2. commission /brəυkəz kəmʃ(ə)n/ briefing /brifŋ/ noun telling some. e. large format publicity leaflet break-up value /brek p vlju/ brochure /brəυʃə/ noun a publicity noun 1. the value of website that provides information about various parts of a company taken products and services in the same way separately as a printed brochure (NOTE: The word bricks-and-mortar /brks ən is often used negatively to refer to mɔtə/ adjective conducting business electronic advertising for planned but in the traditional way in buildings such nonexistent products. 왍 (stock)broker a person to someone in detail 쑗 The sales staff or firm that buys and sells shares or were briefed on the new product. vertisement across the centre of a broker /brəυkə/ noun 1. frequency and software that enables computer users to other advertising services offered 쑗 You have access to the Internet and World should consult BRAD first to find the Wide Web most suitable newspaper to carry our bubble card /b b(ə)l kɑd/. television sets. rates. noun payment to a broker for a deal car- one details 쑗 All sales staff have to at. bubble advertising. 쑗 The bonds on behalf of clients managing director briefed the board on brokerage /brəυkərd/. a firm . brown goods /braυn "υdz/ plural British Rate and Data /brtʃ ret noun electrical equipment for home en- ən detə/ a regular publication which tertainment. 2.

budget 30 bulky that sells cheap airline or other travel budget surplus /b dt s&pləs/ tickets noun a situation where there is more ‘…at last something is being done about the revenue than was planned for in the thousands of bucket shops across the nation that budget sell investment scams by phone’ [Forbes Magazine] budget variance /b dt veəriəns/ noun the difference between budget /b dt/ noun 1. bulk carrier /b lk kriə/ noun a cording to a planned budget ship which carries large quantities of budgetary policy /b dt(ə)ri loose goods such as corn or coal pɒlsi/ noun the policy of planning in. ward 쑗 The Post Office does not accept ture and income bulky packages. become obsolete come and expenditure to allow for peri. In the UK. bulky /b lki/ adjective large and awk- aration of budgets to help plan expendi. 쑗 The minister put for. 쑗 The ac- year’ [Sydney Morning Herald] counting system has a series of built-in checks. 왍 to balance the budget to build-up approach /bld p plan income and expenditure so that əprəυtʃ/ noun a method of calculating they balance 쑗 The president is plan. 왍 the Budget the an- mətəriəlz/ plural noun materials used nual plan of taxes and government in building. built-in /blt n/ adjective forming part of the system or of a machine 쑗 The ‘…he budgeted for further growth of 150. bricks and cement spending proposed by a finance minis- ter.g. e. bulk discount /b lk dskaυnt/ come and expenditure noun a discount given to a purchaser budgetary requirements who buys in bulk /b dt(ə)ri rkwaəmənts/ plural bulk rate /b lk ret/ noun a cheap noun the rate of spending or income re. a plan of ex.000 jobs (or 2. bulk shipment /b lk ʃpmənt/ pɑtmənt/ noun a department in a noun a shipment of large quantities of large store which sells cheaper goods goods budgeting /b dtŋ/ noun the prep. the budget for promotion by determin- ning for a balanced budget. ‘…the Federal government’s budget targets for employment and growth are within reach built-in obsolescence /blt n according to the latest figures’ ɒbsəles(ə)ns/ noun a method of ensur- [Australian Financial Review] ing continuing sales of a product by budget account /b dt əkaυnt/ making it in such a way that it will soon noun a bank account where you plan in.5 per cent) in the current financial PC has a built-in modem. noun an official document which allows ward a budget aimed at boosting the someone to build on a piece of land economy. this is the Chancellor of building permit /bldŋ p&mt/ the Exchequer. the cost as estimated for a budget and pected spending and income for a period the actual cost of time 쑗 We have agreed the budgets building materials /bldŋ for next year. (in ing the tasks that have to be carried out shops) cheap 왍 budget prices low and estimating the costs of performing prices 쐽 verb to plan probable income them and expenditure 쑗 We are budgeting for £10.000 of sales next year. 3. 2. rate offered to advertisers who take quired to meet the budget forecasts large amounts of advertising space budget department /b dt d. . bulk /b lk/ noun a large quantity of ods when expenditure is high. by paying goods 왍 in bulk in large quantities 쑗 to a set amount each month buy rice in bulk budgetary /b dt(ə)r/ adjective bulk buying /b lk baŋ/ noun get- referring to a budget ting large quantities of goods at low budgetary control /b dt(ə)ri prices kəntrəυl/ noun controlled spending ac.

쑗 What’s your line of business? 왍 business correspondent /bzns to be in business to run a commercial kɒrspɒndənt/ noun a journalist who firm 왍 on business doing commercial writes articles on business news for work 쑗 He had to go abroad on busi. newspapers ness. business class /bzns klɑs/ noun wardly-Mobile Professionals) a type of airline travel which is less ex- burst /b&st/ noun a large number of pensive than first class and more com- advertisements for a product placed fortable than economy class over a short period 쑗 Shall we go for a business community /bzns kə- burst or for a more prolonged mjunti/ noun the business people liv- campaign? ing and working in the area business /bzns/ noun 1. such as computers and word-processors which help businesses to be efficient . shops and offices are located incomes (NOTE: Short for Black Up. puter programmed for special business pan.) of the purchase of computer hardware business centre /bzns sentə/ buppies /b piz/ plural noun young noun the part of a town where the main professional people with relatively high banks. business address /bzns ədres/ tion of a daily newspaper noun the details of number. work in business computer /bzns kəm- buying or selling 쑗 business is expand. card showing a businessperson’s name change emails. 쑗 pands. a commercial company 쑗 noun the period during which trade ex- He owns a small car repair business. 쑗 Strikes are very bad for busi- ness. and access and the name and address of the com- software pany they work for bumper sticker /b mpə stkə/ business case /bzns kes/ noun a noun an advertising sticker put onto the statement that explains why a particular bumper of a car course of action would be advantageous bundle /b nd(ə)l/ verb to market a or profitable to an organisation (NOTE: A package that contains various products business case depends on the prepa- or services at a special price ration and presentation of a viable business plan and is intended to weed bundling /b ndlŋ/ noun putting out ideas that may seem promising but several items together to form a package have no real long-term value to an or- deal. 쑗 We did business correspondence more business in the week before /bzns kɒrspɒndəns/ noun letters Christmas than we usually do in a concerned with a business month. slows down and then expands She runs a business from her home.m. visit to talk to someone about business tice board noun a website that allows business card /bzns kɑd/ noun a members of an interest group to ex. especially offering software as part ganisation. business call /bzns kɔl/ noun a bulletin board /bυltn bɔd/. 쑗 The chairman is in Holland on business cycle /bzns sak(ə)l/ business.bulldog 31 business efficiency exhibition bulldog /bυldɒ"/ noun the first edi. 쑗 Repairing uses cars is 90% of our business. no. chat online. street and bulletin /bυlətn/ noun a short note. affairs discussed 쑗 The main /bzns fʃ(ə)nsi eksbʃ(ə)n/ noun business of the meeting was finished by an exhibition which shows products 3 p. 쑗 The bulletin contained trade union sales figures for the month. pjutə/ noun a powerful small com- ing 쑗 We do a lot of business with Ja. issued regularly 쑗 business agent /bzns edənt/ Bulletins were regularly sent to the noun US the chief local official of a sales force. town where a company is located newsletter or report. 쑗 again He set up in business as an insurance business efficiency exhibition broker. 2. 3. 쑗 Business is slow.

ə"rimənt/ noun an agreement that a especially near a town 쑗 He has rented producer will buy back goods from a a unit in the local business park. treated as a separate profit centre ral noun the time when a business is open.g. in ing /bzns tə bzns dvətazŋ/ which individuals or teams compete to noun advertising aimed at businesses. a method of categorising a firm’s prod- mand 쑗 The unreliability of supplies is ucts according to their relative competi- one of the worst features of our business tive position and business growth rate in environment. much the purchasing decisions of an or- . usually 9.30 p. such as the sup. division or stand-alone business and is usually business hours /bzns aυəz/ plu. often run on a computer. either selling attached to a product bought or given to him by the retailer or producer on proof business unit /bzns junt/ noun of purchase of a minimum quantity of a unit within an organisation that oper- goods ates as a separate department.m. something which you sold earlier 쑗 She nesswoman /bznswυmən/ noun a sold the shop last year and is now trying man or woman engaged in business to buy it back. sales forecasts. /bzns pɔtfəυliəυ ənləss/ noun ply of raw materials and product de. business transaction /bzns business gift /bzns "ft/ noun a trnzkʃən/ noun an act of buying or present received by a customer. busi. busy season /bzi siz(ə)n/ noun the period when a company is busy business intelligence /bzns n- teld(ə)ns/ noun information that buy /ba/ verb to get something by pay- may be useful to a business when it is ing money 쑗 to buy wholesale and sell planning its strategy retail 쑗 to buy for cash 쑗 He bought 10. e. etc. newspaper which is only concerned spensz/ plural noun money spent on with business matters. distributor on a specific date if the dis- business plan /bzns pln/ noun tributor has not been able to sell them a document drawn up to show how a buy classes /ba klɑsz/ plural business is planned to work.. to 5. or varənmənt/ noun the elements or fac. (NOTE: a letter which deals with business buying. melŋ lst/ noun a list of names and Abbr bogof addresses of businesses buy back /ba bk/ verb to buy businessman /bznsmn/. ten used when trying to raise a loan.00 a. when setting up a new business tors outside a business organisation business portfolio analysis which directly affect it. business park /bzns pɑk/ noun a buy-back agreement /ba bk group of small factories or warehouses. order to lay the foundations for sound business equipment /bzns strategic planning kwpmənt/ noun the machines used business publication /bzns in an office p blkeʃ(ə)n/ noun a magazine or business expenses /bzns k. 쑗 The company has been business letter /bzns letə/ noun bought by its leading supplier. do business in an imaginary market 쑗 not at households or private purchasers Students on management courses are of- ten asked to take part in business games business-to-consumer /bzns tə kənsjumə/ noun full form of B2C to improve their decision-making skills.m. of. not on stock or business-to-business /bzns tə assets bzns/ noun full form of B2B business game /bzns "em/ noun business-to-business advertis- a environment 32 buy classes business environment /bzns n.bought) 왍 buy one get one matters free giving free gifts to customers such business mailing list /bzns as one free item for each one bought.000 shares. trade journals running a business. with cash noun categories of buying based on how flow forecasts.

especially when pur- of the previous purchase chasing industrial supplies buyer /baə/ noun 1. some people select and buy goods site is a seller’s market) buying power /baŋ paυə/ noun buyer’s risk /baəz rsk/ noun the the ability to buy 쑗 The buying power of risk taken by a buyer when accepting the pound has fallen over the last five goods or services without a guarantee years. she decided to lower the price of ucts. buy grid /ba "rd/ noun a method by-line /ba lan/ noun the journal- used for objective assessment of com. ist’s name which appears before a news- paper report . evaluation buy foreign currency before you need it. of possible courses of action and final in order to be sure of the exchange rate decision-making. comparison with other compet- buy forward /ba fɔwəd/ verb to ing products on the market. buying agent /baŋ edənt/ noun ised the deal a person who buys for a business or an- other person. 쑗 The buying expectation agent knows a whole network of suppli- buyer’s guide /baəz "ad/ noun a ers round the country. buyer’s surplus /baəz s&pləs/ buying service /baŋ s&vs/ noun an agency which buys advertising space noun an extra margin generated when or time for its clients an item is bought at a higher discount than usual 쑗 When the brand manager buy phases /ba fezz/ plural noun realised how great the buyer’s surplus phases in the buying of industrial prod- was. but has not final. a person who buys trying to sell because no one will pay stock on behalf of a trading organisation the price you want for resale or for use in production 3. availability pɑtmənt/ noun the department in a and reliability of products or services company which buys raw materials or buyer’s market /baəz mɑkt/ goods for use in the company noun a market where products are sold buying habits /baŋ hbts/ cheaply because there are few people plural noun the general way in which who want to buy them (NOTE: the oppo. in buying /baŋ/ noun the act of getting B2B selling. a person who has made a something for money commitment to buy. book or pamphlet which gives advice to buying department /baŋ d- purchasers on the prices. and earns a commission 쑗 buyer expectation /baə ekspek- Our buying agent is presently looking teʃ(ə)n/ noun same as customer for materials in Portugal. a person who buy in /ba n/ verb (of a seller at an buys 왍 there were no buyers no one auction) to buy the thing which you are wanted to buy 2. product.buyer 33 by-line ganisation have changed from the time peting products. the identification of a the product. The main phases are the recogni- tion of a want.

) phone call call cycle /kɔl sak(ə)l/ noun the campaign /kmpen/ noun a series time between a salesperson’s visits to of co-ordinated activities to reach an the same customer 쑗 Because we now objective have more customers to deal with. 2. leʃ(ə)n klɔz/ noun a clause in a con- . especially frozen riod of time food call in /kɔl n/ verb 1. ticular station and pays for on calling line identification /kɔlŋ subscription lan adentfkeʃ(ə)n/ noun 쒁 com- caging /kedŋ/ noun the handling puter telephony integration of cash and cheques in a direct-mail call letters /kɔl letəz/ plural noun operation US a series of letters used to identify a call /kɔl/ noun a visit 쑗 The sales reps radio station make six calls a day. 쑗 The call re- goods 쑗 We need a call bird to bring ports have to be handed in each week to round more customers. tential Internet purchaser to do some- ises in making calls to sell products or in thing such as click to see a range of receiving calls from customers to colours helplines or information or after-sales camp /kmp/ verb 왍 to camp on the services (NOTE: A call centre often acts line to have to wait on hold for a long as the central point of contact between time until someone answers your tele- an organisation and its customers. call cancellation clause /knsə- cycles are getting longer. call to action /kɔl tυ kʃ(ə)n/ partment or business that operates a noun a prompt which encourages a po- large number of telephones and special. call report /kɔl rpɔt/ noun a re- call bird /kɔl b&d/ noun a port made by a salesperson after a visit low-priced product advertised to attract to a customer 쑗 In his call report. to telephone to make noun a television service which a contact 쑗 We ask the reps to call in ev- viewer receives via a cable from a par. Their sales representative called in v(ə)n/. ery Friday to report the weeks’ sales. call centre /kɔl sentə/ noun a de. cable TV /keb(ə)l tivi/ twice last week. 쐽 verb 왍 to call on call rate /kɔl ret/ noun the number someone to visit someone 쑗 Our sales of calls per day or per week which a people call on their best accounts twice salesperson makes on customers a month. the customers to the point-of-sale where sales rep explained why he was experi- they can then be sold more profitable encing sales resistance. the sales manager. to visit 쑗 cable television /keb(ə)l tel.C2C commerce 34 cancellation clause C C2C commerce /si tə si kɒm&s/ call divert noun a telephone facility in same as consumer-to-consumer which calls are automatically switched commerce from one number to another CA abbr Consumers Association call frequency /kɔl frikwənsi/ noun the number of times a salesperson cabinet /kbnət/ noun a display visits a specific customer during a pe- case for goods for sale.

cannibalisation /knbəla. 쑗 We’ve canvassed the staff about tks/ noun a tax paid on capital gains. with no restriction from the state tal the rapid movement of capital out of capitalist /kpt(ə)lst/ adjective one country because of lack of confi. based on the value of fixed assets which tomers they fall back on canned presen. capital-intensive industry or to say what they think 쑗 door-to-door /kpt(ə)l ntensv ndəstri/ noun canvassing 쑗 canvassing techniques an industry which needs a large amount capital /kpt(ə)l/ noun 1. working according to the principles of dence in that country’s economic future capitalism 쑗 the capitalist system 쑗 the . property and assets used in a work business 쑗 a company with £10. where a company launches a new prod. where the new product made the existing line seem government is located obsolete. etc.000 왍 to make a profit from 쑗 We are seeking capital structure of a company the to capitalize on our market position. 쑗 The sales manager feels that profits and so reduce its tax liability the artificiality of canned presentations COMMENT: Under current UK law. cannibalization. are tax-allowable. way in which a company’s capital is made up from various sources 2. to vote or fixed asset to say what they think 쑗 He’s canvass- ing for customers for his hairdresser’s capital gains tax /kpt(ə)l "enz shop. an amount of money made by selling a ple to ask them to buy goods. buildings and raw who canvasses materials which are used to make other canvassing /knvəsŋ/ noun the goods practice of asking people to buy. to capital changes of investments from work in business. may be deducted from a company’s tations. another established product 쑗 Though which a company owns and uses but the new product sold well. Abbr CGT capital goods /kpt(ə)l "υdz/ plu- canvasser /knvəsə/ noun a person ral noun machinery.660 ordinary shares of $100 each’ cancellation date /knsəleʃ(ə)n [Hongkong Standard] det/ noun the final date by which an capital account /kpt(ə)l advertisement must be cancelled if the əkaυnt/ noun an account of dealings advertiser does not wish to proceed such as money invested in or taken out canned presentation /knd of the company by the owners of a prez(ə)nteʃ(ə)n/ noun a standard company sales presentation which some salespeo. 쑗 Cannibal. whereas capital allowances. capital assets /kpt(ə)l sets/ uct which sells well at the expense of plural noun the property. money capitalism /kpt(ə)lz(ə)m/ noun owned by individuals or companies. cannibal. the economic system in which each per- used for investment 왍 movements of son has the right to invest money. the of capital investment in plant to make it money. machines. the resultant which the company does not buy and cannibalisation damaged the company’s sell as part of its regular trade overall profits for the year. depre- makes them ineffective. capital gain /kpt(ə)l "en/ noun canvass /knvəs/ verb to visit peo. raising the prices in the staff restaurant. to vote. ciation is not allowable for tax on profits. based on the zeʃ(ə)n/. capital allowances /kpt(ə)l ple use all the time 쑗 When trainee sales əlaυənsz/ plural noun the allowances reps are not sure how to approach cus. capital city /kpt(ə)l sti/ noun ism became a real problem because the the main city in a country.000 capitalise on /kpt(ə)laz ɒn/ verb capital or with a capital of £10. and to buy and sell.cancellation date 35 capitalist tract which states the terms on which the ‘…issued and fully paid capital is $100 million. one country to another 왍 flight of capi. contract may be cancelled comprising 2340 shares of $100 each and 997. value of fixed assets owned by the com- ism /knbəlz(ə)m/ noun a situation pany..

30 trnsf& tks/ noun formerly. hospitals. card-issuing bank /kɑd sjuŋ captive audience /kptv bŋk/ noun same as issuer ɔdiəns/ noun the people who cannot card-not-present merchant ac- avoid being exposed to an advertise. without capture /kptʃə/ verb to take or get any discounts. or a simi- car assembly plant /kɑr əsembli lar service offered by shops to their plɑnt/ noun a factory where cars are customers put together from parts made in other cargo /kɑ"əυ/ noun a load of goods factories which are sent in a ship or plane. to card /kɑd/ noun 1. taxi or train person has the right to invest money. a small piece of work in business.e. 쏡 escalator card. the main credit card loss made by selling assets (NOTE: The issuers have faced the prospect of having to opposite is capital gain. 왍 car boot sale /kɑ bυt sel/ noun a the ship was taking on cargo it was be- type of jumble sale. and so take a careline /keəlan/ noun a telephone 10% market share 왍 to capture 20% of number which links people to services a company’s shares to buy shares in a which can help them such as social ser- company rapidly and so own 20% of it vices departments. usually with infor- with no restrictions from the state mation printed on it 쑗 He showed his capital levy /kpt(ə)l levi/ noun a staff card to get a discount in the store. count /kɑd nɒt prez(ə)nt m&tʃənt ment 쑗 Advertisers like to have their əkaυnt/ noun an account that enables posters in underground stations where businesses operating on the web to re- there is a large captive audience. where people to put cargo on a ship . tax on the value of a person’s property 2. i. which are mailed caption /kpʃən/ noun a short de. organised in a large ing loaded with goods 왍 to load cargo car park or sports field. and to buy and sell.) push interest rates above 30 per cent APR. Though store cards have charged interest at capital transfer tax /kpt(ə)l much higher rates than this for some years. when the banks’ base rate climbed to 15 per cent. a printed piece of cardboard with in- and possessions formation on it capital loss /kpt(ə)l lɒs/ noun a ‘…ever since October.capitalist economy 36 cargo capitalist countries or world 쐽 noun a sell unwanted items from the back of person who invests capital in business their cars enterprises car card /kɑ kɑd/ noun an adver- capitalist economy /kpt(ə)lst tisement display card which is placed in kɒnəmi/ noun a system where each a vehicle such as a bus. control of something 왍 to capture 10% showcard of the market to sell hard. advertising different channel captain products or services. ceive payments by credit card without captive market /kptv mɑkt/ the buyer or card being physically pres- noun a market where one supplier has a ent when the transaction is made monopoly and the buyer has no choice card rate /kɑd ret/ noun an adver- over the product which they must tising charge which is based on the purchase charges listed in a rate card. cardboard or plastic. 쑗 It count with a credit card company and took the copywriter days to think of a whose name usually appears on the card suitable caption for the photograph. etc. as a pack in a plastic envelope to pro- scription at the bottom of an illustration spective customers or photograph 쑗 Having no caption at cardholder /kɑdhəυldə/ noun an the bottom of the illustration created individual or company that has an ac- more reader interest in the product. a tax per cent APR is something the banks fight shy on gifts or bequests of money or of’ [Financial Times Review] property card deck /kɑd dek/ noun a series captain /kptn/ noun same as of small cards.

쑗 The The political unrest in our key export cargo liner makes regular trips between markets had disastrous carry-over ef- Southampton and Lisbon. fects on our international marketing.cargo liner 37 cash and carry cargo liner /kɑ"əυ lanə/ noun a ter it has happened 쑗 The carry-over ef- cargo ship with a regular schedule 쑗 If fect of the currency devaluation was a the cargo liner’s schedule doesn’t suit good few years of lucrative exporting. carrier’s risk /kriəz rsk/ noun cash /kʃ/ noun 1. customer does not pay for the shipping each containing twelve bottles 왍 carriage paid a deal where the seller has paid for the shipping 왍 carriage case study /kes st d/ noun a true prepaid a note showing that the trans. a company study consisted of a long history of the which transports goods 쑗 We only use company. using money in coins or notes 왍 damage or loss of goods being shipped to pay cash down to pay in cash imme- carry /kri/ verb 1. 2. 쑗 The train which can be cashed 쑗 A crossed was carrying a consignment of cars for cheque is not cashable at any bank. an account which records the money (NOTE: carries. we’ll have to charter a ship. a vehicle or ship choice of strategic plans. to take from one diately 쐽 verb 왍 to cash a cheque to ex- place to another 쑗 a tanker carrying oil change a cheque for cash from the Gulf 쑗 The truck was carrying cashable /kʃəb(ə)l/ adjective goods to the supermarket.carried) which is received and spent carrying /kriŋ/ noun transporting cash advance /kʃ ədvɑns/ noun from one place to another 쑗 carrying a loan in cash against a future payment charges 쑗 carrying cost cash against documents /kʃ carry over /kri əυvə/ verb 왍 to ə"enst dɒkjυmənts/ noun a system carry over a balance to take a balance whereby a buyer receives documents for from the end of one page or period to the goods on payment of a bill of the beginning of the next exchange carry-over effect /kri əυvər cash and carry /kʃ ən kri/ fekt/ noun the effect of something af. the present situation and a reputable carriers. carton /kɑt(ə)n/ noun a box made of other 쑗 to pay for carriage 2. transports goods by road porting of goods from one place to an. 쑗 The case which transports goods study was about territory-planning in a carrier bag /kriə b"/ noun a city in which there were a number of ac- shopping bag made of strong paper counts of varying importance. to keep in stock 쑗 to carry a cash account /kʃ əkaυnt/ noun line of goods 쑗 We do not carry pens. the cost of cardboard 쑗 a carton of milk transport of goods 쑗 to allow 10% for case /kes/ noun a cardboard or carriage 쑗 Carriage is 15% of the total wooden box for packing and carrying cost. money in coins or the responsibility of a carrier to pay for notes 2. noun a large store selling goods at low . 2. 왍 carriage free a deal where the goods 왍 six cases of wine six boxes. the trans.carrying. cartage /kɑtd/ noun carrying ondhand car salesroom goods by road carnet /kɑne/ noun an international cartel /kɑtel/ noun a group of com- document which allows dutiable goods panies which try to fix the price or to to cross several European countries by regulate the supply of a product so that road without paying duty until the goods they can make more profit reach their final destination carter /kɑtə/ noun a person who carriage /krd/ noun 1. 쑗 us. cargo ship /kɑ"əυ ʃp/ noun a ship cart /kɑt/ noun a flat open goods vehi- which carries cargo. not passengers cle pulled by a horse car mart /kɑ mɑt/ noun US a sec. or invented business situation used in port costs have been paid in advance business training to practise deci- sion-making 쑗 The marketing case carrier /kriə/ noun 1. export.

a person who takes money from customers in a shop cashback /kʃbk/ noun a discount or who deals with the money that has system where a purchaser receives a been paid 2. a person who deals with cash discount on the completion of the customers in a bank and takes or gives purchase cash at the counter cash balance /kʃ bləns/ noun a cash in hand /kʃ n hnd/ noun balance in cash. for cash 쑗 With every £20 of purchases. usually . cash flow statement /kʃ fləυ ‘…the small independent retailer who stocks up stetmənt/ noun a report which shows using cash and carries could be hit hard by the cash sales and purchases loss of footfall associated with any increase in smuggled goods’ [The Grocer] cashier /kʃə/ noun 1. with a drawer for goods bought keeping the cash received cash discount /kʃ dskaυnt/ cash sale /kʃ sel/ noun a transac- tion paid for in cash noun a discount given for payment in cash cash terms /kʃ t&mz/ plural noun lower terms which apply if the customer cash dispenser /kʃ dspensə/ pays cash noun a machine which gives out money when a special card is inserted and in. kept to pay small owed amounts but not deposited in the bank cash book /kʃ bυk/ noun a book cash items /kʃ atəmz/ plural which records cash received and paid noun goods sold for cash out cash offer /kʃ ɒfə/ noun an offer cash budget /kʃ b dt/ noun a to pay in cash. cash till /kʃ tl/ noun same as cash structions given register cash float /kʃ fləυt/ noun cash put cash transaction /kʃ trn- into the cash box at the beginning of the zkʃən/ noun a transaction paid for in day or week to allow change to be given cash to customers cash up /kʃ  p/ verb to add up the cash in a shop at the end of the day cash flow /kʃ fləυ/ noun cash which comes into a company from sales cash voucher /kʃ vaυtʃə/ noun a (cash inflow) or the money which goes piece of paper which can be exchanged out in purchases or overhead expendi. as opposed to amounts money and notes. especially an offer to pay plan of cash income and expenditure cash when buying shares in a takeover cash card /kʃ kɑd/ noun a plastic bid card used to obtain money from a cash cash on delivery /kʃ ɒn d- dispenser lv(ə)ri/ noun payment in cash when cash cow /kʃ kaυ/ noun a product goods are delivered. noun payment in cash vide growth cash purchase /kʃ p&tʃəs/ noun cash deal /kʃ dil/ noun a sale done a purchase made in cash for cash cash register /kʃ redstə/ noun cash desk /kʃ desk/ noun the a machine which shows and adds the place in a store where you pay for the prices of items bought. Abbr COD or subsidiary company that consistently cash payment /kʃ pemənt/ generates good profits but does not pro.cashback 38 catalogue prices. where the customer pays cash cash flow forecast /kʃ fləυ and takes the goods away immediately fɔkɑst/ noun a forecast of when cash 쑗 We get our supplies every morning will be received or paid out from the cash and carry. ture (cash outflow) 왍 the company is the customer gets a cash voucher to the suffering from cash flow problems value of £2. cash income is not coming in fast catalogue /kt(ə)lɒ"/ noun a publi- enough to pay the expenditure going out cation which lists items for sale.

sex. and occu- noun the area around a shop or shopping pation of individuals 쑗 The market centre. ers can examine a catalogue and choose goods from it census /sensəs/ noun an official count of a country’s population. includ- catchment area /ktʃmənt eəriə/ ing such data as the age. and making food and drink for a party etc. centralize category management verb to organise from a central point 쑗 /kt"(ə)ri mndmənt/ noun a All purchasing has been centralised in system where managers have responsi. sstəm/ noun a system where advertis- sible for checking that what he or she ing and other marketing activities are . reassessing their intervention policy’ [Duns Business Month] isting brand name to a new product category centralise /sentrəlaz/. study of the census in different areas of ticle which has only superficial appeal.000 on deposits. 쑗 The group benefits bility for the marketing of a particular from a highly centralised organisational category or line of products structure. by one main point category extension /kt"(ə)ri ‘…central bankers in Europe and Japan are kstenʃən/ noun the applying of an ex. 쑗 The company has become very centralised. 쏡 distribution census look at the doll showed it to be just a central /sentrəl/ adjective organised shoddily made catchpenny.catalogue house 39 centralised system showing their prices 쑗 an office equip. e. especially busi. buys is in good order. 쑗 catalogue showroom /kt(ə)lɒ" Output reached its ceiling in June and ʃəυrum/ noun a shop where custom. so avoiding direct distribu- catering /ketərŋ/ noun supplying tion from the manufacturer. buyer beware logue of their new range of products. of organising international advertising nesses supplying food that is ready to and promotion where all decisions are eat made in a company’s central office caveat emptor /kvit emptɔ/ centralised system /sentrəlazd phrase meaning that the buyer is respon. has since fallen back. from a central or local for overseas customers. where the customers live research department made a careful catchpenny /ktʃpeni/ noun an ar. stock control easier tive 왍 catering for which provides for 쑗 centralised organisational a store catering for overseas visitors structure /sentrəlazd ɔ"əna- catering trade /ketərŋ tred/ zeʃ(ə)n(ə)l str ktʃə/ noun a method noun the food trade. the country to see where demand would but which attracts buyers 쑗 A closer be highest. the high- noun a price as marked in a catalogue or est rate of interest or the largest amount list of money which a depositor may deposit 쑗 to fix a ceiling for a budget 쑗 There is catalogue store /kt(ə)lɒ" stɔ/.g. and far more staff caterer /ketərə/ noun a person or work at headquarters. a ceiling of $100. Even those who do not understand Latin know that caveat catalog) 쐽 verb to put an item into a emptor is the rule’ [Times] catalogue (NOTE: American English is usually catalog) CCTV abbr closed circuit television catalogue house /kt(ə)lɒ" haυs/ Ceefax /sifks/ noun teletext ser- noun a company which mainly or solely vices broadcast by the BBC sells by catalogue ceiling /silŋ/ noun the highest point catalogue price /kt(ə)lɒ" pras/ that something can reach. our main office. 쐽 adjec. especially for parties centralised distribution /sentrəlazd dstrbjuʃ(ə)n/ noun a cater for /ketə fɔ/ verb to deal with system of distribution of goods to retail or provide for 쑗 The store caters mainly stores in a chain. warehouse. ‘…the idea that buyers at a car boot sale should (NOTE: American English is usually have any rights at all is laughable. same as let the ment catalogue 쑗 They sent us a cata. company that supplies food and drink.

channel captain /tʃn(ə)l certificate of approval /sətfkət kptn/ noun a business which con- əv əpruv(ə)l/ noun a document show. 쑗 She bought several garden centres and gradually built up a membəz/ plural noun the various com- chain. trols or has the most influence in a dis- ing that an item has been approved tribution channel 쑗 The production officially company became a channel captain by certificate of origin /sətfkət əv acquiring a number of important retail ɒrdn/ noun a document showing outlets. companies in the channel rektə/ noun a managing director who channel strip /tʃn(ə)l strp/ noun is also chairman of the board of the front edge of a shelf on which details directors . influence for such a specialised product. lack of capital there were not many vertiser for one advertisement 쑗 The channels of influence open to the com- whole centre spread for three days cost pany. i.central office 40 channel strip run from one central marketing challenger /tʃlndə/ noun a com- department pany which challenges other companies central office /sentrəl ɒfs/ noun which are already established in the the main office which controls all marketplace smaller offices channel /tʃnl/ noun a means by Central Office of Information which information or goods pass from /sentrəl ɒfs əv nfəmeʃ(ə)n/ a one place to another 왍 to go through British government organisation which the official channels to deal with gov- provides a publicity service and advice ernment officials. 쑗 Only businesses with enough where imported goods come from or financial resources to acquire other were made companies can become channel captains. 쑗 The centre selling was the most effective channel of spread was taken up with a large adver. Abbr COI channels of communication to find new ways of communicating with some- central purchasing /sentrəl one 왍 channels of influence the ways in p&tʃsŋ/ noun purchasing organised which a company can influence con- by a central office for all branches of a sumers to buy their products.e. certified public accountant /s&tfad p blk əkaυntənt/ noun channel communications /tʃn(ə)l kəmjunkeʃ(ə)ŋz/ plural US an accountant who has passed pro- noun communications to a marketing fessional examinations channel such as the company’s sales CGT abbr capital gains tax force or to selected retailers chain /tʃen/ noun a series of stores or channel management /tʃn(ə)l other businesses belonging to the same mndmənt/ noun the managing of a company 쑗 a chain of hotels or a hotel marketing channel and the business chain 쑗 the chairman of a large partners which form part of it do-it-yourself chain 쑗 He runs a chain channel members /tʃn(ə)l of shoe shops. 쑗 It was decided that personal the advertiser £150. especially when mak- on international trade for British compa. or non-personal channels two facing pages in the centre of a such as press advertising 쑗 Owing to newspaper or magazine used by an ad.000. tisement for a new model of car. ing a request 왍 to open up new nies wishing to export. in a trading channel has over the other tor /tʃeəmən ən mndŋ da. panies which form a distribution channel ‘…the giant US group is better known for its chain of cinemas and hotels rather than its channel power /tʃn(ə)l paυə/ involvement in shipping’ [Lloyd’s List] noun the influence which one company chairman and managing direc. per- company sonal influence channels such as centre spread /sentə spred/ noun salesmen.

bus charge /tʃɑd/ noun 1. code numbers ing information as a series of lines. 왍 charges for. a debit on an account 쑗 It flight in an aircraft which has been hired appears as a charge on the accounts. noun support given to a marketing chan. purpose ward charges which will be paid by the charter flight /tʃɑtə flat/ noun a customer 2. etc. which offers free help or services to checkout staff /tʃekaυt stɑf/ those in need 쑗 Because the organisa. charter party /tʃɑtə pɑt/ noun a tomer with the packing the customer contract between the owner and the has to pay for packing support 41 cheque of the products displayed can be put chart /tʃɑt/ noun a diagram display- such as price. to ask someone to pay for ser. to ask for charterer of a ship money to be paid 쑗 to charge £5 for de- livery 쑗 How much does he charge? charter plane /tʃɑtə plen/ noun a plane which has been chartered ‘…traveller’s cheques cost 1% of their face value – some banks charge more for small cheap money /tʃip m ni/ noun amounts’ [Sunday Times] money which can be borrowed at a low chargeable /tʃɑdəb(ə)l/ adjective rate of interest which can be charged 쑗 repairs charge.) checkouts to cope with the Saturday charity /tʃrt/ noun an organisation rush. for a special made for this service. plane a ship. 쐽 for that purpose verb 1. money which or plane which has been hired for a spe- must be paid. for them at a later date. noun the people who work at checkouts tion is a charity it does not have to pay check sample /tʃek sɑmp(ə)l/ taxes. checkbook /tʃekbυk/ noun US able to the occupier spelling of cheque book charge account /tʃɑd əkaυnt/ checklist /tʃeklst/ noun a list of noun an arrangement which a customer points which have to be checked before has with a store to buy goods and to pay something can be regarded as finished. usually count to the account of the person paying low rent and manned by volun. a boat or a bus a letter of the alphabet. or price of a service 쑗 to cial purpose make no charge for delivery 쑗 to make a small charge for rental 쑗 There is no charterer /tʃɑtərə/ noun a person charge for this service or No charge is who hires a ship etc. selling second-hand or spe. weight. whose name is written on the note 쑗 a teer staff. usually when the or as part of a procedure for evaluating invoice is sent at the end of the month something (NOTE: The customer will make regular checkout /tʃekaυt/ noun the place monthly payments into the account where goods are paid for in a shop or su- and is allowed credit of a multiple of permarket 쑗 We have opened two more those payments.g. channel support /tʃn(ə)l səpɔt/ blocks. that is to the people or companies for a special purpose 왍 boat on charter that help to sell the product to Mr Smith a boat which Mr Smith has hired for a voyage 쐽 verb to hire for a character /krktə/ noun a letter. charter /tʃɑtə/ noun hiring transport nel. bus. a number or a punctuation mark chartered /tʃɑtəd/ adjective 왍 a chartered ship. e. special purpose 쑗 to charter a plane or number or sign used in typesetting. 쑗 The charity owes its success to noun a sample to be used to see if a con- clever marketing strategies in its signment is acceptable fund-raising. chartering /tʃɑtərŋ/ noun the act vices later 왍 to charge the packing to of hiring for a special purpose the customer or to charge the cus. cheque /tʃek/ noun a note to a bank charity shop /tʃrti ʃɒp/ noun a asking them to pay money from your ac- shop organised by a charity. cheque for £10 or a £10 cheque (NOTE: cially bought products American English is usually check) 왍 .

sent to all branches of the bank which even if there is no money in the account issues it cherry-picking /tʃeri pkŋ/ noun circulate /s&kjυlet/ verb 1. [Business Times (Lagos)] placed 3. so that the person measurement of how often new custom- who holds it can cash it 왍 to endorse a ers try a product or service and then stop cheque to sign a cheque on the back to using it 2. 쑗 They circulated informa- valuable items from among a group tion about job vacancies to all colleges in the area. to be in a situation where ‘…the level of currency in circulation increased many employees stay for only a short to N4.9 billion in the month of August’ time and then leave and have to be re. churn /tʃ&n/ verb 1. abbr cost. going from shop to shop or from sup. city /st/ noun a large town 쑗 The egies and continually undercut their largest cities in Europe are linked by rivals’ prices. insurance and freight the person who wrote it because there cinema advertising /snmə was not enough money in the account to dvətazŋ/ noun advertising by short pay it 왍 to sign a cheque to sign on the films or still messages on cinema front of a cheque to show that you screens authorise the bank to pay the money circular /s&kjυlə/ adjective sent to from your account 왍 to stop a cheque to many people 쐽 noun a leaflet or letter ask a bank not to pay a cheque which sent to many people 쑗 They sent out a has been signed and sent circular offering a 10% discount.) centre of a large town. cheque account /tʃek əkaυnt/ circularise /s&kjυləraz/. ers to switch brands constantly in order to take advantage of cheaper or more city centre /sti sentə/ noun the attractive offers. choosing only the best or most customers. to buy many different products circulation battle /s&kjυleʃ(ə)n or services one after the other without bt(ə)l/ noun a competition between showing loyalty to any of them (NOTE: two papers to try to sell more copies in Churning often happens when compa. 왍 to 1. circular- noun a bank account which allows the ize verb to send a circular to 쑗 The com- customer to write cheques mittee has agreed to circularise the cheque book /tʃek bυk/ noun a members of the society. It is audited and is not the ker is paid every time the investor buys same as ‘readership’. the same market nies have competitive marketing strat. a new share 2. looking for special bar. to persuade an investor to change the shares in his or circulation /s&kjυleʃ(ə)n/ noun the number of readers of a newspaper or her portfolio frequently because the bro- magazine. This encourages custom. about without restriction by the govern- gains 쑗 Cherry-picking has become so ment 2. checkbook) circular letter /s&kjυlə letə/ noun cheque (guarantee) card /tʃek a letter sent to many people "rənti kɑd/ noun a plastic card circular letter of credit /s&kjυlə from a bank which guarantees payment letər əv kredt/ noun a letter of credit of a cheque up to a specific amount. usually where the main shops and offices are situated . 쑗 They circular- booklet with new blank cheques (NOTE: ised all their customers with a new list American English is usually of prices.cheque account 42 city centre cheque to the bearer a cheque with no churn rate /tʃ&n ret/ noun 1. a name written on it. a measurement of how many show that you accept it 왍 to pay a stocks and bonds are traded in a broker- cheque into your account to deposit a age account and how often they are cheque 왍 the bank referred the cheque traded to the drawer it returned the cheque to c. hourly flights. 2.i. circulate freely (of money) to move plier to supplier.f. to send information to 쑗 They widespread that prices may be forced circulated a new list of prices to all their down.

classified) ‘clicks-and-mortar’ stores that have both an online and a high street presence. 쑗 There is no a mistake made by someone doing of- entry for garden furniture in the classi. ‘…there may be a silver lining for classifying.CKD 43 clicks-and-mortar business CKD abbr Completely Knocked Down clean /klin/ adjective straightforward products or with no complications claim form /klem fɔm/ noun a clean acceptance /klin ək- form which has to be filled in when septəns/ noun an unconditional accep- making an insurance claim tance of a bill of lading 쑗 A clean ac- ceptance ensures a quick and class /klɑs/ noun a category or group uncomplicated transaction. [Financial Times] ployer’s right to dismiss an employee. to obtain a slot classified advertisements for broadcasting an advertisement /klsfad ədv&tsmənts/ plural clearance /klərəns/ noun 왍 to ef- noun advertisements listed in a newspa. made $6. note to say the shipment is faulty or gories according to specific characteris. lishes a classified catalogue with a sec. into which things are classified clean bill of lading /klin bl əv classification /klsfkeʃ(ə)n/ ledŋ/ noun a bill of lading with no noun arrangement into classes or cate. are accepting returns of goods purchased online tract 쑗 There are ten clauses in the con. damaged tics 쑗 the classification of employees by ages or skills 쑗 Jobs in this organisa. although it is clicks-and-mortar /klks ən classified. fice work fied catalogue. to sell cheaply in tion fall into several classifications. Many of these clause /klɔz/ noun a section of a con. this term with bricks-and-mortar. clicks-and-mortar business claused bill of lading /klɔzd bl /klks ən mɔtə bzns/ noun a busi- əv ledŋ/ noun a bill of lading stating ness that uses both e-commerce and that goods did not arrive on board in buildings such as shops to market its good condition products . may also have individual fea. click /klk/ verb to press a key or but- classified directory /klsfad ton on a keyboard or mouse darekt(ə)ri/ noun a list of businesses click rate /klk ret/ noun same as grouped under various headings such as click-through rate computer shops or newsagents clicks and bricks /klks ən brks/ classified display advertising noun a way of doing business that com- /klsfad dsple dv&tazŋ/ bines e-commerce and traditional shops noun advertising that. clerical error /klerk(ə)l erə/ noun tion for each department. order to get rid of stock 쑗 ‘Demonstra- tion models to clear’ 2. 쑗 The department store pub. at their traditional stores. mɔtə/ adjective conducting business tures such as its own box border or the both through e-commerce and also in company logo the traditional way in buildings such as classify /klsfa/ verb to put into shops and warehouses (NOTE: Compare classes or categories according to spe.000 clear profit on the deal. 쑗 There is a clause become more experienced online shoppers’ in this contract concerning the em. clear /klə/ verb 1. This is a service that may make them more popular as consumers tract of employment. electrical and non-electrical after all expenses have been paid 쑗 We products.) cific characteristics (NOTE: classfies. fect customs clearance to clear goods per under special headings such as through customs ‘property for sale’ or ‘jobs wanted’ clearance sale /klərəns sel/ noun classified catalogue /klsfad a sale of items at low prices to get rid of kt(ə)lɒ"/ noun a catalogue which stock groups articles into categories 쑗 The classified catalogue is divided into two clear profit /klə prɒft/ noun profit sections.

through to the advertiser’s website posting their fifth straight day of advances in (NOTE: The number of times users click heavy trading’ [Financial Times] on an advertisement can be counted. or not doing business 쑗 is a way of measuring how successful The office is closed on Mondays. (NOTE: an Egyptian company.30. shut a 44 closing sentence click-through /klk θru/ noun an to deal in the area 4. 쐽 noun 왍 the clos- ing of an account the act of stopping clip /klp/ noun a short extract from a supply to a customer on credit film closing bid /kləυzŋ bd/ noun the clipping /klpŋ/ noun a piece cut out last bid at an auction. final or clientele /kliɒntel/ noun all the cli. 3.) period or for ever 쑗 The company is closing down its London office. s&kt telv(ə)n/ noun a system ment on a website. plants close down and bring supply more in line client base /klaənt bes/ noun with current demand’ [Fortune] same as client list closing /kləυzŋ/ adjective 1. The click-through rate is expressed as a percentage of ad views and is used close down /kləυz daυn/ verb to to measure how successful an adver. 쑗 the advertisement has been. not open and the total number of click-throughs for business. to stop doing business for the trading day 쑗 The office closes at 5. at the end of an ac- ents of a business counting period 쑗 At the end of the client list /klaənt lst/ noun a list of quarter the bookkeeper has to calculate clients of an advertising agency the closing balance. Abbr CCTV the advertiser is charged a fee. the bid which is from a publication which refers to an successful item of particular interest closing date /kləυzŋ det/ noun clipping service /klpŋ s&vs/ the last date 쑗 The closing date for ten- noun the service of cutting out refer. 쑗 We closing sentence /kləυzŋ close early on Saturdays. the price of a share at the end of a day’s chase 2. restricted noun a method of charging an advertiser closed circuit television /kləυzd for the display of a banner advertise. and refuse to allow others tomer to take action .) These warehouses are usually closed to click-through rate /klk θru ret/ the public. to bring to an end 왍 to close a sale to end a sales negotia. Each time a visitor where TV is shown only to a small clicks on a displayed advertisement group of people within a limited area which links to the advertiser’s main site. to stop something act of clicking on a banner or other being open on-screen advertising that takes the user ‘Toronto stocks closed at an all-time high. sometimes written CTM signed a closed-market agreement with (click-through per thousand). 왍 to close a sentəns/ noun the last sentence in a market to restrict a market to one agent marketing email which pushes the cus- or distributor. A closed market /kləυzd mɑkt/ click-through rate of just a few percent noun a market where a supplier deals is common and most advertisers have to only with one agent or distributor and pay per thousand impressions of their does not supply any others direct 쑗 They banner ad. closing price /kləυzŋ pras/ noun tion and persuade a buyer to make a pur. ders to be received is May 1st. factory or service for a long tisement has been. closed /kləυzd/ adjective 1. 쑗 The client /klaənt/ noun a person with accident closed down the station for a whom business is done or who pays for period. 2. a service 쑗 One of our major clients has ‘…the best thing would be to have a few more defaulted on her payments. ences to a client in newspapers or maga- zines and sending them to him closing-down sale /kləυzŋ daυn sel/ noun the sale of goods when a close /kləυs/ noun the end of a sales shop is closing for ever negotiation 쐽 verb 1. coming at the end 2. such as a building.

from –1 to +1 counting period 쑗 At the end of the cognitive dissonance /kɒ"nətv month the closing stock was 10% higher dsənəns/ noun the feeling of dissatis- than at the end of the previous month. so that any cold start /kəυld stɑt/ noun the act single advertisement or commercial of beginning a new business or opening tends to get lost a new shop with no previous turnover to base it on code /kəυd/ noun a system of signs. ‘…examiners have come to inspect the fʃ(ə)nt əv kɒrəleʃ(ə)n/ noun a mea. person changes external information closing time /kləυzŋ tam/ noun into patterns of thought and how these the time when a shop or office stops are used to form judgments or choices work cognitive responses /kɒ"ntv r- closure /kləυə/ noun the act of spɒnsz/ plural noun thoughts that closing come to the mind of someone receiving club /kl b/ noun a group of people a message when reading or viewing a who have the same interest. or letters which mean the keeping of food in a cold store to something prevent it or other goods from going bad code of practice /kəυd əv cold store /kəυld stɔ/ noun a ware- prkts/ noun formally established house or room where food can be kept ways in which members of a profession cold agree to work 쑗 Advertisers have agreed to abide by the code of practice collateral /kəlt(ə)rəl/ adjective. 쑗 Most of our sales force cognitive processing /kɒ"ntv develop their own selling methods. set out by the advertising council. in. have not been approached before by a seller clutter /kl tə/ noun masses of adver- tising units shown together. you can phone cold /kəυld/ adjective without being him at his club. as when making buy- suasion used by salespeople to close ing decisions or comparing purchases sales 쑗 The training manager demon. 쑗 She has applied to prepared join the sports club. with the claims made for them in strated some presentation and closing advertising techniques. prəυsesŋ/ noun the way in which a cluding closing techniques. The board is aiming to permit the cold things or people taken together calling of customer agreements for the provision cluster analysis /kl stər of services relating to listed securities. tory information. faction experienced by a person who closing technique /kləυzŋ tek. Cold calling would be allowed when the investor is ənləss/ noun a method whereby not a private investor’ [Accountancy] samples are classified into groups ac- cording to characteristics cold call /kəυld kɔl/ noun a tele- phone call or sales visit where the sales- cluster sampling /kl stə person has no appointment and the sɑmplŋ/ noun sampling on the basis client is not an established customer of well-defined groups 쑗 Cluster sam- pling was used in the survey since there cold list /kəυld lst/ noun a list of were several very distinct groups in the names and addresses of people who population under study. ‘…the board is considering the introduction of a set of common provisions on unsolicited calls to cluster /kl stə/ noun a group of investors.closing stock 45 collateral closing stock /kləυzŋ stɒk/ noun between two sets of data on a continuum the details of stock at the end of an ac. cold storage /kəυld stɔrd/ noun numbers. or the place message where these people meet 쑗 If you want COI abbr Central Office of Information the managing director. noun referring to security used to pro- vide a guarantee for a loan coefficient of correlation /kəυ. cannot reconcile apparently contradic- nik/ noun a special technique of per. collateral that thrifts may use in borrowing from surement of correlation or relationship the Fed’ [Wall Street Journal] .

pay a debt 2. e. e-commerce. more stations. profitable 왍 not a colour swatch /k lə swɒtʃ/ noun a commercial proposition not likely to small sample of colour which the fin. and containing a lot of adver. production of advertis. usually with organisation that provides a service that the weekend issue. commercial /kəm&ʃ(ə)l/ adjective 1. adjective referring to a phone call selŋ/ noun hard intensive selling 쑗 which the person receiving the call Commando selling campaigns were agrees to pay for started in all the new markets where the collectibles /kəlektb(ə)lz/ plural company’s products were virtually un- noun items which people collect. cargo or passengers for payment bines still pictures with action shots . 쑗 As a commercial metres in a newspaper column. combination commercial commercial aircraft /kəm&ʃ(ə)l /kɒmbneʃ(ə)n kəm&ʃ(ə)l/ noun a eəkrɑft/ noun an aircraft used to carry television advertisement which com. to take things away from a place 쑗 We have to collect the stock comfortable belongers from the warehouse. commando selling /kəmɑndəυ verb. used for agent. 쑗 The clothing company bought ad. competitor. a large group of consumers who are ters are collected twice a day the post conservative in outlook and happy with office workers take them from the letter their existence box to the post office for dispatch 쐽 ad. printed in colour on helps companies with some aspect of art paper. /kɒm&s s&vs prəvadə/ noun an companies a newspaper. she represents several calculating charges for advertising companies. more listeners. by acting as an tising 쑗 The spring colour supplements Internet payment gateway were mostly devoted to holiday advertis- ing. referring to business 왍 ‘sample only vertising space on three pages of the colour supplement. comeback /k mbk/ noun a means ing material. 쑗 Can you collect /k mf(ə)təb(ə)l blɒŋəz/ plural noun my letters from the typing pool? 왍 let.collateral services 46 commercial aircraft collateral services /kəlt(ə)rəl combination rate /kɒmbneʃ(ə)n s&vsz/ plural noun agencies which ret/ noun a special rate or discount for provide specialised services such as advertising in two or more magazines package design. known.. 쑗 Commando selling is needed stamps.g. playing cards. matchboxes to obtain a reasonable market share in a collecting agency /kəlektŋ market dominated by a powerful edəns/ noun an agency which col. make a profit 쐽 noun an advertisement ished product must look like on television colour theory /k lə θəri/ noun ‘…commercial radio has never had it so good – knowledge about colours and their psy. to make or claim 쑗 If you throw away the till re- someone pay money which is owed 왍 to ceipt you will have no comeback if the collect a debt to go and make someone goods turn out to be faulty. e. lects money owed to other companies commerce /kɒm&s/ noun the buy- for a commission ing and selling of goods and services colour supplement /k lə commerce service provider s plmənt/ noun a magazine which ac. sales he made. and soaring chological effect on prospective advertising revenue’ [Marketing Week] customers commercial agent /kəm&ʃ(ə)l column /kɒləm/ noun a section of edənt/ noun a person or business printed words in a newspaper or selling a company’s products or services magazine for a commission 쑗 The commercial column-centimetre /kɒləm agent earned a 30% commission on sentmitə/ noun the space in centi.g. or marketing research of getting compensation for a complaint collect /kəlekt/ verb 1. – of no commercial value’ not worth anything if sold 2.

banking and advertis- commercial college /kəm&ʃ(ə)l ing 쑗 The recession has affected com- kɒld/ noun a college which teaches mercial services and the industries they business studies support and supply. support trade. etc. which you have agreed to spend . proposition 쑗 the commercialization of usually a percentage of the sales made 쑗 museums She gets 10% commission on everything she sells. in the country he represented. gramming costs ager placed one advertisement in each commercial services /kəm&ʃ(ə)l commercial break of the day on the ra. 쑗 The advertising man. or plane of its own commission or profit margin has to carry to make a profit commission rep /kəmʃ(ə)n rep/ commercially /kəm&ʃ(ə)li/ adverb noun a representative who is not paid a in a business way 왍 not commercially salary but receives a commission on viable not likely to make a profit sales commercial port /kəm&ʃ(ə)l pɔt/ commitment /kəmtmənt/ noun 1.commercial artist 47 commitment commercial artist /kəm&ʃ(ə)l tee that rival products will not be adver- ɑtst/ noun an artist who designs ad. commercial counsellor /kə. noun a port which has only goods traffic something which you have agreed to do and no passengers 쑗 The company has a commitment to commercial protection /kə. posters. commercial traveller /kəm&ʃ(ə)l commercial course /kəm&ʃ(ə)l trv(ə)lə/ noun a salesperson who kɔs/ noun a course where business travels round an area visiting customers skills are studied 쑗 He took a commer. edənt/ noun an agent who is paid a percentage of sales commercial law /kəm&ʃ(ə)l lɔ/ noun the laws regarding business commission rebating /kəmʃ(ə)n ribetŋ/ noun an advertising agency’s commercial load /kəm&ʃ(ə)l ləυd/ discounting of invoices for media costs noun the amount of goods or number of sent to clients. commercial TV /kə- mercials on television 쑗 The advertiser m&ʃ(ə)l tivi/ noun a radio or TV wished to specify exactly when in the station which broadcasts advertise- commercial break the advertisements ments. for payment advertisement commercial break /kəm&ʃ(ə)l commercial radio /kəm&ʃ(ə)l brek/ noun the time set aside for com. 왍 he charges 10% commis- commercialise /kəm&ʃəlaz/. 2. in effect taking them out passengers which a bus. provide a cheap service. on behalf of his or her company (NOTE: cial course by correspondence.g. train. money m&ʃ(ə)l prətekʃən/ noun the guaran. The TV station is extending its commer- lor gave us sound advice on marketing cial time in order to increase revenue. sion he asks for 10% of sales as his commercialize verb to make some- payment thing into a business 쑗 The holiday town has become unpleasantly commission agent /kəmʃ(ə)n commercialised. the modern term for a commercial trav- eller is sales representative) commercial district /kəm&ʃ(ə)l dstrkt/ noun the part of a town where commercial value /kəm&ʃ(ə)l offices and shops are located vlju/ noun how much something is worth if it is sold commercialisation /kəm&ʃəla- zeʃn/. e. commercial time /kəm&ʃ(ə)l m&ʃ(ə)l kaυns(ə)lə/ noun a person tam/ noun the time that a television or who advises on commercial matters in radio station devotes to advertising 쑗 an embassy 쑗 The commercial counsel. tised directly before or after a particular vertisements. rediəυ/. which help to pay for its pro- were to appear. commercialization noun the commission /kəmʃ(ə)n/ noun act of making something into a business money paid to a salesperson or agent. s&vsz/ plural noun services which dio channel.

espe. attitudes. telephones.) together in order to remove or reduce the barriers to trade between them communication skills /kəmjun- keʃ(ə)n sklz/ plural noun the ability common ownership /kɒmən to pass information to others easily and əυnəʃp/ noun a situation where a intelligibly business is owned by the people who work in it communications management /kəmjunkeʃ(ə)nz mndmənt/ common pricing /kɒmən prasŋ/ noun the managing of communications. 쑗 Cus. keʃ(ə)nz/ plural noun 1. messages sent from one individual or organisation to common /kɒmən/ adjective 1. preferences. communication objectives /kə- thing sold in very large quantities. mjunkeʃ(ə)nz tʃn(ə)l/ noun a 2. written. e. 2. usually in writing that is intended to persuade 쑗 The sales 쑗 We have entered into communication reps are being trained in the subtleties with the relevant government of communisuasion.g. communications strategy /kə- giving shareholders a right to vote at mjunkeʃ(ə)nz strtədi/ noun meetings and to receive dividends planning the best way of communicat- ing with potential customers communication /kəmjun- keʃ(ə)n/ noun the passing on of views communication task /kəmjun- or information 쑗 A house journal was keʃ(ə)n tɑsk/ noun things that can be started to improve communication be. e. conviction. . which another happens frequently 쑗 Unrealistic salary expectations in younger staff was a communications channel /kə- common problem they had to deal with. attributed to advertising. noun the illegal fixing of prices by sev- so that advertising messages are sent ef- eral businesses so that they all charge ficiently to people who need to receive the same price them common stock /kɒmən stɒk/ noun US ordinary shares in a company. commodity exchange /kəmɒdti creating awareness. and which anyone can use radio and television.g. department. Common Market /kɒmən mɑkt/ video-conferencing and electronic noun an association of nations who join mail. images. kstʃend/ noun a place where com. being able to modities for delivery at a later date 쑗 contact people or to pass messages 쑗 Af- Silver rose 5% on the commodity futures ter the flood all communications with market yesterday. and noun a firm which carries goods or pas- printed word. awareness. sys- commodity trader /kəmɒdti tems or technologies used for sending tredə/ noun a person whose business and receiving messages. knowledge. tween management and staff. and media such as sengers. swe(ə)n/ noun US communication thing with someone. belonging to several different people means of passing messages from one in- or to everyone dividual or organisation to another (NOTE: Communications channels common carrier /kɒmən kriə/ include the spoken. the outside world were broken. comprehension. tomers complained about the lack of following the DAGMAR approach to communication about the unexpected setting advertising goals and objectives delay. and action.commodity 48 communisuasion commodity /kəmɒdt/ noun some.g. or purchase modities are bought and sold intentions commodity futures /kəmɒdti communications /kəmjun- fjutʃəz/ plural noun trading in com. mjunkeʃ(ə)n əbdektvz/ plural cially a raw material such as a metal and noun objectives that a company tries to food such as wheat achieve through its advertising. e. 왍 to enter into communication communisuasion /kəmjun- with someone to start discussing some. postal and is buying and selling commodities telephone networks 3.

with local companies on their home ter- mjunti nvɒlvmənt/ plural noun the ritory. 왍 the com- uct with competing brands to its own petition companies which are trying to advantage 쑗 Disparaging remarks in compete with your product 쑗 We have comparative advertising were strongly lowered our prices to beat the competi- discouraged in the industry. the act of comparing one thing with an- nity in the form of community initia. als who are trying to do better than oth- tive which can be compared with some. competing /kəmpitŋ/ adjective panies are legally required to write an. contract each company is trying to win pɔt/ noun a document that sets out in a larger part of the market. cal people take practical action to solve comparative pricing /kəmprətv their problems prasŋ/ noun the indication of a price community involvement /kə. keen competition strong competition 쑗 prətv dvətazŋ/ noun advertis. 왍 the two companies are com- ministers of member states of the EU peting for a market share or for a company report /k mp(ə)ni r. offer such different advantages. to win a larger share of the market. highlight the advantages of its products. tion.) competition /kɒmpətʃ(ə)n/ noun 1. which competes 왍 competing firms nual reports and financial reports and firms which compete with each other 왍 to submit them to the authorities in the competing products products from dif- country where they are registered. . 쑗 Comparative anal- aim of making a positive contribution to ysis is difficult when the various media the life of the community by helping lo. European manufacturers. We are facing keen competition from ing which compares a company’s 49 competition community /kəmjunti/ noun a comparative analysis /kəm- group of people living or working in the prətv ənləss/ noun an analysis same place of different media and vehicle options community initiative /kəmjunti by an advertiser 쑗 A tight advertising nʃətv/ noun a particular scheme set budget made a thorough comparative up by a business organisation with the analysis essential. 쑗 The competition have brought pany uses comparative advertising to out a new range of products. to try to do better than another person or mjunti mnstəz/ noun directives another company 쑗 We have to compete issued by the EU commission with cheap imports from the Far East. for example. other 쑗 Sales are down in comparison tives (NOTE: Community involvement with last year. 쑗 The com.) pete with someone or with a company Community legislation /kə. on similar prices the environmental or social impact of a project they are undertaking. 왍 comparative advertising /kəm. developed as a result of the growing emphasis on the social responsibility comparison-shop /kəmprs(ə)n ʃɒp/ verb to compare prices and fea- of business in the 1960s and 1970s and often involves companies not only tures of items for sale in different shops giving money to finance local projects to find the best deal but also sending trained staff to help compete /kəmpit/ verb 왍 to com- set them up. reduction’ tribution that business organisations comparison /kəmprs(ə)n/ noun make to the life of their local commu. etc. but ferent companies which have the same they may also produce other reports use and are sold in the same markets at on specific subjects. by comparing it with another.g. thing else to control the use of resources. ers. trying to win detail what a company has done and the contract how well it has performed (NOTE: Com. e. 쑗 They were competing unsuccessfully Community ministers /kə. the action of companies or individu- comparative /kəmprətv/ adjec. 2. ‘15% mjunti nvɒlvmənt/ noun the con.

pettv nteldəns/ noun informa- pany uses competitions to sell off an tion. cus. and competitor analysis and aims cording to the amounts being spent by to discover how competitive an organi. [Australian Financial Review] pettv ədvɑntd/ noun a factor competitiveness index /kəm- that gives a special advantage to a na- pettvnəs ndeks/ noun a list of tion. marketing or promotional expenses ac- tomer. we must that are competing for sales insist on competitive separation. 쑗 Compe. activities.competition-oriented pricing 50 competitive separation ‘…profit margins in the industries most exposed competitive edge /kəmpettv to foreign competition are worse than usual’ [Sunday Times] ed/.) competitive /kəmpettv/ adjective competitively /kəmpettvli/ ad- which competes fairly 왍 a competitive verb 왍 competitively priced sold at a price a low price aimed to compete with low price which competes with the price a rival product 왍 competitive products of similar products from other products made to compete with existing companies products competitiveness /kəmpettvnəs/ ‘…the company blamed fiercely competitive noun being competitive market conditions in Europe for a £14m ‘…farmers are increasingly worried by the operating loss last year’ [Financial Times] growing lack of competitiveness for their products on world markets’ competitive advantage /kəm. competitive intelligence /kəm- chases to compete in a game 쑗 The com. group. project. 쑗 /kɒmpətʃ(ə)n ɔrientd prasŋ/ Why does this product have the competi- noun putting low prices on goods so as tive edge over its rivals? to compete with other competing competitive forces /kəmpettv products fɔsz/ plural noun economic and busi- competitions /kɒmpətʃ(ə)nz/ plu. competitors sation. especially by evaluating the capabilities of key competitive pricing /kəmpettv competitors prasŋ/ noun putting low prices on goods so as to compete with other competitive check /kəmpettv products tʃek/ noun analysing rival advertising competitive separation /kəm- levels and patterns. or individual countries ranked in order of their com- when it is competing with others petitive performance competitive analysis /kəmpettv competitive parity /kəmpettv ənləss/ noun analysis for marketing prti/ noun a method of budgeting purposes that can include industry. become more competitive if wants to ables consumers who can show that they survive and succeed have bought a minimum number of pur. or product is. ness factors that force an organisation to ral noun a sales promotion which en. through industrial espionage. competitive advantage /kəm- pettv ədvɑntd/ noun an advan- ‘…competition is steadily increasing and could tage that one company or product has affect profit margins as the company tries to over its rivals in the market 쑗 Any com- retain its market share’ [Citizen (Ottawa)] petitive edge we have in this market is competition-oriented pricing due to our good after-sales service. that an organisation gathers washing-machines to holidays abroad. especially information concerning excess supply of tinned food. the plans. company. and analyses in order to make itself 쑗 Competitions and free gifts make up a more competitive (NOTE: Competitive large part of the company’s sales intelligence may sometimes be gained promotions. and products of its titions involve prizes ranging from competitors. . often conducted on pettv sepəreʃ(ə)n/ noun a guaran- the basis of data supplied by monitoring tee that rival products will not be adver- organisations tised directly before or after a particular competitive demand /kəmpettv advertisement 쑗 If our advertising cam- dmɑnd/ noun demand for products paign is to be really effective.

competitor 51 computer competitor /kəmpettə/ noun a per. noun documents that a company has to ment that you feel something is wrong 쑗 publish when it issues shares in order to complaints from the workforce about comply with the regulations governing conditions in the factory 쑗 When mak. /kɒmplment(ə)ri prɒd kt/ noun a components factory /kəm- product for which demand is dependent pəυnənts fkt(ə)ri/ noun a factory on the demand for another product 쑗 which makes parts which are used in When demand for our product fell. complimentary ticket plents mndmənt/ noun the man. regulations governing its business ment in a company or store to which customers can send or bring complaints complimentary /kɒmplment(ə)ri/ about its products or service adjective free complaints management /kəm. given as a present complementary /kɒmpl. sent with documents or gifts etc. pro. composite demand /kɒmpəzt d- complementary supply mɑnd/ noun the total demand for a /kɒmplment(ə)ri səpla/ noun the product that has many uses 쑗 Composite supply of two or more products from the demand for the construction equipment same production process came from construction companies and complementor /kɒmplmentə/ DIY enthusiasts. for example. are German firms are our main competitors. and are therefore sold their products in order to build up a pic- at reasonably low prices 쑗 Many ture of where their strengths and weak- low-income buyers buy CKD products. be put into a final product 쑗 The assem- mentary demand. complementors to computer compa- ‘…sterling labour costs continue to rise between nies. nesses lie 쑗 CKD products are popular with DIY competitor profiling /kəmpettə enthusiasts. Abbr CKD products prəυfalŋ/ noun same as competitor analysis compliance documentation /kəmplaəns dɒkjυmenteʃ(ə)n/ complaint /kəmplent/ noun a state. der to function successfully (NOTE: son or company which competes 쑗 Two Software companies. that the organisation complies with the plents dpɑtmənt/ noun a depart. computer /kəmpjutə/ noun an elec- thing that your product needs in or. ɒfsə/ noun an employee of a financial organisation whose job is to make sure complaints department /kəm.) 3% and 5% a year faster than in most of our competitor countries’ [Sunday Times] Completely Knocked Down competitor analysis /kəmpettə products /kəmplitli nɒkt daυn prasz/ plural noun products which ənləss/ noun the process of analys- are sold in pieces. always quote the refer- ence number. /kɒmplment(ə)ri tkt/ noun a free agement of complaints from customers ticket. bly line stopped because the supply of a complementary product vital component was delayed. which the purchaser ing information about competitors and has to assemble. share issues ing a complaint. noun a company that makes some. instead of a complementary demand letter /kɒmplment(ə)ri dmɑnd/ noun de- mand for two or more products that are component /kəmpəυnənt/ noun a needed together 쑗 The demand for cars piece of machinery or a part which will and petrol was an example of comple. other factories to make finished ducers of complementary products also products suffered. 쑗 She sent her letter of compliance officer /kəmplaəns complaint to the managing director. compliments slip /kɒmplmənts ment(ə)ri/ adjective which adds to or slp/ noun a piece of paper with the completes something else name of the company printed on it. tronic machine which calculates or .

but not the programs plays his or her account on a computer computerise /kəmpjutəraz/. list of addresses. e. the promotion of a product aimed at computer listing /kəmpjutə one particular area of the market 쑗 lstŋ/ noun a printout of a list of items When it became obvious that the gen- taken from data stored in a computer eral public were interested in our prod- computer magazine /kəmpjutə uct.g. 쑗 computer-readable /kəmpjutə Concentration has meant too little com- ridəb(ə)l/ adjective which can be read petition and therefore higher prices to and understood by a computer 쑗 com. which identi- computer hardware /kəmpjutə fies the telephone number a customer hɑdweə/ noun machines used in data is calling from. s&vsz/ plural noun work using a nies which do not own their own computer. paid for at an hourly rate cords. concen- lŋ"wd/ noun a system of signs. operating of computers computerised /kəmpjutərazd/.) computerize verb to change from a computer time /kəmpjutə tam/ manual system to one using computers noun the time when a computer is being 쑗 We have computerised all our re. computing speed /kəmpjutŋ computerized adjective worked by spid/ noun the speed at which a com- computers 쑗 a computerised invoicing puter calculates system 쑗 a computerised filing system computer language /kəmpjutə concentrated marketing /kɒnsəntretd mɑkətŋ/. we switched from concentrated m"əzin/ noun a magazine with arti. puter-readable codes concept /kɒnsept/ noun an idea . which run a computer ment in a company which manages the company’s computers computer telephony integration /kəmpjutə təlefəni nt"reʃ(ə)n/ computer error /kəmpjutər erə/ noun a technology that links computers noun a mistake made by a computer and telephones and enables computers computer file /kəmpjutə fal/ to dial telephone numbers and send and noun a section of information on a com. receive messages (NOTE: One product puter. the bureau 52 concept stores information and processes it computer run /kəmpjutə r n/ automatically noun a period of work done by a computer bureau /kəmpjutə computer bjυərəυ/ noun an office which offers computer services /kəmpjutə to do work on its computers for compa. done by a computer bureau computers computer system /kəmpjutə computer department /kəm. and dis- printers. cles on computers and programs 쏡 differentiated marketing strategy. etc. sstəm/ noun a set of programs. mands. let- trated segmentation /kɒnsəntretd ters and words used to instruct a computer se"mənteʃ(ə)n/ noun niche market- ing. 쑗 Stock control is now com. screen. of computer telephony integration is or customer accounts calling line identification. com- pjutə dpɑtmənt/ noun a depart. searches the customer processing. computer manager /kəmpjutə undifferentiated product mndə/ noun a person in charge of a concentration /kɒnsəntreʃ(ə)n/ computer department noun the degree to which a small num- computer network /kəmpjutə ber of businesses control a large section netw&k/ noun a computer system of the market 쑗 Too much concentration where several PCs are linked so that created resentment among small busi- they all draw on the same database nesses trying to enter the market. used. computing /kəmpjutŋ/ noun the pletely computerised. the consumer. including the computers and database to identify the caller. marketing to a much broader approach.

g. provided confirm /kənf&m/ verb to say that that specific things happen or that spe. and recruitment policies. provided that noun 1. conference to be in a meeting pacity was too limited. buy a company and is given access conditional /kəndʃ(ə)nl/ adjective to confidential information and in provided that specific conditions are partnerships and benchmarking taken into account 왍 to give a condi. 쑗 The board right to be the only seller of a product in has total confidence in the managing a place director. noun a telephone call that connects the right to use someone else’s property three or more lines so that people in dif- for business purposes 2. Many useful tips can be picked up at a cause it didn’t answer an existing de.) concessions from management during negotiations. concession close /kənseʃ(ə)n confidence level /kɒnfd(ə)ns kləυz/ noun the act of offering a con.concept testing 53 confirmation concept testing /kɒnsept testŋ/ conditions of sale /kəndʃ(ə)nz əv noun the evaluation of a new product sel/ plural noun agreed ways in which idea. discounts or tives from all the main departments in a credit terms company. usually by consulting representa. programmes. e. the act of making certain 왍 con- specific terms apply firmation of a booking the act of . the right to be ferent places can talk to one another the only seller of a product in a place 쑗 (NOTE: Conference calls reduce the She runs a jewellery concession in a de. 3. that has important information about thing which has to be carried out as part the plans and activities of another of a contract or which has to be agreed organisation promises not to pass that before a contract becomes valid 왍 on information on to outsiders (NOTE: condition that provided that 쑗 They Confidentiality agreements are often were granted the lease on condition that used when someone is planning to they paid the legal costs. 쑗 After thorough concept testing HR managers included talks on payment the idea of a disposable pen was re. and/or by interviewing a sam. something is certain 쑗 to confirm a ho- cific terms apply 왍 the offer is condi. a sale takes place.) tional acceptance to accept. tel reservation or a ticket or an agree- tional on the board’s acceptance the ment or a booking 왍 to confirm offer is only valid provided the board someone in a job to say that someone is accepts now permanently in the job conditional offer /kəndʃ(ə)nəl confirmation /kɒnfəmeʃ(ə)n/ ɒfə/ noun an offer to buy. 왍 to be in jected as the company’s production ca. 쑗 A full morning’s bargaining confidentiality agreement /kɒnfdenʃilti ə"rimənt/ noun finally ended with a concession close. conference call /kɒnf(ə)rəns kɔl/ concession /kənseʃ(ə)n/ noun 1. allowing something sary for the participants to spend time to be done. of how reliable or accurate close a sale 쑗 The trainee sales reps the results of a survey can be expected were told to resort to concession closes to be only when meeting with strong sales re- sistance. conference /kɒnf(ə)rəns/ noun a ple of consumers 쑗 The new product meeting of people to discuss problems 쑗 idea did not survive concept testing be. lev(ə)l/ noun a measurement. which is not normally done and money on getting together in one 쑗 The union obtained some important place. shown as cession to a potential buyer in order to a percentage. 쑗 The conference of mand. cost of meetings by making it unneces- partment store. confidence /kɒnfd(ə)ns/ noun the state of feeling sure or being certain 쑗 concessionaire /kənseʃəneə/ The sales teams do not have much confi- noun a person or business that has the dence in their manager. sales conference. an agreement in which an organisation condition /kəndʃ(ə)n/ noun some.

g.confirmed credit 54 consultancy checking that a booking is certain 2. seen as potentially the most difficult contract because consignation /kɒnsaneʃ(ə)n/ of the need for huge investment’ [Times] noun the act of consigning conspicuous consumption /kən- consignee /kɒnsani/ noun a per. to buyers of the machinery. iary companies. or the extent to which individuals. 쒁 consumption the sending of goods to someone who consult /kəns lt/ verb to ask an ex- will sell them for you 왍 goods on con. iary companies as well as the holding table confirming house acted for the company in a single set of accounts 2. under which service . to firms a buyer’s order with a supplier and include the accounts of several subsid- makes transport arrangements 쑗 A repu. consignment note /kənsanmənt confirmed credit /kənf&md nəυt/ noun a note saying that goods kredt/ noun credit that is official and have been sent binding consignor /kənsanə/ noun a person confirming house /kənf&mŋ who consigns goods to someone haυs/ noun an organisation that con. grouped together into a son or firm may profit personally from single profit and loss account (NOTE: decisions taken in an official capacity American English is profit and loss conglomerate /kən"lɒmərət/ noun statement or income statement) a group of subsidiary companies linked consolidated shipment /kən- together and forming a group. pert for advice 쑗 We consulted our ac- signment goods kept for another com. 쑗 We will need group goods together for shipping a confirming house to arrange for a new supply of office furniture to be delivered consolidated profit and loss ac- to our shop by December. spkjuəs kəns mpʃən/ noun the son who receives goods from someone consumption of goods for show or to get for their own use or to sell for the sender approval. count /kənsɒldetd prɒft ən lɒs əkaυnt/ noun profit and loss accounts conflict of interest /kɒnflkt əv of the holding company and its subsid- ntrəst/ noun a situation where a per. (NOTE: plural is goods to someone to send goods to consortia) someone for them to use or to sell for ‘…the consortium was one of only four bidders you for the £2 billion contract to run the lines. a manufacturers agree to repurchase any unsold document which confirms something 쑗 goods. countant about our tax. noun the grouping together of goods for tion of features for a product or service. and in return dictate prices and sales strategies and even dispatch staff to sell the She received confirmation from the products’ [Nikkei Weekly] bank that the deeds had been deposited. price and size consolidator /kənsɒldetə/ noun a connectivity /kɒnektvti/ noun firm which groups together orders from the ability of an electronic product to different companies into one shipment connect with other similar products. consortium /kənsɔtiəm/ noun a nies and countries can connect with one group of companies which work to- another electronically gether 쑗 A consortium of Canadian companies or a Canadian consortium consign /kənsan/ verb 왍 to consign has tendered for the job. each sɒldetd ʃpmənt/ noun goods from making very different types of products different companies grouped together conjoint analysis /kəndɔnt into a single shipment ənləss/ noun a research method consolidation /kənsɒldeʃ(ə)n/ aimed at discovering the best combina. compa. pany to be sold on their behalf for a commission consultancy /kəns ltənsi/ noun the ‘…some of the most prominent stores are act of giving specialist advice 쑗 a con- gradually moving away from the traditional sultancy firm 쑗 he offers a consultancy consignment system. consolidate /kənsɒldet/ verb 1. rather than because they are consignment /kənsanmənt/ noun useful. shipping e.

cookers ing consultant 쑗 a management consumerism /kənsjuməzm/ consultant 쑗 a tax consultant noun the activities concerned with pro- consulting /kəns ltŋ/ adjective tecting the rights and interests of giving specialist advice 쑗 a consulting consumers engineer consumer list /kənsjumə lst/ consumable goods/ kən. used as a way of measuring infla- tion and the cost of living (NOTE: The consumer credit /kənsjumə British equivalent is the Retail Prices kredt/ noun the credit given by shops. pn(ə)l/ noun a group of consumers ing direct to individual consumers. etc. e. Consumer Protection Act. 1987 ing the APR /kənsjumə prətekʃən kt/ noun an consumer durables /kənsjumə Act of Parliament which bans the use of djυərəb(ə)lz/ plural noun items which misleading information given to poten- are bought and used by the public.) [Business Times (Lagos)] Consumer Credit Act. special legal problems regarding goods and services 쑗 Gas consumers services offered. 1974. 1987 consultant /kəns ltənt/ noun a spe. consumables mailed with details of a product or ser- /kənsjuməb(ə)lz/ plural noun goods vice. and evant details of the average customer for requires them to state clearly the full a product or service terms of loans which they make. consumer list ‘…forecasting consumer response is one problem which will never be finally solved’ consumer market /kənsjumə [Marketing Week] mɑkt/ noun the customers who buy ‘…consumer tastes in the UK are becoming consumer goods 쑗 There is a growing much more varied’ [Marketing] consumer market for construction mate- ‘…the marketing director’s brief will be to rials owing to the increased popularity develop the holiday villages as a consumer of DIY. noun a list of individuals who can be sjuməb(ə)l "υdz/. giving details of product son or company which buys and uses tests. consumer panel /kənsjumə sjumə dv&tazŋ/ noun advertis. e. Index or RPI. are protesting at the increase in prices. 쑗 Both consumer markets and brand. consumer profile /kənsjumə sjumə kredt kt/ noun an Act of prəυfal/ noun a description of the rel- Parliament which licenses lenders. for consumers. or cialist who gives advice 쑗 an engineer. aimed at the upper end of the tourist industrial markets have been affected by market’ [Marketing Week] the recession. refrigerators. consumer mailing list /kən- 쑗 The factory is a heavy consumer of sjumə melŋ lst/ noun same as water. from the electoral register which are bought by members of the consumer magazine /kənsjumə public and not by companies m"əzin/ noun a magazine published consumer /kənsjumə/ noun a per. 1974 /kən.9 per cent’ der the Consumer Credit Act. them or use what the panel says about sjumə kəυɒp(ə)rətv/ noun a retail. tial purchasers to encourage them to buy . includ. washing machines. as who report on products they have used opposed to businesses so that the manufacturers can improve consumer cooperative /kən.) banks and other financial institutions to ‘…analysis of the consumer price index for the consumers so that they can buy goods first half of the year shows that the rate of (NOTE: Lenders have to be licensed un. inflation went down by about 12.g. them in advertising ing business owned by consumers who Consumer Price Index /kən- share in its profits sjumə pras ndeks/ noun an Amer- consumer council /kənsjumə ican index showing how prices of con- kaυns(ə)l/ noun a group representing sumer goods have risen over a period of the interests of consumers time. consumer advertising /kən.g.consultant 55 Consumer Protection Act.

consumer research 56 contingent liability consumer research /kənsjumə contain /kən.

ten/ verb to hold some- r.

쑗 We have consumer resistance /kənsjumə lost a file containing important r.s tʃ/ noun research into why con. thing inside 쑗 a barrel contains 250 sumers buy goods and what goods they litres 쑗 Each crate contains two com- may want to buy puters and their peripherals.

zstəns/ noun a lack of interest by documents.
consumers in buying a new product 쑗 container /kən

tenə/ noun 1. a box,
The new product met no consumer resis- bottle, can, etc. which can hold goods 쑗
tance even though the price was high. The gas is shipped in strong metal con-
tainers. 쑗 The container burst during
Consumers Association shipping. 2. a very large metal case of a

sjuməz əsəυsieiʃ(ə)n/ noun an
standard size for loading and transport-
independent organisation which protects ing goods on trucks, trains, and ships 쑗
consumers and represents their interests, to ship goods in containers 왍 a con-
and reports on the quality of products tainer-load of spare parts a shipment
and services in its regular magazine. of spare parts sent in a container
Abbr CA
containerisation /kəntenəra-
consumer society /kənsjumə sə-

zeʃ(ə)n/, containerization noun the

saəti/ noun a type of society where act of shipping goods in containers
consumers are encouraged to buy goods
containerise /kən

consumer sovereignty /kən- containerize verb to put or ship goods 

content /.sɒvrnti/ noun the power of in containers consumers to influence trends in pro.

kɒntent/ noun the text. il- duction and marketing lustrations and graphics of a piece of consumer spending /kənsjumə publicity .

spendŋ/ noun spending by private content management /.

kɒntent households on goods and services mndmənt/ noun the management ‘…companies selling in the UK market are of the textual and graphical material worried about reduced consumer spending as a contained on a website (NOTE: Owners consequence of higher interest rates and inflation’ [Business] of large sites with thousands of pages often invest in a content management consumer’s surplus /kənsjuməz application system to help with the cre- .

s pləs/ noun the difference between ation and organisation of the content of what a consumer is willing to pay for these sites.) something and what he or she actually contest /.

motion where prizes are given to people ager realised how big the consumer’s who give the right answers to a series of surplus was she decided to raise the questions price of the product. contested takeover /kəntestd consumer survey /kənsjumə .kɒntest/ noun a type of pro- does pay for it 쑗 When the brand man.

tekəυvə/ noun a takeover bid where .

and tries to fight it (NOTE: also called a merce /kənsjumə tə kən.s ve/ noun a survey of existing and the board of the target company does potential demand for a product not recommend it to the shareholders consumer-to-consumer com.

especially contingency plan /kən.sjumə hostile bid) kɒm s/ noun business.

tndənsi e-business. done by one individual with pln/ noun a plan which will be put another and not involving any business into action if something happens which organisation no one expects to happen consumption /kən.

smpʃən/ noun contingent liability /kəntndənt the act of buying or using goods or ser. laə.

but for which provi- tion 쑗 The factory has a heavy sion is made in a company’s accounts.blti/ noun a liability which may vices 쑗 a car with low petrol consump. consumption of coal. as opposed to ‘provisions’. where . or may not occur.

왍 to void a contract to make a con. a legal trktŋ k mp(ə)ni/ noun an inde- agreement between two parties 쑗 to pendent broadcasting company that sells draw up a contract 쑗 to draft a contract advertising time 쑗 With two new con- 쑗 to sign a contract 왍 the contract is tracting companies being set up this binding on both parties both parties year. rather than by em- motional campaign to keep the product ploying members of staff to do it 왍 to firmly in the minds of the target audi. 왍 by private contract /kɒntrkt mnjυfktʃərŋ/ noun by private legal agreement 3. where a company’s sup. chines. and replacement. from other organisations instead pany’s books but also a debtor because of buying it.continuity 57 contract manufacturing money is set aside for an anticipated spare parts 쑗 to enter into a contract to expenditure supply spare parts 쑗 to sign a contract continuity /kɒntnjuti/ noun the for £10. an agreement which allows an overseas ment for the supply of a service or manufacturer to manufacture or assem- goods 쑗 a contract for the supply of ble your products in that country for sale . an agree.) without paying customs duty contracting company /kən- contract noun /kɒntrkt/ 1. was contracted out to Smith Ltd tinuous production line Smith Ltd was given the contract for continuous process production supplying spare parts 왍 to contract out /kəntnjυəs prəυses prəd kʃən/ of an agreement to withdraw from an noun automated production of many agreement with the written permission identical products of the other party continuous research /kəntnjυəs contract carrier /kɒntrkt kriə/ rs&tʃ/ noun regular ongoing market noun a carrier or transportation com- research 쑗 Continuous research will tell pany which has special contracts with us if sales are dropping off.000 worth of spare parts 왍 to act of maintaining a continuous stable put work out to contract to decide that level of advertising activity 쑗 Continu. signing the contract must do what is agreed 왍 under contract bound by the contracting party /kəntrktŋ terms of a contract 쑗 The firm is under pɑti/ noun a person or company that contract to deliver the goods by Novem. cars or office ma- plier is not only a creditor in that com. e. 쑗 Shall we aim for a sudden short place a contract with a company to blast of advertising or should continuity decide that a company shall have the be the essence of our strategy? contract to do work for you 왍 to tender for a contract to put forward an esti- continuity programme /kɒnt. award a contract to a company or to ence.g. advertisers will have more choice. a long period.g. mate of cost for work under contract 쐽 njuti prəυ"rm/ noun a marketing verb /kəntrkt/ to agree to do some programme which offers a series of work on the basis of a legally binding products which are sent to customers at contract 쑗 to contract to supply spare regular intervals parts or to contract for the supply of continuous /kəntnjυəs/ adjective spare parts 왍 the supply of spare parts with no end or with no breaks 쑗 a con. contract manufacturing tract invalid 2. work should be done by another com- ity must be the watchword of this pro. on condition that they sign it has purchased goods on credit a contract for the hire with owners (NOTE: Contract hire agreements often contraband /kɒntrəbnd/ noun include arrangements for maintenance goods brought into a country illegally. signs a contract ber. businesses 쑗 a contract carrier which contra /kɒntrə/ verb 왍 to contra an ships coffee beans from Brazil to coffee entry to enter a similar amount in the wholesalers in Britain opposite side of an account contract hire /kɒntrkt haə/ noun contra account /kɒntrə əkaυnt/ a system that allows organisations to noun an account which offsets another hire equipment that they need to use for account. pany on a contract. e.

왍 to control a deal between two businesses to ex. family lost control of its business. a tion analysis helps to streamline pro. the power sponsibility for something as stated in a or ability to direct something 쑗 The contract company is under the control of three shareholders. control group /kəntrəυl "rup/ contribution /kɒntrbjuʃ(ə)n/ noun a small group which is used to noun something that is contributed check a sample group contribution analysis /kɒntr. to make sure that something less. 쑗 The company an entry made in the opposite side of an is controlled by the majority share- account to make an earlier entry worth. business to find that you have less than verb according to a contract 쑗 The com- 50% of the shares in a company. re- contractual obligation /kən. holder. i.contract note 58 controllable variables there 쑗 Under a contract manufacturing contribution margin /kɒntr- agreement a local company is making bjuʃ(ə)n mɑdn/ noun the differ- our cars in France. 왍 out of con- trol not kept in check 쑗 Costs have got contra deal /kɒntrə dil/ noun a out of control. and so pany is contractually bound to pay our are not longer able to direct it 쑗 The expenses. 2. company’s marketing mix 쑗 Because duction and marketing. e. based on trəυləb(ə)l veəriəb(ə)lz/ plural noun its profit margin and sales 쑗 Contribu. 쑗 Thorough there were so few controllable variables contribution analysis led to six products the outcome of the marketing plan was being dropped from the product range. . ence between the revenue generated by contract note /kɒntrkt nəυt/ a product and its total variable costs noun a note showing that shares have contribution of capital /kɒntr- been bought or sold but not yet paid for. bjuʃ(ə)n əv kpt(ə)l/ noun money also including the commission paid to a company as additional capital contractor /kəntrktə/ noun a per. (NOTE: controlling – 쑗 They had contributed to the pension controlled) fund for 10 years. control /kəntrəυl/ noun 1.g. contribution pricing /kɒntr- son or company that does work accord. business to direct a business 쑗 The change goods and services business is controlled by a company contra entry /kɒntrə entri/ noun based in Luxembourg. the cost of living. controllable variables /kən- ucts contributes to fixed costs. 쐽 verb 1. very uncertain. 쑗 noun work done according to a written The company is trying to bring its over- agreement heads back under control. 2. controllable /kəntrəυləb(ə)l/ adjec- bjuʃ(ə)n ənləss/ noun analysis of tive which can be controlled how much each of a company’s prod. stricting or checking something or mak- trktʃuəl ɒbl"eʃ(ə)n/ noun he has ing sure that something is kept in check signed no agreement to buy 왍 under control kept in check 쑗 Ex- contract work /kɒntrkt w&k/ penses are kept under tight control. bjuʃ(ə)n prasŋ/ noun a pricing ing to a written agreement method based on maximising the contri- bution of each product to fixed costs contractual /kəntrktʃuəl/ adjec- tive according to a contract 왍 to fulfil contributor /kəntrbjυtə/ noun a your contractual obligations to do person who gives money 왍 contributor what you have agreed to do in a contract of capital person who contributes capital contractual liability /kən- trktʃuəl laəblti/ noun a legal re. 왍 to lose control of a contractually /kəntrktjuəli/ ad.e. factors that can be controlled. a debit against a credit is kept in check or is not allowed to de- contribute /kəntrbjut/ verb to velop 쑗 The government is fighting to give money or add to money 쑗 We control inflation or to control the rise in agreed to contribute 10% of the profits.

against piracy. have to be carried on and no action can control systems /kəntrəυl be taken by either side 2. mailing. product or service zin/ noun a magazine which is sent free to a limited number of readers. tomer into an actual purchaser 쑗 The newspaper has a controlled cir- conversion rate /kənv&ʃ(ə)n ret/ culation and is suitable for advertise- noun the proportion of contacts. . a period when negotiations honest. by ments for highly specialised products.controlled 59 co-operation controlled /kəntrəυld/ adjective ‘…the nation’s largest convenience store chain has expanded the range of bills it takes ruled or kept in check payments for to include gas and telephone controlled circulation /kəntrəυld services’ [Nikkei Weekly] s&kjυleʃ(ə)n/ noun distribution of a publication to a specialist readership convenient /kənviniənt/ adjective who are members of a particular organi. convenient way of sending money trolled circulation. and convertible currency /kən- is paid for by the advertising it contains v&təb(ə)l k rənsi/ noun a currency which can easily be exchanged for controlled economy /kəntrəυld another kɒnəmi/ noun an economy where most business activity is directed by or. where the magazine abroad. cooling-off laws /kulŋ ɒf lɔz/ ders from the government plural noun US state laws allowing control question /kəntrəυl cancellation of an order within a spe- kwestʃən/ noun a question in a ques. a at your earliest convenience as soon as period of ten days during which a per- you find it possible son who has signed a life assurance pol- convenience food /kənviniəns icy may cancel it fud/ noun food which is prepared by the shop before it is sold. so that it needs co-op /kəυ ɒp/ noun same as only heating to be made ready to eat cooperative convenience goods /kənviniəns co-operate /kəυɒpəret/ verb to "υdz/ plural noun ordinary everyday work together 쑗 The regional govern- products that people have to buy but ments are co-operating in the fight which command little or no brand loy. suitable or handy 쑗 A bank draft is a sation or profession (often a free con. and the meeting? is paid for by the advertisers) 쑗 The pro. the interview is ended. open until late at ule with the co-operation of the night. co-operation /kəυɒpəreʃ(ə)n/ convenience store /kənviniəns noun the act of working together 쑗 The stɔ/ noun a small store selling food or project was completed ahead of sched- household goods. 쑗 The two firms have alty 쑗 Price competition is very fierce in co-operated on the computer project. 쑗 If control piriəd/ noun 1. 쑗 Is 9. 3.30 a convenient time for is distributed free to key executives. controlled circulation magazine who actually end up purchasing the /kəntrəυld s&kjυleʃ(ə)n m"ə. included to check that respondents were cooling-off period /kulŋ ɒf not lying about their age. or even 24 hours per day workforce. a period when sstəmz/ plural noun the systems used a person is allowed to think about some- to check that a computer system is thing which they have agreed to buy on working correctly hire purchase and possibly change their mind 쑗 New York has a three day cool- convenience /kənviniəns/ noun 왍 ing-off period for telephone sales. the convenience goods market. cific period after signing an agreement 쑗 Cooling-off laws are making buyers tionnaire designed to check that answers are consistent 쑗 A control question was less hesitant about placing large orders. advertising or email marketing. during an industrial questions show that answers are not dispute. conversion /kənv&ʃ(ə)n/ noun the fessional institute publishes a quarterly action of converting a prospective cus- magazine with a controlled circulation.

resources. is doubtful the advertisement will get ducer and a distributor. a similar right protecting logos. cause the copy date is only one week ing proved an economic method of away. noun the passing of an advertiser’s copy ɒp(ə)rətv dvətazŋ/ noun 1. has launched not only a cussing details until we decide on a chain of shops. 쐽 noun 1. but also manufacturing copy platform. copy fitting /kɒpi ftŋ/ noun the cooperative movement /kəυ. arrangement of advertising text so it fits ɒp(ə)rətv muvmənt/ noun a move. not paying enough attention to the copy ing or advertising for different brief. by which an advertisement must be de- rangement whereby various producers livered to the media concerned 쑗 The cooperate in the marketing of their prod. 쑗 cooperative to run the factory. creative teams are working flat out be- ucts or services 쑗 Cooperative market. of advertising copy clearance since it directly dispar- costs 쑗 A cooperative advertising ages the competition. a business run by a structions from an advertiser to a copy- group of employees who are also the writer explaining the objectives of an owners and who share the profits 쑗 The advertising campaign 쑗 The copy brief product is marketed by an agricultural made it clear that the advertisements cooperative. last- co-opetition /kəυɒpətʃ(ə)n/ noun ing seventy years after the author’s cooperation between competing death 2.) thor’s legal right to publish his or her own work and not to have it copied. the as neither misleading nor offensive 쑗 It sharing by two companies. in Britain. 2.cooperative 60 copy testing cooperative /kəυɒp(ə)rətv/ adjec. ated. copy date /kɒpi det/ noun the date ɒp(ə)rətv mɑktŋ/ noun an ar. and wholesale businesses as well as copyright /kɒpirat/ noun 1. 2. etc. often a pro. copied the company report and took it tive willing to work together 쑗 The home. 쑗 The advertise- agreement means that two companies ment has received copy clearance can enjoy quantity discounts offered by because all its claims can be substanti- the media. 쑗 They set up a workers’ were to be aimed at young people. (NOTE: also called copying machine. an au- insurance and financial services. copy testing /kɒpi testŋ/ noun the photocopier) act of testing the effectiveness of an ad- copy /kɒp/ verb to make a second vertisement’s copy 쑗 Copy testing led to document which is like the first 쑗 He the copywriter having to rethink the . 쑗 Let’s work on the advertise- selling for companies with few financial ments with the earliest copy dates. the space allowed for it ment that encourages the setting-up of copying machine /kɒpiŋ məʃin/ cooperative businesses that are jointly noun a machine which makes copies of owned by their members who share the documents profits and benefits they gain from trad- ing amongst themselves (NOTE: The copy platform /kɒpi pltfɔm/ movement was founded in Rochdale. mailing advertising mate. 쑗 You will not get copy clearance rial from different companies in the for this ad because the caption is sure to same mailing pack offend a lot of women readers. 쐽 adjective covered copier /kɒpə/ noun a machine by the laws of copyright 쑗 It is illegal to which makes copies of documents photocopy a copyright work. noun the main theme of an advertise- Lancashire in 1844 by 28 weavers ment’s copy 쑗 There is no point in dis- and. cooperative marketing /kəυ. a busi. companies brand names. The advertisers blamed the agency for ness which organises cooperative mail. (NOTE: copies.copying- workforce has not been cooperative copied) over the management’s productivity copy brief /kɒpi brif/ noun the in- plan. companies copy clearance /kɒpi klərəns/ cooperative advertising /kəυ.

that contributes most to its success No amount of corporate advertising will and. 쑗 tions. which [Citizen (Ottawa)] is its basic product or service corporate advertising /kɔp(ə)rət core business /kɔ bzns/ noun dvətazŋ/ noun the advertising of an the most important work that an organi. that it is most expert at.) its business. staff and in team-building and training ket in silver. an organisation does things.) or the image of it that exists in the minds core capability /kɔr kepəblti/ of its customers. ful than expected.copywriter 61 corporate hospitality wording of the message. and that are supposed to be corporate discount /kɔp(ə)rət shared by everyone in the organisation dskaυnt/ noun a reduction in advertis- from senior management to ordinary ing charges calculated on the basis of employees (NOTE: Core values are of. etc. 쑗 Copy testing corner shop /kɔnə ʃɒp/ noun a will tell us whether or not the advertise. brands of a company sion statement. exercises for employees . with. that encapsulates what it does core competence /kɔr and what it stands for kɒmpt(ə)ns/ noun a skill or an area corporate communication of expertise possessed by an organisa. sphere that exists within it and the way core values /kɔ vljuz/ plural people who work for it behave (NOTE: noun 1. present us as a caring organisation. corporate culture /kɔp(ə)rət the main product which a company k ltʃə/ noun the often unspoken be- makes or sells 2. originally in- corner /kɔnə/ verb 왍 to corner the tended to help salespeople build market to own most or all of the supply relationships with customers. a set of concepts and corporate hospitality /kɔp(ə)rət ideals that guide a person’s life and help hɒsptlti/ noun entertainment pro- him or her to make important decisions vided by an organisation. small privately owned general store ments are offensive to the public in corporate /kɔp(ə)rət/ adjective re- general. its employees and the noun same as core competence public. /kɔp(ə)rət kəmjunkeʃ(ə)n/ noun tion that makes it particularly good at the activities undertaken by an organisa- doing some things and makes an impor. the total advertising revenue from all the ten reflected in an organisation’s mis. the atmo- installation service. ferring to a whole company copywriter /kɒpiratə/ noun a per. but now of a commodity and so control the price increasingly used as an incentive for 쑗 The syndicate tried to corner the mar. ness became prominent in the 1980s corporate brand /kɔp(ə)rət when attempts at diversification by brnd/ noun the overall image that a large companies proved less success. sales will core activity /kɔr ktvti/ noun exceed $50 million next year’ the central activity of a company. ‘…the prime rate is the rate at which banks lend son who writes advertisements to their top corporate borrowers’ [Wall Street Journal] core /kɔ/ noun the central or main part ‘…if corporate forecasts are met. organisation rather than a product 쑗 Our sation does. liefs and values that determine the way out added benefits such as credit terms. company stands for quality. the main commercial and moral The culture of an organisation is often principles that influence the way an or. that it was originally set up ever persuade the consumer that the to do (NOTE: The concept of core busi. usually. that corporate advertising is designed to makes it different from other organisa. a basic product. summed up as ‘the way we do things ganisation is run and the way it conducts around here’.) 2. tion to pass on information both to its tant contribution to its success by giving own employees and to its existing and it competitive advantage over other prospective customers and the general organisations public core product /kɔ prɒd kt/ noun 1. company presents to the outside world.

before dividends are paid. 왍 to cost a ‘…corporate profits for the first quarter showed product to calculate how much money a 4 per cent drop from last year’ will be needed to make a product. 왍 to sell at cost to way information is presented and the sell at a price which is the same as the way it is used. ideally. which includes the corporate vision /kɔp(ə)rət cost of the goods. cost accountant /kɒst əkaυntənt/ ness activities are designed to help it noun an accountant who gives managers achieve (NOTE: An organisation’s cor. calculated dentti/ noun the way in which a cor. 왍 to cover costs to produce tal is a development of intranet tech. New York? 쑗 Computer costs are falling sation and provides links to information each year. of two cars. gains made by companies. 쑗 Pack- plnŋ/ noun planning the future work aging has both practical as well as cos- of a whole company metic importance. barely covers the costs of advertising or top applications. Abbr CT poration is distinguished from others correlation /kɒrəleʃ(ə)n/ noun the corporate image /kɔp(ə)rət degree to which there is a relationship md/ noun an idea which a company between two sets of data 쑗 Is there any would like the public to have of it correlation between people’s incomes corporate name /kɔp(ə)rət nem/ and the amount they spend on clothing? noun the name of a large corporation 쏡 coefficient of correlation. US a company cost analysis /kɒst ənləss/ which is incorporated in the United noun calculating in advance what a new States product will cost corporation income tax cost-benefit analysis /kɒst /kɔpəreʃ(ə)n nk m tks/ noun a benft ənləss/ noun comparing the tax on profits made by incorporated costs and benefits of different possible companies ways of using available resources corporation tax /kɔpəreʃ(ə)n cost centre /kɒst sentə/ noun 1.corporate identity 62 cost centre corporate identity /kɔp(ə)rət a. insurance. and desk. and to customise the the advertising costs. transport charges. which has to be paid for something 쑗 lows access to all the information and What is the cost of a first class ticket to software applications held by an organi. 2. 쑗 We cannot afford the cost from outside it (NOTE: A corporate por. and so [Financial Times] work out its selling price corporate strategy /kɔp(ə)rət cost. to have a price 쑗 How prɒfts/ plural noun the profits of a much does the machine cost? 쑗 This corporation cloth costs £10 a metre. multiple correlation corporate plan /kɔp(ə)rət pln/ noun a plan for the future work of a cosmetic /kɒzmetk/ adjective re- whole company ferring to the appearance of people or things 쑗 We’ve made some cosmetic corporate planning /kɔp(ə)rət changes to our product line. corporate portal /kɔp(ə)rət cost /kɒst/ noun the amount of money pɔt(ə)l/ noun a main website that al. a large company 2. and freight strtədi/ noun the plans for future /kɒst nʃυərəns ən fret/ noun the action by a corporation estimate of a price. email.) cost of manufacture or the wholesale corporate profits /kɔp(ə)rət cost 쐽 verb 1. a tks/ noun a tax on profits and capital person or group whose costs can be . the insurance. should allow users costs of production 쑗 The sales revenue to access groupware. information about their business costs porate vision is usually summed up in cost accounting /kɒst əkaυntŋ/ its vision statement. enough money in sales to pay for the nology and.) noun preparing special accounts of corporation /kɔpəreʃ(ə)n/ noun manufacturing and sales costs 1. Abbr CIF pose of an organisation that all its busi. and the v(ə)n/ noun the overall aim or pur.

Abbr CPA cost driver /kɒst dravə/ noun a factor that determines how much it costs cost per click-through /kɒst pə to carry out a particular task or project. before cost-cutting /kɒst k tŋ/ noun re. that the seller gets paid whenever a visi- ing it tor clicks on an advertisement cost-effective /kɒst fektv/ adjec. 쑗 We ml/ noun the cost of an advertisement. based on the principle it. cost per mille /kɒst pə give us a retail price of $2. including tion and whose cost is therefore ac- manufacturing costs and the staff costs cepted as an overhead of the business of the production department. It is similar to the margin . Abbr time-consuming and costly. or items such as the interest on mortgages. an individual that provides a service cost of sales /kɒst əv selz/ noun needed by another part of an organisa- all the costs of a product sold. 쑗 The mistakes were fall within our target audience. or the activities involved in complet.cost-cutting 63 cost-plus pricing itemised and to which costs can be allo. the amount of resources needed for line advertising. klk θru/ noun a method of pricing on- e. costing /kɒstŋ/ noun a calculation Abbr CPO of the manufacturing costs. cannot do the costing until we have de. in response to an advertisement. a unit. prasŋ/ noun a pricing method that in- suring the cost of living which is shown volves basing the price on the produc- as a percentage increase on the figure tion costs and adding a percentage for for the previous year. plier’s overheads and margin 쑗 We are ary to allow it to keep up with the in. but includes other cated in accounts 2. CPM cost of entry /kɒst əv entri/ noun cost plus /kɒst pl s/ noun a system the cost of going into a market for the of calculating a price. and so the cost per thousand /kɒst pə selling price of a product 쑗 The costings θaυz(ə)nd/. cost per customer /kɒst pə tive which gives good value when com.g. calculated as the cost for every thousand tails of all the production expenditure. cost per inquiry /kɒst pər n- cost-effectiveness /kɒst kwaəri/ noun the average cost for fektvnəs/. k stəmə/ noun a measure of pared with the original cost 쑗 We find cost-effectiveness based on the cost per advertising in the Sunday newspapers sale generated very cost-effective. cost efficiency /kɒst each inquiry in response to an fʃ(ə)nsi/ noun being cost-effective 쑗 advertisement Can we calculate the cost-effectiveness cost per order /kɒst pər ɔdə/ of air freight against shipping by sea? noun a measure used to determine the cost factor /kɒst fktə/ noun the number of orders generated compared to problem of cost the cost of running the advertisement. people reached or the cost of a thousand costly /kɒstl/ adjective costing a lot impressions for a website 쑗 This news- of money. consumer price index. CPT. or costing too much money 쑗 paper has the highest cost per thousand Defending the court case was a costly but a very high proportion of its readers process. cost-of-living index /kɒst əv cost-plus pricing /kɒst pl s lvŋ ndeks/ noun the way of mea. by taking the cost first time of production of goods or services and cost-of-living increase /kɒst əv adding a percentage to cover the sup- lvŋ nkris/ noun an increase in sal. general overheads are calculated ducing costs 쑗 We have made three sec- retaries redundant as part of our cost per acquisition /kɒst pər cost-cutting programme. 쑗 We have kwzʃ(ə)n/ noun the average cost taken out the second telephone line as a for each acquisition of a new customer cost-cutting exercise.95. charging for the work on a cost plus creased cost of living basis. a process.

cheques have to be countersigned by the ing goods 왍 glove counter the section finance director. course for trainee sales managers. 쑗 Costs counter-programming /kaυntə of the case will be borne by the prəυ"rmŋ/ noun the presenting of prosecution. Management trainees all took a ‘…the company set about paring costs and six-month course in business studies. as a reply to a competitor’s coupon /kupɒn/ noun 1. but its counter-offer – the lookout for new courses in manage- . expensive’ [Wall Street Journal] either the manufacturing price or the wholesale price. for an order that was to have provided 8% of its workload next year – was too late and too ing price which is the same as the price. 쑗 Five years as a some items counter-jumper gave her plenty of expe. but others need to be country of origin /k ntri əv recommended by a doctor. 쑗 plied with a counter-offer of £1. which the seller paid counterpack /kaυntəpk/ noun a for the item box for the display of goods for sale. TV programmes that are designed to ap- cottage industry /kɒtd ndəstr/ peal to the audience of competing noun the production of goods or some programmes run during at the same time other type of work. 쑗 improving the design of its product. It came up The training officer was constantly on with a price cut of 14%. inserts such as the couponed offers sent out with credit card statements’ [PR Week] countermand /kaυntəmɑnd/ verb to cancel an order course /kɔs/ noun a series of lessons counter-offer /kaυntər ɒfə/ noun a or programme of instruction 쑗 She has higher or lower offer made in reply to finished her secretarial course. countersign /kaυntəsan/ verb to ple working in their own homes sign a document which has already been counter /kaυntə/ noun a long flat signed by someone else 쑗 All our surface in a shop for displaying and sell./kaυntə/ prefix against product comes from 쑗 All produce must counteradvertising /kaυntər. costs /kɒsts/ plural noun the expenses placed on the counter or on another flat involved in a court case 쑗 The judge surface in a shop awarded costs to the defendant. ‘…it employs selective mailings and package rience of customer relations. giving special discounts on came a manager. 쑗 The sales director of a shop where gloves are sold 왍 goods countersigns all my orders. coupon ad /kupɒn d/ noun an ad- posed to the position advocated in an vertisement with a form attached. be labelled to show the country of dvətazŋ/ noun advertising aimed origin. which advertising message you cut out and return to the advertiser counterbid /kaυntəbd/ noun a with your name and address for further higher bid in reply to a previous bid 쑗 information When I bid £20 they put in a counterbid couponed /kupɒnd/ adjective with of £25. noun a person who sells goods over the couponing /kupɒnŋ/ noun a sell- counter (informal ) 쑗 He was a coun- . and Blacks re. homes. a piece of advertisements paper used in place of money 2. 왍 under the ɒrdn/ noun a country where a prod- counter illegally uct is manufactured or where a food counter. carried out by peo.4m. a piece counter-argument /kaυntər of paper which replaces an order form ɑ"jυmənt/ noun a response that is op. a coupon attached 쑗 The agency is using counter-jumper /kaυntə d mpə/ couponed direct response advertising. sold over the counter retail sales of counter staff /kaυntə stɑf/ noun goods in shops 쑗 Some drugs are sold sales staff who serve behind counters over the counter. ing method using coupons delivered to ter-jumper for many years before he be.cost price 64 course cost price /kɒst pras/ noun a sell. 쑗 Tthe another offer 쑗 Smith Ltd made an offer company has paid for her to attend a of £1m for the property.

쑗 He has had good both the cost of the advertisement and experience working on both the creative its coverage before committing our. 쑗 We directed towards small businesses will help could never afford to advertise on the create jobs and reduce the unemployment rate’ cover of this magazine. 쑗 The company sent her crash-test /krʃ test/ verb to estab- on a management course. one of the outside ernment scheme aims at creating new pages of a publication. 쐽 noun someone who works in the ‘…from a PR point of view it is easier to get conceptual or artistic side of a business press coverage when you are selling an industry ‘…agencies are being called on to produce great and not a brand’ [PR Week] creative work and at the same time deliver value for money’ [Marketing Week] cover charge /k və tʃɑd/ noun (in restaurants) a charge for a place at creative director /krietv da- the table in addition to the charge for rektə/ noun an employee of an adver- food tising agency who is in overall charge of finding the right words and images to covered market /k vəd mɑkt/ promote the product during an advertis- noun a market which is held in a special ing campaign building creative selling /krietv selŋ/ covering letter /k vərŋ letə/. noun a sales technique where the main covering note /k vərŋ nəυt/ noun a emphasis is on generating new business letter sent with documents to say why they are being sent creative shop /krietv ʃɒp/. The four cover jobs for young people. cover price /k və pras/ noun the price of a newspaper or magazine which creative strategy /krietv is printed on the cover and paid by the strtədi/ noun a strategy to deter- final purchaser mine what message an advertisement will communicate CPA abbr cost per acquisition creative thinking /krietv θŋkŋ/ CPM abbr cost per mille noun same as creativity CPO abbr cost per order creativity /krietvti/ noun the CPT abbr cost per thousand ability to generate new ideas. lish the safety and reliability of some- courtesy /k&təsi/ adjective supplied thing by testing it in different ways free of charge 쑗 A courtesy sample is creaming /krimŋ/ noun the act of sent with the sales literature. and the administrative sides of advertis- selves any further. ‘…he insisted that the tax advantages he inside back cover and back cover. 쑗 We must consider ative department. 쑗 The creative front or back cover of a publication shop made short advertising films and designed some press ads for us. the itable companies he soon created a proportion of a target audience reached large manufacturing group. vertising 쑗 There are three copywriters ment itself was effective but it had very and four illustrators in the agency’s cre- poor coverage.courtesy 65 creativity ment studies. tik/noun a highly specialised business ter from an insurance company giving offering creative customer advertising details of an insurance policy and con. ing. fixing a high price for a product in order courtesy car /k&təsi kɑ/ noun the to achieve high short-term profits use of a car offered free to a customer create /kriet/ verb to make some- thing new 쑗 By acquiring small unprof- cover /k və/ noun 1. [Toronto Star] coverage /k v(ə)rd/ noun the pro. creative adjective /krietv/ relating portion of a target market that is reached to the conceptual or artistic side of ad- by an advertisement 쑗 The advertise. creative boutique /krietv bu- cover note /k və nəυt/ noun a let. inside front cover. coverage. especially . 쑗 The gov- by advertising 2. pages are front cover. services 쑗 A group of copywriters and firming that the policy exists designers have left the agency to set cover page /k və ped/ noun the their own creative shop.

tomer can borrow abilities. Abbr C/N credit agency /kredt edənsi/ creditor /kredtə/ noun a person or noun a company which reports on the company that is owed money. money set credit memorandum. credit memorandum /kredt credits are entered in the right-hand col.) credit card sale /kredt kɑd sel/ noun the act of selling something for credere /kredəri/ noun 쒁 del credit. a company’s creditors are its liabilities . creditworthiness of customers to show proach to old problems or existing pro. revenue or capital. time credit note /kredt nəυt/ noun a credit account /kredt əkaυnt/ note showing that money is owed to a noun an account which a customer has customer 쑗 The company sent the with a shop which allows them to buy wrong order and so had to issue a credit goods and pay for them later note. and many organisa- money and to buy goods without paying tions try to encourage it through their for them immediately (you pay the corporate culture and by using tech- credit card company at a later date) niques such as brainstorming and lat- eral thinking. memərndəm/. 쑗 I hope we re- against a client’s account because an ad. i. credit memo /- umn. 2. an amount credit limit /kredt lmt/ noun the entered in accounts to show a decrease largest amount of money which a cus- in assets or expenses or an increase in li. the period of or supplier to have credit so as to buy time allowed before a customer has to goods pay a debt incurred for goods or services credit freeze /kredt friz/ noun a 쑗 to give someone six months’ credit 쑗 period when lending by banks is re- to sell on good credit terms 왍 to open a stricted by the government line of credit or a credit line to make credit available to someone 왍 on credit credit history /kredt hst(ə)ri/ without paying immediately 쑗 to live on noun a record of how a potential bor- credit 쑗 We buy everything on sixty rower has repaid his or her previous days credit. but also credit card /kredt kɑd/ noun a in organisational decision-making and plastic card which allows you to borrow problem-solving. whether they should be allowed credit cedures (NOTE: Creativity is considered credit bank /kredt bŋk/ noun a important not just in the development bank which lends money of new products and services. 쏡 source credit facilities /kredt fəsltiz/ credibility plural noun an arrangement with a bank credit /kredt/ noun 1. 쑗 to enter £100 to someone’s kredt meməυ/ noun US a note show- credit 쑗 to pay in £100 to the credit of ing that money is owed to a customer 쑗 Mr Smith Compare debit 왍 account in When the buyer paid too much money credit an account where the credits are for the goods he was immediately sent a higher than the debits 3.credere 66 creditor by taking a fresh and imaginative ap.e. 쑗 The company exists on debts credit from its suppliers. In accounts. using a credit card credere agent credit column /kredt kɒləm/ credibility /kredblti/ noun the noun the right-hand column in accounts state of being trusted showing money received credibility gap /kredblti "p/ credit control /kredt kəntrəυl/ noun a discrepancy between claims for noun a check that customers pay on a product made by the manufacturer and time and do not owe more than their acceptance of these claims by the target credit limit audience 쑗 The credibility gap that we credit entry /kredt entri/ noun an face is partly due to our product’s bad entry on the credit side of an account performance record. ceive a credit memo from the suppliers vertisement was not run at the correct for the money they owe us.

mndmənt/ noun management of a selling two products which go with each business or a country’s economy during other. crossed cheque /krɒst tʃek/ noun est and are used to make loans to other a cheque with two lines across it show- members of the group ing that it can only be deposited at a creditworthiness /kredt. especially the regulations cross the Atlantic. 쑗 To get to the bank. 왍 to cross a cheque to write two lines across a cheque to show credit union /kredt junjən/ noun that it has to be paid into a bank a group of people who pay in regular de- posits or subscriptions which earn inter. Concorde only takes three hours to ganisations. to decide how to obtain come or has gained a large enough mar- the money owed ket share to be able to survive on its own credit rating agency /kredt or to be worth investing more money or retŋ edənsi/ noun US a company resources in used by businesses and banks to assess critical path analysis /krtk(ə)l the creditworthiness of people pɑθ ənləss/ noun 1. calculating which parts can be de- the creditworthiness of people layed without holding up the rest of the credits /kredts/ plural noun a list of project 2. etc. in demand for an item depending on the tive having enough money to be able to selling price of a competing product buy goods on credit 쑗 We will do some cross-media advertising /krɒs checks on her to see if she is midiə dvətazŋ/ noun advertising creditworthy. same as critical-path the names of people who have worked method on a film. bank and not exchanged for cash w&ðinəs/ noun the ability of a cus.creditors’ meeting 67 cross-selling creditors’ meeting /kredtəz critical mass /krtk(ə)l ms/ mitŋ/ noun a meeting of all the peo. by placing them side by side in a a period of crisis store 2. critical-path method /krtk(ə)l credit sale /kredt sel/ noun a sale pɑθ meθəd/ noun a technique used in where the purchaser will pay for the project management to identify the ac- goods bought at a later date tivities within a project that are critical to its success. to go across 쑗 that loans are made to people and or. cross elasticity of demand /krɒs tomer to pay for goods bought on credit lststi əv dmɑnd/ noun changes creditworthy /kredtw&ði/ adjec. selling a new product which . noun the point at which an organisation ple to whom an insolvent company or a project is generating enough in- owes money. analysis of the credit-reference agency /kredt way a project is organised in terms of ref(ə)rens edənsi/ noun a company the minimum time it will take to com- used by businesses and banks to assess plete. the same product or service in several crisis /krass/ noun a serious situa. different types of media which are of- tion where decisions have to be taken fered by a single-company media rapidly provider crisis management /krass cross-selling /krɒs selŋ/ noun 1. that relate to loans and to organisations you turn left and cross the street at the that provide loans post office. 2. usually by showing on a credit scoring /kredt skɔrŋ/ diagram or flow chart the order in which noun a calculation made when assessing activities must be carried out so that the the creditworthiness of someone or project can be completed in the shortest something time and at the least cost credit side /kredt sad/ noun the right-hand column of accounts showing CRM abbr customer relations manage- money received ment or customer relationship management credit system /kredt sstəm/ noun the system that governs the way cross /krɒs/ verb 1. TV programme.

cross-tracks 68 curriculum vitae goes with another product a customer ‘…crude oil output plunged during the past has already bought month and is likely to remain at its current level for the near future’ [Wall Street Journal] cross-tracks /krɒs trks/ noun a current account /k rənt əkaυnt/ poster site next to a railway track noun 1. counting which notes the cost of replac- ing assets at current prices. current rate of exchange /k rənt rities which maintain the strength of a ret əv kstʃend/ noun today’s rate currency of exchange currency note /k rənsi nəυt/ noun current yield /k rənt jild/ noun a a bank note (NOTE: currency has no dividend calculated as a percentage of plural when it refers to the money of the current price of a share on the stock one country: he was arrested trying market to take currency out of the country) curriculum vitae /kərkjυləm current /k rənt/ adjective referring vita/ noun a summary of a person’s to the present time 쑗 the current round work experience and qualifications sent of wage negotiations to a prospective employer by someone . monies due. (NOTE: American English is checking cumulative /kjumjυlətv/ adjec. cumulative ‘…customers’ current deposit and current reach /kjumjυlətv ritʃ/ noun the accounts also rose to $655. account) 2. these would be debts rates show the instability of a system based on a single currency. the more dollars overseas customers have to pay for these products.31 million at the end of December’ [Hongkong Standard] number of people reached by an adver- ‘…a surplus in the current account is of such tisement at least once over a period of vital importance to economists and currency time traders because the more Japanese goods that cumulative interest /kjumjυlətv are exported. a company has to pay within the next ticular country accounting period. and bought or the value of purchases over a which are held for a short time only period of time 쑗 We have purchased only from these suppliers over the last current cost accounting /k rənt few months in order to enjoy a cumula. and invisibles kjumjυlətv ɔdiəns/. In a company’s an- ‘…today’s wide daily variations in exchange nual accounts. namely the dollar’ [Economist] which must be paid within the year and are usually payments for goods or ser- ‘…the level of currency in circulation increased to N4. goods cumulative audience /. an account of the balance tive added to regularly over a period of of payments of a country relating to the time sale or purchase of raw materials. fin- noun a discount based on a quantity ished goods. That ntrəst/ noun the interest which is pushes up the value of the yen’ [Nikkei Weekly] added to the capital each year current assets /k rənt sets/ plu- cumulative quantity discount ral noun the assets used by a company /kjumjυlətv kwɒntəti dskaυnt/ in its ordinary work.g. an account in an bank from CTM noun 쒁 click-through rate which the customer can withdraw CTR abbr click through rate money when they want. pay money into a current account tive audience (informal ) . rather than cumulative reach /kjumjυlətv valuing assets at their original cost.9 billion in the month of August’ vices received. materials. e. cash. Current ac- counts do not always pay interest. kɒst əkaυntŋ/ noun a method of ac- tive quantity discount. [Business Times (Lagos)] current price /k rənt pras/ noun currency backing /k rənsi today’s price bkŋ/ noun gold or government secu. ritʃ/ noun same as cumulative Abbr CCA audience current liabilities /k rənt currency /k rəns/ noun money in laəbltiz/ plural noun the debts which coins and notes which is used in a par. 쑗 to cume /kjum/ noun same as cumula.

nevertheless offers a high degree of customer loyalty once successfully entered’ [Economist] tive made specially for one customer 쑗 He drives a custom-built Rolls Royce. the use of a round the store shop by regular shoppers 왍 to lose customer focus /k stəmə fəυkəs/ someone’s custom to do something noun the aiming of all marketing opera- which makes a regular customer go to tions towards the customer another shop 2. China custom-built /k stəm blt/ adjec.curve 69 customer service applying for a job 쑗 Candidates should she needs from it and expects it to do send a letter of application with a cur. customer relation- tionships with its customers considered ship management /k stəmə r- as a business asset leʃ(ə)nʃp mndmənt/ noun the customer care /k stəmə keə/ management of relations between a noun looking after customers.g. then customer satisfac- American English is résumé) tion results. Usually a small percentage of cannot seriously be thought of as marketing’ customers generate the most profit. it tomer. (NOTE: Customer expectation can be riculum vitae to the HR manager. customer may not be the consumer or customer profitability /k stəmə end user of the product. leaving them. aged 25–30. so that company and its customers. (NOTE: The employed in the service industries. based on what he or s&vs/ noun a service given to custom- . tising. what other people say about it. e. [Quarterly Review of Marketing] customer relations /k stəmə r- customer appeal /k stəmər əpil/ leʃ(ə)nz/ plural noun relations be- noun what attracts customers to a tween a company and its customers product customer relations manage- customer capital /k stəmə ment /k stəmə rleʃ(ə)nz kpt(ə)l/ noun an organisation’s rela. date’s previous jobs and her reasons for awareness of competitors’ products. customer profile /k stəmə customer /k stəmə/ noun a person prəυfal/ noun a description of an av- or company that buys goods 쑗 The shop erage customer for a product or service 쑗 The customer profile shows our aver- was full of customers. 쑗 The created by previous experience. and regular customer of ours. tions are met.) prɒftəblti/ noun the amount of ‘…unless advertising and promotion is done in profit generated by each individual cus- the context of an overall customer orientation. a line on a graph 쑗 The noun the number of customers in a store graph shows an upward curve. ‘…a difficult market to get into. Abbr CRM business model that is based on an as. keeping they do not become dissatisfied them informed of new products or ser- customer-centric model vices and dealing sympathetically with /k stəmə sentrk mɒd(ə)l/ noun a their complaints or inquiries. mndmənt/. adver- curriculum vitae listed all the candi. 쑗 Can you serve this customer first please? 쑗 She’s a age buyer to be male. and the pattern of their movements custom /k stəm/ noun 1. If customer expecta- is curriculums or curricula vitae.) curve /k&v/ noun a line which is not customer flow /k stəmə fləυ/ straight. Abbr CV (NOTE: the plural and brand image. 왍 the customs of the customer loyalty /k stəmə trade the general way of working in a lɔəlti/ noun the feeling of customers trade 쑗 It is the custom of the book trade who always shop at the same shop to allow unlimited returns for credit. customer retention /k stəmə r- sessment of what the customer needs tenʃən/ noun same as retention customer complaint /k stəmə customer satisfaction /k stəmə kəmplent/ noun same as complaint stsfkʃən/ noun the act of making customer expectation /k stəmər customers pleased with what they have ekspekteʃ(ə)n/ noun the ideas and bought feelings that a customer has about a customer service /k stəmə product or service.

the act of passing goods through customs so that they can cyber mall /sabəmɑll/ noun a enter or leave the country 2. installation. customization noun the customs invoice /k stəmz process of making changes to products nvɔs/ noun a customs form contain- or services that enable them to satisfy ing a list of goods with their values in the particular needs of individual both the exporter’s and importer’s customers countries customise /k stəmaz/. 왍 to cheaper than usual go through customs to pass through the cut-price store /k t pras stɔ/ area of a port or airport where customs noun a store selling cut-price goods officials examine goods 왍 to take some- thing through customs to carry some. 쑗 cut-price /k t pras/ adjective Her car was searched by customs.g. training. or an which a spot cannot be broadcast. e. declared to customs zeʃ(ə)n/.customer service department 70 cybermarketing ers once they have made their decision customs declaration /k stəmz to buy. ing goods being imported on which duty will have to be paid 쑗 to fill in a cus- customer service department toms declaration form /k stəmə s&vs dpɑtmənt/ noun a department which deals with custom. cut-throat competition /k t θrəυt thing illegal through a customs area kɒmpətʃ(ə)n/ noun sharp competition without declaring it 왍 the crates had to which cuts prices and offers high go through a customs examination the discounts crates had to be examined by customs cutting /k tŋ/ noun a piece cut out officials of a publication which refers to an item of particular interest customs broker /k stəmz brəυkə/ noun a person or company that cutting-edge /k tŋ ed/ adjective takes goods through customs for a ship. enclosing a current CV. seal attached by a customs officer to a cial needs of a customer 쑗 We use cus. ally late at night port 쑗 He was stopped by customs. box. warehouse where goods are stored until ates a magazine for a company to use as duty is paid 쑗 The goods will remain in publicity the customs warehouse until the buyer customs /k stəmz/ plural noun the claims them. customize customs seal /k stəmz sil/ noun a verb to change something to fit the spe. etc. to show that the contents have not tomized computer terminals. noun marketing that uses any kind of toms clearance Internet-based promotion. using or involving the latest and most ping company advanced techniques and technologies customs clearance /k stəmz CV abbr curriculum vitae 쑗 Please ap- ply in writing. a document website that provides information and given by customs to a shipper to show links for a number of online businesses that customs duty has been paid and the cybermarketing /sabəmɑktŋ/ goods can be shipped 쑗 to wait for cus. government department which organises cut-off /k t ɒf/ noun the time after the collection of taxes on imports. noun a list of taxes to be paid on im- cally designed to satisfy the particular ported goods needs of an individual customer customs warehouse /k stəmz custom publisher /k stəm weəhaυs/ noun a government-run p blʃə/ noun a company which cre. usu- office of this department at a port or air. passed through customs customised service /k stəmazd customs tariff /k stəmz trf/ s&vs/ noun a service that is specifi. including delivery. klərəns/ noun 1. targeted . customs entry point /k stəmz ers and their complaints and orders entri pɔnt/ noun a place at a border between two countries where goods are customisation /k stəma. after-sales dekləreʃ(ə)n/ noun a statement show- service.

And food retailers in particular have cyclical exposure without price cycle models /sak(ə)l m d(ə)lz/ power’ [Investors Chronicle] plural noun models which are used to cyclical factors /sklk(ə)l fktəz/ explain cyclical change 쑗 Cycle models plural noun the way in which a trade cy- cle affects businesses .cycle 71 cyclical factors emails. download files cyclical /sklk(ə)l/ adjective which cycle /sak(ə)l/ noun a set of events happens in cycles which happen in a regularly repeated ‘…general retailers should in theory suffer from sequence rising interest rates. or were used in the case study to show re- sites from which the customer can cent developments in retailing. bulletin boards. websites.

you need data on data cleaning /detə klinŋ/ noun hours worked and rates of pay. (NOTE: Or- /detəbes mndmənt sstəm/ ganisations often use data ware- noun a computer program that is spe. 왍 date of re- up a relationship with customers ceipt the date when something is database modelling /detəbes received mɒd(ə)lŋ/ noun using the information date coding /det kəυdŋ/ noun the from a database to create a website or to act of showing the date by which a prod- forecast trends in a market uct should be consumed ..g. e. either prehension. letters or figures keyboarding or by scanning 쑗 All important data on employees was fed into the computer.g. with data or information about a product database cleaning /detəbes data warehouse /detə weəhaυs/ klinŋ/.g. conviction and action. mɑktŋ/ noun using a database to month and year 쑗 I have received your market a product or service by building letter of yesterday’s date. p blʃŋ/ noun the publishing of infor- ing on a consumer. in order to store and analyse the information contained in a database customer information. com. to support database management system managerial decision-making. online databases and identify statistical zʃ(ə)n/ noun gathering information patterns or relationships in the data that about a subject may be commercially useful database /detəbes/ noun a set of data protection /detə prətekʃən/ noun making sure that computerised in- data stored in an organised way in a formation about people is not misused computer system 쑗 We can extract the lists of potential customers from our data sheet /detə ʃit/ noun a leaflet database.DAGMAR 72 date coding D DAGMAR /d"mɑ/ noun a model database publishing /detəbes showing stages in the effect of advertis. for cially designed to organise and process example. the weekly wages. Full on-line where the user pays for it on a form defining advertising goals for per-page inspection basis or as a measured advertising results CD-ROM DAR abbr day after recall test data capture /detə kptʃə/. awareness. data entry /detə entri/ noun the act of data /detə/ noun information avail. putting information onto a computer by able on computer. It can be used.) database marketing /detəbes date /det/ noun the number of day. e. mation selected from a database. database cleansing noun a large collection data that is col- /detəbes klenzŋ/ noun checking lected over a period of time from differ- the details of a database to make sure ent sources and stored on a computer in they are correct a standard format so that is easy to re- trieve. 쑗 To calculate data cleansing /detə klenzŋ/. houses for marketing purposes. e. data mining /detə manŋ/ noun mation in a computer the use of advanced software to search data acquisition /detə kw. 왍 data checking data to make sure it is correct bank or bank of data a store of infor.

쐽 day of the month is a public holiday. dead account /ded əkaυnt/ noun dealership /diləʃp/ noun 1. ganise something 쑗 Leave it to the filing ment after it becomes due 쑗 Let’s send clerk – he’ll deal with it. 쑗 They did a deal with an exposure from the date-in-charge.g. shops to stimulate sales ings on TV dealer’s brand /diləz brnd/ noun DBS abbr direct broadcast by satellite a brand owned by a distributor rather by dead /ded/ adjective not working 왍 a producer 쑗 I bought the dealer’s the line went dead the telephone line brand of soap since the store is well suddenly stopped working known for its high quality goods. ing advertised deadline /dedlan/ noun the date by deal in /dil n/ noun sales promotion which something has to be done 왍 to to the trade meet a deadline to finish something in deal out /dil aυt/ noun sales promo- time 왍 to miss a deadline to finish tion to consumers something later than it was planned 쑗 We’ve missed our October 1st deadline. 왍 to deal with something to or- days of grace the days allowed for pay. a business run by an authorised dealer ment by a charterer for unfilled space in dealer tie-in /dilə ta n/ noun ad- a ship or plane 쑗 Too much dead freight vertising which includes the names of is making it impossible for the company local dealers that stock the product be- to continue to charter ships. deal /dil/ noun a business agreement. and sells 쑗 a used-car dealer Abbr DAR dealer aids /dilə edz/ plural noun daypart /depɑt/ noun a section of a types of advertising material used by day. change for clients search test to see how much someone can remember of an 73 deaveraging date-in-charge /det n tʃɑd/ sales director set up a deal with a noun the date from which a poster site is Russian bank. diture by companies dead season /ded siz(ə)n/ noun death duty /deθ djuti/. American airline. the dealer /dilə/ noun a person who buys day after it appeared or was broadcast. 왍 to deal with the cheque at once since we have only an order to work to supply an order 2. 왍 to call off a deal to day /de/ noun a period of 24 hours 쑗 stop an agreement 쑗 When the chairman There are thirty days in June. iron or sand tax) deadweight cargo /dedwet deaveraging /div(ə)rdŋ/ noun kɑ"əυ/ noun a heavy cargo which is the act of treating customers in different charged by weight. dear money /də m ni/ noun money which has to be borrowed at a dead loss /ded lɒs/ noun a total loss high interest rate. 쑗 The deal will be signed charged 쑗 We will have three weeks of tomorrow. and so restricts expen- 쑗 The car was written off as a dead loss. not by volume ways according to the amount they buy. used for measuring audience rat. 쑗 The first heard about the deal he called it off. 왍 verb 1. death tax the time of year when there are few /deθ tks/ noun US a tax paid on the tourists about property left by a dead person (NOTE: deadweight /dedwet/ noun heavy the British equivalent is inheritance goods. coal. five days of grace left. leather or options 왍 he deals on the Stock Exchange his work involves buy- day after recall test /de ɑftə ing and selling shares on the Stock Ex- rikɔl test/ noun an advertising re. by rewarding the best and penalising the affair or contract 쑗 to sign a deal 쑗 The worst . e. the au- an account which is no longer used thority to sell some products or services dead freight /ded fret/ noun pay. 쑗 Because the to buy and sell 왍 to deal with someone shopowner has so little cash available. 2. to do business with someone 왍 to deal we will have to allow him additional in leather or options to buy and sell days of grace.

especially the person who makes the decision to buy debits and credits /debts ən kredts/ plural noun money which a deciding factor /dsadŋ fktə/ company owes and money it receives.000 he owes made after thinking about what to do 쑗 £250. ad- mediately through an EPOS system vertising. Compare credit 쐽 verb 왍 to debit debtor side /detə sad/ noun the an account to charge an account with a debit side of an account cost 쑗 His account was debited with the decentralise /disentrəlaz/. where responsibility for marketing. de- sum of £25. decimal system /desm(ə)l debt /det/ noun money owed for goods or services 쑗 The company stopped sstəm/ noun a system of mathematics trading with debts of over £1 million. similar to a credit card. noun the most important factor which figures which are entered in the ac. influences a decision 쑗 A deciding fac- counts to record increases or decreases tor in marketing our range of sports in assets. makes decisions. but sentrəlazd sstəm/noun a system which debits the holder’s account im. revenue goods in the country was the rising stan- or capital dard of living there. revenue or capital. they would be the manager. and promotion lies with a product manager rather than a central- debit column /debt kɒləm/ noun ised department the left-hand column in accounts show- ing the money paid or owed to others deception /dsepʃən/ noun telling a lie in order to mislead a customer debit entry /debt entri/ noun an entry on the debit side of an account decide /dsad/ verb to make up your mind to do something 쑗 to decide on a debit note /debt nəυt/ noun a note course of action 쑗 to decide to appoint a showing that a customer owes money 쑗 new managing director We undercharged Mr Smith and had to send him a debit note for the extra decider /dsadə/ noun a person who amount. In accounts. centralize verb to move power or au- debitable /debtəb(ə)l/ adjective thority or action from a central point to which can be debited local areas debit card /debt kɑd/ noun a plas. 왍 debts due money owed decision-making unit /ds(ə)n which is due for repayment mekŋ junt/ noun a group of people who decide on the purchase of a prod- debt collection /det kəlekʃ(ə)n/ uct. debt collector /det kəlektə/ noun a the financial controller and the operator person who collects debts who will use the equipment. back 왍 the company is out of debt the decision-maker /ds(ə)n mekə/ company does not owe money any more noun a person who takes decisions. liabilities.debit 74 decision-making unit debit /debt/ noun an amount entered debtor /detə/ noun a person who in accounts which shows an increase in owes money assets or expenses or a decrease in lia. decentralised system /di- tic card. ‘…the United States is now a debtor nation for bilities. expenses. owing more to debits are entered in the left-hand col. For the purchase of a new piece of noun collecting money which is owed equipment. decision-making /ds(ə)n ish paying money owed 왍 to service a mekŋ/ noun the act of coming to a debt to pay interest on a debt 쑗 The decision company is having problems in servic- ing its debts. 왍 based on the number 10 to be in debt to owe money 왍 he is in decision /ds(ə)n/ noun a choice debt to the tune of £250. foreigners than it is owed itself’ [Economist] umn. 쏡 왍 to pay back a debt to pay all the marketmaker money owed 왍 to pay off a debt to fin. the first time since 1914.000 왍 to get into debt to start to It took the committee some time to come borrow more money than you can pay to a decision or to reach a decision. Abbr DMU .

(NOTE: deferring – deferred) 쑗 This computer programme incorpo. deferment /df&mənt/ noun the act rates a decision tree. a key economic ill that has led product or service to price wars. 2. 쑗 The de- model for decision-making. ‘…the reluctance of people to spend is one of stndəd/ noun a standard set in a par. bankrupt but who is paid only after all lar 쑗 a decline in buying power 쑗 The other creditors last year has seen a decline in real deferred payment /df&d wages. a gradual noun a person who is owed money by a fall 쑗 the decline in the value of the dol. than the agreed date 2. credit. 쑗 The economy declined during the last government. deferred stock /df&d stɒk/ noun shares which receive a dividend after all ‘Saudi oil production has declined by three quarters to around 2. leading to lower prices 쑗 The oil de facto standard /de fktəυ crisis resulted in worldwide deflation.decision theory 75 deflation decision theory /ds(ə)n θəri/ defensive spending /dfensv noun the mathematical methods for spendŋ/ noun a budget strategy that weighing the various factors in making promotes areas where sales are currently decisions 쑗 In practice it is difficult to strong rather than potential areas where apply decision theory to our planning. money paid later of a product when the sales and profit. date. noun a discount given to a customer clined in a weak market. 쑗 New job ap. depressed the profit margins of . payment for ability are falling off and the product is goods by instalments over a long period no longer worth investing in 쐽 verb to deferred rebate /df&d ribet/ fall slowly or decrease 쑗 Shares de. of leaving until a later date 쑗 deferment deck /dek/ noun a flat floor in a ship of payment 쑗 deferment of a decision deck cargo /dek kɑ"əυ/ noun the deferred /df&d/ adjective put back cargo carried on the open top deck of a to a later date ship deferred creditor /df&d kredtə/ decline /dklan/ noun 1.5m barrels a day’ other dividends have been paid [Economist] deficit /defst/ noun the amount by ‘…this gives an average monthly decline of 2. who buys up to a specified quantity over plications have declined over the last a specified period year. showing the cision has been deferred until the next possible outcomes of different decisions meeting. or to postpone 쑗 We will have to decision tree /ds(ə)n tri/ noun a defer payment until January. balance it showing losses over a broad front’ [The Hindu] deficit financing /defst decode /dikəυd/ verb to translate fannsŋ/ noun planning by a gov- and interpret a coded message ernment to cover the shortfall between deduplication /didjuplkeʃ(ə)n/ tax income and expenditure by borrow- noun removing duplicate entries from a ing money database deflate /diflet/ verb 왍 to deflate the deep-rooted demand /dip rutd economy to reduce activity in the econ- dmɑnd/ noun brand loyalty which omy by cutting the supply of money survives even if the product no longer deflation /difleʃ(ə)n/ noun a gen- offers value for money 쑗 There is eral reduction in economic activity as a deep-rooted demand for this product result of a reduced supply of money and which is a household name. the final stage in the life cycle pemənt/ noun 1. 쑗 sales could be made Students study decision theory to help defer /df&/ verb to put back to a later them suggest strategies in case-studies.15 which spending is higher than income 왍 per cent during the period’ the accounts show a deficit the ac- [Business Times (Lagos)] counts show a loss 왍 to make good a ‘…share prices disclosed a weak tendency right deficit to put money into an account to from the onset of business and declined further. the main reasons behind 26 consecutive months ticular market by a highly successful of price deflation.

parcels awaiting delivery. 왍 to take de- ter. 쑗 There delayed response /dled r. 3. delegation /del"eʃ(ə)n/ noun 1. they are delivered 쑗 We took delivery of layed payment of all invoices. will be delivered ket 쑗 The product has lost market share delivery van /dlv(ə)ri vn/ noun a and is a candidate for deletion. given to sponse we will only reap the benefits the customer with the goods next year. ported free to the ship or plane but not to jective which can cause deflation 쑗 The the customer’s warehouse government has introduced some defla- tionary measures in the budget. delivery receipt /dlv(ə)ri rsit/ an act of passing authority or responsi. "υdz/ noun the transport of goods to a del credere agent /del kredər customer’s address edənt/ noun an agent who receives a high commission because they guaran. or to make livery of goods to accept goods when someone late 쑗 The company has de. 쑗 The management met a union delegation. 쑗 A delayed response is not delivery of goods /dlv(ə)ri əv usual in such a new product. a to tell her where and when to deliver group of delegates 쑗 A Chinese trade them delegation is visiting the UK. 2. delivery time /dlv(ə)ri tam/ noun deletion /dliʃ(ə)n/ noun the act of the number of days before something removing an old product from the mar. noun a delivery note when it has been bility to someone else signed by the person receiving the goods delete /dlit/ verb to remove a prod- uct from a company’s product range 쑗 delivery service /dlv(ə)ri s&vs/ We have decided to delete three old noun the store will deliver goods to all products as the new ones are coming on parts of the town stream. delivery free 쑗 a delivery date 쑗 deliv- 쑗 We are sorry for the delay in supply. 2. ery within 28 days 쑗 We have a pallet of ing your order or in replying to your let. take in three deliveries a day.deflationary 76 delphi method state enterprises and hit incomes among the a price which includes transport costs 왍 rural population’ [Financial Times] goods delivered on board goods trans- deflationary /difleʃ(ə)n(ə)ri/ ad. van for delivering goods to customers delight factor /dlat fktə/ noun delphi method /delfa meθəd/ the customer’s pleasure at making a noun a method of forming strategies by purchase soliciting individual estimates on the deliver /dlvə/ verb to transport time-scale of projected developments goods to a customer 왍 goods delivered and then inviting further estimates on free or free delivered goods goods the basis of all those already made until transported to the customer’s address at a consensus is reached . the transfer of a bill of exchange sponse by consumers to a company’s delivery note /dlv(ə)ri nəυt/ noun promotion 쑗 If there is a delayed re. delivered price /dlvəd pras/ ‘…the strong dollar’s deflationary impact on noun a price which includes packing European economies as national governments and transport push up interest rates’ [Duns Business Month] delivery /dlv(ə)ri/ noun 1. delivery order /dlv(ə)ri ɔdə/ tee payment by customers noun the instructions given by the cus- tomer to the person holding her goods. ery. were four items missing in the last deliv- spɒns/ noun a slower than expected re. goods being delivered 쑗 We in an accident. the delay /dle/ noun the time when transporting of goods to a customer 쑗 someone or something is later than allow 28 days for delivery 쑗 delivery is planned 쑗 There was a delay of thirty not allowed for or is not included 쑗 par- minutes before the AGM started or the cels awaiting delivery 쑗 free delivery or AGM started after a thirty-minute delay. 쐽 verb to be late. 쑗 She was the stock into our warehouse on the delayed because her taxi was involved 25th. a list of goods being delivered.

income and demand bill /dmɑnd bl/ noun a education bill of exchange which must be paid demonstrate /demənstret/ verb when payment is asked for to show how something works 쑗 He demand deposit /dmɑnd d. 쑗 ral noun the details of the population of The shop stewards demanded an urgent a country. tion of a magazine targeted at a specific 쐽 verb to ask for something and expect demographic group to get it 쑗 She demanded a refund. demand schedule /dmɑnd demonstration model /demən- ʃedul/ noun a table showing demand streʃ(ə)n mɒd(ə)l/ noun a piece of for a product or service at different equipment used in demonstrations and prices later sold off cheaply . der. demand-led inflation /dmɑnd demonstration effect /demən- led nfleʃ(ə)n/ noun inflation caused streʃ(ə)n fekt/ noun the theory stat- by rising demand which cannot be met ing that people buy products to impress demand price /dmɑnd pras/ or keep up with their neighbours 쑗 The noun the price at which a quantity of promotion of luxury goods is intended to goods will be bought exploit the demonstration effect. which determine demand spective purchaser for a commodity 쑗 demarketing /dimɑktŋ/ noun the There was an active demand for oil act of attempting to reduce the demand shares on the stock market. 쑗 The factory had to cut there.demand 77 demonstration model demand /dmɑnd/ noun 1. demand forecasting /dmɑnd demonstration /demənstreʃ(ə)n/ fɔkɑstŋ/ noun estimating what de. the requirement by a pro. sex. 쑗 The managers count which can be taken out when you saw the new stock-control system being want it by writing a cheque demonstrated. etc. noun an act of showing or explaining mand would exist at various prices. 쑗 The suppliers are demanding immediate demographics /demə"rfks/ plu- payment of their outstanding invoices. of the potential customers significant increases’ [Business Times (Lagos)] demography /dmɒ"rəfi/ noun a ‘…growth in demand is still coming from the private rather than the public sector’ study of populations and population sta- [Lloyd’s List] tistics such as age. 쑗 demographic edition /demə- The office cleaning company cannot "rfk dʃ(ə)n/ noun a special edi- keep up with the demand for its services. production when demand slackened. in particular its age and gen- meeting with the managing director. asking demand theory /dmɑnd θəri/ for payment 왍 payable on demand noun a branch of economics concerned which must be paid when payment is with consumer buying habits and factors asked for 2. is in great demand or there is a great demand for this book many people demographic /demə"rfk/ adjec- want to buy it 왍 to meet/fill a demand tive referring to demography 쑗 A full to supply what is needed 쑗 The factory demographic study of the country must had to increase production to meet the be done before we decide how to export extra demand. income of the year with production and sales showing levels. was demonstrating a new tractor pɒzt/ noun US money in a deposit ac. 왍 there is for a product 쑗 Demarketing was the not much demand for this item not keynote in the industry when rationing many people want to buy it 왍 this book was introduced. which affect marketing ‘…spot prices are now relatively stable in the demographic segmentation run-up to the winter’s peak demand’ [Economist] /demə"rfk se"menteʃ(ə)n/ noun ‘…the demand for the company’s products the act of dividing a market up into seg- remained strong throughout the first six months ments according to the age. when he was killed. used how something works 쑗 We went to a as a method of calculating prices demonstration of new laser equipment. sex.

demonstrator 78 depression

demonstrator /demənstretə/ noun transport 쑗 a goods depot 쑗 an oil stor-
1. a person who demonstrates pieces of age depot 쑗 a freight depot 쑗 a bus
equipment 2. same as demonstration depot
model depreciate /dpriʃiet/ verb 1. to re-
demurrage /dm rd/ noun money duce the value of assets in accounts 쑗
paid to a customer when a shipment is We depreciate our company cars over
delayed at a port or by customs three years. 2. to lose value 쑗 a share
department /dpɑtmənt/ noun 1. a which has depreciated by 10% over the
specialised section of a large organisa- year 쑗 The pound has depreciated by
tion 쑗 Trainee managers work for a 5% against the dollar.
while in each department to get an idea ‘…this involved reinvesting funds on items
which could be depreciated against income for
of the organisation as a whole. 2. a sec- three years’ [Australian Financial Review]
tion of a large store selling one type of ‘…buildings are depreciated at two per cent per
product 쑗 You will find beds in the fur- annum on the estimated cost of construction’
niture department. [Hongkong Standard]
departmental manager ‘…the euro’s downward drift sparked alarmed
reactions from the European Central Bank
/dipɑtment(ə)l mndə/ noun the which has seen the new currency depreciate by
manager of a department almost 15% since its launch’ [Times]
departmental system noun a way COMMENT: Various methods of depreci-
of organising an advertising agency into ating assets are used, such as the
departments such as creative, media, ad- ‘straight line method’, where the asset is
ministration, etc. depreciated at a constant percentage of
depend /dpend/ verb 1. 왍 to depend its cost each year and the ‘reducing bal-
ance method’, where the asset is depreci-
on to need someone or something to ex-
ated at a constant percentage which is
ist 쑗 The company depends on efficient applied to the cost of the asset after each
service from its suppliers. 쑗 We depend of the previous years’ depreciation has
on government grants to pay the salary been deducted.
bill. 2. to happen because of something
쑗 The success of the launch will depend
depreciation /dpriʃieʃ(ə)n/ noun
on the publicity campaign. 왍 depending 1. a reduction in value of an asset 2. a
on which varies according to something loss of value 쑗 a share which has shown
쑗 Depending on the advertising budget,
a depreciation of 10% over the year 쑗
the new product will be launched on ra- the depreciation of the pound against
dio or on TV. the dollar
dependent /dpendənt/ adjective depreciation rate /dpriʃieʃ(ə)n
supported financially by someone else 쑗 ret/ noun the rate at which an asset is
employees may be granted leave to care depreciated each year in the company
for dependent relatives accounts
dependent variable /dpendənt depress /dpres/ verb to reduce 쑗 
veəriəb(ə)l/ noun a variable or factor Reducing the money supply has the ef-
which changes as a result of a change in fect of depressing demand for consumer
another (the ‘independent variable’) 쑗 goods.
We are trying to understand the effects depressed /dprest/ adjective feel-
of several independent variables on one ing miserable and worried 쑗 She was
dependent variable, in this case, sales. depressed when she was not promoted.
deposit /dpɒzt/ noun money given depressed area /dprest eəriə/
in advance so that the thing which you noun a part of a country suffering from
want to buy will not be sold to someone depression
else 쑗 to pay a deposit on a watch 쑗 to depressed market /dprest
leave £10 as deposit mɑkt/ noun a market where there are
depot /depəυ/ noun a central ware- more goods than customers
house or storage area for goods, or a depression /dpreʃ(ə)n/ noun a pe-
place for keeping vehicles used for riod of economic crisis with high unem-

depth 79 desire to purchase

ployment and loss of trade 쑗 an design audit /dzan ɔdt/ noun
economic depression 쑗 The country en- the checking and evaluating of design,
tered a period of economic depression. especially in advertising materials or on
depth /depθ/ noun the variety in a a website
product line design consultancy /dzan kən-
depth interview /depθ ntəvju/ s ltənsi/ noun a firm which gives spe-
noun an interview with no preset ques- cialist advice on design
tions and following no fixed pattern, but design department /dzan d-
which can last a long time and allows pɑtmənt/ noun the department in a
the respondent time to express personal large company which designs the com-
views and tastes 쑗 Depth interviews pany’s products or its advertising
elicited some very original points of designer /dzanə/ noun a person
view. who designs 쑗 She is the designer of the
deregulation /dire"jυleʃ(ə)n/ new computer. 쐽 adjective expensive
noun the reduction of government con- and fashionable 쑗 designer jeans
trol over an industry 쑗 the deregulation
designer product /dzanə
of the airlines
‘…after the slump in receipts last year that
prɒd kt/ noun a fashionable product
followed liner shipping deregulation in the US, created by a well-known designer 쑗 Re-
carriers are probably still losing money on their cent wealth in the cities has increased
transatlantic services. But with a possible the demand for designer products. 쑗
contraction in capacity and healthy trade Jeans and sportswear are only some of
growth, this year has begun in a much more
promising fashion than last’ [Lloyd’s List] our designer products.
derived demand /dravd d- design factor /dzan fktə/ noun 
mɑnd/ noun demand for a product be- the ratio of sampling error of a complex
cause it is needed to produce another sample or sample design to that of a
product which is in demand completely random sample
describe /dskrab/ verb to say what design for manufacturability /d-
someone or something is like 쑗 The zan fə mnjυfktʃərəblti/ noun
leaflet describes the services the com- the process of adapting the design of a
pany can offer. 쑗 The managing direc- product so that it fits as well as possible
tor described the difficulties the into the manufacturing system of an or-
company was having with cash flow. ganisation, thus reducing the problems
of bringing the product to market (NOTE:
description /dskrpʃən/ noun a de- The manufacturing issues that need to
tailed account of what something is like be taken into account in design for
왍 false description of contents the act manufacturability include selecting ap-
of wrongly stating the contents of a propriate materials, making the prod-
packet to trick customers into buying it uct easy to assemble and minimising
design /dzan/ noun 1. the planning the number of machine set-ups re-
or drawing of a product before it is built quired.)
or manufactured 2. the planning of the
visual aspect of an advertisement 쐽 verb design protection /dzan prə-
to plan or to draw something before it is tekʃən/ noun making sure that a design
built or manufactured 쑗 He designed a is not copied by an unauthorised user
new car factory. 쑗 She designs garden design studio /dzan stjudiəυ/
furniture. noun an independent firm which
designate /dez"net/ verb to iden- specialises in creating designs
tify something or someone in a particu- desire /dzaə/ noun the wish to do
lar way something
designated market area desire to purchase /dzaə tə
/dez"net mɑkt eəriə/ noun p&tʃs/ noun the feeling of a customer
geographical areas used in measuring that he or she needs to purchase a prod-
the size of an audience. Abbr DMA uct. 쏡 AIDA

desk 80 differential advantage

desk /desk/ noun a writing table in an diagram /daə"rm/ noun a drawing
office, usually with drawers for statio- which presents information visually 쑗 a
nery 쑗 a desk diary 쑗 a desk drawer 쑗 a diagram showing sales locations 쑗 a di-
desk light agram of the company’s organisational
desk research /desk rs&tʃ/ noun structure 쑗 The first diagram shows
looking for information which is in how our decision-making processes
printed sources such as directories work.
desk researcher /desk rs&tʃə/ diagrammatic /daə"rəmtk/ ad-
noun a person who carries out desk jective 왍 in diagrammatic form in the
research form of a diagram 쑗 The chart showed
the sales pattern in diagrammatic form.
devaluation /divljueʃ(ə)n/
noun a reduction in value of a currency diagrammatically /daə"rə-
against other currencies 쑗 the devalua- mtkli/ adverb using a diagram 쑗
tion of the rand The chart shows the sales pattern
devalue /divlju/ verb to reduce
the value of a currency against other dial /daəl/ verb to call a telephone
currencies 쑗 The pound has been deval- number on a telephone 쑗 to dial a num-
ued by 7%. ber 쑗 to dial the operator
develop /dveləp/ verb 1. to plan and dial-and-smile /daəl ən smal/
produce 쑗 to develop a new product 2. verb to try to appear pleasant when
to plan and build an area 쑗 to develop cold-calling potential customers
an industrial estate diarise /daəraz/, diarize verb to en-
developed country /dveləpt ter a date you have to remember in a 
k ntri/ noun a country which has an diary
advanced manufacturing system diary /daəri/ noun a book in which
‘…developed countries would gain $135 billion you can write notes or appointments for
a year and developing countries, such as the each day of the week 쑗 She checked her
former centrally planned economies of Eastern engagements in her desk diary.
Europe, would gain $85 billion a year. The
study also notes that the poorest countries would diary method /daəri meθəd/ noun
lose an annual $7 billion’ [Times] a market research method whereby re-
developing country /dveləpŋ spondents keep a regular written ac- 
k ntri/, developing nation /d- count of advertising noticed or 
veləpŋ neʃ(ə)n/ noun a country purchases made or products used
which is not fully industrialised diary panel /daəri pn(ə)l/ noun a
development /dveləpmənt/ noun group of people who are asked to keep
the planning of the production of a new notes of their purchases on a daily basis
product and constructing the first proto- dice /das/ verb to cut food into small
types 쑗 We spend a great deal on re- cubes
search and development. dichotomous question /da-
development cycle /dveləpmənt kɒtəməs kwestʃən/ noun a question 
sak(ə)l/ noun the various stages which in a questionnaire that can only be an-
are involved in the development of a swered by ‘yes’ or ‘no’
product from the initial concept to its differential /dfərenʃəl/ adjective
manufacture and marketing which shows a difference 쐽 noun 왍 to
deviation /divieʃ(ə)n/ noun a erode wage differentials to reduce dif-
change of route or strategy 쑗 Advertis- ferences in salary gradually
ing in the tabloids will mean a deviation differential advantage /dfərenʃəl
from our normal marketing strategy. ədvɑntd/ noun an advantage that
diadic test /dadk test/ noun a one product has over rival products in
product test in which respondents com- the market 쑗 We are confident that our
pare two products toothpaste has a differential advantage.

differential pricing 81 direct broadcast by satellite

differential pricing /dfərenʃəl digital money /ddt(ə)l m ni/ 
prasŋ/ noun giving different products noun a series of numbers that has a
in a range different prices so as to distin- value equivalent to a sum of money in a
guish them from each other physical currency
differential tariffs /dfərenʃəl digital nervous system 
trfs/ plural noun different tariffs for /ddt(ə)l n&vəs sstəm/ noun a
different classes of goods as, e.g., when digital information system containing
imports from certain countries are taxed accumulated knowledge that will enable
more heavily than similar imports from an organisation to respond speedily and
other countries effectively to external events
differentiated marketing strat- digital TV /ddt(ə)l tivi/ noun
egy /dfərenʃietd mɑktŋ TV where the picture has been changed 
strtd/ noun a method of marketing into a form which a computer can
where the product is modified to suit process
each potential market. 쏡 concentrated digital wallet /ddt(ə)l wɒlt/
marketing, undifferentiated product noun a piece of personalised software
differentiation /dfərenʃieʃ(ə)n/ on the hard drive of a user’s computer
noun ensuring that a product has some that contains, in coded form, such items
unique features that distinguish it from as credit card information, digital cash,
competing products 쑗 We are adding a digital identity certificate, and stand-
some extra features to our watches in ardised shipping information, and can
the interest of product differentiation. 쑗 be used when paying for a transaction
The aim of differentiation should be to electronically
catch the customer’s eye. Dinkies /dŋkiz/ plural noun couples
diffusion /dfju(ə)n/ noun the pro- who are both wage-earners and have no
cess by which a product is gradually children (NOTE: short for Double In-
adopted by consumers come No Kids)
diffusion curve /dfju(ə)n k&v/ direct /darekt/ verb to manage or
noun the geographical representation of organise 쑗 He directs our South-East
how many consumers adopt a product at Asian operations. 쑗 She was directing
different times. 쏡 exponential the development unit until last year. 쐽
diffusion adjective straight or without interfer-
digital /ddt(ə)l/ adjective con- ence 쐽 adverb with no third party in-
verted into a form that can be processed volved 쑗 We pay income tax direct to
by computers and accurately reproduced the government. 왍 to dial direct to con-
digital cash /ddt(ə)l kʃ/ noun a tact a phone number yourself without
form of digital money that can be used asking the operator to do it for you 쑗
like physical cash to make online pur- You can dial New York direct from Lon-
chases and is anonymous because there don if you want.
is no way of obtaining information direct-action advertising /da-
about the buyer when it is used rekt kʃən dvətazŋ/ noun
digital colour proof /ddt(ə)l advertising which aims to get a quick 
k lə pruf/ noun a colour proof taken response 쑗 We’ll need some di-
from digital files prior to film output at rect-action advertising if we’re not to
high or low resolution fall behind our competitors this spring.
digital economy /ddt(ə)l 쑗 Direct-action advertising will only
kɒnəmi/ noun an economy that is help us in the short term.
based on electronic commerce, e.g., direct-action marketing /darekt
trade on the Internet kʃən maktŋ/ noun same as direct
digital goods /ddt(ə)l "υdz/ response advertising
plural noun goods that are sold and de- direct broadcast by satellite /da-
livered electronically, usually over the rekt brɔdkɑst ba stəlat/ noun
Internet TV and radio signals broadcast over a

direct channel 82 directorship

wide area from an earth station via a sat- direct mail /darekt mel/ noun the
ellite, received with a dish aerial. Abbr practice of selling a product by sending
DBS publicity material to possible buyers
through the post 쑗 These calculators
direct channel /darekt tʃn(ə)l/ are only sold by direct mail. 쑗 The com-
noun a marketing channel where a pro-
pany runs a successful direct-mail
ducer and consumer deal directly with operation.
one another
‘…all of those who had used direct marketing
direct close /darekt kləυz/ noun techniques had used direct mail, 79% had used
the act of ending a sale by asking the some kind of telephone technique and 63% had
tried off-the-page selling’ [Precision marketing]
customer if they want to buy
direct demand /darekt dmɑnd/ direct-mail advertising /darekt
noun demand for a product or service mel dvətazŋ/ noun advertising by
for its own sake, and not for what can be sending leaflets to people through the
derived from it post
direct export /darekt ekspɔt/ direct mailing /darekt melŋ/
noun selling a product direct to the noun the sending of publicity material
overseas customer without going by post to possible buyers
through a middleman 쑗 Direct export is direct mail preference scheme
the only way to keep down the retail /darekt mel pref(ə)rəns skim/
price. 쑗 Our overseas marketing con- noun a scheme where an addressee can
sists mainly of direct export to German have his or her name removed from a
department stores. mailing list
direct headline /darekt hedlan/ direct marketing /darekt
noun an eye-catching headline that pres- mɑktŋ/ noun same as direct re-
ents its message directly to its target sponse advertising
audience ‘…after five years of explosive growth, fuelled
by the boom in financial services, the direct
direction /darekʃən/ noun 1. the marketing world is becoming a lot more
process of organising or managing 쑗 He competitive’ [Marketing Workshop]
took over the direction of a multina- ‘…direct marketing is all about targeting the
tional group. 2. 왍 directions for use in- audience, individualising the message and
structions showing how to use getting a response’ [PR Week]
something direct-marketing media /darekt
directional /darekʃən(ə)l/ adjective mɑktŋ midiə/ plural noun media
pointing in a specific direction that are used for direct marketing, e.g.
directional medium /da-
direct mail, telemarketing, and TV 
rekʃən(ə)l midiəm/ noun an adver- director /darektə/ noun 1. the per-
tising medium that tells potential cus- son appointed by the shareholders to
tomers where to find products or help run a company 2. the person who is
services, e.g. a directory in charge of a project, an official insti-
tute or other organisation 쑗 the director
directive interview /darektv of the government research institute 쑗 
ntəvju/ noun an interview using pre-
She was appointed director of the trade
set questions and following a fixed
‘…the research director will manage and direct
direct labour /darekt lebə/ noun a team of business analysts reporting on the
the cost of the workers employed which latest developments in retail distribution
throughout the UK’ [Times]
can be allocated to a product, not includ-
ing materials or overheads directorate /darekt(ə)rət/ noun a
directly /darektl/ adverb with no group of directors
third party involved 쑗 We deal directly directorship /darektəʃp/ noun the
with the manufacturer, without using a post of director 쑗 She was offered a di-
wholesaler. rectorship with Smith Ltd.

directors’ report 83 discrepancy

‘…what benefits does the executive derive from change to buy or sell bills of exchange
his directorship? In the first place compensation for less than the value written on them
has increased sharply in recent years’
[Duns Business Month] in order to cash them later
‘…banks refrained from quoting forward
directors’ report /darektəz r- US/Hongkong dollar exchange rates as 
pɔt/ noun the annual report from the premiums of 100 points replaced the previous
board of directors to the shareholders day’s discounts of up to 50 points’
[South China Morning Post]
directory /darekt(ə)r/ noun a refer-
ence book containing information on discountable /dskaυntəb(ə)l/
companies and their products adjective which can be discounted 쑗
These bills are not discountable.
direct response advertising /da- 
rekt rspɒns dvətazŋ/ noun ad- discounted cash flow
vertising in such a way as to get custom- /dskaυntd kʃ fləυ/ noun the cal-
ers to send in inquiries or orders directly culation of the forecast return on capital
by mail investment by discounting future cash
flows from the investment, usually at a
direct response agency /darekt rate equivalent to the company’s mini-
rspɒns edənsi/ noun a company mum required rate of return. Abbr DCF
which provides direct marketing ser-
vices to its clients such as database man- discounted value /dskaυntd
agement, direct mail, and response vlju/ noun the difference between
collecting the face value of a share and its lower
market price
direct response marketing /da- 
rekt rspɒns maktŋ/ noun same as discounter /dskaυntə/ noun a per-
direct response advertising son or company that discounts bills or
invoices, or sells goods at a discount
direct selling /darekt selŋ/ noun ‘…invoice discounting is an instant finance
selling a product direct to the customer raiser. Cash is advanced by a factor or
without going through a shop discounter against the value of invoices sent out
by the client company. Debt collection is still in
direct services /darekt s&vsz/ the hands of the client company, which also
plural noun personal services to the continues to run its own bought ledger’ [Times]
public, e.g. catering, dentistry or hair- ‘…a 100,000 square-foot warehouse generates
dressing 쑗 There is little manufacturing ten times the volume of a discount retailer; it can
industry in the area, and direct services turn its inventory over 18 times a year, more
than triple a big discounter’s turnover’
account for most of the wealth. [Duns Business Month]
dirty /d&ti/ adjective not clean discount house /dskaυnt haυs/
dirty bill of lading /d&ti bl əv noun 1. a financial company which 
ledŋ/, foul bill of lading /faυl bl specialises in discounting bills 2. a shop
əv ledŋ/ noun a bill of lading stating which specialises in selling cheap goods
that the goods did not arrive on board in bought at a high discount
good condition discount price /dskaυnt pras/
disclosure of information /ds- noun the full price less a discount 
kləυər əv nfəmeʃ(ə)n/ noun the discount rate /dskaυnt ret/ noun
passing on of information that was in- the percentage taken when a bank buys
tended to be kept secret or private to bills
someone else ‘…pressure on the Federal Reserve Board to
discount noun /dskaυnt/ the per- ease monetary policy and possibly cut its
centage by which the seller reduces the discount rate mounted yesterday’
[Financial Times]
full price for the buyer 쑗 to give a dis-
count on bulk purchases 왍 to sell goods discount store /dskaυnt stɔ/
at a discount or at a discount price to noun a shop which specialises in cheap
sell goods below the normal price 왍 goods bought at a high discount
10% discount for cash or 10% cash discrepancy /dskrepənsi/ noun a
discount you pay 10% less if you pay in lack of agreement between figures in in-
cash 쐽 verb 왍 to discount bills of ex- voices or accounts

colour or sex criticise discrimination test /dskrm- neʃ(ə)n test/ noun a product test de. disparaging copy /dsprədŋ signed to show how one product differs kɒpi/ . often when money is . 2. disparaging copy has given them a bad name in the industry. e. lan- disparage /dsprd/ verb to guage. goods which have been sent 쑗 spond and see the responses of other The weekly dispatch went off yesterday. the send- "rup/ noun a group of people who dis. 쐽 verb to send goods to customers 쑗 members The goods were dispatched last Friday. in a recession.g. a drink. religion. discussion board /dsk ʃ(ə)n bɔd/. ing of goods to a customer 쑗 Production cuss something by sending emails to the difficulties held up dispatch for several group and where each member can re. 쑗 Part of the company’s disinte- skreʃ(ə)n(ə)ri nk m/ noun income gration policy involved selling off the left after fixed payments have been factories. knocking copy /nɒkŋ kɒpi/ noun advertising copy which is critical from another 쑗 The discrimination test showed our product to be superior to of another company’s products 쑗 Their that of our closest competitor. discussion group /dsk ʃ(ə)n dispatch /dsptʃ/ noun 1. eʃ(ə)n/ noun the removal of any inter- cretionary incomes generally increase mediaries from a process so that. discussion list /dsk ʃ(ə)n lst/ noun a list of addresses of members of a dispatch department /dsptʃ d- discussion board pɑtmənt/ noun the department which deals with the packing and sending of diseconomies of scale goods to customers /dskɒnənmiz əv skel/ plural noun a situation where increased production dispatcher /dsptʃə/ noun a per- leads to a higher production cost per son who sends goods to customers unit or average production cost dispatch note /dsptʃ nəυt/ noun disequilibrium /dsikwlbriəm/ a note saying that goods have been sent noun an imbalance in the economy dispatch rider /dsptʃ radə/ when supply does not equal demand noun a motorcyclist who delivers mes- dishoarding /dshɔdŋ/ noun putt. manufacturers sell direct to consumers discrimination /dskrmneʃ(ə)n/ instead of selling their products through noun treating people in different ways wholesalers and retailers because of class.. made and whose spending is therefore disintermediation /dsntəmidi- subject to advertising influence 쑗 Dis. race. or an item of food.discretion 84 dispenser discretion /dskreʃ(ə)n/ noun being dishonour /dsɒnə/ verb (NOTE: the able to decide correctly what should be American spelling is dishonor) 왍 to done 왍 I leave it to your discretion I dishonour a bill not to pay a bill leave it for you to decide what to do 왍 at dishonoured cheque /dsɒnəd the discretion of someone according to tʃek/ noun a cheque which the bank what someone decides 쑗 Membership is will not pay because there is not enough at the discretion of the committee. weeks. sages or parcels in a town ing goods back onto the market when dispenser /dspensə/ noun a ma- they have been hoarded or stored for chine which automatically provides some time something such as an object. parts. disintegration /dsnt"reʃ(ə)n/ jective which can be done if someone noun the decision to stop producing wants 왍 the minister’s discretionary some goods or supplies and to buy them powers powers which the minister in instead 쑗 Disintegration has meant could use if they thought it necessary we now have to buy all of our plastic discretionary income /d. money in the account to pay it discretionary /dskreʃ(ə)n(ə)ri/ ad.

disposable distress sale /dstres sel/ noun a personal income /dspəυzəb(ə)l sale of goods at low prices to pay a com- p&s(ə)nəl nk m/ noun the income pany’s debts left after tax and national insurance have distress selling /dstres selŋ/ been deducted noun the sale of goods cheaply in order disposal /dspəυz(ə)l/ noun a sale 쑗 to pay off debts 쑗 Difficult circum- disposal of securities or of property 쑗 stances forced the producers to resort to The company has started a systematic distress selling. 2. away 쑗 The machine serves soup in dis. e. 쏡 cog- display material /dsple mə. disposal of its property portfolio. and then look for informa- d/ noun an advertisement which is tion that supports their attitude and well designed or printed in bold type to behaviour attract attention dissonance reduction /dsənəns display advertising /dsple rd kʃən/ noun a reduction in worries dvətazŋ/ noun advertising that has experienced by the purchaser after a individual features such as photographs. to dispose /dspəυz/ verb 왍 to dispose send out goods from a manufacturer’s of to get rid of or to sell cheaply 쑗 to warehouse to retail shops 쑗 Smith Ltd dispose of excess stock 쑗 He is planning distributes for several smaller compa- . distress merchandise /dstres posable paper cups. by increas- ing their awareness of the positive fea- its own box border or the company logo tures of the product and reducing their in addition to text fears about its negative features. m&tʃəndas/ noun US goods sold disposable income /d. display ad /dsple behaviour. share out dividends 쑗 Profits were dis- posal a lease or business for sale tributed among the shareholders. /dsənəns trbjuʃ(ə)n mɒd(ə)l/ eral car models on display. could not survive with high costs and no tive which can be used and then thrown distinctive competence.g. product has been purchased. 왍 distribute /dstrbjut/ verb 1. cheaply to pay a company’s debts spəυzəb(ə)l nk m/. nitive dissonance təriəl/ noun material used to attract at- tention to goods which are for sale. to lease for disposal or business for dis. display advertisement /dsple then develop feelings as a result of their ədv&tsmənt/. 쐽 verb to noun a response model which follows show 쑗 The company was displaying the opposite sequence from normal: three new car models at the show. dispersion /dsp&ʃ(ə)n/ noun the disrewarding /dsrwɔdŋ/ noun attempt by a distributor to distribute a the penalising of bad customers to allow product to a market the company to give special terms to the display /dsple/ noun the showing of best customers goods for sale 쑗 an attractive display of dissonance/attribution model kitchen equipment 쑗 The shop has sev. distance freight /dstəns fret/ noun freight charges based on the dis- posters and photographs tance over which the goods are display outer /dsple aυtə/ noun a transported container for protecting goods in transit distinctive competence /d- which can also be used as an attractive stŋktv kɒmpt(ə)ns/ noun an ad- display container for the goods in a shop vantage that one company or producer display panel /dsple pn(ə)l/ has over competitors in the market 쑗 noun a flat area for displaying goods in Our distinctive competence is a highly a shop window professional sales force.dispersion 85 distribute put in 쑗 an automatic dispenser 쑗 a to dispose of his business in the new towel dispenser year. 쑗 The company disposable /dspəυzəb(ə)l/ adjec. consumers first act in a specific way.

mɑktŋ/ noun a separate marketing bjuʃ(ə)n mndmənt/ noun the treatment for each of a company’s prod- management of the efficient transfer of ucts 쑗 Divergent marketing is giving goods from the place where they are way to a more coordinated and inte- manufactured to the place where they grated marketing effort. supplier (NOTE: A distribution channel usually consists of a chain of interme. goods are sent all over a country distribution /dstrbjuʃ(ə)n/ noun distribution resource planning the act of sending goods from the manu. are sold or used (NOTE: Distribution diversification /dav&sf- management involves such activities keʃ(ə)n/ noun the process of adding as warehousing. distributor /dstrbjυtə/ noun a bjuʃ(ə)n sentə/ noun a place where company which sells goods for another goods are collected and stored tempo. materials handling. that is intended to ensure centre which deals with all order pro. another quite different type of business packaging. stock control. pro- are supply driven’ motional material. planning. especially using a computer- tailers 쑗 Stock is held in a distribution ised system. volved in the distribution of goods distribution centre /dstr. /dstrbjuʃ(ə)n rsɔs plnŋ/ noun facturer to the wholesaler and then to re. utors spread all over a country or consumers distributor’s brand /dstrbjυtəz brnd/ noun goods specially packed distribution channel /dstr- for a store with the store’s name printed bjuʃ(ə)n tʃn(ə)l/ noun the route by on them 쑗 I bought the distributor’s which a product or service reaches a brand of soap because it was the customer after it leaves the producer or cheapest. grates distribution with manufacturing bution manager.) a product or service in providing help to ‘…there is evidence that distribution channels distributors. 쑗 She tive distribution resource planning inte- has several years’ experience as distri. order pro. customer as soon as possible. company which makes them 왍 a net- rarily but whose main function is to work of distributors a series of distrib- send them on to wholesalers. retailers. to a firm’s existing trade cessing. 쑗 Distribution costs have risen used in distributing goods (NOTE: Effec- sharply over the last 18 months. and synchronises supply and demand ‘British distribution companies are poised to by identifying requirements for finished capture a major share of the European market’ goods and by producing schedules for [Management News] the movement of goods along the dis- tribution chain so that they reach the distribution census /dstr.distribution 86 diversify nies. distributorship /dstrbjυtəʃp/ diaries.) bjuʃ(ə)n sensəs/ noun official statis- tics regarding the number of distributors distributive /dstrbjυtv/ adjective and their businesses 쑗 Using the distri. to add distribution network /dstr. [Quarterly Review of Marketing] divergent marketing /dav&dənt distribution management /dstr. by offering training.) diversify /dav&sfa/ verb 1. and transport. we drew up a list of distributive trades /dstrbjυtv wholesalers who were worth tredz/ plural noun all business in- approaching. for example wholesalers and noun the position of being a distributor retailers. that is designed to move for a company goods from the point of production to distributor support /dstrbjυtə the point of consumption in the most səpɔt/ noun the action of a supplier of efficient way. new types of business to existing ones 쑗 bjuʃ(ə)n netw&k/ noun a series of The company is planning to diversify . the most efficient use of the resources cessing. referring to distribution bution census. 쑗 All orders are distributed from points or small warehouses from which our warehouse near Oxford. etc.

re- proof 쐽 noun a film concerning actual ferring to the home market or the market facts or real events of the country where the business is sit- uated 쑗 Domestic sales have increased documentation /dɒkjυmen- over the last six months.g. 2. 2. plete documentation concerning the sale. /du t jəself kənveənsŋ/ noun the divisional /dv(ə)n(ə)l/ adjective drawing up of a legal conveyance by the referring to a division 쑗 a divisional di. without the rector 쑗 the divisional headquarters help of a lawyer DM abbr direct marketing do-it-yourself magazine /du t DMA abbr designated market area jəself m"əzin/ noun a magazine with articles on work which the average DMU abbr decision-making unit person can do to repair or paint his or document /dɒkjυmənt/ noun a pa. Abbr DIY Smith’s is now a division of the Brown do-it-yourself conveyancing group of companies. for use in the teʃ(ə)n/ noun all documents referring home 쑗 Glue which is intended for both to something 쑗 Please send me the com- domestic and industrial use. with written information on it 쑗 He left a file do-it-yourself store /du t jəself of documents in the taxi. especially an official paper. selling materials for the repair and im- provement of houses. domestic appliances /dəmestk document of title /dɒkjυmənt əv əplaənsz/plural noun electrical ma- tat(ə)l/ noun a document allowing the chines which are used in the home. ments against presentation ent types of shares or savings so as to /dɒkjυmənts ə"enst prez(ə)n- spread the risk of loss teʃ(ə)n/ noun an arrangement divert /dav&t/ verb 1. to invest in differ.divert 87 domestic market into new products. the main fights for their own product and attacks section of a large company 쑗 the mar. company’s product line to allow the company to concentrate on dog-eat-dog /dɒ" it dɒ"/ noun other products marketing activity where everyone division /dv(ə)n/ noun 1. holder to handle goods as if they own washing machines them domestic consumption /də- documents against acceptance mestk kəns mpʃən/ noun use in the /dɒkjυmənts ə"enst əkseptəns/ home country 쑗 Domestic consumption noun an arrangement whereby a buyer of oil has fallen sharply. divestment /davestmənt/ noun the and so is likely to be dropped from the dropping or sale of a whole product line. the goods on payment of a bill of to buy stock in a special offer and then exchange sell it on to customers living outside the dog /dɒ"/ noun a product that has a special-offer area low market share and a low growth rate. keting division 쑗 the production divi- sion 쑗 the retail division 쑗 the hotel do-it-yourself /du t jəself/ division of the leisure group 2. e. adjective done by an ordinary person. her house per. receives documents for the goods on domestic market /dəmestk their acceptance of a bill of exchange mɑkt/ noun the market in the country documents against cash where a company is based 쑗 They pro- /dɒkjυmənts ə"enst kʃ/. duce goods for the domestic market. . competitors mercilessly (informal ). a com. person selling a property. docu. pany which is part of a large group 쑗 not by a skilled worker. to send to whereby a buyer receives documents for another place or in another direction 2. 쑗 She asked to stɔ/ noun a large store specialising in see the documents relating to the case. for gardening and documentary /dɒkjυment(ə)ri/ for light car maintenance adjective in the form of documents 쑗 documentary evidence 쑗 documentary domestic /dəmestk/ adjective 1.

ped spred/ noun two facing pages in ery of promotional literature by hand to a magazine or newspaper. double-decker /d b(ə)l dekə/ man’s door and walked in. asking peo. address downmarket /daυnmɑkt/ adverb. one on top opened its doors on June 1st the store of the other started doing business on June 1st double-page spread /d b(ə)l door drop /dɔ drɒp/ noun a deliv. 쑗 The price of petrol has gone door-to-door service /dɔ tə dɔ down. 쑗 Shares are slightly down on the ple to buy something day. movement towards lower prices. in the economy. 왍 to pay money down to pay a s&vs/ noun a transportation service deposit 쑗 They paid £50 down and the that takes goods directly to the buyer’s rest in monthly instalments. 30 inches deep entrance to a building or room 쑗 The fi. has been a price reduction vassing 쑗 We have 200 door-to-door double-spotting /d b(ə)l spɒtŋ/ salesmen. bled this year. 왍 to be on double a loss in an investment time to earn twice the usual wages for down tools /daυn tulz/ verb to working on Sundays or other holidays 왍 stop working 쑗 The entire workforce in double figures with two figures.domestic production 88 draft domestic production /dəmestk double column /d b(ə)l kɒləm/ prəd kʃən/ noun the production of noun two columns spanned by an goods for use in the home country advertisement door /dɔ/ noun the piece of wood. fktə/ noun the possibility of making over is double ours. double crown /d b(ə)l kraυn/ metal. down. by 20 inches wide nance director knocked on the chair. used by an all the houses in an area advertiser door-to-door /dɔ tə dɔ/ adjective double-pricing /d b(ə)l prasŋ/ going from one house to the next. preposition in a door-to-door salesman /dɔ tə lower position or to a lower position 쑗 dɔ selzmən/ noun a man who goes The inflation rate is gradually coming from one house to the next. dormant /dɔmənt/ adjective no adjective cheaper or appealing to a less longer active or no longer operating wealthy section of the population 쑗 The dormant account /dɔmənt company has adopted a downmarket im- əkaυnt/ noun a past customer who is age. sales come twice as big. downed tools in protest. or make something or profits 쑗 a downturn in the market twice as big 쑗 We have doubled our price 쑗 The last quarter saw a downturn profits this year or our profits have dou. downside /daυnsad/ noun 왍 the ‘…the agency has been responsible for the sales force have been asked to give dormant account since its last campaign was run downside forecasts they have been three years ago’ [Marketing Week] asked for pessimistic forecasts double /d b(ə)l/ adjective twice as downside factor /daυnsad large or two times the size 쑗 Their turn. 쑗 We have had double-figure downturn /daυnt&n/ noun the inflation for some years. to be paid by a bank 쑗 We asked for . 쐽 verb to be. from 10 to 99 쑗 Inflation is in double figures. 쑗 The company’s draft /drɑft/ noun an order for money borrowings have doubled. or other material which closes the noun a basic poster size. 왍 the store noun two advertising panels. to make products which appeal to a counts. 쑗 Door-to-door selling is noun running an advertising spot twice banned in this part of the village. down /daυn/ adverb. 왍 the company has decided to go no longer buying 쑗 Let’s re-establish downmarket the company has decided contact with some of our dormant ac. to make buyers think there vote for someone 쑗 door-to-door can. 쑗 All the old reports on dormant wider section of the public accounts have been filed away. asking noun the practice of showing two prices the occupiers to buy something or to on a product.

(NOTE: the Ameri- write a cheque 쑗 He paid the invoice can English is driver’s license) with a cheque drawn on an Egyptian drop /drɒp/ noun a fall 쑗 a drop in bank. kmpen/. 왍 in time when people are most likely to be due form written in the correct legal listening to the radio in their cars. drip method /drp dud cheque /d d tʃek/ noun a meθəd/ noun the placing of advertise. (NOTE: drawing – drew – has sales 쑗 Sales show a drop of 10%.6 per cent in the rural areas. a re. shows someone is legally allowed to count 왍 to draw a salary to have a sal. drive a car. 왍 to make a a good time for broadcasting draft on a bank to ask a bank to pay commercials money for you driving licence /dravŋ las(ə)ns/ draw /drɔ/ verb 1. 쑗 The pound dropped main drawbacks of the scheme is that it three points against the dollar. not to will take six years to complete. to valid driving licence. making a long-drawn-out money in the account to pay it advertising campaign due /dju/ adjective 1. because they’ve been losing sales ducing exports steadily for some time. drip campaign /drp The £50 note was a dud. owed 쑗 a sum drive /drav/ noun an energetic way of due from a debtor 왍 to fall/become due doing things 왍 he has a lot of drive he to be ready for payment 왍 bill due on is very energetic in business May 1st a bill which has to be paid on driver /dravə/ noun something or May 1st 왍 balance due to us amount someone that provides an impetus for owed to us which should be paid 2. keep in a product range 쑗 We have bate on customs duty for imported dropped these items from the catalogue goods when these are then used in pro. a 4 per cent drop from last year’s final three months’ [Financial Times] turned the cheque to drawer the bank ‘…since last summer American interest rates would not pay the cheque because the have dropped by between three and four person who wrote it did not have percentage points’ [Sunday Times] enough money in the account to pay it drop ship /drɒp ʃp/ verb to deliver drawing account /drɔŋ əkaυnt/ a large order direct to a customer noun a current account from which the drop shipment /drɒp ʃpmənt/ customer may take money when he or noun the delivery of a large order from she wants the manufacturer direct to a customer’s drilling down /drlŋ daυn/ noun shop or warehouse without going the action of sorting data into hierar. noun (of a coin or than the previous one banknote) false or not good (informal ) 쑗 . to take money noun the official document which away 쑗 to draw money out of an ac. drip /drp/. it rose by 1. cheque which cannot be cashed because ments for a product at fairly long inter- the person writing it has not enough vals. (NOTE: drop- drawee /drɔi/ noun the person or ping – dropped) bank asked to make a payment by a ‘…while unemployment dropped by 1. 2. to fall thing which is not convenient or which 쑗 Sales have dropped by 10% or have is likely to cause problems 쑗 One of the dropped 10%.draw 89 due payment by banker’s draft. 2. a truck or other vehicle 쑗 ary paid by the company 쑗 The Applicants for the job should hold a chairman does not draw a salary.9 per cent in urban drawer areas during the period under review’ drawer /drɔə/ noun the person who [Business Times (Lagos)] writes a cheque or a bill asking a drawee ‘…corporate profits for the first quarter showed to pay money to a payee 왍 the bank re. through an agent or wholesaler chies.30 or is due at 10. 2. ex- something to happen pected to arrive 쑗 The plane is due to drive time /drav tam/ noun the arrive at 10. 3. hence form 쑗 a receipt in due form 쑗 a con- . each of which is more detailed dud /d d/ adjective. cant increase in sales. some.30. 쑗 drawn) The drop in prices resulted in no signifi- drawback /drɔbk/ noun 1. 쐽 verb 1.

duty-paid goods /djuti ped tence of only two producers or suppliers "υdz/ plural noun goods where the duty in a market 쑗 The duopoly meant that has been paid . 쑗 The company pays the duplication /djuplkeʃ(ə)n/ noun wages of staff who are absent due to running an advertisement twice to the illness. passed anti-dumping legislation. Compare monopoly facturers. 쑗 When they thinking seriously about the problem 왍 took over their only competitor in the due to caused by 쑗 Supplies have been market. Dumping of goods on the European duty-free shop /djuti fri ʃɒp/ market is banned. 쑗 쑗 He bought the watch duty-free. an item for sale at a high price and then seas market gradually reduces the price until some- ‘…a serious threat lies in the 400. e. size empty pack for display in a shop and brand dump /d mp/ verb 왍 to dump goods Dutch auction /d tʃ ɔkʃən/ noun on a market to get rid of large quanti. If dumped. dustbin check /d stbn tʃek/ noun dummy /d mi/ noun an imitation a consumer audit for which a panel of product to test the reaction of potential householders keep the empty containers customers to its design of products bought so that these can be dummy pack /d mi pk/ noun an regularly checked for product type. 쑗 collected a total of N79m under the new There are several dump displays near advance duty payment scheme’ [Business Times (Lagos)] the counters in the supermarket. for a long time. oly. washing machines corded thousands of dues for that item or refrigerators and our supplier cannot supply it. the duopoly became a monop- delayed due to a problem at the manu. to show faster durable /djυərəb(ə)l/ adjective 왍 economic growth’ [Australian Financial durable effects effects which will be Review] felt for a long time 쑗 These demo- dues /djuz/ plural noun orders taken graphic changes will have durable ef- but not supplied until new stock arrives fects on the economy. due out this Thursday. an auction where the auctioneer offers ties of excess goods cheaply in an over. this meat will have disastrous effects in duty /djut/ noun a tax which has to Pacific Basin markets’ [Australian Financial be paid 쑗 Traders are asking the gov- Review] ernment to take the duty off alcohol or to dump bin /d mp bn/ noun display put a duty on cigarettes. plural noun goods which will be used uct was out of stock 쑗 We have re. same audience ‘…many expect the US economic indicators for April. 왍 to release dues to send off orders durable goods /djυərəb(ə)l "υdz/ which had been piling up while a prod. ad- getting rid of excess goods cheaply in an verb sold with no duty to be paid 쑗 He overseas market 쑗 The government has bought a duty-free watch at the airport.000 tonnes of one makes a bid subsidized beef in European cold stores. 왍 goods which container like a large box which is filled are liable to duty goods on which cus- with goods for sale toms or excise tax has to be paid ‘Canadian and European negotiators agreed to a dump display /d mp dsple/ noun deal under which Canada could lower its import goods on special display in a container duties on $150 million worth of European for purchasers to select themselves in a goods’ [Globe and Mail (Toronto)] shop 쑗 We will use dump displays with ‘…the Department of Customs and Excise price reductions clearly marked.g. dumping /d mpŋ/ noun the act of duty-free /djuti fri/ adjective. 왍 panic dumping of noun a shop at an airport or on a ship sterling a rush to sell sterling at any where goods can be bought without pay- price because of possible devaluation ing duty duopoly /djuɒpəli/ noun the exis.dues 90 duty-paid goods tract drawn up in due form 왍 after due the two businesses collaborated to keep consideration of the problem after prices at very high levels.

when the demand for something in- creases or decreases . to make previous models and other versation between two people such as a products on the market obsolete salesperson and a customer dynamic pricing /danmk dynamic obsolescence /da.dyadic communication 91 dynamic pricing dyadic communication /dadk signing of a company’s product in order kəmjunkeʃ(ə)n/ noun direct con. prasŋ/ noun pricing that changes nmk ɒbsəles(ə)ns/ noun the rede.

but earlier than the late way that does not harm the environment majority e-commerce /i kɒm&s/ noun the exchange of goods. using computers to analyse terms. busi- nership between organisations that do ness activities. abbr errors and omissions with business partners. the e-company /i k mp(ə)ni/ noun a amount of dividend which a share is ca. e. especially on the Internet 2. usually Wednes. organizations are going to find that new set-ups to show commitment to the contract of would be needed to attract and retain the best sale talent for e-commerce’ [Times] earning potential /&nŋ pətenʃəl/ e-commerce mall /i kɒm&s mɔl/ noun 1. it has now early majority /&li mədɒrti/ evolved and includes such things as noun a category of buyers of a product customer service. e-business /i bznəs/ noun 1. company that does all its business using pable of earning the Internet easy terms /izi t&mz/ plural noun econometrics /kɒnəmetrks/ plu- financial terms which are not difficult to ral noun the study of the statistics of accept 쑗 The shop is let on very easy economics. dium such as the Internet (NOTE: day or Thursday. ecoconsumer /ikəυkənsjumə/ 쑗 We retired early and bought a house noun a customer who will buy goods in Cornwall.g. 왍 at an early date very that have been produced in a way that soon does not harm the environment early adopters /&li ədɒptəz/ ecolabel /ikəυleb(ə)l/ noun a label plural noun the category of buyers of a used to mark products that are produced product who use it or buy it later than and can be used and disposed of in a innovators. adverb before the usual time 쑗 The mail arrived early.) earned rate /&nd ret/ noun the ac. a company that does its busi- ear /ə/ noun a space at the top left or ness using the Internet right corner of the front page of a news. information. buying and selling. set aside for advertising can automate the link between suppliers and customers’ [Investors Chronicle] early /&l/ adjective. and ad- who buy it later than the early adopters vertising. ‘…the problem is that if e-commerce takes just a 3 per cent slice of the market that would be tual rate for a printed advertising space enough to reduce margins to ribbons’ after taking discounts into account [Investors Chronicle] earnest /&nst/ noun money paid as ‘…the new economy requires new company structures. ‘…the enormous potential of e-business is that it paper.e. business over the web servicing customers and communicating e. prod- early closing day /&li kləυzŋ ucts or services via an electronic me- de/ noun a weekday. & o. these statistics and make forecasts using . He believes that other blue-chip an initial payment by a buyer to a seller.e-alliance 92 econometrics E e-alliance /i əlaəns/ noun a part. that are carried excepted out electronically. when some shops Although e-commerce was originally close in the afternoon limited to buying and selling. marketing. the amount of money which noun same as cyber mall someone should be able to earn 2.

g. economic trend /ikənɒmk cial situation 쑗 The economic develop. economist /kɒnəmst/ noun a per- try’s national income grows son who specialises in the study of eco- nomics 쑗 Government economists are economic indicators /ikənɒmk forecasting a growth rate of 3% next ndketəz/ plural noun a set of statis. [Economist] sources as carefully as possible economic stagnation /ikənɒmk economic development st"neʃ(ə)n/ noun a lack of expan- /ikənɒmk dveləpmənt/ noun the sion in the economy expansion of the commercial and finan. plnŋ/ noun the process of planning ernment’s economic policy is in ruins the future financial state of the country after the devaluation. trend/ noun the way in which a coun- ment of the region has totally changed try’s economy is moving since oil was discovered there. 쑗 It is hardly economic for the chased. Abbr EOQ try 쑗 economic planning 쑗 economic trends 쑗 Economic planners are expect. 쑗 Economic development a product is made more profitable by has been relatively slow in the north. distribution. 쑗 The government has offered tax incentives to economies of scale /kɒnəmiz əv speed up the economic development of skel/ plural noun a situation in which the region. calculated on the basis of which provides enough money to make the costs of warehousing. Com- pare diseconomies of scale economic growth /ikənɒmk "raυθ/ noun the rate at which a coun. of lower unit a profit 쑗 The flat is let at an economic costs because of higher quantities pur- rent. used for its money 쑗 The country’s economy is forecasting economic trends in ruins. 쑗 The economic for the government situation is getting worse. and the time it takes for suppliers to de- referring to the financial state of a coun- liver new orders. e.economic 93 economy mathematical models (NOTE: takes a economic order quantity singular verb) /ikənɒmk ɔdə kwɒntti/ noun the quantity of stocks which a company economic /ikənɒmk/ adjective 1. manufacturing it in larger quantities so compared with the rest of the country. should hold. or the mɒd(ə)l/ noun a computerised plan of way in which a country makes and uses a country’s economic system. selling and use of goods and services ‘…each of the major issues on the agenda at this (NOTE: takes a singular verb) 쐽 plural week’s meeting is important to the noun the study of financial structures to government’s success in overall economic management’ [Australian Financial Review] show how a product or service is costed and what returns it produces 쑗 I do not economical /ikənɒmk(ə)l/ adjec. that each unit costs less to make. understand the economics of the coal in- tive which saves money or materials or dustry. the unemployment rate or overseas trade economy /kɒnəm/ noun 1. 쑗 The gov. economics /ikənɒmks/ noun the try’s economic system needs more study of the production. 쑗 The coun. the rate at which stocks are used company to run its own warehouse. (NOTE: takes a plural verb) which is cheap 왍 economical car a car ‘…believers in free-market economics often which does not use much petrol 왍 an find it hard to sort out their views on the issue’ economical use of resources using re. term. being careful not to waste money or materials economic infrastructure 왍 to introduce economies or economy /ikənɒmk nfrəstr ktʃə/ noun the measures into the system to start using road and rail systems of a country methods to save money or materials 2. year. 2. economic planning /ikənɒmk ing a comsumer-led boom. . regulation. 쑗 An agricultural economist stud- tics which shows how the economy is ies the economics of the agriculture going to perform in the short or long industry. economic model /ikənɒmk the financial state of a country.

target audience will have seen the ad- lsti/ noun free publicity which is vertisement at least four times on given to a product by a newspaper or average magazine in an editorial or article. effect from January 1st terms which erature needs editing to make it less start to operate on January 1st 왍 prices long-winded. to this effect we have put into the con- tract terms which will make this work 쐽 editorial /edtɔriəl/ adjective refer. trade January 1st 왍 to remain in effect to magazine or book 쑗 We are too late to continue to be applied 3. materials e-economy /i kɒnəmi/ noun an economy size /kɒnəmi saz/ noun economy in which the use of the a large size or large packet which is Internet and information technology cheaper than normal plays a major role editing /edtŋ/ noun 1. as opposed to theoretical 2. are increased 10% with effect from January 1st new prices will apply from edition /dʃ(ə)n/ noun an issue of a publication such as a newspaper. productivity levels. 쑗 editorial matter /edtɔriəl mtə/ She is an effective marketing manager. 쏡 noun the text of a magazine which is cost-effective written by journalists. the process effect /fekt/ noun 1. 왍 terms of a con- rectly 2. tween two parties to bring two parties tɔriəl ədv&tsmənt/ noun an adver. 2. particularly important when the economy drive /kɒnəmi drav/ product has only recently been intro- noun vigorous effort to save money or duced 쑗 Educational advertising has materials made the public aware that our product is just as safe as more traditional de- economy measure /kɒnəmi meə/ noun an action to save money or vices on the market. together and make them agree to a tisement in the form of text material in a settlement magazine effective /fektv/ adjective 1. 왍 a noun a group of editors on a newspaper clause effective as from January 1st a or other publication clause which starts to be applied on Jan- editorial environment /edtɔriəl uary 1st 3. rather effective date /fektv det/ noun than in an advertisement which must be the date on which a rule or contract paid for . the process of modifying or tract which take effect or come into correcting a text or film 쑗 This sales lit. sults 쑗 Advertising in the Sunday papers torial tone and philosophy of a medium is the most effective way of selling. a result 쑗 The of checking the results of a survey to effect of the pay increase was to raise confirm that data has been collected cor. verb to carry out 왍 to effect a payment ring to editors or to editing 쐽 noun the to make a payment 왍 to effect customs main article in a newspaper. 쑗 clause to the effect that a clause which There will be too many competing ad. written by clearance to clear something through the editor customs 왍 to effect a settlement be- editorial advertisement /ed. which works or produces re- nvaərənmənt/ noun the general edi. meaning 왍 a advertise in this month’s edition.economy car 94 effective date ‘…the European economies are being held back EDMA abbr European Direct Mar- by rigid labor markets and wage structures. ac- editorial board /edtɔriəl bɔd/ tual. means that 왍 we have made provision vertisements in that edition. huge expenditures on social welfare programs and keting Association restrictions on the free movement of goods’ educational advertising /edjυ- [Duns Business Month] keʃ(ə)nəl dvətazŋ/ noun adver- economy car /kɒnəmi kɑ/ noun a tising that informs consumers about a car which does not use much petrol product. and not part of an effective cover /fektv k və/ advertisement noun a situation where consumers in the editorial publicity /edtɔriəl p b.

/elktrɒnk pɔnt əv sel/ noun a sys- paratively large percentage change in re. Abbr EDP customer’s ego. vali- the actual number of people who will date and submit data when credit or see an advertisement once debit cards are used in transactions effective sample size /fektv electronic data interchange sɑmpəl saz/ noun the size of a sam. e. Abbr EPOS electronic cash /elktrɒnk kʃ/ electronic shopping /elktrɒnk noun same as digital cash ʃɒpŋ/ noun shopping for goods or ser- electronic catalogue /elktrɒnk vices which takes place over an elec- kt(ə)lɒ"/ noun a catalogue of the tronic network such as the Internet . certainly increase sales. media. when a sale is made using a elastic /lstk/ adjective which can plastic card. which action takes place can be viewed in an electronic format. midiə/ plural noun electronic-based paratively large percentage change in re.. 쏡 Pareto’s from the purchaser’s account to the Law seller’s. but we can only ity to change easily in response to a afford to advertise in the press. 쑗 data stored in a computer to produce in- Glamorous advertising appeals to the formation. goods that a supplier has for sale. change in circumstances 왍 elasticity of electronic payment system supply and demand changes in supply /elktrɒnk pemənt sstəm/ noun a and demand of an item depending on its means of making payments over an market price electronic network such as the Internet elastic supply /lstk səpla/ electronic point of sale noun supply which experiences a com. Abbr EFTPOS expand or contract easily because of electronic mail /elktrɒnk mel/ small changes in price noun same as email 1 elastic demand /lstk dmɑnd/ electronic media /elktrɒnk noun demand which experiences a com. on a website mɑnd/ noun the actual demand for a electronic commerce /elktrɒnk product which can be paid for kɒm&s/ noun same as e-commerce effectiveness /fektvnəs/ noun the electronic data capture quality of working or producing results /elktrɒnk detə kptʃə/ noun the 쑗 I doubt the effectiveness of television use of data-processing equipment to col- advertising. trnsf& ət pɔnt əv sel/ noun a sys- age of customers may account for a tem for transferring money directly large percentage of sales.g. 쏡 cost-effectiveness lect data. effective demand /fektv d. e. electronic data processing logical term for a person’s conscious. television and radio 쑗 Ad- sponse to a change in price vertising in the electronic media would elasticity /lstsəti/ noun the abil. electronic funds transfer at eighty/twenty rule /eti twenti point of sale /elktrɒnk f ndz rul/ noun the rule that a small percent. stock is controlled by the shop’s com- ferring to computers and electronics puter. /elktrɒnk detə ntətʃend/ noun ple after all irrelevant factors have been a standard format used when business removed documents such as invoices and pur- effectual /fektʃuəl/ adjective which chase orders are exchanged over elec- produces a correct result tronic networks such as the Internet ego /i"əυ.g. tem where sales are charged automati- sponse to a change in price cally to a customer’s credit card and electronic /elktrɒnk/ adjective re. e"əυ/ noun the psycho. or on which a trans. especially the use of electronic effective reach /fektv ritʃ/ noun point-of-sale equipment to collect.effective demand 95 electronic shopping starts to be applied. /elktrɒnk detə prəυsesŋ/ noun ness of himself or herself 쑗 We are the process of selecting and examining designing clothes to boost men’s egos.

eliminate 96 enc eliminate /lmnet/ verb to remove embargo on the export of computers. encl abbr enclosure . employers’ organization /m- spond to them. emporium /mpɔriəm/ noun a large ernment order which stops a type of shop (NOTE: plural is emporia) trade 왍 to lay or put an embargo on emptor /emptə/ noun 쒁 caveat trade with a country to say that trade emptor with a country must not take place 쑗 The government has put an embargo on empty nesters /empti nestəz/ plu- the export of computer equipment. 쑗 We have decided specific information in a press release to eliminate this series of old products must not be published (NOTE: plural is from our range. to stop trade or dates were eliminated after the first not to allow trade 쑗 The government has batch of tests. which may happen at work. embargoes) 쐽 verb 1. 2. 2. 왍 쑗 to eliminate defects in the system 쑗 to be under an embargo to be forbid- Using a computer should eliminate all den 2. elsewhere in the West’ [Duns Business Month] sage sent electronically 쑗 I had six e-money /i m ni/ noun same as emails from him today. empirical data /mprk(ə)l detə/ volves contacting a group of people noun data or information which comes from anywhere in the world and inviting from actual observation or which can be them to discuss a particular topic and proved 쑗 We have no empirical data share information and experience by concerning our competitors’ sales last email (NOTE: An email mailing list is run year. emotional appeal /məυʃ(ə)n(ə)l using a modem and telephone lines 쑗 əpil/ noun an attempt by advertising to She emailed her order to the warehouse. a mes. 쑗 Emotional ap- marketing messages to individuals peal was an obvious feature in all the political parties’ campaign films. /mplɔəz laəblti nʃυərəns/ bers. not to allow publication of in- the act of removing something formation for a period of time 쑗 The news of the merger has been embargoed email /imel/ noun 1. email mailing list /i mel melŋ lst/ noun a marketing technique that in. sending messages from one computer ‘…the Commerce Department is planning to terminal to another. by a moderator who compiles a list of employers’ liability insurance email addresses for possible mem. employers’ e-marketplace /i mɑktples/ association /mplɔəz əsəυsi- noun a network of connections that eʃ(ə)n/ noun a group of employers brings business-to-business buyers and with similar interests sellers together on the Internet and en.) plɔəz ɔ"ənazeʃ(ə)n/. 쐽 verb to send a digital money message from one computer to another. mails them with the theme for noun insurance to cover accidents discussion. 쑗 Most of the candi. using a modem and loosen export controls for products that have telephone lines 쑗 You can contact me by been embargoed but are readily available phone or email if you want. embargoed trade with the Eastern coun- elimination /lmneʃ(ə)n/ noun tries. collects their contributions. employment agency /mplɔmənt ables them to trade more efficiently edənsi/ noun an office which finds online jobs for staff embargo /mbɑ"əυ/ noun 1. a gov. a system of until next Wednesday. persuade through an emotional rather 쑗 I emailed him about the meeting. a period of time during which possibility of error. 왍 to ral noun couples whose children have lift an embargo to allow trade to start grown up and left the home again 쑗 The government has lifted the enc. and for and publishes them by email so that which the company may be responsible other members of the group can re. than a rational message 쑗 The charity email campaign /imel kmpen/ used the emotional appeal of starving noun a series of emails which deliver children to raise funds.

in order to make strategic planning more enhancement /nhɑnsmənt/ noun effective 쑗 Our environmental analysis increase or improvement in quality of must cover all the countries we sell in. emulsifiers and stabilizers: whose name is written on a bill or E322 – E495. entrepot port /ɒntrəpəυ pɔt/ noun encode /nkəυd/ verb to write some. 쑗 Please enclose a recent photo. acids and bases: E500 – cheque as having the right to cash it E529. a town with a large international com- thing in a code so that it cannot be read mercial port dealing in re-exports or used by other people entrepot trade /ɒntrəpəυ tred/ end /end/ noun the final point or last noun the exporting of imported goods part 쑗 at the end of the contract period entrepreneur /ɒntrəprən&/ noun a end consumer /end kənsjumə/ person who directs a company and takes noun a person who uses a product 쑗 The commercial risks survey was designed to assess the atti- tudes of end consumers to the product.enclose 97 environmental analysis enclose /nkləυz/ verb to put some. document which endorses it envelope stuffer /envələυp st fə/ endorsement advertising /n. value for money. enterprise /entəpraz/ noun 1. antioxidants: endorsee /endɔsi/ noun a person E300 – E321. fering special conditions such as easy enclosure /nkləυə/ noun a docu. anti-caking additives: E530 – E578. a to enclose an invoice with a letter 쑗 I business am enclosing a copy of the contract. 쑗 enterprise zone /entəpraz zəυn/ Please find the cheque enclosed here. same as barrier to entry mer clothes sold cheaply in the autumn E number /i n mbə/ noun a classifi- endorse /ndɔs/ verb to say that a cation of additives to food according to product is good 왍 to endorse a bill or a the European Union cheque to sign a bill or cheque on the COMMENT: Additives are classified as fol- back to show that you accept it lows: colouring substances: E100 – E180. etc. 쑗 Sales material on which goes into a market for the first other products was sent out as an time enclosure. flavour enhancers and sweeteners: E620 the act of endorsing 2. a thing inside an envelope with a letter 쑗 system of carrying on a business 2. planning permission for buildings or a ment enclosed with a letter or package 쑗 reduction in the business rate The enclosure turned out to be a free entrant /entrənt/ noun a company sample of perfume. preservatives: E200 – E297. noun an area of the country where busi- with. noun advertising material which is dɔsmənt dvətazŋ/ noun same as mailed in an envelope product endorsement environment /nvarənmənt/ noun endorser /ndɔsə/ noun a person the area in which an organisation works who endorses a bill which is then paid to environmental analysis him or her /nvarənment(ə)l ənləss/ noun end user /end juzə/ noun a person analysis of factors outside an organisa- who actually uses a product tion such as demography or politics. endorsement /ndɔsmənt/ noun 1. some markets were too unstable to quences for large quantities of data enter. signature on a – E637. . 쑗 service. Environmental analysis made clear that ent /ent/ noun a test of number se. nesses are encouraged to develop by of- graph with your CV. entrepreneurial /ɒntrəprən&riəl/ adjective taking commercial risks 쑗 an end of season sale /end əv entrepreneurial decision siz(ə)n sel/ noun a sale of goods at a lower price when the season in which entry barrier /entri briə/ noun they would be used is over such as sum.

given to a third party to keep and to pass tronic point of sale on to someone when money has been equilibrium /ikwlbriəm/ noun paid the state of balance in the economy escrow account /eskrəυ əkaυnt/ where supply equals demand noun US an account where money is equity capital /ekwti kpt(ə)l/ held in escrow until a contract is signed noun the nominal value of the shares or until goods are delivered owned by the ordinary shareholders of a essential /senʃəl/ adjective very company (NOTE: Preference shares important 쑗 It is essential that an agree- are not equity capital. refitting of the offices. estate duty /stet djuti/ noun a ually 왍 to erode wage differentials to tax paid on the property left by a dead reduce gradually differences in salary person between different grades estimate noun /estmət/ 1. . a calculation by a contractor or seller page of a service of how much something is likely to cost. The media buyer compared the cost of 왍 to estimate for a job to state in writ- posters and escalator cards. 왍 escalation bill was quite different from the esti- of prices a steady increase in prices mate. 2. 쑗 The factory is lacking essen- capital would be distributed to prefer- tial spare parts. 쑗 Unfortunately the final escalation in strike action. 왍 to put in an estimate to give escalation clause /eskəleʃ(ə)n someone a written calculation of the klɔz/ noun same as escalator clause probable costs of carrying out a job 쑗 Three firms put in estimates for the job. ence shareholders. size or time of an error in calculating the total. ness that uses an electronic network essential products /senʃəl such as the Internet to sell its goods or prɒd ktz/ plural noun basic goods or services products necessary for everyday life erode /rəυd/ verb to wear away grad. a calcula- error /erə/ noun a mistake 쑗 He made tion of probable cost. ing the future costs of carrying out a escalator clause /eskəletə klɔz/ piece of work so that a client can make noun a clause in a contract allowing for an order 쑗 Three firms estimated for the regular price increases because of in. size or time of something escalator card /eskəletə kɑd/ 쑗 to estimate that it will cost £1m or to noun an advertisement on either side of estimate costs at £1m 쑗 We estimate an escalator in underground stations 쑗 current sales at only 60% of last year. or regular wage increases /nvarənment(ə)l mndmənt/ because of the increased cost of living noun a planned approach to minimising an organisation’s impact on the escrow /eskrəυ/ noun 왍 in escrow held in safe keeping by a third party 왍 environment document held in escrow a document epos /ipɒs/. EPoS abbr elec.) e-retailer /i ritelə/ noun a busi. none of the equity month. If the company ment be reached before the end of the were wound up.environmental management 98 estimate environmental management creased costs. 쑗 The something 왍 these figures are only an secretary must have made a typing estimate these are not the final accurate error. to calculate the staircase probable cost. essential goods /senʃəl "υdz/. given to a client in ad- escalate /eskəlet/ verb to increase vance of an order 쑗 You should ask for steadily an estimate before committing your- escalation /eskəleʃ(ə)n/ noun a selves. 쑗 Before we can give the grant steady increase 쑗 an escalation of wage we must have an estimate of the total demands 쑗 The union has threatened an costs involved. figures 쑗 Can you give me an estimate error rate /erə ret/ noun the number of how much time was spent on the job? of mistakes per thousand entries or per 2. escalator /eskəletə/ noun a moving 쐽 verb /estmet/ 1. EPOS.

without and represents the interests of its mem- bers. ternative evaluation process European Community /jυərə- piən kəmjunti/ noun formerly. on a regular basis sentrk sted/ noun US an early stage in a company’s marketing when evoke /vəυk/ verb to call up an image goods are sent overseas with no conces- sions to local needs or tastes evoked set /vəυkt set/ noun the various brands which are identified by a EU /iju/ abbr European Union 쑗 EU consumer as possible purchases and ministers met today in Brussels./eks/ prefix former 쑗 an ex-director of the company European Union /jυərəpiən jυnən/ (formerly. baggage allowance as first class. manufacturer’s or agent’s warehouse sociation /jυərəpiən darekt and so does not include delivery 왍 price mɑktŋ əsəυsieʃ(ə)n/ an organisa.g.g. which can save people can move from one country to large sums in excess baggage’ another more freely and people can [Business Traveller] . (NOTE: takes a singular show verb) event marketing /vent mɑktŋ/ ethnic /eθnk/ adjective relating to noun promotional activity to advertise people who share the same race. something to see how good it is estimation /estmeʃ(ə)n/ noun an evaluation /vljυeʃ(ə)n/ noun the approximate calculation examination of a product to see how estimator /estmetə/ noun a person good it is whose job is to calculate estimates for evaluative /vljuətv/ adjective re- carrying out work ferring to the calculation of value e-tailer /i telə/ noun same as evaluative criteria /vljuətv e-retailer kratəriə/ plural noun the criteria used e-tailing /i telŋ/ noun 1.estimated 99 excess estimated /estmetd/ adjective work more freely in other countries of calculated approximately 쑗 estimated the group sales 쑗 Costs were slightly more than evaluate /vljuet/ verb to examine the estimated figure. services tronic network such as the Internet 2. the selling to compare different products or of goods and services using an elec. even number /iv(ə)n n mbə/ same as e-commerce noun a number which can be divided by ethics /eθks/ noun the moral aspects two. e. the ex /eks/ preposition 1. the Common amount which is more than what is al- Market) a group of European countries lowed 쑗 an excess of expenditure over linked together by the Treaty of Rome revenue ‘…most airlines give business class the same in such a way that trade is more free. a flower matter of ethics. ethnocentric stage /eθnəυ or other activity. out of or from 왍 name of the European Union price ex warehouse a price for a prod- uct which is to be collected from the European Direct Marketing As. excess /kses. ekses/ noun an nomic Community (EEC). 24 or 80 of decision-making 쑗 Whether or not event /vent/ noun a thing which hap- we use such aggressive sales tactics is a pens. culture an event and traditions event sponsorship /vent ethnic media /eθnk midiə/ plural spɒnsəʃp/ noun a promotional deal by noun magazines or TV stations which which a company sponsors a particular appeal to ethnic audiences event such as a concert. cluding transport from the maker’s fac- tors new techniques in direct marketing tory 2. 쑗 The which he or she considers during the al- USA is increasing its trade with the EU. the European Eco. sporting event. Abbr EDMA ex. ex works or ex factory a price not in- tion based in Switzerland which moni. a sports competition. e.

news story or the story itself strictions on changing the local currency exclusive agreement /ksklusv into foreign currency 쑗 The government ə"rimənt/ noun an agreement where a . chase or sale of foreign currency duction of the sales slip. 왍 exclusive of not pose exchange controls to stop the rush including 쑗 All payments are exclusive to buy dollars. 쐽 noun the exclusive rights to a kəntrəυlz/ plural noun government re. market a product 2. to change excise duty /eksaz djuti/ noun a money of one country for money of an. in terms of the currency of another change of contracts the point in the country sale of property when the buyer and the ‘…can free trade be reconciled with a strong seller both sign the contract of sale dollar resulting from floating exchange rates’ which then becomes binding 쐽 verb 1. ‘…a draft report on changes in the international thing else) to give one thing in place of monetary system casts doubt on any return to something else 쑗 He exchanged his mo. 쑗 tʃend trnzkʃən/ noun a pur- Goods can be exchanged only on pro. fixed exchange-rate parities’ [Wall Street Journal] torcycle for a car. excess baggage /ekses b"d/ exchange dealer /kstʃend noun an extra payment at an airport for dilə/ noun a person who buys and sells taking baggage which is heavier than foreign currency the normal passenger’s allowance exchange dealings /kstʃend excess capacity /ekses kəpsti/ dilŋz/ plural noun the buying and noun spare capacity which is not being selling of foreign currency used exchange economy /kstʃend excess demand /ekses dmɑnd/ kɒnəmi/ noun an economy based on noun more demand at the present price the exchange of goods and services than sellers can satisfy 쑗 Much more exchange premium /kstʃend machinery and labour must be acquired primiəm/ noun an extra cost above the to meet excess demand. Nigeria will export crude oil in exchange for trucks. of tax. exclusion clause /ksklu(ə)n planes and chemicals’ [Wall Street Journal] klɔz/ noun a clause in an insurance exchangeable /kstʃendəb(ə)l/ policy or warranty which says which adjective which can be exchanged items or events are not covered exchange control /kstʃend exclusive adjective /ksklusv/ 1. normal rate for buying a foreign excess profit /ekses prɒft/ noun currency profit which is higher than what is exchanger /kstʃendə/ noun a thought to be normal person who buys and sells foreign excess supply /ekses səpla/ noun currency more supply at the present price than buyers want to buy exchange rate /kstʃend ret/ noun a figure that expresses how much exchange /kstʃend/ noun the act a unit of one country’s currency is worth of giving one thing for another 왍 ex. limited to one person or group 왍 to have ernment of the way in which its cur. food. kəntrəυl/ noun the control by a gov. exclusive right to market a product to rency may be exchanged for foreign be the only person who has the right to currencies 쑗 The government had to im. 2. 쑗 The invoice is exclusive of exchange controls /kstʃend VAT. tax on goods such as alcohol and petrol other 쑗 to exchange euros for pounds which are produced in the country ‘…under the barter agreements.excess baggage 100 exclusive agreement ‘…control of materials provides manufacturers has imposed exchange controls. 쑗 They with an opportunity to reduce the amount of say the government is going to lift ex- money tied up in excess materials’ [Duns Business Month] change controls. 쑗 If the trousers are too small you can take them back and exchange transaction /ks- exchange them for a larger pair. [Duns Business Month] 왍 to exchange something (for some.

its worst performance since the exempt rating /"zempt retŋ/ economic expansion began’ [Fortune] noun the legal right of a business not to ‘…the businesses we back range from start-up add VAT to the prices of some products ventures to established businesses in need of further capital for expansion’ [Times] or services ‘…the group is undergoing a period of rapid exempt supplies /"zempt expansion and this has created an exciting səplaz/ plural noun products or ser. 2. expand /kspnd/ verb to get bigger. 쑗 Their fees may seem exorbi- law 쑗 Anyone over 65 is exempt from tant. Non-profit-making organisations are expansion /kspnʃən/ noun an in- exempted from tax. or not forced to obey a justified. minute. unreasonably high in price 쑗 $10. quired to pay tax 쑗 As a or make something bigger 쑗 an expand- non-profit-making organisation we are ing economy 쑗 The company is expand- exempt from tax. what someone believes will happen. 쑗 noun the price of a product which con- The agricultural exhibition grounds sumers consider corresponds to its true were crowded with visitors. with no other obligations more than the expected price. a single ‘American business as a whole has seen profits section of an exhibition 쑗 the British well above the levels normally expected at this Trade Exhibit at the International Com. 쑗 We have expected price /ekspektd pras/ a stand at the Ideal Home Exhibition.000 a exempt /"zempt/ adjective not cov. charges 왍 exempt from tax not re. buyers can look at them and decide what which is one of the reasons for making to buy 쑗 The government has sponsored the purchase an exhibition of good design. to free some. what someone believes about occasion for the display of goods so that an item or service to be purchased. domestic market. 쑗 They ex gratia payment /eks "reʃə are expecting a cheque from their agent pemənt/ noun a payment made as a next week. ‘…he observed that he expected exports to grow exhibit /"zbt/ noun 1. a thing faster than imports in the coming year’ which is shown 쑗 The buyers admired [Sydney Morning Herald] the exhibits on our stand. 2. 쑗 The house was sold for gift. will be exempt from the minimum-wage ‘…inflation-adjusted GNP moved up at a 1. exhibitor /"zbtə/ noun a person or tive referring to a share price not includ.3% requirements’ [Nation’s Business] annual rate. 쑗 We have had to expand our thing from having tax paid on it 쑗 sales force. but their costs are very high. 쐽 verb 1. difficulty in financing its current expan- ‘Companies with sales under $500.45.exclusivity 101 expected price person is made sole agent for a product exhibition stand /eksbʃ(ə)n in a market stnd/ noun a separate section of an exclusivity /eksklusvt/ noun the exhibition where a company exhibits its exclusive right to market a product products or services ex dividend /eks dvdend/ adjec. that’s exorbitant and quite un- ered by a law. company that shows products at an ing the right to receive the next dividend exhibition 쑗 The shares went ex dividend exorbitant /"zɔbtənt/ adjective yesterday. stage of the cycle’ [Sunday Times] puter Fair 쐽 verb 왍 to exhibit at the expectation /ekspekteʃ(ə)n/ noun Motor Show to display new models of 1. 쑗 The company had empted from sales tax. opportunity for a qualified accountant’ vices on which the supplier does not [Financial Times] have to charge VAT expect /kspekt/ verb to hope that ex gratia /eks "reʃə/ adjective done something is going to happen 쑗 We are as a favour expecting him to arrive at 10. cars at the Motor Show especially concerning their future pros- exhibition /eksbʃ(ə)n/ noun an perity 2. to free someone crease in size 쑗 The expansion of the from having to pay tax 쑗 Food is ex. ing fast.000 a year sion programme. value .

expert financial advice. signed to imitate the way a human ex- tionship between the cumulative amount pert in a particular field thinks and of products produced and the production makes decisions (NOTE: Expert sys- cost per unit 쑗 The experience curve tems. variety of tasks including medical diag- experienced /kspəriənst/ adjec. experimental method /eksper- penses. expert system /eksp&t sstəm/ experience curve /kspəriəns noun a computer program that is de- k&v/ noun a graph showing the rela. tronics expert 쑗 The company asked a experience /kspəriəns/ noun financial expert for advice or asked for knowledge or skill that comes from hav. 쑗 The likely profits do not jus. man experts are unavailable. əkaυnt/ noun an allowance of money experiencer /ekspəriənsə/ noun in which a business pays for an employee the VALS lifestyle classification sys- to spend on travelling and entertaining tem. are used for a wide brought down our costs. improving business efficiency 쑗 The ex- 쑗 It was well worth the expense to get perience effect is evident in the rise in really high-quality equipment. exploit /ksplɔt/ verb to use some- pointed a very experienced candidate as thing to make a profit 쑗 The company is sales director. 왍 to cut down on expenses marketing such as types of promotion to reduce spending and sales training expensive /kspensv/ adjective expert /eksp&t/ noun a person who which costs a lot of money 쑗 First-class knows a lot about something 쑗 an ex- air travel is becoming more and more pert in the field of electronics or an elec- expensive.000 plus ex. we have plenty of expertise to this job. a young person who likes new and clients in connection with that business unusual things and spends a lot of 쑗 I can put this lunch on my expense money on hobbies and socialising account experiential advertising /ek- expenses /kspensz/ plural noun spərienʃəl dvətazŋ/ noun adver- money paid to cover the costs incurred tising which conveys to the customer by someone when doing something 쑗 the real sensation of using the product The salary offered is £10. 쑗 field 쑗 With years of experience in the Considerable experience is required for industry. The expense is too much for my bank experience effect /kspəriəns balance. 쐽 verb to live through a situation Smith because of his financial expertise 쑗 The company experienced a period of or because of his expertise in finance.) enced negotiator I know. fluence of various variables in penses paid. our profits as our workforce becomes expense account /kspens more skilled.expense 102 exploit expense /kspens/ noun money staff will have dealt with a crisis like spent 쑗 It is not worth the expense. 쑗 this before. 쑗 Lack of marketing expertise but did not have any relevant experi. 쑗 I ist knowledge or skill in a particular gained most of my experience abroad. led to low sales figures. falling sales. 쑗 The applicant was pleasant. 왍 expert’s re- ing had to deal with many different situ. 쑗 We have ap. port a report written by an expert ations 쑗 She has a lot of experience of expertise /ekspətiz/ noun special- dealing with German companies. nostics and financial decision-making tive referring to a person who has lived and can be used by non-experts to through many situations and has learnt solve well-defined problems when hu- from them 쑗 You are the most experi. 쑗 Our more experienced exploiting its contacts in the Ministry of . trolled experiments to discover the in- pany sent him to San Francisco all ex. draw on. 왍 all expenses paid with all ment(ə)l meθəd/ noun the use of con- costs paid by the company 쑗 The com. fekt/ noun the role of experience in tify the expense of setting up the project. which are an application of artifi- shows how increasing efficiency has cial intelligence. 쑗 We hired Mr ence.

pany which deals in sales to foreign nenʃ(ə)l dfju(ə)n/. exports /ekspɔts/ plural noun goods half of a company and earns a commis. exposure to residential mortgages. exponential countries growth /ekspənenʃ(ə)l "rəυθ/ noun export duty /ekspɔt djuti/ noun a a typical growth pattern of new products tax paid on goods sent out of a country that involves a slow start.4 billion. exponential smoothing /ekspə. 쐽 verb /k. noun) exportation /ekspɔteʃ(ə)n/ noun exposition /ekspəzʃ(ə)n/ noun US the act of sending goods to foreign same as exhibition countries for sale exposure /kspəυə/ noun publicity export bounty /ekspɔt baυnti/ given to an organisation or product 쑗 noun a government payment to busi- Our company has achieved more expo- nesses to encourage specific types of sure since we decided to advertise export nationally. export documentation was a something to be exported 쑗 The govern- major stumbling block for some companies’ ment has refused an export licence for [Marketing & Sales Management] computer parts. months’ [South China Morning Post] ports sold on credit against the possibil. about a quarter of total export manager /ekspɔt production’ [Economist] mndə/ noun the person in charge of ‘…the New Zealand producers are now aiming an export department in a company 쑗 to export more fresh meat as opposed to frozen The export manager planned to set up a which has formed the majority of its UK imports sales force in Southern Europe. sent to a foreign country to be sold 쑗 sion 쑗 An export agent is developing Exports to Africa have increased by our business in West Africa. which exports 왍 oil-exporting coun- spɔt/ to send goods to foreign coun. ‘Europe’s gross exports of white goods climbed to 2. 쑗 The company imports raw materials and exports the finished export licence /ekspɔt las(ə)ns/ products. ‘…it attributed the poor result to the bank’s high ment /ekspɔt kredt "rənti d. 쑗 We hope to exploit the oil re. pɑtmənt/ noun the section of a com- exponential diffusion /ekspə. tries countries which produce oil and tries for sale 쑗 50% of our production is sell it to other countries exported. Export Credit Guarantee Depart.exponential diffusion 103 express Trade. very fast 쑗 an express letter 쐽 verb to Abbr ECGD send something very fast 쑗 We ex- . which pɑtmənt/ noun a British government showed a significant slowdown in the past few department which insures sellers of ex. company or country that sells goods in nenʃ(ə)l smuðŋ/noun a technique foreign countries 쑗 a major furniture for working out averages while allowing exporter 쑗 Canada is an important ex- for recent changes in values by moving porter of oil or an important oil forward the period under consideration exporter. companies pany’s profits come from the export exporting /ekspɔtŋ/ adjective trade or the export market. 쑗 Sales in the past’ [Marketing] managers from all export markets re- export agent /ekspɔt edənt/ port to our export manager. (NOTE: usually used in the plural. followed by for sale acceleration and finally a slowing down exporter /kspɔtə/ noun a person. express /kspres/ adjective rapid or ity of non-payment by the purchasers. 쑗 She is 25%. noun a government permit allowing ‘…in the past. working in London as an export agent but the singular form is used before a for a French company. at regular intervals export house /ekspɔt haυs/ noun export noun /ekspɔt/ the practice or a company which specialises in the ex- business of sending goods to foreign port of goods manufactured by other countries to be sold 쑗 50% of the com. export department /ekspɔt d- sources in the China Sea. noun a person who sells overseas on be.

strtədi/ noun a marketing strategy and marketing management. stensv prɒbləm səυlvŋ/ noun de- expressage /kspresd/ noun US tailed research and decision-making by a very fast transport service a buyer who needs to examine carefully all options open to him or her express delivery /kspres d- lv(ə)ri/ noun very fast delivery external /kst&n(ə)l/ adjective 1. advertising. such as the gen- a dealer on consumer durables such as eral public. (NOTE: the opposite is internal trade) sources could embark on this type of extra /ekstrə/ adjective which is extensive marketing. noun trade with foreign countries ble 쑗 Only a company with vast re. who do not belong to an dishwashers. external communication /k- sion of credit to get more time to pay st&n(ə)l kəmjunkeʃ(ə)n/ noun the back 왍 extension of a contract the con. external analysis /kst&n(ə)l extended credit /kstendd ənləss/ noun the analysis of an kredt/ noun credit allowing the bor. 쑗 We have bank of someone who is living in an- extended the deadline for making the other country appointment by two weeks. or individuals that extension of the auto import quotas’ are not part of it (NOTE: External com- [Duns Business Month] munication includes the fields of public extension strategy /kstenʃən relations. in libraries or needed to ensure demand for another government departments few years. which goes beyond the organisation time specified in the manufacturer’s external audit /kst&n(ə)l ɔdt/ guarantee noun an evaluation of the effectiveness extension /kstenʃən/ noun allow. market seg- rower a very long time to pay 쑗 We sell ments. added or which is more than usual 쑗 to . of a company’s public relations carried ing a longer time for something than out by an outside agency was originally agreed 왍 to get an exten. from external sources such as advertis- ing. exchange of information and messages tinuing of a contract for a further period between an organisation and other or- ‘…the White House refusal to ask for an ganisations. organisation’s customers.) aimed at extending the life of a product external desk research /k- either by making small changes in it. to make external account /kst&n(ə)l longer 쑗 Her contract of employment əkaυnt/ noun an account in a British was extended for two years. or from the web using a search extensive /kstensv/ adjective very engine large or covering a wide area 쑗 an ex- tensive network of sales outlets external search engine /k- st&n(ə)l s&tʃ endn/ noun a search extensive marketing /kstensv engine that allows the user to search mɑktŋ/ noun the practice of using a millions of Internet pages rapidly wide network of distributors and a great variety of promotional activities to gain external trade /kst&n(ə)l tred/ as large a section of the market as possi. outside a country 2.expressage 104 extra pressed the order to the customer’s extensive problem-solving /k- warehouse. st&n(ə)l desk rs&tʃ/ noun research finding new uses for it or finding new based on material outside the com- markets 쑗 An extension strategy is pany’s own records. to offer 쑗 to extend credit to a customer 2. environment extended guarantee /kstendd external audience /kst&n(ə)l "rənti/ noun a guarantee. offered by ɔdiəns/ noun people. outside a company extend /kstend/ verb 1.g. 쑗 The extension strategy con- sisted in providing a greater choice of external search /kst&n(ə)l s&tʃ/ colours and upholstery for the range of noun a method of finding information cars. e. and marketing to Australia on extended credit. competitors. media relations. groups.

extranet /ekstrənet/ noun a closed extras /ekstrəz/ plural noun items network of websites and email systems which are not included in a price 쑗 that is accessible to the people who be. eye tracking /a strɔd(ə)n(ə)ri atəmz/ plural noun trkŋ/ noun an advertising research large items of income or expenditure test which involves recording the move- which do not arise from normal trading ment of a person’s eyes as they look at and which do not occur every year. test will tell us what to highlight in fu- posed to exceptional items. long to an organisation and to some oth.extranet 105 e-zine charge 10% extra for postage 쑗 service ture 쑗 We are using extrapolation to is extra 쑗 There is no extra charge for forecast demand for a new product heating. since the network attractive material (slang) cannot be used by the general public. Packing and postage are extras. muvmənt test/. larly in electronic form. and that allows the looking at statistical data to make a outsiders access to the organisation’s in.) with the added eye candy /a kndi/ noun visually benefit of security. calculated before the pre-tax profit. sults (informal ) . web website (slang) servers. an advertisement to see which parts are They are shown separately on the profit of special interest 쑗 The eye-movement and loss account after taxation. eyeballing /abɔlŋ/ noun simply ers who do not. mainly via the volves projecting past trends into the fu. as op. 쑗 We get £25 extra pay for based on the demand for a similar prod- working on Sunday.) eye-movement test /a extraordinary items /k. e-zine /i zin/ noun a publication on a extrapolation /kstrpəleʃ(ə)n/ particular topic that is distributed regu- noun a forecasting technique which in. ally subject to some kind of signed agreement (NOTE: Like intranets. uct over the last five years. HTML. quick and informal assessment of the re- ternal applications or information—usu. web but also by email . which are ture advertisements. eyeballs /abɔlz/ plural noun a mea- extranets provide all the benefits of sure of the number of visits made to a Internet technology (browsers. etc.

usually to an- value written on a coin. noun a process of identifying key fac- ing text matter /fesŋ tekst mtə/ tors that influence the results in an atti- noun an advertisement on a page oppo. involving a meeting between fact book /fkt bυk/ noun data put seller and buyer 쑗 Six months of together about a product on the market face-to-face selling will give trainees di. that can be used for reference by the rect experience of the market. fact /fkt/ noun a piece of information face out /fes aυt/ adverb used to re. centage is the factorage? facing /fesŋ/ adjective opposite factor analysis /fktə ənləss/ facing matter /fesŋ mtə/. fandŋ mʃ(ə)n/ noun a visit by a per- face value /fes vlju/ noun the son or group of people. showing the front cover sales director can give you the facts and face-to-face selling /fes tə fes figures about the African operation. The client company is facility /fəslt/ noun 1. page opposite aging or of an organisation’s image 쑗 facsimile /fksml/ noun an exact These products need a face-lift if they copy of a text or illustration are going to retain their appeal. 2. banknote or other country. – some banks charge more for small amounts’ factor /fktə/ noun 1. equipment or buildings which vation was an important factor in draw- make it possible to do something 쑗 ing up the new pay scheme. are not satisfactory. to obtain information share certificate about a specific issue 쑗 The minister ‘…travellers cheques cost 1% of their face value went on a fact-finding tour of the region. advanced’ [Times] low a borrower 2. fac. selŋ/ noun person-to-person or direct selling. paid when the debt is met. the total charged a fee as well as interest on the cash amount of credit which a lender will al. 쑗 The shop shelves. 쑗 Moti- vices. tude research programme site to one containing editorial matter . something [Sunday Times] which is important or which is taken facia /feʃə/ noun another spelling of into account when making a decision 쑗 fascia The drop in sales is an important factor facilities /fəsltiz/ plural noun ser. which then gets an immediate cash advance representing most of their value. 쑗 There are no fa. 쑗 The chairman asked to see all the fer to the displaying of books on book. The balance is cilities for disabled visitors. a person There are no facilities for unloading or who sells for a business or another per- there are no unloading facilities. in the company’s lower profits. 쑗 We producers or by an advertising agency need confident outgoing people to do fact-finding mission /fkt our face-to-face selling. US a single large factorage /fktərd/ noun a com- building 쑗 We have opened our new mission earned by a factor 쑗 What per- warehouse facility.face-lift 106 factor analysis F face-lift /feslft/ noun an improve. buy debts from a company at a discount gion. 쑗 Our son and earns a commission 쐽 verb to storage facilities are the best in the re. facts on the income tax claim. 쑗 Transport facilities in the area ‘…factors ‘buy’ invoices from a company. facing page /fesŋ ped/ noun the ment to the design of products and pack.

ning. fad /fd/ noun a short-lived fashion or fall back on /fɔl bk ɒn/ verb to craze have to use something kept for emer- failure /feljə/ noun not doing some. get a fair deal from the management. some items imported from their trading ness of buying debts at a discount partners factoring agent /fktərŋ fall /fɔl/ noun a sudden drop or loss of edənt/ noun a person who sells for a value 쑗 a fall in the exchange rate 쑗 a business or another person and earns a fall in the price of gold 쑗 a fall on the commission Stock Exchange 쑗 Profits showed a factoring charges /fktərŋ 10% fall.) has raised charges on homeowner loans’ [Globe and Mail (Toronto)] factory outlet /fkt(ə)r aυtlet/ ‘…interest rates were still falling as late as June. 쑗 The where products are manufactured 쑗 a price of gold fell for the second day run- car factory 쑗 a shoe factory 쑗 The com. and energy. a lower price 쑗 Shares fell on the mar- ing debts to a factor for a commission ket today. 쑗 Gold shares fell 10% or fell factory /fkt(ə)ri/ noun a building 45 cents on the Stock Exchange. fall-back price /fɔl bk pras/ turer of a product whose sales are less noun the lowest price which a seller will than those agreed in advance accept 쑗 The buyer tries to guess the fair /feə/ noun same as trade fair 쑗 seller’s fall-back price. pany is proposing to close three of its 2. paper giving information about a prod. fall behind /fɔl bhand/ verb to be ment where both parties are treated late in doing something 쑗 They fell be- equally 쑗 The workers feel they did not hind with their mortgage repayments. to happen or to take place 쑗 The pub- factories with the loss of 200 jobs. 쐽 adjective honest or correct won’t be any profit in the deal. fall back /fɔl bk/ verb to become uct or service which can be used for lower or cheaper after rising in price 쑗 publicity purposes Shares fell back in light trading. ‘…market analysts described the falls in turing goods before any mark-up is the second half of last week as a added to give profit (NOTE: The factory technical correction to the market’ gate price includes direct costs such [AustralianFinancial Review] as labour. noun a shop where merchandise is sold and underlying inflation remains below the direct to the public from the factory. 왍 pay- ments which fall due payments which factory gate price /fkt(ə)r "et are now due to be made pras/ noun the actual cost of manufac. to drop suddenly to tʃɑdz/ plural noun the cost of sell. ‘…for the first time since mortgage rates and indirect costs such as interest on began falling in March a financial institution loans. falling /fɔlŋ/ adjective which is be- fair price /feə pras/ noun a good coming smaller or dropping in price price for both buyer and seller ‘…falling profitability means falling share prices’ [Investors Chronicle] fair trade /feə tred/ noun an interna- tional business system where countries falling market /fɔlŋ mɑkt/ noun agree not to charge import duties on a market where prices are coming down . gencies 쑗 to fall back on cash reserves thing which you promised to do 쑗 The management fell back on the failure fee /feljə fi/ noun a fee usual old excuses. plant maintenance or rent. government’s target of 2. 쑗 The fall-back The computer fair runs from April 1st to price must not be any lower or there 6th. charged by a distributor to the manufac. fair deal /feə dil/ noun an arrange. lic holiday falls on a Tuesday. raw materials. 쑗 The pound fell against the euro. 쐽 verb 1.factoring 107 falling market factoring /fktərŋ/ noun the busi.5 per cent’ usually at wholesale prices [Financial Times] factory unit /fkt(ə)ri junt/ noun fall away /fɔl əwe/ verb to become a single building on an industrial estate less 쑗 Hotel bookings have fallen away fact sheet /fkt ʃit/ noun a sheet of since the tourist season ended.

fastmarketers try to squeeze the act of making false entries in them into just a few days’ [Times] accounts fast-moving consumer goods falsify /fɔlsfa/ verb to change /fɑst muvŋ kənsjumə "υdz/ plu- something to make it wrong 쑗 They ral noun essential low-price goods were accused of falsifying the accounts. e. a board fallen off since the tourist season ended. facia noun 1. often using franchises. ham- false claim /fɔls klem/ noun an un. cheaper or less 쑗 Sales have fascia /feʃə/. which get repeat orders 쑗 He couldn’t family /fm(ə)li/ noun 1. against other currencies fancy goods /fnsi "υdz/ plural fall off /fɔl ɒf/ verb to become noun small attractive items lower. a group of FMCGs people. promotions into a short space of time. this method 쑗 We received a fax of the . a system for sending family packaging /fm(ə)li the exact copy of a document via tele- pkdŋ/ noun the practice of selling phone lines 쑗 Can you confirm the a whole range of products in similar booking by fax? 2. so that customers cannot avoid being false weight /fɔls wet/ noun affected weight on a shop scales which is wrong ‘…fastmarketing tactics mark a radical and so cheats customers departure from more traditional marketing. formed of parents and children fast-selling item /fɑst selŋ family branding /fm(ə)li atəmz/ noun an item which sells brndŋ/ noun the practice of selling a quickly variety of different products under the favourable /fev(ə)rəb(ə)l/ adjective same brand name which gives an advantage (NOTE: the family life cycle /fm(ə)li laf American spelling is favorable) 왍 on sak(ə)l/ noun the stages through favourable terms on specially good which consumers pass in their lives.falling pound 108 fax falling pound /fɔlŋ paυnd/ noun aging will make for a clear company the pound when it is losing its value image. adverb quick or fall through /fɔl θru/ verb not to quickly 쑗 The train is the fastest way of happen or not to take place 쑗 The plan getting to our supplier’s factory. e. a board above an exhi- has fallen out of the market sales have bition stand on which the name of the fallen below what previously seemed to company represented is written be their lowest point fast /fɑst/ adjective. ‘couples with adoles. ‘young marrieds’. a document sent by packaging 쑗 We hope that family pack. false /fɔls/ adjective not true or not correct 쑗 to make a false claim for a fast food /fɑst fυd/ noun food that product can be cooked and sold quickly to cus- tomers. 쑗 fell through at the last moment. a group of work in FMCGs because his only expe- products which are linked by a brand rience was in industrial selling. burgers and pizzas true or exaggerated claim made in the advertising of a product 쑗 A voluntary fastmarketing /fɑstmɑktŋ/ control body was set up to discourage noun the concept of concentrating all false claims in the advertising business. ‘young couples with favourable balance of trade small children’. Abbr name or by their packaging 2. which correspond to different ports are larger than its imports types of buying behaviour fax /fks/ noun 1. /fev(ə)rəb(ə)l bləns əv tred/ cent children still at home’ and ‘retired noun a situation where a country’s ex- couples’. able terms.g. Home computers sell fast in the pre-Christmas period.g. as terms 쑗 The shop is let on very favour- they have families. over a shop on which the name of the fall out /fɔl aυt/ verb 왍 the bottom shop is written 2. ‘young singles’. falsification /fɔlsfkeʃ(ə)n/ noun Instead of dotting commercials over a 4 or 5 week campaign.

traction to the purchaser. 2.fed) of field work to find the right market for feedback /fidbk/ noun informa. noun salespeople working outside the features /fitʃəz/ plural noun the par. or service will improve the quality of field sales manager /fild selz life of the purchaser mndə/ noun the manager in charge Federal Trade Commission of a group of salespeople /fed(ə)rəl tred kəmʃ(ə)n/ noun a field trials /fild traəlz/.faxback 109 field work order this morning. use in considering the message ity study to decide whether it is worth field research /fild rs&tʃ/. especially about the result of an ac- . field setting up an agency in North America. /fild tests/ plural noun a test of a new ness competition free and fair product or of something such as an ad- feed /fid/ verb to give information or vertisement on real customers tips to another salesperson regarding field work /fild w&k/ noun 1. she became field sales manager. 쐽 verb to send a tivity which allows adjustments to be message by fax 쑗 The details of the of. made to the way it is done in future 쑗 fer were faxed to the brokers this morn. 왍 first in anxious about something. field tests federal agency established to keep busi.g. being first in the field with a reliable pɔt/ noun a document which says if it electric car. in the next issue describing the history field sales force /fild selz fɔs/ of our company. an promising customers or areas for sales 쑗 examination of the situation among pos- I can feed you some interesting sales sible customers 쑗 They had to do a lot leads. by downloading the car. as opposed to 쑗 The field sales force operates in three ‘benefits’ which show how the product main areas. that a sender and receiver of a message dertaking 쑗 We will carry out a feasibil. force. 쑗 Are we getting any feedback pages from a website direct to a fax ma. is worth undertaking something field of experience /fild əv k- feasibility study /fizəblti spərəns/ noun the general experience st di/ noun the careful investigation of a project to see whether it is worth un. We are getting positive feedback about ing. feature /fitʃə/ noun an article in a 쑗 Field research is carried out to gauge newspaper or magazine that deals with one subject in depth 쑗 There is a feature potential demand. especially the field being the first company to about not doing something bring out a product or to start a service 쑗 Smith Ltd has a great advantage in feasibility report /fizəblti r. the office. or where customers dial a fax product? number and get a fax back on their fax ‘…the service is particularly useful when we are machine working in a crisis management area and we need fast feedback from consumers’ [PR Week] fear /fə/ noun the feeling of being afraid field /fild/ noun 왍 in the field outside fear appeal /fə əpil/ noun an ad. work /fild w&k/ noun looking for in- feasibility test /fizəblti test/ formation that is not yet published and noun a test to see if something is must be obtained in surveys 쑗 They had possible to do a lot of fieldwork before they found the right market for the product. in the field 쑗 After ticular important aspects of a product or working for a year in the field sales service which are advertised as an at. among the customers 쑗 We vertising message that makes the reader have sixteen reps in the field. same as field research tion. on customer reaction to our new chine. useful to have some feedback from peo- faxback /fksbk/ noun a system of ple who had a test drive but didn’t buy responding by fax. company’s offices. 쑗 I’ve faxed the documents to our our after-sales service. (NOTE: feeding. the product. 쑗 It would be New York office. e.

holders or by loans 쑗 Where will they get the necessary finance for the pro- financial resources /fannʃəl r- ject? 쐽 verb to provide money to pay zɔsz/ plural noun supply of money for something 쑗 They plan to finance for something 쑗 a company with strong the operation with short-term loans. she wants in a store nnʃəl kɒrspɒndənt/ noun a jour.filing system 110 fine filing system /falŋ sstəm/ noun ment trust or insurance company whose a way of putting documents in order for work involves lending or investing large easy reference sums of money filler /flə/ noun something which fills financially /fnnʃəli/ adverb re- a space garding money 왍 a company which is filter question /fltə kwestʃən/ financially sound a company which is noun a question in a questionnaire de. invest- . money used in an organisation Financial Times Index /fannʃəl finance market /fanns mɑkt/ tamz ndeks/ noun an index which noun a place where large sums of shows percentage rises or falls in share money can be lent or borrowed prices on the London Stock Exchange finances /fannsz/ plural noun based on a small group of major money or cash which is available 쑗 the companies bad state of the company’s finances financier /fannsiə/ noun a person financial /fannʃəl/ adjective con. provided by the share. gives the government the power to ob- tain money from taxes as proposed in financial statement /fannʃəl the Budget stetmənt/ noun a document which finance department /fanns d. prepared a financial statement for the ment or committee which manages the shareholders. small 왍 we are cutting our margins ters for a newspaper very fine we are reducing our margins financial institution /fannʃəl to the smallest possible amount ŋsttjuʃ(ə)n/ noun a bank. financing /fannsŋ/ noun the act panies in the field of financial of providing money for a project 쑗 The investment financing of the project was done by two financial audit /fannʃəl ɔdt/ international banks. financial resources ‘…an official said that the company began to financial risk /fannʃəl rsk/ experience a sharp increase in demand for noun the possibility of losing money 쑗 longer-term mortgages at a time when the flow The company is taking a considerable of money used to finance these loans diminished’ [Globe and Mail] financial risk in manufacturing 25 mil- lion units without doing any market re- Finance Act /fanns kt/ noun search. 쑗 There is always some GB an annual Act of Parliament which financial risk in selling on credit. finance committee pany 쑗 The accounts department has /fanns kəmti/ noun the depart. who lends large amounts of money to cerning money companies or who buys shares in com- panies as an investment financial advertising /fannʃəl dvətazŋ/ noun advertising by com. profitable and has strong assets signed to separate respondents who are financial position /fannʃəl pə- worth questioning further from those zʃ(ə)n/ noun the state of a person’s or who are not company’s bank balance in terms of as- finance /fanns/ noun money used sets and debts 쑗 She must think of her fi- by a company. nancial position. fine /fan/ adverb very thin or very nalist who writes articles on money mat. shows the financial situation of a com- pɑtmənt/. noun an examination of the books and find time /fand tam/ noun the time accounts of an advertising agency taken by a customer to find what he or financial correspondent /fa.

including the com- first choice /f&st tʃɔs/ noun a pro. 쐽 verb to remain at a price and ing to fix the phone system. 쐽 adjective 1. but which the nal details 쑗 We expect to firm up the company does not buy or sell as part of deal at the next trade fair. fixed assets /fkst sets/ plural noun property or machinery which a firm up /f&m  p/ verb to agree on fi. placing of a television or radio adver- ery option before coming to a decision tisement in a specific commercial break first-hand /f&st hnd/ adjective 1.50. a sale of first-run syndication /f&st r n fire-damaged goods 2. but at a second-hand business costs which do not change with price. new or unused 쑗 I actually bought the fixed costs /fkst kɒsts/ plural noun TV first-hand. change markets. e. 쑗 ping in price and possibly going to rise The price of gold was fixed at $300. first-hand account of what happened at rent. the quantity of the product made first-hand information /f&st fixed expenses /fkst kspensz/ hnd nfəmeʃ(ə)n/ noun information plural noun expenses which do not vary from an original source 쑗 We had a with different levels of production. on a specific day. sndkeʃ(ə)n/ noun material produced thing at a very low price specifically for the syndication market firm /f&m/ noun a company. secretaries’ salaries. or . enter a market fire sale /faə sel/ noun 1. not drop. to arrange or to agree firm offer for something 쑗 to place a 쑗 to fix a budget 쑗 to fix a meeting for 3 firm order for two aircraft 2. ərendmənt/ noun a way of agreeing first-line management /f&st lan the fees for an agency before the agency mndmənt/ noun the managers who starts work on a project have immediate contact with the fixed position /fkst pəzʃ(ə)n/ workforce noun the placing of an advertisement in a specific location in a publication. as opposed to a fixed break /fkst brek/ noun the ‘tyrekicker’ who wants to examine ev. pany’s investments in shares of other spective customer who chooses the first companies option available. to mend 쑗 The technicians are com- firm.g. insurance the sales meeting from one of the fixed-fee arrangement /fkst fi salesreps who was there. 쑗 쑗 Sterling was firmer on the foreign ex. 쑗 Can you seem likely to rise 쑗 The shares firmed fix the photocopier? at £1. p.23 a unit. 쑗 The date has still to be fixed. 쑗 Shares remained 2. but underlying [Investors Chronicle] sentiment remained firm’ [Financial Times] fixed /fkst/ adjective unable to be firm price /f&m pras/ noun a price changed or removed which will not change 쑗 They are quot- ing a firm price of $1.finished goods 111 fixed position finished goods /fnʃt "υdz/ noun first mover /f&st muvə/ noun a manufactured goods which are ready to person or company that is the first to be sold launch a product in a market fire-fight /faə fat/ verb to fight bad first mover advantage /f&st publicity for a client 쑗 The agency has muvə ədvɑntd/ noun the advan- done fire-fighting work for the egg tage a company gets in being the first to producers. ‘…coupons are fixed by reference to interest rates at the time a gilt is first issued’ ‘…some profit-taking was noted. company owns and uses.m. The mortgage rate has been fixed at 5%. (NOTE: compare piggy-back freight) which cannot be changed 쑗 to make a fix /fks/ verb 1. business fishy-back freight /fʃi bk fret/ or partnership 쑗 a manufacturing firm 쑗 noun US the transportation of trucks or an important publishing firm 쑗 Shee is a freight-train cars on ferries or barges partner in a law firm. its regular trade. a sale of any. at the advertiser’s coming directly from the original source insistence 2.

gage rate floor stand /flɔ stnd/ noun a dis- flagship /fl"ʃp/ noun the key play stand which stands on the floor. flag. 쑗 Her office is ‘…you must offer shippers and importers fixed rates over a reasonable period of time’ on the 26th floor. flop /flɒp/ noun a failure or something tion very clearly in order to attract cus. ment or change ing pattern for something fluidity of labour /fludti əv flighting by number /flatŋ ba lebə/ noun the extent to which em- n mbə/ noun scheduling things in a se. flow diagram which always stays the same 쑗 a /fləυ daə"rm/ noun a chart which flat-rate increase of 10% 쑗 We pay a shows the arrangement of work pro- flat rate for electricity each quarter. ployees move from one place to another ries of groups. 쑗 The sales department is for the whole period of the agreement flooded with orders or with complaints. formal ) give a product an attractive . and supervises the shop flash pack /flʃ pk/ noun a pack assistants in a department or package which shows a price reduc.g. on which the reputa. Each fixed scale of charges /fkst floor in the USA is one number higher skel əv tʃɑdz/ noun a rate of than the same floor in Britain.fixed-price agreement 112 fly poster running a commercial at a fixed time of flood /fl d/ noun a large quantity 쑗 day. to let. which does not level in a building 쑗 The shoe depart- change ment is on the first floor. floor /flɔ/ noun 1. 쑗 Floods fixed-price agreement /fkst of tourists filled the hotels. but in the USA it is the first floor. which you walk on 2. which has not been successful 쑗 The tomers 쑗 Flash packs are displayed at new model was a flop. with the same number in to work or from one occupation to each group another floating population /fləυtŋ fly poster /fla pəυstə/ noun a pɒpjυleʃ(ə)n/ noun people who move poster which is pasted to a site without from place to place permission and without being paid for . (NOTE: customers. at the advertiser’s insistence We received a flood of orders.) charging which does not change floor manager /flɔ mndə/ fixed spot /fkst spɒt/ noun the noun US a person in charge of the sales placing of a TV or radio commercial in staff in a department store a specific position. opposed to one which stands on a table tion of the producer most depends or counter flagship store /fl"ʃp stɔ/.500 square metres of floor space fixing of charges 쑗 the fixing of a mort. flopping – flopped) flat rate /flt ret/ noun a charge flowchart /fləυtʃɑt/. 쐽 verb to fill pras ə"rimənt/ noun an agreement with a large quantity of something 쑗 where a company provides a service or a The market was flooded with cheap imi- product at a price which stays the same tations. at the advertiser’s floor space /flɔ spes/ noun an area insistence of floor in an office or warehouse 쑗 We fixing /fksŋ/ noun arranging 쑗 the have 3. (NOTE: In Britain the [Lloyd’s List] floor at street level is the ground floor. appearance and then sell it flier /flaə/ noun a promotional leaflet fluidity /fludti/ noun ease of move- flight /flat/ verb to arrange a schedul. 쐽 verb to fail or eye-level on the supermarket shelves to not be a success 쑗 The launch of the attract the attention of passing new shampoo flopped badly. as product in a range. 쑗 cesses in a series 왍 fluff it and fly it (in- He is paid a flat rate of £2 per thousand. the part of the room fixed rate /fkst ret/ noun a rate. all rooms on one e. an exchange rate. floorwalker /flɔwɔkə/ noun an em- ship hotel /fl"ʃp həυtel/ noun the ployee of a department store who ad- main store or hotel in a chain vises customers.

war or low in six months’ time. a group of foreign currency /fɒrn k rənsi/ people 쐽 verb to make someone do noun money of another country something 쑗 Competition has forced the foreign currency account /fɒrn company to lower its prices. 쑗 We are in- loss of footfall associated with any increase in creasing our trade with foreign smuggled goods’ [The Grocer] countries. strength 왍 to be in ‘…a sharp setback in foreign trade accounted for most of the winter slowdown’ [Fortune] force to be operating or working 쑗 The rules have been in force since 1986. 왍 to ‘…the dollar recovered a little lost ground on the foreign exchanges yesterday’ come into force to start to operate or [Financial Times] work 쑗 The new regulations will come into force on January 1st. tion or calculation of what will probably paper or magazine happen in the future 쑗 The chairman did follow up /fɒləυ p/ verb to examine not believe the sales director’s forecast something further 쑗 I’ll follow up your of higher turnover. which forecast /fɔkɑst/ noun a descrip- follows an interesting article in a news. market-research question forced sale /fɔst sel/ noun a sale fold-out /fəυld aυt/ noun a folded which takes place because a court orders page in a publication. 쐽 verb to calculate idea of targeting our address list with a or to say what will probably happen in special mailing. position for an 113 foreign currency account fly-posting /fla pəυstŋ/ noun the forced consumption /fɔst practice of sticking posters up illegally. a strike. e. 쑗 We will pay of the control of the parties who have £10. 쑗 After the k rənsi əkaυnt/ noun a bank account takeover several of the managers were in the currency of another country. which opens out it or because it is the only way to avoid a to show a much larger advertisement financial crisis follow /fɒləυ/ verb to come behind or force majeure /fɔs m&/ noun to come afterwards 쑗 The samples will something which happens which is out follow by surface mail. dollar account in a British bank . customers who come into and walk foreign /fɒrn/ adjective not belong- round a shop ing to your own country 쑗 Foreign cars ‘…the small independent retailer who stocks up using cash and carries could be hit hard by the have flooded our market. (NOTE: forecast- ing – forecast) font /fɒnt/ noun a set of characters all of the same size and face forecasting /fɔkɑstŋ/ noun calcu- lating what will probably happen in the foot /fυt/ verb 왍 to foot the bill to pay future 쑗 Manpower planning will de- the costs pend on forecasting the future levels of footfall /fυtfɔl/ noun the number of production. 왍 to follow up an ini. the future 쑗 We are forecasting sales of tiative to take action once someone else £2m. a forced to take early retirement.g. 2. with the balance to fol. kəns mpʃən/ noun the attempt to im- without permission of the site owner pose a rate or type of consumption on and without making any payment consumers FMCGs abbr fast-moving consumer force down /fɔs daυn/ verb to goods make something such as prices become focus group /fəυkəs "rup/ noun lower 왍 to force prices down to make a group of people who are brought prices come down 쑗 Competition has together to discuss informally a forced prices down. 쑗 Economists have forecast a fall has decided to do something in the exchange rate. e. storm follower /fɒləυə/ noun a company force up /fɔs  p/ verb to make which follows others into a market something become higher 왍 to force following reading matter prices up to make prices go up 쑗 The /fɒləυŋ ridŋ mtə/ noun a good war forced up the price of oil. signed a contract.g.000 down. force /fɔs/ noun 1.

post. words correctly laid out for a legal doc- try’s reserves held in currencies of other ument 왍 receipt in due form a correctly countries written receipt 2. forward /fɔwəd/ adjective in ad- ment to support its own currency and vance or to be paid at a later date 쐽 ad- pay its debts verb 왍 to date a cheque forward to put a later date than the present one on a foreign exchange transfer /fɒrn cheque 쐽 verb 왍 to forward something kstʃend trnsf&/ noun the send. respond to messages fɒrn kstʃend rz&vz/ plural noun foreign money held by a govern. from another country forma /fɔmə/ noun 쒁 pro forma ‘…a sharp setback in foreign trade accounted for most of the winter slowdown’ [Fortune] format /fɔmt/ noun 1.foreign currency reserves 114 forward integration foreign currency reserves /fɒrn form /fɔm/ noun 1. forty-eight sheet /fɔti et ʃit/ foreign exchange market2 noun noun a large poster-sized sheet of paper market where people buy and sell for- eign currencies forum /fɔrəm/ noun an online area where Internet users can read. and foreign exchange reserves /. 쑗 Foreign ex- form utility /fɔm jutlti/ noun a use for a product created by the intro- change markets were very active after duction of the product the dollar devalued. written on it vestmənts/ plural noun money in. official printed paper ‘…the treasury says it needs the cash to rebuild with blank spaces which have to be its foreign reserves which have fallen from $19 filled in with information 쑗 You have to billion when the government took office to $7 fill in form A20. 왍 form of words k rənsi rz&vz/ plural noun a coun. 쑗 Each passenger was billion in August’ [Economist] given a customs declaration form. asking the person receiving it to countries send it on to the person whose name is foreign investments /fɒrn n. 쑗 The foreigner /fɒrnə/ noun a person reps carry pads of order forms. forward contract /fɔwəd vested in other countries kɒntrkt/ noun a one-off agreement to buy foreign currency or shares or forfeit /fɔft/ noun the taking away commodities for delivery at a later date of something as a punishment 왍 the at a specific price goods were declared forfeit the court said that the goods had to be taken away forwarding /fɔwədŋ/ noun the act from the person who was holding them of arranging shipping and customs 쐽 verb to have something taken away as documents a punishment 왍 to forfeit a deposit to forwarding address /fɔwədŋ lose a deposit which was left for an item ədres/ noun the address to which a per- because you have decided not to buy son’s mail can be sent on that item forwarding agent /fɔwədŋ forfeit clause /fɔft klɔz/ noun a edənt/ noun a person or company clause in a contract which says that which arranges shipping and customs goods or a deposit will be taken away if documents the contract is not obeyed forward integration /fɔwəd ntə- forfeiture /fɔftʃə/ noun the act of "reʃ(ə)n/ noun a process of expansion forfeiting a property in which a company becomes its own . the general page design or size of a publication 2. foreign exchange market1 /fɒrn the general style of an email or elec- kstʃend mɑkt/ noun dealings in tronic marketing piece foreign currencies 쑗 She trades on the foreign exchange market. to someone to send something to some- ing of money from one country to one 쑗 to forward a consignment to Ni- another geria 왍 ‘please forward’ or ‘to be foreign goods /fɒrn "υdz/ plural forwarded’ words written on an enve- noun goods manufactured in other lope.

as opposed to futures contracts market is no longer enough’ [Financial Times] which are continuous. which are Product. franchise chain /frntʃaz tʃen/ tisement at least four times on average noun a series of retail stores or fast-food four P’s /fɔ piz/ plural noun a simple outlets which are operated as franchises way of summarising the essentials of the from the main operator . into many small segments. ‘…the consumer market is fragmenting. which are Ob. contract to trade using a brand name and ple way of summarizing the essentials paying a royalty for it of a marketing operation. publicity campaign ered in the future fragmented market /fr"mentd forward (exchange) rate /fɔwəd mɑkt/ noun a market which is split kstʃend ret/ noun a rate for pur. ‘…many new types of franchised businesses four-colour process /fɔ k lə will join the ranks of the giant chains of prəυses/ noun a printing process fast-food restaurants. Objectives. forward market /fɔwəd mɑkt/ fragment /fr"ment/ verb to split noun a market for purchasing foreign into sections currency. franchise contract seller and buyer /frntʃaz kɒntrkt/ noun a legal four O’s /fɔ əυz/ plural noun a sim. the same line of business as itself 쑗 For. Price. which ery at a later date. 쑗 For. franchise-building promotion jects. Cost. Convenience for the franchise agreement /frntʃaz customer and Communication between ə"rimənt/. Organisation and /frntʃaz bldŋ prə- Operations məυʃ(ə)n/noun a sales promotion four-plus cover /fɔ pl s k və/ aimed at building up long-term repeat noun a situation where consumers in the sales and customer loyalty target audience will have seen an adver.forward market 115 franchise chain distributor or takes over a company in marketing mix. oil or commodities for deliv. fragmentation /fr"mənteʃ(ə)n/ forward price /fɔwəd pras/ noun noun the use of a variety of media for a a price of goods which are to be deliv. These are one-off means that brand advertising to the whole deals. which are chase of foreign currency at a fixed more difficult to sell into price for delivery at a later date 쑗 What frame /frem/ noun same as sampling are the forward rates for the pound? frame forward sales /fɔwəd selz/ plural franchise /frntʃaz/ noun a licence noun the sales of shares. be easily broken 쑗 There is an extra Compare backward integration premium for insuring fragile goods in shipment. Promotion and Place ward integration will give the company fraction /frkʃən/ noun a part of a greater control over its selling. commodities to trade using a brand name and paying or foreign exchange for delivery at a a royalty for it 쑗 He’s bought a printing later date franchise or a pizza franchise. hotels and motels and where the three primary colours and rental car agencies’ [Franchising Opportunities] black are used to create a wide range of ‘…a quarter of a million Britons are seeking to shades become their own bosses by purchasing franchises’ [Marketing Week] four Cs /fɔ siz/ plural noun a simple ‘…feelings are already running high over the way of referring to the four important question of how to allocate the next TV points regarding customers: value to the franchises’ [Marketing] Customer. whole ward integration has brought the com- pany closer to its consumers and has fragile /frdal/ adjective which can made it aware of their buying habits. 쐽 verb to foul bill of lading /faυl bl əv sell licences for people to trade using a ledŋ/ noun a bill of lading which says brand name and paying a royalty 쑗 His that the goods were in bad condition sandwich bar was so successful that he when received by the shipper decided to franchise it.

ness activity in any way utes.franchisee 116 freephone franchisee /frntʃazi/ noun a free advertisement for the charity on the person who runs a franchise back page. 2. price all the seller’s costs until the goods ‘American business as a whole is increasingly are delivered to a place free from heavy dependence on manufacturing’ free paper /fri pepə/ noun a news- [Sunday Times] paper which is given away free. including in the investment. 쑗 The price eəriə/ noun an area within which a includes free delivery. not busy or not occupied kɒnəmi/ noun a system where the 쑗 Are there any free tables in the res. 왍 free being delivered in a free delivery area. especially a franchising /frntʃazŋ/ noun the gift to an agent or journalist (informal ) . 쐽 verb to make something avail. conditions other spelling of franchiser free competition /fri kɒmpə- franco /frŋkəυ/ adverb free tʃ(ə)n/ noun being free to compete fraudulent misrepresentation without government interference /frɔdjυlənt msreprzenteʃ(ə)n/ free currency /fri k rənsi/ noun a noun the act of making a false statement currency which is allowed by the gov- with the intention of tricking a customer ernment to be bought and sold without free /fri/ adjective. restriction ing any money 쑗 I have been given a free delivery area /fri dlv(ə)ri free ticket to the exhibition. act of selling a licence to trade as a fran. Abbr f. 쑗 A catalogue total price will be low as the goods are will be sent free on request. free collective bargaining /fri chise 쑗 He runs his sandwich chain as a kəlektv bɑ"nŋ/ noun negotiations franchising operation. a specific amount of goods 쑗 There is a ferring to a price that includes all costs free gift worth £25 to any customer buy- up to delivery of goods next to the ship ing a washing machine. freefone noun tiser 쑗 The newspaper agreed to place a a system where you can telephone to re- . with no restrictions 왍 free of rights of individuals and organisations tax with no tax having to be paid 쑗 in. freebie /fribi/ noun a product or ser- son who licenses a franchise vice supplied free of charge. which relies for its income on its v&tsmənt/ noun an advertisement advertising shown without any charge to the adver. and the at a port 2. 쑗 The chairman always keeps Friday afternoon free for a game of free on board /fri ɒn bɔd/ 1. market in which there is no government cludes all costs up to arrival of the ship control of supply and demand. freephone /frifəυn/. between management and trade unions about wage increases and working franchisor /frntʃazə/ noun an. on the quay 왍 free overboard or free free market /fri mɑkt/ noun a overside referring to a price that in. until the goods are on the ship for trans- sion has freed millions of pounds for portation. alongside ship referring to a price that includes all costs up to delivery of free enterprise /fri entəpraz/ noun a system of business free from goods next to the ship on the quay 왍 government interference free docks referring to a price that in- cludes all costs up to delivery of goods free gift /fri "ft/ noun a present to the docks 왍 free of charge with no given by a shop to a customer who buys payment to be made 왍 free on quay re. and free advertisement /fri əd. franchiser /frntʃazə/ noun a per. 쑗 All goods in the seller will deliver purchases free 쑗 The store are delivered free. government does not interfere in busi- taurant? 쑗 I shall be free in a few min. in- bridge. to physical and intellectual property are terest is paid free of tax 왍 free of duty upheld with no duty to be paid 쑗 to import wine free market economy /fri mɑkt free of duty 3. adverb 1.o. cluding in the price all the seller’s costs able or easy 쑗 The government’s deci.b. not cost.

a person where goods can go from one country to or company that organiess the transport another without any restrictions of goods ‘…can free trade be reconciled with a strong freight forward /fret fɔwəd/ noun dollar resulting from floating exchange rates?’ [Duns Business Month] a deal where the customer pays for transporting the goods free trader /fri tredə/ noun a per- son who is in favour of free trade freight forwarder /fret fɔwədə/ ‘…free traders hold that the strong dollar is the noun a person or company that arranges primary cause of the nation’s trade problems’ shipping and customs documents for [Duns Business Month] several shipments from different compa- free trade zone /fri tred zəυn/ nies. 3. sea or land 쑗 dskaυnt/ noun reduced rates offered At an auction. tomer pays for transporting the goods mation to be sent. (NOTE: freezing – froze – paign 쑗 We feel that a frequency of two has frozen) showings per night is enough for the freeze out /friz aυt/ verb 왍 to first week of the campaign. an aircraft free trade /fri tred/ noun a system or ship which carries goods 2. frequency analysis /frikwənsi ə- cessfully and cheaply and so prevent nləss/ noun analysis of frequency competitors from operating distribution statistics freight /fret/ noun 1. not freeware /friweə/ noun free soft. US an arrangement whereby the cus- tiser to place an order or to ask for port 117 frequency discount ply to an advertisement. large shipment toms duties ‘…the airline will allow freight forwarder customers to track and trace consignments on free trial /fri traəl/ noun an oppor. to place an or. train or truck 쐽 verb 왍 to freight seller pays for the call goods to send goods 쑗 We freight goods free port /fri pɔt/ noun a port to all parts of the USA. the freeze /friz/ verb to keep something number of times something happens 2. passengers ware programs frequency /frikwəns/ noun 1. such as money or costs at their present the number of times an advertisement level and not allow them to rise 쑗 to appears in a specific period 쑗 The plan freeze wages and prices 쑗 to freeze is to have larger advertisements but less credits 쑗 to freeze company dividends 쑗 frequency. freight depot /fret depəυ/ noun a free sample /fri sɑmpəl/ noun a central point where goods are collected sample given free to advertise a product before being shipped free-standing insert /fri stndŋ freight elevator /fret eləvetə/ ns&t/ noun advertising material on noun a strong lift for carrying goods up one or more pages which is inserted into and down inside a building a newspaper. the airline’s website’ [Lloyd’s List] tunity to test a machine or product with freight plane /fret plen/ noun an no payment involved aircraft which carries goods. the buyer pays the for frequent use of a advertising freight. goods which are transported medium . Abbr FSI freighter /fretə/ noun 1. putting them together to form one noun an area where there are no cus. the number of times a per- We have frozen expenditure at last son sees an advertisement during a cam- year’s level. The company paying for the noun money paid to transport goods postage on receipt of the envelope. where there are no customs duties to be freightage /fretd/ noun the cost paid of transporting goods freepost /fripəυst/ noun a system freight collect /fret kəlekt/ noun where someone can write to an adver. 2. 왍 to take on freight to load goods onto der or to ask for information and the a ship. freeze out the competition to trade suc. the cost of frequency discount /frikwənsi transporting goods by air. without paying for a freight costs /fret kɒsts/ plural stamp.

front page of the newspaper. Com- New York. 쑗 We email our New York office frequently – at least four times a day. front of book /fr nt əv bυk/ noun the first few pages of a magazine fringe account /frnd əkaυnt/ noun accounts or customers that are not FSI abbr free-standing insert very profitable for the supplier 쑗 The fudge /f d/ noun a mistake made in salespeople are not giving priority to an advertisement these fringe accounts.frequency distribution 118 full cover frequency distribution front end /fr nt end/ noun the part /frikwənsi dstrbjuʃ(ə)n/ noun of an organisation that meets and deals statistics. (NOTE: the American spelling is an extra item given by a company to fulfill) 왍 to fulfil an order to supply the employees in addition to their salaries. includ- fringe time /frnd tam/ noun TV ing everything 왍 we are working at full time around primetime where there is capacity we are doing as much work as usually more availability possible 2. fringe benefits /frnd benftz/ fulfilment /fυlflmənt/ noun carry- plural noun extra items given by a com. fulfillment) surance 쑗 The fringe benefits make up fulfilment house /fυlflmənt haυs/ for the poor pay. 쑗 Our ad appeared on the or refund paid in full. 쑗 Full refund High Street. ing the full production cost of each frontage /fr ntd/ noun the width product unit and adding a profit margin of a shop which faces onto the street full costs /fυl kɒsts/ plural noun all front cover /fr nt k və/ noun the the costs of manufacturing a product. 쑗 It is hoped that fulfil /fυlfl/ verb to complete some- some of these fringe accounts will soon thing in a satisfactory way 쑗 The clause start buying in larger quantities. 쑗 How frequent are the pare backload planes to Birmingham? front man /fr nt mn/ noun a per- frequently /frikwəntli/ adverb of. private health are so understaffed that we cannot fulfil insurance any more orders before Christmas. a company car. 쑗 He accepted front of the office building is on the all our conditions in full. in- front outside page of a publication. as cluding both fixed and variable costs opposed to the back cover full cover /fυl k və/ noun insurance cover against all risks . 쑗 Use of the company noun a company which supplies orders recreation facilities is one of the fringe on behalf of a mail-order company benefits of the job. 쑗 We send frequent faxes to are incurred in the early stages.g. son who seems honest but is hiding an ten 쑗 The photocopier is frequently out illegal trade of use. (NOTE: the American spelling is e. goes or takes place often 쑗 frontload /fr ntləod/ verb to plan a There is a frequent ferry service to publicity campaign where most costs France. complete. company cars or private health in. full /fυl/ adjective 1. front-line management /fr nt sponded in a certain way to a lan mndmənt/ noun managers questionnaire who have immediate contact with the frequent /frikwənt/ adjective which workers comes. regarding payments has not been ful- fringe benefit /frnd benft/ noun filled. 쑗 There is full cost pricing /fυl kɒst prasŋ/ a photograph of the managing director noun a pricing method based on assess- on the front page of the company report. with customers face-to-face showing how often a sample group re. usually in the form of a graph. items which have been ordered 쑗 We e. 왍 in full completely 쑗 Give front /fr nt/ noun a part of something your full name and address or your which faces away from the back 쑗 The name and address in full.g. ing something out in a satisfactory way pany to workers in addition to a salary.

campaign is functioning smoothly. has not yet happened 쑗 Try to be more tions 쑗 We have so little marketing ex. functional /f ŋkʃən(ə)l/ adjective plier only 쑗 If the supplier succeeds in which can function properly full-line forcing.‘marketing lis/ noun a lease where the tenant has to manager’ or ‘head buyer’ pay for all repairs to the property fund /f nd/ noun money set aside for a full-scale /fυl skel/ adjective com. we’ll need a full-service must be sent to Australia by air. 쏡 empty nesters functional product differentia- full page /fυl ped/ noun a size of tion /f ŋkʃən(ə)l prɒd kt advertisement taking up one complete dfərenʃieʃ(ə)n/ noun the process of page ensuring that a product has some func- full price /fυl pras/ noun a price tional features that distinguish it from with no discount 쑗 She bought a competing ones full-price ticket. pays interest. future delivery /fjutʃə dlv(ə)ri/ full-time /fυl tam/ adjective.e. futurology /fjutʃərɒlədi/ noun i.full employment 119 futurology full employment /fυl mplɔmənt/ week 쑗 She’s in full-time work or She noun a situation where all the people works full-time or She’s in full-time em- who can work have jobs ployment. dskaυnt/ noun a discount offered on gets. but with no date for repay- full-service agency /fυl s&vs ment of the principal edənsi/ noun an advertising agency offering a full range of services such as future /fjutʃə/ adjective referring to sales promotion. time to come or to something which has advice on public relations and market not yet happened 쐽 noun the time which research and creating stands for exhibi. kɒnskwensz/ plural noun the tangi- full nester /fυl nestə/ noun an older ble effects of a product or service which customer who has their own home and a customer experiences directly who is interested in a good quality of functional discount /f ŋkʃən(ə)l life. he will probably raise functional consequences /@n(ə)l prices. careful in future. eats in restaurants. advertising agency. and is not influenced by advertis. e. design of house style. with no reductions tion of a person’s job which is used as full repairing lease /fυl rpeərŋ part of his or her address.g. full-timer /fυl tamə/ noun a person tor performing all the normal functions who works full-time of a wholesaler such as storage and transport 쑗 There is room for only one function /f ŋkʃən/ noun a duty or full-function wholesaler dealing with job 쐽 verb to work 쑗 The advertising this product in the Southampton area. ‘…the administration launched a full-scale ‘…the company was set up with funds totalling investigation into maintenance procedures’ NorKr 145m’ [Lloyd’s List] [Fortune] funded debt /f ndd det/ noun the full-service advertising agency part of the British National Debt which /fυl s&vs dvətazŋ edənsi/. buys new gad. ‘…small innovative companies have been hampered for lack of funds’ [Sunday Times] dered a full-scale review of credit terms. adverb noun a delivery at a later date working all the normal working time. 쑗 He is one of our full-time full-function wholesaler /fυl staff. special purpose plete or very thorough 쑗 The MD or. functional title /f ŋkʃən(ə)l full rate /fυl ret/ noun the full tat(ə)l/ noun a job title. noun a situation where a supplier pres- sures a customer to buy from that sup. the descrip- charge. 쑗 In future all reports pertise. f ŋkʃ(ə)n həυlselə/ noun a distribu. goods sold to distributors ing. five days a the prediction and study of future trends . 쑗 The new management structure does not full-line forcing /fυl lan fɔsŋ/ seem to be functioning very well. about eight hours a day.

plants. (NOTE: British game theory /"em θər/ noun the English is poste restante) principles. pages tains. 쐽 verb 1. gain /"en/ noun 1. general cargo /den(ə)rəl kɑ"əυ/ galley /"li/. exchange markets. to rise in value 쑗 The machine suitable for the small business dollar gained six points on the foreign market. an increase in profit. which relate to making the best /den(ə)rəl priplnŋ npυt/ noun choice from a number of possible strate. market research which can be used to gies in various hypothetical situations prepare the initial stages of an advertis- where conflicting interests are involved ing campaign gap /"p/ noun an empty space 왍 gap general store /den(ə)rəl stɔ/ in the market an opportunity to make a noun a small country shop which sells a product or provide a service which is large range of goods needed but which no one has sold before . developed from business general preplanning input games.gable end 120 general store G gable end /"eb(ə)l end/ noun the 쑗 to look for or to find a gap in the mar- end of a building which is used as a ket 쑗 This laptop has filled a real gap in poster site the market. with foun. of goods 쑗 The ship left the port with a fore the text is made up into pages general cargo bound for various destinations. 쑗 Property shares ticular area that is not at present being put on gains of 10%-15%. 쑗 The computer control of a business to buy more than performed a gap analysis and came up 50% of the shares so that you can direct with suggestions for a medium-priced the business 2. 왍 to gain were not exploiting. etc. be. galloping inflation /"ləpŋ n- fleʃ(ə)n/ noun very rapid inflation General Delivery /den(ə)rəl d- which is almost impossible to reduce lv(ə)ri/ noun US a system where let- ters can be addressed to someone at a game /"em/ noun a form of promo. where they can be collected tional material where people have a 쑗 They received the mail-order items chance of winning a prize via General Delivery. and which open out like stores under one roof. price gap analysis /"p ənləss/ noun or value 쑗 Oil shares showed gains on analysis of a market to try to find a par- the Stock Exchange. ‘…these savings are still not great enough to overcome the price gap between American coming larger 왍 gain in experience the products and those of other nations’ act of getting more experience 왍 gain in [Duns Business Month] profitability the act of becoming more profitable 2. galley proof /"li/ noun a cargo made up of various types noun the first proof of typesetting. an increase or be. post office. to satisfied 쑗 Gap analysis showed that get or to obtain 쑗 He gained some useful there was a whole area of the market we experience working in a bank. gatefold /"etfəυld/ noun a galleria /"ləriə/ noun a large double-page spread in which both pages shopping complex with many different are folded over. usually built a gate to give a spread of almost four round a large open space.

census. and does not refer inefficient decision-making procedures to one individual 쐽 noun 1. variety of goods geographical information sys- generation /denəreʃ(ə)n/ noun a tem /diə"rfk(ə)l nfəmeʃ(ə)n stage in the development of a product. e. "rfk(ə)l wetŋ/ noun a statistical lenged traditional corporate expecta. being in favour of gestation period /desteʃ(ə)n flexible working practices and valuing pəriəd/ noun the period of time opportunities for learning and between the initial inquiry about a self-advancement. often issued by chain jective referring to an area stores. gift to- ken /"ft təυkən/. Full form verbal agreement between two parties graphic interchange format who trust each other GIF89 /"f eti nan/ noun a com- geocentric stage /diəυsentrk monly used version of GIF sted/ noun US an advanced stage in a company’s international marketing gift coupon /"ft kupɒn/. ghosting /"əυstŋ/ noun the practice ticular brand. 2. department store or chain store gentleman’s agreement GIF /"f/ noun a common file format /dent(ə)lmənz ə"rimənt/ noun a for web graphics and banners. a were easily overlooked. gift voucher when there is great co-ordination of /"ft vaυtʃə/ noun a card that can be overseas marketing activities used to buy specified goods up to the geographical /diə"rfk(ə)l/ ad. kleenex or of showing a little of the product itself thermos by removing a small part of the generic product /dənerk packaging prɒd kt/ noun same as generic 쑗 GHR abbr guaranteed homes ratings Next to the brightly packaged branded giant retailer /daənt ritelə/ goods the generic products on display noun a very large retailing group. such as a the product with certain technical im.general trading 121 gift coupon general trading /den(ə)rəl a market are concentrated dispersed in a tredŋ/ noun dealing in all types of country or area 쑗 The number of goods salespersonnel needed will depend on general wholesaler /den(ə)rəl the geographical concentration of the həυlselə/ noun a wholesaler selling a market. value printed on it. sold without a brand name 쑗 Generics GHI abbr guaranteed homes are cheap since they have no name to impressions advertise.) product and the placing of an order 쑗 generic /dənerk/ adjective which The long gestation period is due to is shared by a group. Instead they want to establish process of reaching a final figure or a balance between their professional result and personal lives. hoover. . sstəm/ noun a type of database which Each new generation is a new version of is sorted on geographical data. e. Abbr GIS Generation X /denəreʃ(ə)n eks/ geographical segmentation noun the generation of people who were /diə"rfk(ə)l se"mənteʃ(ə)n/ born between 1963 and 1981 and began noun the division of a market according their working lives from the 1980s on. a brand name which is now given to a product rather than to a par. a product in the buying company. on-screen. or one which provides maps provements on the preceding version. to areas or regions wards (NOTE: The people who belong geographical weighting /diə- to Generation X are said to have chal. 쑗 We gave her a gift token for her noun the degree to which consumers in birthday. The person receiving the voucher geographical concentration is able to redeem it in any store in the /diə"rfk(ə)l kɒnsəntreʃ(ə)n/ chain. process which gives more importance to tions by not being solely motivated by some geographic areas than others in the money.g.g.

which shoppers can walk round wide. items services everywhere in the world which can be moved and are for sale . 왍 goods sold loose goods sold by keting plan to sell the same product or weight. politi. 왍 goods kets. not prepacked in bags 2. supply chains and other commercial groups giveaway /"vəwe/ adjective 왍 to sell at giveaway prices to sell at very glut /"l t/ noun 왍 a glut of produce cheap prices 쐽 noun something which is too much produce. especially the process of gone aways /"ɒn əwez/ plural expanding business interests. and cash. free-standing display in a supermarket ing something international or world. not complete at the end of an accounting tries. goods /"υdz/ plural noun 1. 쑗 The go- noun a famous brand name which is re. each £10 of purchases. and which relies for its income on difficult to sell 쑗 The market is glutted its advertising with cheap and sold all over the world gimmick /"mk/ noun a clever idea global retailer /"ləυb(ə)l ritelə/ or trick 쑗 a publicity gimmick noun a company which sells its products all over the world give away /"v əwe/ verb to give something as a free present 쑗 We are glue /"lu/ noun something such as in- giving away a pocket calculator with formation that unifies organisations. which is then diffi- given as a free gift when another item is cult to sell 쑗 a coffee glut or a glut of bought coffee 왍 a glut of money a situation where there is too much money avail- giveaway paper /"vəwe pepə/ able to borrowers 쐽 verb to fill the mar- noun a newspaper which is given away ket with something which is then free. globalisation /"ləυbəlazeʃ(ə)n/. vertising message to advertise the same going rate /"əυŋ ret/ noun the product internationally usual or current rate of payment 쑗 We global brand /"ləυb(ə)l brnd/ pay the going rate for typists. mɑktŋ/ noun using a common mar. gondola /"ɒndələ/ noun a globalization noun the process of mak. try to achieve 쑗 Our goal is to break global advertising /"ləυb(ə)l even within twelve months. 쑗 The com- dvətazŋ/ noun using the same ad.) period 쑗 Our current assets are made global marketing /"ləυb(ə)l up of stock. pany achieved all its goals. operations noun people who have moved away and strategies to countries all over the from the address they have in a mailing world (NOTE: Globalisation is due to list technological developments that make good industrial relations /"υd global communications possible. (NOTE: glutting – global /"ləυb(ə)l/ adjective referring glutted) to the whole world 쑗 We offer a 24-hour goal /"əυl/ noun something which you global delivery service. and chattels moveable personal posses- als and investment opportunities and sions 왍 goods in progress the value of enabling them to take advantage of goods being manufactured which are lower operating costs in other 122 goods gift-wrap /"ft rp/ verb to wrap a global product /"ləυb(ə)l present in attractive paper 쑗 Do you prɒd kt/ noun a product with a fa- want this book gift-wrapped? (NOTE: mous brand name which is recognised gift-wrapping. ing rate for offices is £10 per square cognised and sold all over the world metre. goods in progress. giving access to new raw materi. It can benefit good of the company companies by opening up new mar. nd striəl rleʃ(ə)nz/ plural noun cal developments such as the fall of a situation where management and communism and developments in employees understand each others’ transportation that make travelling problems and work together for the faster and more frequent.

) der the direct control of the government 쑗 Advertisements cannot be placed in graph /"rɑf/ noun a diagram which the government-controlled newspapers. of quantities or values. /" v(ə)nmənt ɔ"ənazeʃ(ə)n/ noun an official body. subtotals the management increased the terms of grapevine /"repvan/ noun an in- the offer formal and unofficial communications GOTS abbr gross opportunity to see network within an organisation that government contractor passes on information by word of mouth /" v(ə)nmənt kəntrktə/ noun a (NOTE: A grapevine may distort infor- company which supplies the govern. used for drawing graphs more advertising space gratis /"rts/ adverb free or not graded hotel /"redd həυtel/ costing anything 쑗 We got into the exhi- noun a good-quality hotel bition gratis. each of which is tors /" v(ə)nmənt ikənɒmk represented on an axis 쑗 A graph was ndketəz/ plural noun statistics used to show salary increases in rela- which show how the country’s economy tion to increases in output. 쑗 We need to set out the results of the questionnaire in government organisation a graph. ‘…the minister wants people buying goods grand /"rnd/ adjective important 왍 ranging from washing machines to houses to grand plan or grand strategy a major demand facts on energy costs’ [Times] plan 쑗 They explained their grand plan goods depot /"υdz depəυ/ noun a for redeveloping the factory site. a tax which rises according to income noun same as environmental 2. ment with goods by contract but it can also back up the official com- munications network. a tax on property which is higher if management the property has not been kept in a good green marketing /"rin mɑktŋ/ state by the owner noun marketing products and services grade level /"red lev(ə)l/ noun the on the basis of their environmental classification of a product’s quality acceptability . levels of quality 쑗 to grade coal 2. especially designs which are created by grade /"red/ noun a level or rank 쑗 to computers 쑗 In this series of advertise- reach the top grade in the civil service 쐽 ments the graphics do not do justice to verb 1.goods depot 123 green marketing ‘…profit margins are lower in the industries written on a label attached to the prod- most exposed to foreign competition – uct 쑗 Many consumers do not properly machinery. as average salaries have term risen so has absenteeism. run by the graphics /"rfks/ plural noun de- government signs and illustrations in printed work. 쐽 central warehouse where goods can be noun one thousand pounds or dollars stored until they are moved (informal ) 쑗 They offered him fifty . to make something rise in steps according graph paper /"rɑf pepə/ noun a to quantity 왍 graded advertising rates special type of paper with many little rates which become cheaper as you take squares. to sort something into different the copy. shows the relationship between two sets government economic indica. 쑗 According is going to perform in the short or long to the graph. provide feed- government-controlled back and strengthen social /" vnmənt kəntrəυld/ adjective un- relationships within the organisation. goods train /"υdz tren/ noun a grand for the information. train for carrying freight grand total /"rnd təυt(ə)l/ noun goodwill /"υdwl/ noun good feeling the final total made by adding several towards someone 쑗 to show goodwill. transportation equipment and electrical goods’ [Sunday Times] understand the grade levels. mation or spread gossip and rumour. graded tax /"redd tks/ noun US green issues /"rin sjuz/ plural 1.

e. highly priced goods 쑗 If the gov. gross opportunity to see noun the ernment puts a ceiling on prices for number of opportunities that an average these products the grey market will be. gross rating point /"rəυs retŋ tions 쑗 My salary is paid gross. a market to see the advertisements in an advertis- formed of people over 60 years of age. grossed £25m in 1999.3% in the first quarter of the year sent the to group together to put several items . 2. and then singly. i. several companies linked together in value of goods and services in a country the same organisation 쑗 the group including income from other countries. i.grey market 124 group grey market /"re mɑkt/ noun 1. nʃ(ə)n(ə)l prɒd kt/ noun the annual 2.g. dollar down on foreign exchange markets’ [Fortune] the unofficial legal buying and selling of scarce. multiplied gross reach /"rəυs ritʃ/ noun the by the number of times it has been run total number of opportunities for people to see a company’s advertisements in a gross circulation /"rəυs s&kjυ. cost of the goods sold. plural noun total earnings before tax and gross weight /"rəυs wet/ noun the other deductions weight of both the container and its gross impressions /"rəυs m. contents preʃ(ə)nz/ plural noun the total ground transportation /"raυnd number of people who have seen an trnspɔteʃ(ə)n/ noun the means of advertisement. where each point represents one per cent gross audience /"rəυs ɔdiəns/ of the population in a specific market. e. 쏡 ing campaign. multiplied by the number transport available to take passengers of times it has been run. Abbr GOTS silver market gross profit /"rəυs prɒft/ noun grid /"rd/ noun a graph with lines profit calculated as sales income less the crossing at right angles and items writ. 쏡 guaranteed from an airport to the town. noun the total number of people who Abbr GRP have seen an advertisement. ers has sent a memo to the chairman turing cost or purchase price of goods complaining about noise in the office. Abbr GDP ordering more than they will eventually gross earnings /"rəυs &nŋz/ need.e. buses. 쐽 verb pɔnt/ noun US a way of calculating the to make a gross profit 쑗 The group effectiveness of outdoor advertising. etc. homes impressions taxis. campaign. 쑗 for resale The respondents were interviewed in gross national product /"rəυs groups of three or four. the total number of publi- leʃ(ə)n/ noun the total sales of a cations sold multiplied by the number of publication before adjusting for error or advertisements appearing in each one discounting unsold copies gross receipts /"rəυs rsits/ plural gross cover /"rəυs k və/ noun the noun the total amount of money re- number of times a television or radio ceived before expenses are deducted spot has been seen based on television ratings gross sales /"rəυs selz/ plural noun money received from sales before gross domestic product /"rəυs deductions for goods returned. special dəmestk prɒd kt/ noun the annual discounts. chairman or the chairman of the group Abbr GNP 쑗 group turnover or turnover for the ‘…news that gross national product increased group 쑗 the Granada Group 쐽 verb 왍 only 1. or trains gross margin /"rəυs mɑdn/ group /"rup/ noun 1. 쑗 Gross sales are im- value of goods sold and services paid pressive since many buyers seem to be for inside a country. used for comparison ducting any other expenses gross /"rəυs/ adverb with no deduc. without de- ten in the boxes. several things noun the percentage difference between or people together 쑗 A group of manag- the received price and the unit manufac. member of the target audience will have come a black market.

growth rate /"rəυθ ret/ noun the der to gauge reactions to the new discussion 125 guarantee together 쑗 Sales from six different agen. and each growth vector matrix /"rəυθ vektə metrks/ noun a model for a group dealing with particular accounts marketing strategy with various choices groupware /"rupweə/ noun soft. other industries group interview /"rup ntəvju/ growth market /"rəυθ mɑkt/ noun an interview with a group of re.) fore a specific date after purchase 쑗 a grow /"rəυ/ verb to cause something certificate of guarantee or a guarantee such as a business to develop or expand certificate 쑗 The guarantee lasts for two ‘…the thrift had grown from $4. and other areas. 쑗 A sample of young people took noun an industry that is expanding or part in a group discussion on the new has the potential to expand faster than shampoo.5 billion’ [Barrons] guarantee. product is faulty or becomes faulty be- work. an increase in maker’s guarantee 2. growth share matrix /"rəυθ ʃeə group results /"rup rz lts/ plural metrks/ noun a model for a market- noun the results of a group of compa- ing strategy with various categories of nies taken together product based on present performance group system /"rup sstəm/ noun and growth rate 쑗 The growth share ma- a system of organising an advertising trix helped to decide what products agency in groups. a promise that size 2. each group having needed extra marketing efforts. growth industry /"rəυθ ndəstri/ alities. address books. bulletin boards and newsletters agrees to compensate the buyer if the in electronic format on a closed net. following the launch. and combinations of strategy based on ware that enables a group of people who product and market development are based in different locations to work together and share information (NOTE: GRP abbr gross rating point Groupware usually provides commu. media. guarantee /"rənti/ noun 1. which is a growth mar- whole 쑗 There were group interviews ket for our products. marketing services. 쑗 It is sold with a twelve-month assets to $1. when de. with all the classes in the school in or.7 million in years. specialists in creative. a le- nal diaries. the company is aiming for growth the something given as a security 쑗 to leave company is aiming to expand rapidly share certificates as a guarantee 쐽 verb ‘…a general price freeze succeeded in slowing the growth in consumer prices’ 1. speed at which something grows cational programme. work plan. to give a promise that something will [Financial Times] happen 왍 to guarantee a debt to prom- ‘…growth in demand is still coming from the ise that you will pay a debt made by private rather than the public sector’ someone else 왍 to guarantee an associ- [Lloyd’s List] ate company to promise that an associ- . 왍 the car is still under guarantee the car is still covered by the growth /"rəυθ/ noun 1. growth area /"rəυθ eəriə/ noun an group discussion /"rup d. ‘…population growth in the south-west is again cies are grouped together under the reflected by the level of rental values’ [Lloyd’s List] heading ‘European sales’. gal document in which the producer ners. noun a market where sales are increas- spondents such as a family in order to ing rapidly 쑗 We plan to build a factory discover the views of the group as a in the Far East. area where sales are increasing rapidly sk ʃ(ə)n/ noun a survey method in which a focus group is brought together growth index /"rəυθ ndeks/ noun to discuss informally a market-research an index showing how something has question 쑗 The group discussion was grown taken over by one or two strong person. the second stage in a product life someone will pay another person’s cycle. debts 왍 to go guarantee for someone to mand for the product increases rapidly 왍 act as security for someone’s debts 3.

guaranteed circulation 126 gutter ate company will pay its debts 왍 to make up for market prices that fall be- guarantee a bill of exchange to prom. or advertising material guaranteed homes ratings /"rəntid həυmz retŋz/ plural guerrilla marketing /"ərlə noun an advertising package offered by mɑktŋ/ noun a form of unconven- television companies which guarantees tional flexible marketing.g. It can be left blank as a guaranteed to an industry by the govern. or can be printed across ment. but of customer targeted leaves it to the TV company to choose guesstimate /"estmət/ noun a the number and timing of the spots. months the manufacturer says that the guaranteed wage /"rəntid product will work well for twelve wed/ noun a wage which a company months. with the payment of a subsidy to to form a double-page spread. low this level 쑗 Guaranteed prices help ise that the bill will be paid 2. 왍 the bring some security to a notoriously un- product is guaranteed for twelve stable industry. and will mend it free of charge promises will not fall below a specific if it breaks down figure guaranteed circulation guarantor /"rəntɔ/ noun a person /"rəntid s&kjυleʃ(ə)n/ noun the who promises to pay someone’s debts 쑗 audited circulation of a magazine which She stood guarantor for her brother. or to the type reach a specified number of people. is used as a basis for calculating adver- tising rates guard book /"ɑd bυk/ noun a hard- cover album which allows pages to be guaranteed homes impressions inserted into it. GHR gutter /" tə/ noun the area where guaranteed prices /"rəntid the two pages meet in a book or prasz/ plural noun minimum prices magazine. centre margin. for showing samples /"rəntid həυmz mpreʃ(ə)nz/. Abbr GHI. adapted to the the advertisers that their advertising will products or services sold. e. . rough calculation (informal ) .

to sell brand name has for high quality or to trade in a type of product 쑗 We do hall test /hɔl test/ noun a mar. 쑗 They will not ket-research test where respondents are handle goods produced by other firms.habit 127 hard H habit /hbt/ noun the practice of do. 2.000 in hand 왍 habit buying /hbt baŋ/ noun balance in hand or cash in hand cash the practice of buying a particular prod. in reserve 쑗 we have £10. handling charge /hndlŋ tʃɑd/ tioned in a survey noun money to be paid for packing. price handed-overs /hndd əυvəz/ plural noun sales leads which have been hallmark /hɔlmɑk/ noun a mark put on gold or silver items to show that the passed on to the client to pursue metal is of the correct quality 쐽 verb to handle /hnd(ə)l/ verb 1. storing and sending off test new products 쑗 The hall test was goods conducted in the town’s main school. in- voicing and dealing with goods which hand /hnd/ noun 1. 왍 in hand kept from force of habit. ‘…shipping companies continue to bear the halo effect /heləυ fekt/ noun a se. without costs 왍 work in hand work which is in making any conscious decision to buy progress but not finished haggle /h"(ə)l/ verb to discuss handbill /hndbl/ noun a sheet of prices and terms and try to reduce them printed paper handed out to members of 쑗 to haggle about or over the details of the public as an advertisement a contract 쑗 After two days’ haggling handbook /hndbυk/ noun a book the contract was signed.000 units. asked to go into a public building or handling /hndlŋ/ noun the process central place to answer questions or to of receiving. held to pay small debts and running uct again and again out of habit. 쑗 They əv eksələns/ noun the reputation that a handle all our overseas orders. not handle foreign cars. which gives instructions on how to use half-price sale /hɑf pras sel/ something 쑗 The handbook does not say noun a sale of items at half the usual how you open the photocopier. or to show that an agreement has ists on handouts from the government. 쑗 We can handle hallmark of excellence /hɔlmɑk orders for up to 15. to deal put a hallmark on a piece of gold or sil. with something or to organise some- ver 쑗 a hallmarked spoon thing 쑗 The accounts department han- dles all the cash. been reached 쑗 The two negotiating hard /hɑd/ adjective 왍 to drive a teams shook hands and sat down at the hard bargain to be a difficult negotia- . a deal to shake hands to show that a sumers continue to buy the same brands deal has been agreed 2. conference table. the part of the are being shipped body at the end of each arm 왍 to shake hands to hold someone’s hand when handout /hndaυt/ noun a free gift. extra financial burden of cargo handling ries of positive impressions of a product operations at the ports’ [Business Times (Lagos)] which consumers retain and which can be revealed by a respondent when ques. 왍 to shake hands on ing something regularly 쑗 Most con. meeting to show you are pleased to meet especially of money 쑗 The company ex- them.

method of closing plastic food ing the computers and printers. an tion where a small number of customers idea or a project to various companies to make up more than half of the total de- see if one will accept it 쑗 He hawked his mand for a product . headhunter /hedh ntə/ noun a per- ing settled at a higher level son or company whose job is to find suitable top managers to fill jobs in hardness /hɑdnəs/ noun 왍 hard. ma. you hawker /hɔkə/ noun a person who hard cash /hɑd kʃ/ noun money sells goods from door to door or in the in notes and coins.g. heavy tax on luxury goods. which is set in much larger type than the rest hard sell /hɑd sel/ noun 왍 to give a product the hard sell to make great ef. 쑗 He is the paper buyer for a hard currency /hɑd k rənsi/ noun large magazine chain. The bag is then 쑗 a hardware shop pressed by a hot plate which melts the plastic and seals the contents in the harvesting /hɑvstŋ/ noun the vacuum. the currency of a country which has a strong economy. 쑗 The government imposed a increasing by 5% per annum. includ. and which can be headhunt /hedh nt/ verb to look for changed into other currencies easily 쑗 managers and offer them jobs in other to pay for imports in hard currency 쑗 to companies 왍 she was headhunted she sell raw materials to earn hard currency was approached by a headhunter and of- fered a new job hardening /hɑdnŋ/ noun 왍 a hard- ening of prices prices which are becom. parts of a commercial agreement hardware /hɑdweə/ noun 1. heat sealing /hit silŋ/ noun a chines used in data processing. practice of cutting marketing investment on a particular product prior to with. as opposed to street cheques or credit cards head buyer /hed baə/ noun the ‘…few of the paper millionaires sold out and most important buyer in a store 쑗 She is transformed themselves into hard cash millionaires’ [Investors Chronicle] the shoe buyer for a London department store. heavy /hev/ adjective large or in drawing it from the market large quantities 쑗 a programme of heavy investment overseas 쑗 He suf- haulage /hɔld/ noun the cost of fered heavy losses on the Stock Ex- transporting goods by road 쑗 Haulage is change. companies ness of the market the state of the mar- ket as being strong and not being likely headline /hedlan/ noun the heading to fall of an article or advertisement. hard selling /hɑd selŋ/ noun the heads of agreement /hedz əv act of selling by using great efforts 쑗 A ə"rimənt/ noun the most important lot of hard selling went into that deal. head-on position /hed ɒn pə- forts to persuade people to buy a prod. but not containers the programs 2. large sums of money ports goods by contract ‘…heavy selling sent many blue chips tumbling in Tokyo yesterday’ [Financial Times] hawk /hɔk/ verb to sell goods from door to door or in the street 왍 to hawk heavy half /hevi hɑf/ noun a situa- something round to take a product. e. zʃ(ə)n/ noun a poster site directly fac- uct 왍 he tried to give me the hard sell ing traffic 쑗 Let’s try to obtain a he put a lot of effort into trying to make head-on position in the central part of me buy town.hard cash 128 heavy half tor 왍 to strike a hard bargain to agree idea for a plastic car body round all the a deal where the terms are favourable to major car constructors. costs or heavy expenditure spending trktə/ noun a company which trans. frying pans or hammers bag with the food inside. solid goods for use in COMMENT: Air is removed from a plastic the house. 왍 heavy haulage contractor /hɔld kən.

noun a general or broad view of a prob. be awarded to the highest bidder. 왍 high sales a large amount of than average 쑗 Heavy users will be par. or a by 10% since the high of January 2nd. 쑗 High heavy user /hevi juzə/ noun a interest rates are crippling small busi- consumer who buys more of a product nesses. liking. preference. 왍 sales volume has heterogeneous /hetərəυdiniəs/ reached an all-time high the sales vol- adjective varied ume has reached the highest point it has heterogeneous shopping goods ever been at /hetərəυdiniəs ʃɒpŋ "υdz/ plural ‘American interest rates remain exceptionally high in relation to likely inflation rates’ noun goods which vary in quality and [Sunday Times] style from brand to brand and which ‘…faster economic growth would tend to push consumers spend time in choosing. knowl.. high-priced or high-tech product that is . large. e. investing and borrowing of order based on their importance. 쑗 High prices raw materials such as coal or makes put customers off. social needs.g. private investors’ [Fortune] ers when choosing what to buy. e. esteem.heavy industry 129 high-involvement product heavy industry /hevi ndəstri/ 2. more advanced or more pow- hierarchy /haərɑki/ noun a series erful than the other items in a range of of items ranged in order of importance 왍 things. conviction and ‘…the accepted wisdom built upon for well over purchase 100 years that government and high-grade high /ha/ adjective 1. tax 왍 high volume (of sales) a large and is part of the target audience for number of items sold 3. high-end /ha end/ adjective more buying whatever is cheapest expensive. 쑗 They are budgeting large products such as ships or engines for a high level of expenditure. Compare homogeneous shopping higher’ [Australian Financial Review] goods ‘…in a leveraged buyout the acquirer raises heuristics /hjυərstks/ noun simple money by selling high-yielding debentures to decision rules used by ordinary custom. 쑗 They are nvɒlvmənt prɒd kt/ noun a planning a 30-storey-high office block. not low 쑗 High overhead costs noun an industry which deals in heavy increase the unit price. such as very large sums of money organised by safety. tion made up of very important people edge. tion taxation which imposes large taxes on incomes or profits 왍 highest tax heavy viewer /hevi vjuə/ noun a bracket the group which pays the most person who watches a lot of television. which does not go into prices are above their usual level 쐽 details (slang) noun a point where prices or sales are helpline /helplan/ noun a telephone very large 쑗 the highs and lows on the number which links people to services Stock Exchange 쑗 Prices have dropped that can give them specialist advice. computers hierarchy of needs the theory that high finance /ha fanns/ noun the needs of individuals are arranged in an lending. 쑗 The helicopter view /helkɒptə vju/ property was sold to the highest bidder. 쐽 adverb 왍 prices are running high lem as a whole.g. tall 쑗 The corporate bonds were almost riskless’ [Forbes Magazine] shelves are 30 cm high. US interest rates. 왍 the highest commercials 쑗 Heavy viewers gave us bidder the person who offers the most the most interesting comments on our money at an auction 쑗 The tender will advertising. and therefore the dollar. 쑗 The door is not high enough to let us get the ma. etc. 쑗 similar service offered by shops to their Prices have dropped by 10% since the customers January 2nd high. revenue produced by sales 왍 high taxa- ticularly affected by the price rise. financiers hierarchy of effects /haərɑki əv high-grade /ha"red/ adjective of fekts/ noun a model showing the very good quality 쑗 high-grade petrol 왍 stages in the effect of advertising on a high-grade trade delegation a delega- consumer such as awareness. high-involvement product /ha chines into the building.

high-quality /ha kwɒlt/ adjective of very good quality 쑗 high-quality historic(al) cost /hstɒrk(ə)l goods 쑗 a high-quality product kɒst/ noun the actual cost of purchas- ing something which was bought some high season /ha siz(ə)n/ noun the time ago period when there are most travellers and tourists hit /ht/ noun 1. or the number of system of buying something by paying a customers who reply to a mail shot com- sum regularly each month 쑗 to buy a re. buys and stores goods in case of need the length of each bar expressing the hoarding /hɔdŋ/ noun 1.3 and the dividend yield is barely 2 per or with customers asking for supplies cent. a response to a request sent from an Internet browser (NOTE: high street /ha strit/ noun 1. historical /h- fore being bought stɒrk(ə)l/ adjective which goes back high pressure /ha preʃə/ noun a over a period of time ‘…the Federal Reserve Board has eased interest strong insistence that somebody should rates in the past year. the When a browser conducts a search. main shopping street in a British town 쑗 the number of hits it gets is the number the high street shops 쑗 a high street of websites. to keep cash in- which provides money for hire purchase stead of investing it histogram /hstə"rm/ noun a chart hoarder /hɔdə/ noun a person who or diagram with bars set on a base-line. historic /hstɒrk/. a an important retail area successful match or search of a database High Street banks /ha strit hit rate /ht ret/ noun the rate at bŋks/ plural noun main British banks which a target is reached such as the which accept deposits from individual number of mail shots needed before a customers customer makes an order for a product hire purchase /haə p&tʃs/ noun a advertised on them. high-pressure f"əz/ plural noun figures which were saleswoman noun a salesman or sales. but they are still at do something 왍 working under high historically high levels’ [Sunday Times] pressure working with a manager tell.) 2. to buy and store p&tʃs k mp(ə)ni/ noun a company goods in case of need 2. a main street considered as fit the criteria set for the search. Both indicators suggest that the stock urgently markets are very highly priced’ [Times] high-pressure salesman /ha historical figures /hstɒrk(ə)l preʃə selzmən/. hire-purchase company /haə hoard /hɔd/ verb 1.high pressure 130 hoarding carefully considered by a consumer be. hive off /hav ɒf/ verb to split off ment plan or installment sale) 왍 to part of a large company to form a sign a hire-purchase agreement to smaller subsidiary 쑗 The new managing sign a contract to pay for something by director hived off the retail sections of instalments the company. current in the past woman who forces a customer to buy historical trend /hstɒrk(ə)l something he or she does not really trend/ noun a trend detected in the past want on the basis of historical data 쑗 Histori- high-pressure sales technique cal trends may help us to predict how /ha preʃə selz teknik/ noun the economy will develop in the future. ‘…the historic p/e for the FTSE all-share index ing you what to do and to do it quickly is 28. files or images it finds that bookshop 2. forcing a customer to buy something he 쑗 It is difficult to detect any clear his- or she does not really want torical trends in consumer reaction to our past product launches. pared to the total number of customers frigerator on hire purchase Abbr HP mailed (NOTE: American English is install. 왍 hoard- quantity of an item or unit ing of supplies the buying of large quantities of money or goods to keep in .

using a computer linked /hɒrzɒnt(ə)l p blkeʃ(ə)n/ noun a to the telephone which is linked to the publication which is aimed at people in store’s ordering department similar levels of occupation in different industries home trade /həυm tred/ noun trade in the country where a company is based horizontal rotation /hɒrzɒnt(ə)l homeward /həυmwəd/ adjective go. rəυteʃ(ə)n/ noun distributing broad- ing towards the home country 쑗 The cast spots on different days of the week ship is carrying homeward freight. mɑkt/ noun a market in which a product is used by many industries home market /həυm mɑkt/ noun the market in the country where the sell. ees at the same level dustry 쑗 India’s homegrown car industry horizontal cooperative advertis- ing /hɒrzɒnt(ə)l kəυɒp(ə)rətv home industry /həυm ndəstri/ dvətazŋ/ noun cooperative adver- noun productive work carried out by tising where the advertising is spon- people at home 쑗 In third world coun. a large wooden board for homewards /həυmwədz/ adverb to- posters wards the home country 쑗 cargo ‘…as a result of hoarding. horizontal publication tomer’s house. rice has become homewards scarce with prices shooting up’ [Business Times (Lagos)] homogeneous /həυməυdiniəs/ adjective uniform or unvaried home audit /həυm ɔdt/ noun a survey method whereby a panel of homogeneous shopping goods householders keeps records of purchases /həυməυdiniəs ʃɒpŋ "υdz/ plural so that these can be regularly checked noun goods which vary little in style for quantity and brand 쑗 The home audit and quality from brand to brand and showed that although wholesalers were which consumers spend little time buying the product in large quantities. hɒrzɒnt(ə)l nd striəl over.home audit 131 horse trading case of need 2. cess of joining similar companies or tak- ing over a company in the same line of homepage /həυmped/ noun the business as yourself first page that is displayed when you visit a site on the Internet horizontal marketing system home-produced product /həυm /hɒrzɒnt(ə)l mɑktŋ sstəm/ prədjust prɒd kts/ noun a product noun cooperation between or merger of manufactured in the country where the two or more companies whose assets are company is based complementary and who therefore all gain from coming together home shopping /həυm ʃɒpŋ/ noun buying items direct from the cus. 쑗 The home audit shopping goods suggested that there is little brand loy. 쑗 Home industries are horizontal industrial market disappearing as mass production takes /(noun). horizontal /hɒrzɒnt(ə)l/ adjective alty for this type of product. choosing. hard bargaining which ends with some- . 쑗 at the same time of day The liner left Buenos Aires on her home. at the same level or with the same status home country /həυm k ntri/ noun 쑗 Her new job is a horizontal move into a country where a company is based a different branch of the business. horizontal integration /hɒr- ing company is based 쑗 Sales in the zɒnt(ə)l ntə"reʃ(ə)n/ noun the pro- home market rose by 22%. sored by a group of retailers tries there are still many home indus- tries. Compare heterogeneous consumers were not. homegrown /həυm"rəυn/ adjective horizontal communication which has been developed in a local /hɒrzɒnt(ə)l kəmjunkeʃ(ə)n/ area or in a country where the company noun communication between employ- is based 쑗 a homegrown computer in. horse trading /hɔs tredŋ/ noun ward journey.

g. house agent /haυz edənt/ noun property market /prɒpəti mɑkt/ an estate agent who deals in buying or noun the sale of houses selling houses or flats HTML noun the standard computer house brand /haυs brnd/ noun a code used to build and develop brand owned by a retailer rather than by webpages the producer human resources /hjumən r- household /haυshəυld/ noun a unit sɔsz/ plural noun the employees formed of all the people living together which an organisation has available 쑗 in a single house or flat. house style /haυs stal/ noun a ing house. household name /haυshəυld ing service provider /həυstŋ nem/ noun a brand name which is re- s&vs/ noun a company that provides cognised by a large number of connections to the Internet and storage consumers space on its computers. and which area. the largest London finance house 쑗 He offices or factories works for a broking house or a publish.hostess party selling 132 human resources one giving something in return for a household appliances concession from the other side /haυshəυld əplaənsz/ plural noun hostess party selling /həυstes appliances which are used in carrying pɑti selŋ/ noun a method of selling out day-to-day work in the house. including packaging and ədv&tsmənt/. e. haυs phone ordering service set up for a spe. one offering a readers’ advice ser. Abbr HUT hotline /hɒtlan/ noun a special tele. house magazine /haυs cial period 쑗 a Christmas hotline m"əzin/ noun a magazine produced hot money /hɒt m ni/ noun money for the employees or shareholders in a which is moved from country to country company to give them news about the to get the best returns company house /haυs/ noun 1. not shops. host. 쑗 noun an advertising agency owned and House-to-house selling is banned in this used by a large company. adjective going from one house to e. certain items such as household goods dishwashers and refrigerators directly by the manufacturer’s agent at a household goods /haυshəυld party to which potential customers are "υdz/ plural noun items which are used invited in the home host service /həυst s&vs/. the next. ‘…the extent of single women households has ‘…effective use and management of human implications for marketing’ resources hold the key to future business [Precision Marketing] development and success’ [Management Today] . the building in house property /haυs prɒpəti/ which someone lives 2. asking people to buy vice or selling back numbers of the something or to vote for someone 쑗 publication house-to-house canvassing 쑗 He house agency /haυz edənsi/ trained as a house-to-house salesman. whether it is a Our human resources must be looked single person living alone. a company 쑗 noun private houses or flats. house journal /(noun).g. a married after and developed if we are to raise couple or a large family productivity successfully. other companies may also use housing market /haυzŋ mɑkt/. company’s own design which is used in house advertisment / haυs all its products. house ad /haυs d/ stationery noun an advertisement in a publication house-to-house /haυs tə haυs/ which is placed by the publication itself. which can store households using television the files for a user’s website /haυshəυldz juzŋ telv(ə)n)/ hot button /hɒt b t(ə)n/ noun the noun the percentage of homes watching immediate interest a customer has in a television during a specific time period product or service offered for sale and within a specific area. d&n(ə)l/.

for assumption or theory which must be example. 쑗 Let us assume. a series of com.hunch marketing 133 hypothesis hunch marketing /h ntʃ hypermarket /hapəmɑkt/ noun a mɑktŋ/ noun the process of making very large supermarket. within two years of the launch. usually outside marketing decisions following a hunch. that we can win a 5% market share one webpage that link it to another page. to include the address of a tested to be confirmed or proved correct company’s website. they can hypothesis /hapɒθəss/ noun an also be used in email messages.) 2. the hyperlink will move the user about likely consumer behaviour was by to another position or display another and large correct. a large town. 쐽 verb to hypertext markup language make excessive claims in advertising /hapətekst mɑk p lŋ"wd/ noun full form of HTML hyperlink /hapəlŋk/ noun 1. 쑗 Sur- so that if a user clicks on the button or veys proved that our original hypothesis word. with car-parking facilities rather than relying on market research hypertext /hapətekst/ noun a sys- HUT abbr households using television tem of organising information in which certain words in a document link to hype /hap/ noun excessive claims other documents and display the text made in advertising 쑗 all the hype sur. when the word is selected rounding the launch of the new soap 쑗 Many consumers were actually put off hypertext link /hapətekst lŋk/ by all the media hype surrounding the noun same as hyperlink launch of the new magazine. as a working hypothe- mands attached to a button or word on sis. an im- age or a piece of text that a user clicks hypoing /hapəυŋ/ noun using spe- on in order to move directly from one cial promotions to increase the audience webpage to another (NOTE: Hyperlinks of a TV station during the sweep periods can be added to webpages by using and so affect the ratings simple HTML commands. (NOTE: plural is page hypotheses) .

product or public figure an extensive poster advertising image manipulation /md campaign mənpjυleʃ(ə)n/ noun alteration of impact scheduling /mpkt digital images using special computer ʃedjulŋ/ noun the practice of running software advertisements for the same product image setter /md setə/ noun a close together so as to make a strong im- typesetting device that can process a pression on the target audience 쑗 Im- PostScript page and produce a pact scheduling can achieve rapid high-resolution output brand awareness. imperfect items. impactaplan /mpktəpln/ noun sation. e. 쑗 The company has which directly affect its work. brand or immediate environment /midiət company 쑗 They are spending a lot of nvarənmənt/ noun elements or fac- advertising money to improve the com. tors outside a business organisation pany’s image.g. image transfer /md trnsf&/ imperfect /mp&fkt/ adjective hav- noun the technique of transferring im. that the public has of a product. ‘…the strong dollar’s deflationary impact on name easily remembered European economies as governments push up image-maker /md mekə/ noun interest rates to support their sinking currencies’ someone who is employed to create a [Duns Business Month] favourable public image for an organi. competition in a market which is some- . imitate /mtet/ verb to do what imperfect competition /mp&fkt someone else does 쑗 They imitate all kɒmpətʃ(ə)n/ noun the degree of our sales gimmicks. ‘…charities are also ready to buy air time to promote their corporate image’ impact /mpkt/ noun a shock or [Marketing Week] strong effect 쑗 the impact of new tech- image advertising /md nology on the cotton trade 쑗 The new dvətazŋ/ noun advertising with the design has made little impact on the aim of making a brand or company buying public. ing defects 쑗 They are holding a sale of ages from one medium to another. such as adopted a down-market image. for its products 쑗 The unreliability of cise a company so that its reputation is our suppliers is one of the worst fea- improved tures of our immediate environment. 쑗 Check the batch for from a photograph to a computer disk imperfect products.I-am-me 134 imperfect competition I iceberg principle /asb&" imitation /mteʃ(ə)n/ noun some- prnsp(ə)l/ noun the principle that thing which is a copy of an original 왍 strong needs and desires lie deep in the beware of imitations be careful not to human personality and that advertising buy low-quality goods which are made must work at this level if it is to be to look like other more expensive items effective immediate /midiət/ adjective hap- ident /adent/ noun a short TV image pening at once 쑗 We wrote an immedi- which identifies a channel ate letter of complaint. 쑗 Your order image /md/ noun the general idea will receive immediate attention. 왍 to the supply of raw materials and demand promote the corporate image to publi.

not because you had which imports 쑗 oil-importing countries planned to buy them 쑗 an importing company 쐽 noun the act of bringing foreign goods into a country impulse purchase /mp ls for sale 쑗 The importing of arms into p&tʃs/ noun something bought as the country is illegal. 쑗 The quota on imported cars purchase has been lifted. to try to stop them importation /mpɔteʃ(ə)n/ noun from being imported and to encourage the act of importing 쑗 The importation local manufacture of arms is forbidden. 쑗 The importation impression /mpreʃ(ə)n/ noun 1. Too many impressions can put consum- ment has imposed an import ban on ers off. vertisement 쑗 One impression can be import ban /mpɔt bn/ noun an enough to induce a consumer to buy. cision 왍 to do something on impulse to porter of foreign cars. do something because you have just import-export /mpɔt ekspɔt/ thought of it. of livestock is subject to very strict one person’s single exposure to an ad- controls. 쑗 This car was imported to $1m a year. ‘European manufacturers rely heavily on import surcharge /mpɔt imported raw materials which are mostly priced s&tʃɑd/ noun the extra duty charged in dollars’ [Duns Business Month] on imported goods. not because it was planned noun. 쑗 The level of im. not because he or she intended to made goods abroad 쑗 Rotterdam is an buy it important centre for the import-export trade. treme and perfect competition at the import permit /mpɔt p&mt/ noun other official documents which allow goods imperfection /mpəfekʃən/ noun a to be exported or imported defect in something 쑗 to check a batch import quota /mpɔt kwəυtə/ for imperfections noun a fixed quantity of a particular type of goods which the government al- implied close /mplad kləυz/ lows to be imported 쑗 The government noun an act of ending a sale by assum- has imposed a quota on the importation ing that the customer will make the of cars. from France. which encourages a customer to buy or import levy /mpɔt levi/ noun a tax staff to work better ‘…some further profit-taking was seen on imports. 쑗 He works in import-export. banner is displayed impression cover /mpreʃ(ə)n import duty /mpɔt djuti/ noun a k və/ noun the amount of advertising tax on goods imported into a country necessary to ensure the required number importer /mpɔtə/ noun a person or of impressions company that imports goods 쑗 a cigar impulse /mp ls/ noun a sudden de- importer 쑗 The company is a big im. the number of times an ad arms.imperfection 135 incentive where between a monopoly at one ex. import licence /mpɔt las(ə)ns/. especially in the EU a tax on yesterday as investors continued to lack fresh imports of farm produce from outside incentives to renew buying activity’ the EU [Financial Times] . 쑗 order forbidding imports 쑗 The govern. import /mpɔt/ verb to bring goods imports /mpɔts/ plural noun goods from abroad into a country for sale 쑗 brought into a country from abroad for The company imports television sets sale 쑗 Imports from Poland have risen from Japan. soon as it is seen porting is bound to affect domestic incentive /nsentv/ noun something industries. adjective referring to a business impulse buyer /mp ls baə/ noun which deals with both bringing foreign a person who buys something on im- goods into a country and sending locally pulse. 2. impulse buying /mp ls baŋ/ noun the practice of buying items which importing /mpɔtŋ/ adjective you have just seen.

왍 incentive scheme /nsentv skim/ to indent for something to put in an or- noun a plan to encourage better work by der for something 쑗 The department has paying higher commission or bonuses 쑗 indented for a new computer. is owned by an individual proprietor. an order incentive programme /nsentv placed by an importer for goods from prəυ"rm/ noun a programme to en. indemnity /ndemnti/ noun a guar- free gifts 쑗 We will have to use incen. one inch in depth independent /ndpendənt/ adjec- tive not under the control or authority of inclusive charge /nklusv anyone else tʃɑd/ noun a charge which includes all items independent company /ndpendənt k mp(ə)ni/ noun a income /nk m/ noun money which company which is not controlled by an- a person receives as salary or dividends other company 왍 lower income bracket or upper in- come bracket groups of people who independents /ndpendənts/ plu- earn low or high salaries considered for ral noun shops or companies which are tax purposes 왍 he comes into the owned by private individuals or families higher income bracket he is in a group ‘…many independents took advantage of the bank holiday period when the big multiples of people earning high incomes and were closed’ [The Grocer] therefore paying more tax ‘…there is no risk-free way of taking regular independent television income from your money much higher than the /ndpendənt telv(ə)n/ noun Brit- rate of inflation’ [Guardian] ish commercial television income distribution /nk m Independent Television Com- dstrbjuʃ(ə)n/ noun the way in mission /ndpendənt telv(ə)n which the national income is distributed kəmʃ(ə)n/ the British statutory body among the various classes and occupa. e. overseas 쑗 They put in an indent for a courage something by offering new stock of soap. profit or loss (NOTE: the British equiva- sentv best sstəm/ noun a payment lent is profit and loss account) system by which an advertising agency’s commission depends on how incorrectly labelled parcel well it performs /nkərektli leb(ə)ld pɑs(ə)l/ noun a parcel with the wrong information on incentive marketing /nsentv the label mɑktŋ/ noun any additional incen- tives to buy apart from advertising.g.incentive-based system 136 independent trader ‘…a well-designed plan can help companies income statement /nk m retain talented employees and offer enticing performance incentives – all at an affordable stetmənt/ noun US a statement of cost’ [Fortune] company expenditure and sales which shows whether the company has made a incentive-based system /n. 2. a line of typing incentives which starts several spaces from the left-hand margin 쐽 verb /ndent/ 1. ing rate for periodicals. to start Incentive schemes are boosting a line of typing several spaces from the production. indent noun /ndent/ 1. resistance. calculated on a normal column width. independent shop incomes policy /nk mz pɒlsi/ /ndpendənt ʃɒp/ noun a shop which noun the government’s ideas on how in. three spaces. Abbr ITC the effect that a change in a person’s in. left-hand margin 쑗 Indent the first line inch rate /nʃ ret/ noun an advertis. 2. antee of payment after a loss 쑗 She had tive marketing to break down sales to pay an indemnity of £100. which operates transmitting stations and tions in a country oversees commercial television and ra- income effect /nk m fekt/ noun dio. independent trader /ndpendənt come has on his or her spending tredə/. comes should be controlled not by a chain .

each pendent variable. 쑗 Our sales for last year lebə kɒsts/ plural noun the cost of indicate a move from the home market paying employees not directly involved to exports. canteen staff. as opposed to using a direct sales the percentage rise in the cost of living force indexing /ndeksŋ/ noun a method indirect exporting /ndarekt of showing changes in a value over time ekspɔtŋ/ noun selling products to a by starting with a simple base point such customer overseas through a middle- as 100. which then serves as a reference man in your own country 쑗 There is point for future years 쑗 Indexing is used no need for indirect exporting as we can to show the rise in the cost of living over sell directly to the major department a ten-year period. 쑗 Indirect exporting index-linked /ndeks lŋkt/ adjec. stores in Spain. indirect headline /ndarekt flation did not affect her as she has an hedlan/ noun a headline which does index-linked pension.9 per cent’ indirect /ndarekt/ adjective not [Business Times (Lagos)] direct indexation /ndekseʃ(ə)n/ noun indirect channel /ndarekt the linking of something to an index tn(ə)l/ noun a marketing channel indexation of wage increases where intermediaries such as wholesal- /ndekseʃ(ə)n əv wed nkrisz/ ers and retailers are used to sell a prod- noun the linking of wage increases to uct. various points. values or levels indigenous /nddnəs/ adjective ‘…the index of industrial production sank 0.2 belonging to a particular country or area per cent for the latest month after rising 0. postage has been paid by the sender fluences one or more other variables indifference curve /ndf(ə)rəns called ‘dependent variables’ 쑗 In this k&v/ noun a line on a graph that joins model personal income is the independ. each point representing a ent variable and expenditure the de. in addition to index-linking’ [Financial Times] tomer’s attention or plays on his or her emotions indicate /ndket/ verb to show 쑗 The latest figures indicate a fall in the indirect labour costs /ndarekt inflation rate. combination of two commodities. such as high real interest to meet each person’s individual re- rates. satisfaction cal report which shows rises and falls in prices. in. when it changes. saved the company from having to tive which rises automatically by the worry about export documentation and percentage increase in the cost of living transportation. ‘…it reduces this month’s growth in the key M3 individual /ndvduəl/ noun one indicator from about 19% to 12%’ single person 쑗 a savings plan tailored [Sunday Times] to the requirements of the private indi- ‘…we may expect the US leading economic vidual 쐽 adjective single or belonging indicators for April to show faster economic growth’ [Australian Financial Review] to one person 쑗 a pension plan designed ‘…other indicators. in making a product such as cleaners or indicator /ndketə/ noun some. Such costs cannot be allo- thing which indicates cated to a cost centre. the first half of the year shows that the rate of inflation went down by 12. suggest that monetary conditions are quirements 쑗 We sell individual por- extremely tight’ [Economist] tions of ice cream. . cent in March’ [Financial Times] but has been grown there for some ‘…an analysis of the consumer price index for years. 쑗 index-linked government bonds 쑗 In. combination giving the customer equal index /ndeks/ noun a regular statisti.3 per 쑗 Cocoa is not indigenous to the area.independent variable 137 individual independent variable indicia /ndsiə/ noun US a stamp /ndpendənt veəriəb(ə)l/ noun a printed on an envelope to show that factor whose value. not directly try to sell a product or ser- ‘…two-year index-linked savings certificates vice but rather tries to attract the cus- now pay 3 per cent a year tax free.

in- economy were contained in figures on industrial dustrialize verb to set up industries in a production for April’ [Financial Times] country which had none before industrial advertising /nd striəl ‘…central bank and finance ministry officials of the industrialized countries will continue work dvətazŋ/ noun advertising to busi. industrial products /n. industrialization noun the industrial grievances before they reach industrial tribunals’ [Personnel Today] process of change by which an economy becomes based on industrial production ‘Britain’s industrial relations climate is changing’ [Personnel Today] rather than on agriculture ‘…indications of renewed weakness in the US industrialise /nd striəlaz/. such services as debt collection. goods produced the petroleum industry 쑗 the advertising for use by industry. industrial expansion /nd striəl industrial user /nd striəl juzə/ kspnʃən/ noun the growth of indus. course in industrial marketing. noun a customer who buys industrial tries in a country or a region products to use in production industrial goods /nd striəl industry /ndəstri/ noun 1. 2. refrigerators industrial market research /n- industrial development /n. office ucts. the manufacturing of products 쑗 All sec- goods or products bought by producers tors of industry have shown rises in out- to be used in production processes 쑗 put. industry . same type of service 쑗 the aircraft in- neer by profession and sells industrial dustry 쑗 the food-processing industry 쑗 goods to factories. companies or processes involved in d striəl prɒd kts/ plural noun 1. industrial injury /nd striəl ferring to manufacturing work 왍 to take ndəri/ noun an injury to an employee industrial action to go on strike or that occurs in the workplace go-slow industrialisation /nd strəla- ‘ACAS has a legal obligation to try and solve zeʃ(ə)n/. etc. I got a zan/ noun the design of products made job selling machinery to aircraft by machines such as cars and manufacturers. research into selling to businesses as op- ning and building of new industries in posed to private individuals special areas industrial services marketing industrial espionage /nd striəl /nd striəl s&vsz mɑktŋ/ noun espiənɑ/ noun trying to find out the the marketing to business customers of secrets of a competitor’s work or prod. ries. a group of companies making the Our industrial products are advertised same type of product or offering the in the specialised press. 쑗 He is an engi. which include pro. not to private individuals industrialised society /nd striə- industrial capacity /nd striəl kə. d striəl mɑkt rs&tʃ/ noun market d striəl dveləpmənt/ noun the plan.individual demand 138 industry individual demand /ndvduəl cessed or raw materials and goods such dmɑnd/ noun demand from one sin. 2. lazd səsaəti/ noun a country which psti/ noun the amount of work has many industries which can be done in a factory or sev- eral factories industrialist /nd striəlst/ noun an owner or director of a factory industrial centre /nd striəl sentə/ noun a large town with many industrial market /nd striəl mɑkt/ noun customers who buy industries goods to be used in production industrial consumer /nd striəl industrial marketing /nd striəl kənsjumə/ noun a business which mɑktŋ/ noun the marketing of buys industrial goods industrial products 쑗 After doing a industrial design /nd striəl d. on the report’ [Wall Street Journal] nesses. as machinery and equipment that are gle consumer used to produce other goods industrial /nd striəl/ adjective re. usually by illegal means cleaning. all facto- "υdz/.

7 per cent. the person who has received advertisers them is willing to buy them influencer /nfluənsə/ noun an ex- inferior /nfəriə/ adjective not as pert in the decision-making unit who ad- good as others 쑗 products of inferior vises on technical aspects of the product quality or service under consideration inferior product /nfəriə infomercial /nfəυm&ʃ(ə)l/ noun a prɒd kt/ noun a product which con. sales of inferior products soared. price rises encourage higher wage de- mɑnd/ noun demand which experi. you almost always released yesterday.4 per cent in the month. inflation. 쑗 We increase in the supply of money or are pleased to inform you that you have credit than in the production of goods been selected for interview. discounting of tickets is widespread’ [Business Traveller] economy is in an inflationary spiral the economy is in a situation where inelastic demand /nlstk d. be secret tive which tends to increase inflation 쑗 . 쑗 As the recession hit. 왍 disclosure of increased to an annual rate of 3. 쑗 We have and services. measured by the consumer price index has been below 2 per cent for over 18 months’ inelastic supply /nlstk səpla/ [Australian Financial Review] noun supply which experiences a com- paratively small percentage change in inflight advertising /nflat response to a percentage change in price dvətazŋ/ noun advertising on TV screens inside a plane inertia selling /n&ʃə selŋ/ noun a method of selling items by sending them inflight audience /nflat ɔdiəns/ when they have not been ordered and noun travellers.inelastic demand 139 information ‘…with the present overcapacity in the airline inflationary trends in the economy 왍 the industry. seen as a market for turned. 쑗 Have you any infor- [Investors Chronicle] mation on or about deposit accounts? 쑗 ‘…the retail prices index rose 0. mands which in turn make prices rise ences a comparatively small percentage ‘…inflationary expectations fell somewhat this change in response to a percentage month. new regulations are coming into force. especially business ex- assuming that if the items are not re. information /nfəmeʃ(ə)n/ noun ‘…the decision by the government to tighten monetary policy will push the annual inflation details which explain something 쑗 to rate above the year’s previous high’ disclose a piece of information 쑗 to an- [Financial Times] swer a request for information 쑗 Please ‘…when you invest to get a return. write to Department 27. please which excludes mortgage interest payments. you want a send me information on or about holi- ‘real’ return – above the inflation rate’ days in the USA. according to figures household necessity. The underlying inflation rate. tion. The annual rate of inflation find an inelastic demand. inform /nfɔm/ verb to tell someone officially 쑗 I regret to inform you that inflation /nfleʃ(ə)n/ noun a greater your tender was not acceptable. but remained a long way above the change in price 쑗 Where a product is a actual inflation rate. resulting in higher prices and a fall in the purchasing power of been informed by the Department that money 왍 we have 3% inflation or in. 쑗 For further information. TV commercial that is longer than the sumers buy less of as their incomes rise normal 30 seconds. ecutives. and contains infor- 쑗 Margarine was clearly an inferior mation about the product or service be- product before it came to be considered ing sold healthier than butter. taking the annual headline inflation rate I enclose this leaflet for your informa- to 1.1 per cent’ confidential information the act of tell- [Times] ing someone information which should inflationary /nfleʃ(ə)n(ə)ri/ adjec. flation is running at 3% prices are 3% informant /nfɔmənt/ noun a per- higher than at the same time last year 쑗 son who answers questions in a survey to take measures to reduce inflation 쑗 쑗 So far only two informants have said High interest rates tend to increase that they never buy the product.

tive advertising /n"ridiənt ink-jet imaging /ŋk det mdŋ/ . task of controlling information and the in-home selling /n həυm selŋ/. in-home retailing /n həυm ritelŋ/ tion. and initial salary is negotiable informative.5m of the initial NKr 30m share capital’ [Financial Times] infotainment /(noun). ink-jet printing /ŋk det prntŋ/. and third-generation mobile noun the tendency of some goods to phones. home. the nutrition value made such things as the Internet. of cereals. especially television around $45. storing.000 per annum’ programmes that deal with serious is. meʃ(ə)n rtriv(ə)l/ noun the finding ‘…the founding group has subscribed NKr of stored data in a computer 14. spɒnsəd kəυɒp(ə)rətv dvətazŋ/ meʃ(ə)n(ə)l əpil/ noun same as ra. noun advertising sponsored by the pro- tional appeal ducers of raw materials which aims to information and communica. time. vertising has been very good. groupware. vice discouraged us from importing meʃ(ə)n mndmənt/ noun the tropical fruit. ‘…career prospects are excellent for someone tenmənt/ noun entertainment that is with potential. either by direct contact or by tele- trieving it (NOTE: Good information phone 쑗 In-home selling is the national management has been described as strategy for our products. department to the public 2. an organisation or a government We do all our data processing in-house. which the user has in the product such cations technology that has possible as the speed of a car. noun selling to a customer in his or her organising. a person whose job pany on their premises. drɑmə/ noun advertising that empha- cations technologies considered together sizes the benefits of purchasing a prod- and as a whole (NOTE: It is the coming uct or service and the vital interest together of information and communi.) spoil during transportation 쑗 Inherent information management /nfə. nfəυ.) in-house /n haυs/ adverb. flow of information within an organisa. that involves acquiring. encourage the production of products tions technologies /nfəmeʃ(ə)n that use these raw materials ən kəmjunkeʃ(ə)nz teknɒlədiz/ inherent drama /nhərənt plural noun computer and telecommuni. and re. inherent vice /nhərənt vas/ intranets. 쑗 In-home getting the right information to the right selling is useful when housewives are person in the right format at the right the target market. [Australian Financial Review] sues or current affairs in an entertaining initial capital /nʃ(ə)l kpt(ə)l/ way noun capital which is used to start a ingredient /n"ridiənt/ noun mate. videoconferencing. initial /nʃ(ə)l/ adjective first or start- formation and deals with problems ing 쑗 The initial response to the TV ad- information retrieval /nfə. business rial or a substance which goes to make initial sales /nʃ(ə)l selz/ plural something noun the first sales of a new product ingredient sponsored coopera. a person in-house agency /n haυs whose job is to give information to other edənsi/ noun an advertising agency departments in the same organisation which is owned and operated by an information processing model company and is responsible for the com- /nfəmeʃ(ə)n prəυsesŋ mɒd(ə)l/ pany’s advertising programme noun a way of evaluating the effect of in-house newsletter /n haυs advertising by seeing the receiver of the njuzletə/ noun same as newsletter message as someone who processes in. distributing. etc. not by an out- is to give information about a com. adjective information officer /nfəmeʃ(ə)n done by somebody employed by a com- ɒfsə/ noun 1. side contractor 쑗 the in-house staff 쑗 pany.informational appeal 140 ink-jet printing informational appeal /nfə. recording.

then ‘who inset /nset/ noun same as insert dares wins’ will be a marketing commandment’ inside back cover /nsad bk [Marketing Workshop] k və/ the page on the inside of the back innovation-adoption model /nə. k və/ noun the page on the inside of ferring to a person or thing which is new the front cover of a magazine. new machines into an office or a factory tising based on responses following the 쑗 to supervise the installation of new advertisement such as requests for infor. used for and makes changes advertisements ‘…small innovative companies in IT have been hampered for lack of funds’ [Sunday Times] instability /nstəblt/ noun the state of being unstable or moving up and innovator /nəvetə/ noun 1. 2. usually a installment plan /nstɔlmənt magazine or newspaper 왍 an insert in a pln/. a person who buys cies fluctuate rapidly a new product first 3. 2. which are: awareness. setting up a new computer mation. to set up a product 쑗 In-pack promotion may in. equipment 3. phone calls. cover used for advertising 쑗 We have veʃ(ə)n ədɒpʃ(ə)n mɒd(ə)l/ noun a advertised on the inside back cover of model that shows the stages in the adop. 쑗 They must install a new data processing system be- in-pack /n pk/ noun something cause the old one cannot cope with the placed inside the packaging with the mass of work involved. evaluation. new computer system so that it fits the clude information on other products in user’s requirements 3. a successful person. install /nstɔl/ verb 1. who chine into an office or into a factory 쑗 buys a lot of new and expensive We are planning to install the new ma- products chinery over the weekend. installment buying sert an advertising sheet put into a mag. to configure a the same line.inland port 141 installment plan noun a printing process where text is re. and adoption inside front cover /nsad fr nt innovative /nəvetv/ adjective re. a down 왍 a period of instability in the person or company that brings in new money markets a period when curren- ideas and methods 2. 쑗 The fire seriously inquiry test /ŋkwaər test/ noun a damaged the oil installations. equipment and buildings 쑗 inquiry /ŋkwaər/ noun a request Harbour installations were picketed by for information about a product striking dockers. installment sales /n- magazine mailing or a magazine in. stɔlmənt selz/. or the number of system coupons redeemed installment /nstɔlmənt/ noun US insert noun /ns&t/ a form or leaflet spelling of instalment which is put inside something. in the VALS life- style classification. every issue this year. 쑗 The survey is tion process for a new product by a con. trial. trying to establish how much notice sumer. new computer program to the existing input tax /npυt tks/ noun VAT system requirements which is paid by a company on goods or installation /nstəleʃ(ə)n/ noun 1. interest. putting measuring of the effectiveness of adver. azine when it is mailed 쐽 verb /ns&t/ produced by projecting dots of electron. to put something in 쑗 to insert a clause ically charged ink onto the paper into a contract 쑗 to insert a publicity inland port /nlənd pɔt/ noun a piece into a magazine mailing port on a river or canal insertion /ns&ʃ(ə)n/ noun the act of innovate /nəυvet/ verb to bring in putting an advertisement into a maga- new ideas or new methods zine or newspaper innovation /nəveʃ(ə)n/ noun the insertion rate /ns&ʃ(ə)n ret/ development of new products or new noun the rate charged for a single inser- ways of selling tion of an advertisement ‘…if innovation equates with daring. services bought machines. to put a ma- often a leader in their profession. /nstɔlmənt baŋ/ noun US a sys- . readers take of the inside back cover.

cations objectives /nt"retd tion of a product such as a piece of mɑktŋ kəmjunkeʃ(ə)nz əb- kitchen equipment inside a store dektvz/ plural noun listing the ob- . and advertisements on trolleys instalment /nstɔlmənt/ noun a in-store promotion /n stɔ prə- part of a payment which is paid regu. display ban- British equivalent is hire purchase) ners. ther of its own image or of the products where bread is baked fresh for the and services it sells.g. media promotion.instalment 142 integrated marketing tem of buying something by paying a in-store media /n stɔ midiə/ sum regularly each month 쑗 to buy a noun promotional material used inside a car on the installment plan (NOTE: the store. integrated marketing communi- The reason why marketers in the US put more cations concept /nt"retd effort into in-store marketing is the greater kəmjunkeʃ(ə)nz kɒnsept/ noun penetration of EPOS’ [Marketing Week] US the concept or principle that a com- in-store bakery /n stɔ bekəri/ pany should link all its promotions. e. but that after /nsttjuʃ(ə)n(ə)l dvətazŋ/ noun trials of the product the acceptance rate advertising an organisation rather than a increases and this in turn leads to brand product loyalty integrated marketing /nt"retd institutional investor mɑktŋ/ noun co-ordination of all of /nsttjuʃ(ə)n(ə)l nvestə/ noun a a company’s marketing activities in es- financial institution which invests tablishing marketing strategies such as money in securities packaging. advertising. e. or a patent or a trademark institution /nsttjuʃ(ə)n/ noun an organisation or society set up for a par. but which cannot be seen. ei- noun a bakery in a large supermarket. in a consistent way customers on several different levels in-store demonstration /n stɔ integrated marketing communi- demənstreʃ(ə)n/ noun a demonstra.g. legal document stalment is now due the last of a series instrumental conditioning of payments should be paid now 왍 to /nstrυment(ə)l kəndʃ(ə)nŋ/ noun pay £25 down and monthly instal. (NOTE: the American instrument /nstrυmənt/ noun a spelling is installment) 왍 the final in. integrate /nt"ret/ verb to link ticular purpose things together to form one whole group integrated information re- institutional /nsttjuʃ(ə)n(ə)l/ sponse model /nt"retd nfə- adjective referring to a financial meʃ(ə)n rspɒns mɒd(ə)l/ noun a institution model showing the response process to ‘…during the 1970s commercial property was regarded by big institutional investors as an an advertising message which suggests alternative to equities’ [Investors Chronicle] that advertising leads to a low accep- institutional advertising tance rate of information. məυʃ(ə)n/ noun a promotion of a prod- larly until the total amount is paid 쑗 The uct inside a shop. sets/ plural noun assets which have a stalments over a period of time value. by demonstrations first instalment is payable on signature or special gift counters of the agreement. e.g. POS ma- in-store /n stɔ/ adjective inside a terial or after-sales service 쑗 The sepa- store ration of departments makes integrated ‘…dissatisfied with traditional media marketing difficult to achieve. manufacturers in the USA are shifting their money into in-store promotion. same as operant conditioning ments of £20 to pay a first payment of £25 and the rest in payments of £20 insurance rates /nʃυərəns rets/ each month 왍 to miss an instalment not plural noun the amount of premium to pay an instalment at the right time which has to be paid per £1000 of insurance instalment credit /nstɔlmənt kredt/ noun an arrangement by which intangible assets /ntndb(ə)l a purchaser pays for goods bought in in. POS material. goodwill.

integrated processes 143 internal jectives of an integrated marketing interactive voice response communications programme such as /ntərktv vɔs rspɒns/ noun a communication tasks. appoint an existing member of staff to . 2. tention 쑗 The buyers showed a lot of in- erty is protected by law in most coun. Compare intramedia which are developed as a result of deci. calculated as a percentage of for harmonising the law in different the capital borrowed 쐽 verb to attract countries and promoting the protection someone’s attention 쑗 She tried to inter- of intellectual property rights. receiving information an internal appointment we decided to and replying to questions. der a central control interconnect /ntəkənekt/ noun intellectual property /ntlektjυəl two or more cable systems joined to- prɒpəti/ noun ideas. producer of as wide a network of dis- ‘…since last summer American interest rates tributors as possible to sell products 쑗 have dropped by between three and four Without intensive distribution we cannot percentage points’ [Sunday Times] hope to achieve these ambitious sales ‘…a lot of money is said to be tied up in sterling targets. which may or may not be true intermedia comparison interactive /ntərktv/ adjective /ntəmidiə kəmprs(ə)n/ noun a allowing the customer and seller to in. terest in our new product range. comparison of different media to decide fluence the presentation of information how suitable they are for advertising 쑗 or the development of strategies We will carry out intermedia compari- interactive marketing /ntərktv sons before deciding on our promo- mɑktŋ/ noun marketing strategies tional strategy.) est several companies in her new inven- tion. turn on investment is. anticipated sales. and the World Intellectual payment made by a borrower for the use Property Organisation is responsible of money. etc. designs and in. tries. and intercompany comparison beliefs about their excellence combine /ntək mpəni kəmprs(ə)n/. to help the purchaser evaluate alterna. comparison sions taken by both salespeople and intermediate goods /ntəmidiət customers "υdz/ plural noun goods bought for use interactive media /ntərktv in the production of other goods midiə/ plural noun media that allow internal /nt&n(ə)l/ adjective 1. etc. 쑗 Intensive distribution makes because of the interest-rate differential between us rely on too many retailers and US and British rates’ [Australian Financial wholesalers. Abbr integrated processes /nt"retd IVR prəυsesz/ plural noun the processes by which knowledge of products. 쑗 The company is trying to interest intensive distribution /ntensv a wide range of customers in its dstrbjuʃ(ə)n/ noun the use by a products. special at- organisation (NOTE: Intellectual prop. telephone or Internet system which is and increased market share activated by the voice of the caller and responds to the caller’s queries. including copyrights. Review] intention to buy /ntenʃ(ə)n tə interest charges /ntrəst ba/ noun a statement by a respondent tʃɑdz/ plural noun money paid as that he or she intends to buy a product or interest on a loan service. what their re- bringing several businesses together un. in- the customer to interact with the source side a company 왍 we decided to make of the message. patents give a wider geographical spread and trademarks. gether for advertising purposes so as to ventions. interfirm comparison /ntəf&m tive products kəmprs(ə)n/ noun a comparison of different companies to see how much integration /nt"reʃ(ə)n/ noun they spend on promotion. that were created by and legally belong to an individual or an interest /ntrəst/ noun 1.

) ence or something he or she has ‘…they predict a tenfold increase in sales via remembered internet or TV between 1999 and 2004’ [Investors Chronicle] internal telephone /nt&n(ə)l ‘…in two significant decisions. international trade /ntənʃ(ə)nəl pendent departments sell goods or ser. Internet /ntənet/ noun the global. and reports. meetings. interviewing. intranet. Abbr IRS email to be sent and is accessed with the internal search /nt&n(ə)l s&tʃ/ aid of a modem (NOTE: The Internet noun the process by which a consumer uses the Internet Protocol (IP) as a acquires information from past experi.internal analysis 144 Internet the post. suggestion international media schemes. tred/ noun trade between different vices to each other countries Internal Revenue Service /n. countries. 쑗 The next stage in the com- ings. age of replying to a letter 쑗 Shee en- internal marketing /nt&n(ə)l closed an international reply coupon mɑktŋ/ noun marketing conducted with her letter. memos. inside a country noun trade between various parts of a country (NOTE: the opposite is external internal analysis /nt&n(ə)l trade) ənləss/ noun detailed examination and reports on the product or service of. communication standard. newsletters. internalization noun a pro- international monetary system cess by which individuals identify infor- /ntənʃ(ə)nəl m nt(ə)ri sstəm/ mation which is relevant to them noun methods of controlling and ex- personally and so acquire values and changing currencies between countries norms which allow them to make decisions international postal reply cou- pon /ntənʃ(ə)nəl pəυst(ə)l rpla internally /nt&n(ə)l/ adverb inside kupɒn/ noun a coupon which can be a company 쑗 The job was advertised used in another country to pay the post- internally. trade. international marketing t&n(ə)l kəmjunkeʃ(ə)n/ noun /ntənʃ(ə)nəl mɑktŋ/ noun the communication between employees or marketing of a company’s products departments of the same organisation abroad 쑗 Our international marketing (NOTE: Internal communication can so far consists of exporting to three take various forms such as team brief. employee or works pany’s international marketing was the councils.) /ntənʃ(ə)nəl midiə/ plural noun internal desk research /nt&n(ə)l advertising media that cover several desk rs&tʃ/ noun research based on countries and can be used to reach audi- information in a company’s own records ences in them such as customer accounts and sales International Monetary Fund reports /ntənʃ(ə)nəl m nt(ə)ri f nd/ a internal flight /nt&n(ə)l flat/ type of bank which is part of the United noun a flight to a town inside the same Nations and helps member states in fi- country nancial difficulties. Abbr IMF zeʃ(ə)n/. gives financial ad- vice to members and encourages world internalisation /nt&nəla. where inde. t&n(ə)l revənju s&vs/ noun US a public network of computers and tele- government department which deals phone links that houses websites. the grapevine. international /ntənʃ(ə)nəl/ ad- fered and the company itself jective working between countries internal communication /n. the Securities telfəυn/ noun a telephone which is and Exchange Board of India today allowed linked to other telephones in an office trading of shares through the Internet and set a . an setting up of factories overseas. allows with tax. and not bring someone in from internal trade /nt&n(ə)l tred/ outside the company 2. inside a large organisation.

ventory 쑗 to aim to reduce inventory 2. it transferred from a customer to seller or is called an extranet. (es- ing for a job to see if they are suitable 쑗 pecially US) all the stock or goods in a We interviewed ten candidates. tect websites and other electronic files as opposed to a transient advertisement against attacks by hackers and viruses on TV or radio interpolation /nt&pəleʃ(ə)n/ intrinsic value /ntrnsk vlju/ noun a method of estimating a value be. but warehouse or shop 쑗 to carry a high in- found no one suitable. 쐽 verb to talk to a person apply. for example. 쑗 The in- kɒm&s/ noun US commerce between trinsic value of jewellery makes it a different states which is therefore sub. target audience can keep and look at kjυərti/ noun the means used to pro. ject to federal government control introduce /ntrədjus/ verb to make interstitial /ntəstʃ(ə)l/ noun a someone get to know somebody or page of advertising which is inserted something 왍 to introduce a client to into a website bring in a new client and make them interview /ntəvju/ noun talking to known to someone 왍 to introduce a a person who is applying for a job to new product on the market to produce find out whether they are suitable for it a new product and launch it on the 쑗 We called six people for interview. Internet technology but is accessible nesswoman who sells a product or ser. interstate commerce /ntəstet but no intrinsic value at all. e. only to the employees of a particular or- vice over the Internet ganisation (NOTE: An intranet that is ex- Internet payment system tended beyond the employees of an /ntənet pemənt sstəm/ noun any organisation to include. mechanism that enables funds to be suppliers. comparison ucts or services over the Internet intranet /ntrənet/ noun a network of Internet merchant /ntənet computers and telephone links that uses m&tʃənt/ noun a businessman or busi. and is available 쐽 verb to make a list of interviewer /ntəvjuə/ noun the stock or contents person who is conducting an interview . Compare intermedia mɑktŋ/ noun the marketing of prod. ad- were all nervous as they waited to be vertising time or space which is not used called into the interview room. 쑗 The interviewees agree that the inventory is correct 3. 쑗 market During my appraisal interview my boss introductory offer /ntrəd kt(ə)ri and I agreed some targets for the next ɒfə/ noun a special price offered on a few months. noun the material value of something 쑗 tween two established values These objects have sentimental value. inventory /nvənt(ə)ri/ noun 1. in a newspaper or magazine. good investment. 쑗 I have an interview next new product to attract customers week or I am going for an interview next week. fittings 왍 to agree the inventory to terviewee at ease.Internet commerce 145 inventory deadline for companies to conform to norms for intramedia comparison good corporate governance’ [The Hindu] /ntrəmidiə kəmprs(ə)n/ noun Internet commerce /ntənet a comparison of different advertising kɒm&s/ noun the part of e-commerce options within the same medium 쑗 After that consists of commercial business extensive intramedia comparison we transactions conducted over the Internet now know all the possibilities of TV ad- Internet marketing /ntənet vertising. customers or distributors. again.) from one business to another via the intransient /ntrnziənt/ adjective Internet referring to an advertisement which the Internet security /ntənet s. a list of the contents of a building such interviewee /ntəvjui/ noun the as a house for sale or an office for rent 쑗 person who is being interviewed 쑗 The to draw up an inventory of fixtures and interviewer did everything to put the in.g.

island display /alənd dsple/ goodwill or patents noun same as island site invisibles /nvzb(ə)lz/ plural noun island position /alənd pəzʃ(ə)n/ invisible imports and exports noun advertising space separated from invitation to tender /nvteʃ(ə)n other advertising space in a newspaper tə tendə/ noun a formal request. inward mission /nwəd mʃ(ə)n/ vestmənt spendŋ/ noun spending noun a visit to your home country by a more than normal on advertising with group of foreign businesspeople the expectation of increased sales and IP address /a pi ədres/ noun a profits unique 32-bit number that defines the investor relations research /n. cate the preparation of three copies of ‘…investment trusts. but just enough to meet requirements invoice price /nvɔs pras/ noun the price as given on an invoice. total is payable within thirty days of issue /ʃu/ noun the number of a invoice the total sum has to be paid newspaper or magazine 쑗 We have an within thirty days of the date on the in. includ- investment /nvestmənt/ noun the ing any discount and VAT placing of money so that it will produce interest and increase in value 쑗 They invoicing /nvɔsŋ/ noun the send- called for more government investment ing of invoices 쑗 All our invoicing is in new industries. There are only two island sites at the ex- plied 쑗 your invoice dated November hibition and we have one of them. them to submit a detailed proposal for island site /alənd sat/. sent or magazine 쑗 An island position is ex- to a small number of suppliers. ad in the January issue of the magazine. e. 쑗 She was advised to done by computer.inventory control 146 issue ‘…a warehouse needs to tie up less capital in voice 쐽 verb to send an invoice to inventory and with its huge volume spreads out someone 쑗 to invoice a customer 왍 we costs over bigger sales’ [Duns Business Month] invoiced you on November 10th we inventory control /nvənt(ə)ri sent you the invoice on November 10th kəntrəυl/ noun a system of checking invoice clerk /nvɔs klɑk/ noun an that there is not too much stock in a office worker who deals with invoices warehouse. island dis- completing a particular piece of work play /alənd dsple/ noun an exhibi- invoice /nvɔs/ noun a note asking tion stand separated from others 쑗 for payment for goods or services sup.g. 왍 the directions. like unit trusts. asking pensive but will attract great attention. . 쑗 An 10th 쑗 to make out an invoice for £250 island site means that visitors can ap- 쑗 to settle or to pay an invoice 쑗 They proach the stand from several sent in their invoice six weeks late. precise location of a computer con- vestə rleʃ(ə)nz rs&tʃ/ noun re. consist of invoices portfolios of shares and therefore provide a invoicing department /nvɔsŋ spread of investments’ [Investors Chronicle] dpɑtmənt/ noun the department in a ‘…investment companies took the view that company which deals with preparing prices had reached rock bottom and could only go up’ [Lloyd’s List] and sending invoices investment advertising /n- inward /nwəd/ adjective towards the home country vestmənt dvətazŋ/ noun large expenditure on advertising to achieve inward bill /nwəd bl/ noun a bill of long-term objectives lading for goods arriving in a country investment spending /n. nected to a network or the Internet search that allows a company to see how irrevocable /revəkəb(ə)l/ adjective financial institutions such as merchant which cannot be changed banks view the company irrevocable acceptance /- invisible assets /nvzb(ə)l revəkəb(ə)l əkseptəns/ noun accep- sets/ plural noun assets which have a tance which cannot be withdrawn value but which cannot be seen. 왍 invoicing in tripli- make investments in oil companies.

2. itemize verb to cause it has an issue life of three make a detailed list of things 쑗 Item- months. two days. tion that issues credit and debit cards itemised account /atəmazd ə- and maintains the systems for billing kaυnt/ noun a detailed record of and payment money paid or owed ITC abbr Independent Television itemised invoice /atəmazd Commission nvɔs/ noun an invoice which lists item /atəm/ noun 1. and appear in the accounts 3. izing the sales figures will take about issuer /ʃuə/ noun a financial institu. places to be visited on one journey 쑗 a ders for goods which are not in stock 쑗 salesrep’s itinerary Please find enclosed an order for the IVR abbr interactive voice response . itemise /atəmaz/. sue a letter of credit 쑗 to issue shares in a piece of information 쑗 items on a bal- a new company 쑗 to issue a writ against ance sheet 왍 item of expenditure goods someone 쑗 The government issued a re. following items from your catalogue. something for each item separately sale 왍 we are holding orders for itinerary /atnərəri/ noun a list of out-of-stock items we are holding or. or services which have been paid for port on London’s traffic.issue life 147 IVR 쐽 verb to put out or to give out 쑗 to is. a point on issue life /ʃu laf/ noun the time a list 왍 we will now take item four on between one issue of a publication and the agenda we will now discuss the another 쑗 The reason the magazine’s fourth point on the agenda advertising rates are so expensive is be.

job description /dɒb dskrpʃən/ journey mapping /d&ni mpŋ/ noun a description of what a job con. noun a method of calculating how many sists of and what skills are needed for it people pass a poster site 쑗 Journey 쑗 The letter enclosed an application mapping allows us to pinpoint the ten form and a job description. keʃ(ə)n/ noun a very detailed descrip- sion or particular group of people tion of what is involved in a job job /dɒb/ noun 1. es- job classification /dɒb klsf. each to individual son who writes for a newspaper requirements journey /d&ni/ noun a long trip. pecially a trip made by a salesperson 쑗 keʃ(ə)n/ noun describing jobs listed in She planned her journey so that she various groups could visit all her accounts in two days. made each day 2. 쑗 Inefficient journey planning . a magazine d kʃən/ noun the production of several journalist /d&n(ə)lst/ noun a per- different articles.jargon 148 journey planning JK jargon /dɑ"ən/ noun a special sort job specification /dɒb spesf- of language used by a trade or profes. giving pri- job satisfaction /dɒb sts. a book jobs with the account of sales and purchases jobbing production /dɒbŋ prə. achieve their aims more effectively jobber /dɒbə/ noun US a wholesaler joint account /dɔnt əkaυnt/ noun ‘…warehouse clubs buy directly from a bank or building society account manufacturers. 쑗 ganisations who share information and The shipyard has a big job starting in co-ordinate their activities in order to August. miscellaneous items sold together 쑗 journey order /d&ni ɔdə/ noun They sold the household furniture as a an order given by a shopkeeper to a job lot. ority to the more profitable accounts 쑗 fkʃən/ noun an employee’s feeling The sales manager will stress how good that he or she is happy at work and journey planning will save precious pleased with the work he or she does time. eliminating jobbers and shared by two people 쑗 Many married wholesale middlemen’ [Duns Business Month] couples have joint accounts so that they jobbing /dɒbŋ/ noun the practice of can pay for household expenses. be reached most efficiently. key sites we will be renting for the next job lot /dɒb lɒt/ noun a group of three months. a piece of work 2. doing small pieces of work Joint Photographics Experts jobbing printer /dɒbŋ prntə/ Group noun full form of JPEG noun a person who does small printing journal /d&n(ə)l/ noun 1. salesperson when they call job opening /dɒb əυp(ə)nŋ/ journey planning /d&ni plnŋ/ noun jobs which are empty and need noun the act of planning what calls a filling 쑗 We have job openings for office salesperson will make and how they will staff. joined-up /dɔnd p/ adjective in- an order being worked on 쑗 We are volving two or more individuals or or- working on six jobs at the moment.

that the respondents can be identified Abbr JIT keyed advertisement /kid əd- KAM abbr key account management v&tsmənt/ noun an advertisement keen /kin/ adjective 1. Abbr KAM əv "zekjυtv əpnjən/ noun a panel keyboard /kibɔrd/ noun the part of of executives used to contribute to a computer or other device with keys forecasting which are pressed to make letters or fig- just-in-time /d stntam/ noun ures 쐽 verb to press the keys on a key- abbr JIT board to type something 쑗 She is just-in-time production /d st n keyboarding our address list. staff in the reorganisation. ‘…he gave up the finance job in September to icant rather than applying any scientific devote more time to his global responsibilities techniques 쑗 Judgement sampling can as chairman and to work more closely with key produce an insufficiently representative clients’ [Times] sample. forecasting. key code /ki kəυd/ noun a letter and mediately before they are needed. e. 2. tam prəd kʃən/ noun making goods keyboarder /kibɔdə/ noun a per- to order just before they are needed. factor 쑗 key industries 쑗 key personnel 쑗 a key member of our management judgement sampling /d dmənt sɑmplŋ/ noun the choosing of a sam. 쑗 Market research depart- ments find judgement forecasting too key /ki/ adjective important 쑗 a key subjective and unreliable. 왍 keen graphic images for transfer over the prices prices which are kept low so as to Internet be competitive 쑗 Our prices are the keenest on the market. Abbr JIT keyboarding /kibɔdŋ/ noun the just-in-time purchasing /d st n act of typing on a keyboard 쑗 Key- tam p&tʃsŋ/ noun a purchasing boarding costs have risen sharply. agement of the small number of key ac- diately by the people who receive it counts which represent the bulk of a jury of executive opinion /dυəri company’s business. from European manufacturers. the sales trainer on any scientific techniques 쑗 We need described a number of different ap- more precise information so that we can proaches that might have been made to extrapolate rather than use judgement a particular customer. judgement /d dmənt/. demand for home computers. team 쑗 She has a key post in the organi- ple for a survey based on judgement of sation.g. eager or active which asks people to write to a specially 왍 keen competition strong competition coded address which will indicate where . key account management /ki licited advertising material sent through əkaυnt mndmənt/ noun the man- the post and usually thrown away imme. of an large 쑗 jumbo-sized pack or jumbo pack advertising agency junk mail /d ŋk mel/ noun unso. 왍 keen JPEG /de pe"/ noun a file format demand wide demand 쑗 There is a keen used to compress and store photo. so as number code printed on mailshots so to avoid carrying high levels of stock. system where goods are purchased im. key account /ki əkaυnt/ noun an jumbo /d mbəυ/ adjective very important account or client. so son who types information into a as to avoid having too many goods in computer stock.JPEG 149 keyed advertisement means miles of unnecessary travelling 쑗 We are facing some keen competition for the sales force every day. judgment noun an assessment or evaluation of the kerbside conference /k&bsad quality of someone or something kɒnf(ə)rəns/ noun a discussion of sell- ing techniques between a trainee sales- judgement forecasting person and the person training them /d dmənt fɔkɑstŋ/ noun fore- after making a sales call 쑗 In the casting based on judgement rather than kerbside conference. 쑗 We don’t want to lose any key what criteria would be especially signif.

knock something down to a bidder to sell something to somebody at an auc- keyword /kiw&d/ noun a word used tion 쑗 The furniture was knocked down by a search engine to help it locate a to him for £100. usually comparatively econom. referring to a very large possessed by employees so that it can be size of poster exploited to create benefits and compet- kiosk /kiɒsk/ noun a small wooden itive advantage for the organisation 2. ing in that particular newspaper or KISS /ks/ noun the need to make sure magazine your advertising is clear and concise so key number /ki n mbə/ noun the as to improve its chances of getting a re- number used in a keyed advertisement sponse. especially a government official. Full form keep it simple. tion for 20 years. re. co-ordinating the specialist knowledge ical to buy 2. commission paid to someone. who helps in a know-how /nəυ haυ/ noun knowl- business deal edge or skill in a particular field 쑗 to ac- quire computer know-how Kimball tag /kmb(ə)l t"/ noun a knowledge capital /nɒld paper tag attached to an item for sale. shelter.) buyer knocking copy /nɒkŋ kɒpi/ noun keyword search /kiw&d s&tʃ/ advertising material which criticises noun a search for documents containing competing products one or more words that are specified by a search-engine user knock off /nɒk ɒf/ verb to reduce a price by a particular amount 쑗 She kickback /kkbk/ noun an illegal knocked £10 off the price for cash. that a company been sold and kept by the store so that it and its employees possess and that can can be used for stock control be put to profitable use king-size /kŋ saz/ adjective 1. which must be assembled by the search-engine traffic. especially which is removed when the item has specialist knowledge. particular type of website (NOTE: Com- panies need to think very carefully knockdown /nɒkdaυn/ noun 왍 about the keywords they place in their knockdown (KD) goods goods sold in webpages in order to attract relevant parts. thus helping the advertisers She had a newspaper kiosk near the sta- to evaluate the effectiveness of advertis. knowledge management /nɒld ferring to an extra large container of a mndmənt/ noun 1. official standards ral noun potential customers 쑗 In this sales campaign we will be concentrat- knock /nɒk/ verb 왍 to knock the com- petition to hit competing firms hard by ing on key prospects.key number 150 knowledge management they saw it. kpt(ə)l/ noun knowledge. the task of product. stupid keypad /kipd/ noun a set of keys on a computer Kitemark /kat mɑk/ trademark GB a mark on goods to show that they meet key prospects /ki prɒspekts/ plu. for selling goods out of doors 쑗 same as information management . 쑗 This is bad jour- vigorous selling ney planning since it does not allow sufficient time to visit all the key knock down /nɒk daυn/ verb 왍 to prospects.

The American spell. loaded into a bonded warehouse without sumers to advertising paying customs duty labour-intensive industry /lebər landing page /lndŋ ped/ noun ntensv ndəstri/ noun an industry the page on a website where the user ar- which needs large numbers of workers.labelled. 왍 there is a penalty for late deliv- believes it is right to let the economy ery if delivery is later than the agreed run itself date. at land /lnd/ verb to put goods or pas. after the time laissez-faire economy /lese feər stated or agreed 쑗 We apologise for the kɒnəm/ noun an economy where the late arrival of the plane from Amster- government does not interfere because it dam. the supplier has to pay a fine 2. unloaded and use 쐽 verb to attach a label to something passed through customs labelling /leb(ə)lŋ/ noun the act of landing card /lndŋ kɑd/ noun a putting a label on something (NOTE: la. plane was two hours late. laser printing /lezə prntŋ/ noun egory of buyers of a product who are the printing using a laser printer last to buy it or use it late /let/ adjective 1.g. tʃɑdz/ plural noun payment for tory where labels are attached to the putting goods on land and paying cus- product toms duties laboratory test /ləbɒrət(ə)ri test/ landing order /lndŋ ɔdə/ noun a noun a test carried out under controlled permit which allows goods to be un- conditions. laser printer /lezə prntə/ noun lading /ledŋ/ noun the putting of computer printer which uses a laser goods on a ship source to print high-quality dot matrix characters on paper laggards /l"ədz/ plural noun a cat. . Compare for work 쑗 25. passed through customs and can land ing is labeling. card given to passengers who have belling. 쑗 The plane stopped for 쐽 adverb after the time stated or agreed thirty minutes at the local airport to 쑗 The shipment was landed late.) from a ship or an aircraft labelling department /leb(ə)lŋ landing charges /lndŋ dpɑtmənt/ noun a section of a fac. in particular the page you arrive where labour costs are high in relation on when directed by a hyperlink to turnover landscape /lndskep/ noun an il- labour market /lebə mɑkt/ noun lustration page or book whose width is the number of wokers who are available greater than its height.000 school-leavers have portrait just come on to the labour market. e.label 151 late L label /leb(ə)l/ noun a piece of paper landed costs /lndd kɒsts/ plural or card attached to something to show noun the costs of goods which have its price or an address or instructions for been delivered to a port. rives. 쑗 The land passengers and mail. the end of a period of time 왍 latest date sengers onto land after a voyage by sea for signature of the contract the last or by air 쑗 The ship landed some goods acceptable date for signing the contract at Mombasa.labeled. of the reactions of con.

쑗 The manage- a category of buyers of a product who ment has decided on a September buy it later than the early majority but launch date. 쑗 The company is geared before the laggards up for the launch of its first latent /let(ə)nt/ adjective present but microcomputer. etc. on an email advertis- launched their new car model at the mo.late majority 152 layout late majority /let mədɒrti/ noun put back three months. . its contents 쑗 They have altered the lay- launch /lɔntʃ/ verb to put a new out of the offices. law of diminishing returns /lɔr əv dmnʃŋ rt&nz/ noun a general lateral diversification /lt(ə)rəl rule that as more factors of production dav&sfkeʃ(ə)n/ noun the act of such as land. text. smaller "reʃ(ə)n/ noun the act of joining simi. tential customers latest /letst/ adjective most recent 쑗 layout /leaυt/ noun 1. and trademarks 쑗 thousands of pounds on launching a I like the illustration and the copy but new brand of soap. usually spending words and pictures on a printed page. including the head- tor show. law of inertia of large numbers lar companies or taking over a company /lɔr əv n&ʃər əv lɑd n mbəz/ in the same line of business as yourself noun a general rule that larger samples 쑗 Lateral integration will allow a pool. in money on advertising it 쑗 They an advertisement. əv stətstk(ə)l re"jυlrti/ noun a lateral thinking /lt(ə)rəl θŋkŋ/ general rule that a group of people or noun an imaginative approach to prob. so the of business amount they produce is proportionately lateral integration /lt(ə)rəl ntə. 2. the arrangement of product on the market. labour and capital are diversifying into quite a different type added to the existing factors. 쑗 The company is spending line. 쑗 The layout needs to be putting a new product on the market 쑗 changed so that other features are The launch of the new model has been highlighted. 쑗 Lateral integration the population than small ones in the form of a merger will improve the law of statistical regularity /lɔr efficiency of both businesses involved.. 쐽 noun the act of not the layout. rule that the amount of a product which ing sessions encourage lateral thinking is available is related to the needs of po- and originality. noun a party held to advertise the lateral /lt(ə)rəl/ adjective at the launching of a new product same level or with the same status 쑗 law /lɔ/ noun a general rule Her transfer to Marketing was some- thing of a lateral move. 쑗 Brainstorm. time 쑗 Situation analysis has shown that launching party /lɔntʃŋ pɑti/ there is only latent demand. the arrange- He always drives the latest model of car. not yet developed 왍 latent market a po. ing message. illustrations. are more likely to be representative of ing of resources. objects taken from a larger group of lem-solving which involves changing people or objects will tend to resemble established patterns of thinking to help the larger group make a breakthrough 쑗 Lateral thinking law of supply and demand /lɔr resulted in finding a completely new use əv səpla ən dmɑnd/ noun a general for an existing product. ment of the inside space of a building or 쑗 Here are the latest sales figures. launching /lɔntʃŋ/ noun the act of tential market which has not so far been putting a new product on the market touched launching costs /lɔntʃŋ kɒsts/ latent demand /let(ə)nt dmɑnd/ plural noun the costs of publicity for a noun a situation where there is demand new product for a product but potential customers are launching date /lɔntʃŋ det/ unable to pay for it 쑗 We will have to noun the date when a new product is of- wait for the economy to improve in ficially shown to the public for the first countries where there is latent demand.

a new hairdressing salon 쑗 They are sion to Nigeria. they may enjoy a reputation for quality simply by being at expires next year or the lease runs out the top. legal /li"(ə)l/ adjective 1. used to advertise make something legal . le- searching through online databases to galization noun the act of making find the addresses of potential something legal 쑗 the campaign for the customers legalisation of cannabis leaflet /liflət/ noun a sheet of paper legalise /li"əlaz/. infor. ask a lawyer to advise about a legal gests a certain answer 쑗 Interviewers problem were trained to avoid bias and leading questions. e. referring to the law 왍 to take legal leading question /lidŋ action to sue someone or to take some- kweʃtʃən/ noun a question in a ques. 쑗 We made (NOTE: leading – led) 쐽 noun 1. a the container prospective purchaser who is the main learning curve /l&nŋ k&v/ noun a decision-maker when buying a product gradual process of learning. a piece of trade delegation was invited to meet the land or a piece of equipment for a period President. a product which sells best against payment of a fee 쑗 to rent office ‘…market leaders may benefit from scale space on a twenty-year lease 왍 the lease economies or other cost advantages. or they may actually produce a superior next year the lease comes to an end product that gives them both a large market next year share and high profits’ [Accountancy] leave leaflet /liv liflət/ noun a leader pricing /lidə prasŋ/ noun promotional leaflet left by a salesperson the practice of cutting prices on some with a prospective customer goods in the hope that they attract cus- tomers to the shop where more profit. according reʃ(ə)n/ noun the process of finding to the law or allowed by the law 쑗 The prospective purchasers company’s action was completely legal. 쑗 I goods lost in storage. legalize verb to giving information.000 addresses. 2. a person who learning organisation /l&nŋ manages or directs others 쑗 the leader ɔ"ənazeʃ(ə)n/ noun an organisation of the construction workers’ union or whose employees are willing and eager the construction workers’ leader 쑗 She to share information with each other. 쑗 The tour of American handing out leaflets describing the fi- factories will be led by the minister. by going bad was given some useful leads by the sales or by being stolen or by leaking from rep who used to cover this territory. 쑗 The leading question pres.g. to is the leader of the trade mission to Ni. sug. 쑗 The leader of the letting or renting a building. nancial services they offer. a leaflet mailing to 20. leakage /likd/ noun an amount of ritory with no leads to follow up.lead 153 legalise lead /lid/ verb to be the main person in something 쑗 to mail leaflets advertising a group 쑗 She will lead the trade mis. 2. legal adviser /li"(ə)l ədvazə/ surized the respondent into answering noun a person who advises clients about untruthfully. by its phrasing. 쑗 The minister was the leader of team to achieve their goals the party of industrialists on a tour of lease /lis/ noun a written contract for American factories. 2. as shown on or service an imaginary scale leader /lidə/ noun 1. ledger /ledə/ noun a book in which able sales can be made accounts are written lead generation /lid denə. one to court 왍 to take legal advice to tionnaire which. mation which may lead to a sale 쑗 It has been difficult starting selling in this ter. learn from each other. the law lead partner /lid pɑtnə/ noun the legal currency /li"(ə)l k rənsi/ organisation that takes the leading role noun money which is legally used in a in an alliance country lead sourcing /lid sɔsŋ/ noun legalisation /li"əlazeʃ(ə)n/. and to work as a geria.

[Sydney Morning Herald] letter of agreement /letər əv ə. payment by overseas customers). letter of inquiry concerning possible vices to occupy their time trade discounts. letters patent /letəz pet(ə)nt/ plu- other to ask for or to give information ral noun the official term for a patent letterhead /letəhed/ noun the name level /lev(ə)l/ noun the position of and address of a company printed at the something compared to others 쑗 low top of a piece of notepaper levels of productivity or low productivity letter of acknowledgement /letər levels 쑗 to raise the level of employee əv əknɒldmənt/ noun a letter which benefits 쑗 to lower the level of says that something has been received borrowings letter of advice /letər əv ədvas/ ‘…figures from the Fed on industrial production for April show a decline to levels last seen in noun a letter to a customer giving de. behalf of a customer authorising pay- gally responsible the law says that the ment to a supplier when the conditions directors are responsible specified in the document are met (this legend /ledənd/ noun a short note is a common method of guaranteeing printed underneath an illustration to ex. people or organisations and acts as a ing allowed by law 쑗 There is doubt simple form of contract about the legality of the company’s ac. the contract noun a document issued by a bank on has to be obeyed 왍 the directors are le. plent/ noun a letter in which someone legally /li"əli/ adverb according to complains the law 왍 the contract is legally bind. June 1984’ [Sunday Times] tails of goods ordered and shipped but ‘…applications for mortgages are running at a not yet delivered 쑗 The letter of advice high level’ [Times] stated that the goods would be at ‘…employers having got their staff back up to a Southampton on the morning of the 6th. level playing field /lev(ə)l pleŋ "rimənt/ noun a document that sets fild/ noun a situation in which the same out what has been agreed between two rules apply for all competitors and none . lemon /lemən/ noun 1. lettershop /letəʃɒp/ noun a com- pany that puts together the various ele- pecially a car. an investment that is performing the envelopes by addresses poorly letters of administration /letəz lending limit /lendŋ lmt/ noun a əv ədmnstreʃ(ə)n/ plural noun a restriction on the amount of money a letter given by a court to allow someone bank can lend to deal with the estate of a person who letter /letə/ noun a piece of writing has died sent from one person or company to an. letter of credit /letər əv kredt/ ing according to the law.legality 154 level playing field legality /l"lɔt/ noun the fact of be. kwaəri/ noun a letter from a prospec- terest people for a much longer time tive buyer to a supplier inquiring about than normal (informal ) . a film. 쑗 We received a and are willing to buy products or ser. that is defective in some ments of a direct mailing shot. Abbr plain it L/C legislation /ledsleʃ(ə)n/ noun letter of indemnity /letər əv n- laws demnti/ noun a letter promising pay- legs /le"z/ plural noun the ability of an ment as compensation for a loss advertising campaign. reasonable level are waiting until the scope for 쑗 The letter of advice reminded the cus. overtime working is exhausted before hiring’ tomer of the agreed payment terms. letter of complaint /letər əv kəm- tion in dismissing him. and sorts way 2. es. a book. or letter of inquiry /letər əv n- other usually short-lived product to in. a product. products and their prices 쑗 The letter of leisure market /leə mɑkt/ noun inquiry requested us to send our cata- people who have plenty of leisure time logues and price lists.

especially a licence light industry /lat ndəstri/ noun to sell alcohol or to manufacture an industry making small products such something as clothes. but not an outright sale dends owed to shareholders 쑗 The bal. someone’s goods and keep them until a sible for something 왍 to refuse liability debt has been paid for something to refuse to agree that life /laf/ noun the period of time for you are responsible for something which something or someone exists liable /laəb(ə)l/ adjective 왍 liable life cycle /laf sak(ə)l/ noun a con- for legally responsible for 쑗 The cus. etc. se"menteʃ(ə)n/ noun the dividing of ware and how many people are allowed a market into segments according to the to use it way in which customers live. which can be charted censed to run an employment agency. tomer’s lifetime. 쑗 right or patent The magazine ran a series of articles on licence agreement /las(ə)ns ə. use something. as when a company allows another lifetime customer value /laftam company to manufacture its products k stəmə vlju/. lifetime value abroad 쑗 licensed to sell beers. cept used for charting the different tomer is liable for breakages. or calculators . 쑗 who licenses someone The brand name has become a liability to the company. animals or chairman was personally liable for the products company’s debts. 왍 he was not able to alcohol can be sold meet his liabilities he could not pay his licensing laws /las(ə)nsŋ lɔz/ debts 왍 to discharge your liabilities in plural noun the laws which control full to pay everything which you owe when and where alcohol can be sold liability /laəblti/ noun a legal re. when you are alive cial permission to do something for a fee. an official noun the number of years a person is document which allows someone to do likely to live something (NOTE: the American spell. licensing agreement /las(ə)nsŋ ment 왍 levies on luxury items taxes on ə"rimənt/ noun an agreement luxury items where a person or company is granted a liabilities /laəbltiz/ plural noun licence to manufacture something or to the debts of a business. 쏡 VALS license /las(ə)ns/ noun US spelling lifetime /laftam/ noun the time of licence 쐽 verb to give someone offi. lifestyle /laf stal/ noun a way of ing is license) 2. 왍 goods manufac. using technology and market research licensee /las(ə)nsi/ noun a person light /lat/ adjective not heavy who has a licence. licensor /lasensə/ noun a person sponsibility for damage or loss. ment 쑗 licensing laws manded and collected by the govern. books.levy 155 light industry of them has any special advantage over licensing /las(ə)nsŋ/ adjective re- the others ferring to licences 쑗 a licensing agree- levy /levi/ noun money which is de. 쑗 The stages in the life of people. living of a particular section of society tured under licence goods made with 쑗 These upmarket products appeal to the permission of the owner of the copy. people with an extravagant lifestyle. including divi. the lifestyles of some successful "rimənt/ noun a legal document businessmen. wines /laftam vlju/ noun the value of a and spirits 쑗 to license a company to customer to a firm during the cus- manufacture spare parts 쑗 She is li. licensing hours /las(ə)nsŋ aυəz/ ance sheet shows the company’s assets plural noun the hours of the day when and liabilities. life expectancy /laf kspektənsi/ licence /las(ə)ns/ noun 1. which comes with a software product lifestyle segmentation /laf stal and defines how you can use the soft. 왍 to accept liability for lien /lin/ noun the legal right to hold something to agree that you are respon.

line organization noun a situation where someone’s lia. the impact of the commer. 2. factory limited their credit the banks have al. In the early months of the year commentators were talking about a fall to linear /lniə/ adjective calculated by $5 a barrel but for the first time in two decades. Shades are shown ened to Ltd) by lines drawn close together. line drawing /lan drɔŋ/. a row of letters or figures on ports or to impose import limits to al. of lines and no tones. 쑗 The short holiday season is a limiting son who watches little television 쑗 If factor on the hotel trade. seconds. slow sellers. someone yond a specific point 왍 the banks have ‘…cash paid for overstocked lines. linear measurement /lniə limited production and succeeded in pushing prices up’ [Financial Times] meəmənt/. a page 왍 to open a line of credit or a low only a specific amount of imports 쐽 credit line to make credit available to verb to stop something from going be. limited function wholesaler line extension /lan kstenʃən/ /lmtd f ŋkʃən həυlselə/ noun a noun the adding of another product to a distributor performing only some of the product line functions of a wholesaler 쑗 As a limited line filling /lan flŋ/ noun the fill- function wholesaler the dealer did not ing of gaps in a product line provide a delivery service to retailers. or written on paper 쑗 paper with thin cials will be wasted. length the oil exporting countries got their act together. same as prod- can go no further 왍 to set limits to im. used for charging ‘…the biggest surprise of 1999 was the rebound purposes in the price of oil. limited liability com. line management /lan limited liability /lmtd laəblti/ mndmənt/. uct line 3. linear footage /lniə fυtd/ noun a measurement of how limitation /lmteʃ(ə)n/ noun the long something is such as the length of act of allowing only a specific quantity shelving available for a display of something 쑗 The contract imposes limitations on the number of cars which line block /lan blɒk/ noun a printing block for line drawings can be imported. /lan ɔ"ənazeʃ(ə)n/ noun the or- bility for debt is limited by law ganisation of a business where each .’ [Australian Financial Review] lowed their customers only a specific amount of credit 왍 each agent is lim. when passed over a bar specific quantity of goods code. blue lines 쑗 I prefer notepaper without limit /lmt/ noun the point at which any lines. concentrate on other products pany /lmtd laəblti k mp(ə)ni/ noun a company where each share.light pen 156 line management light pen /lat pen/ noun a type of limited market /lmtd mɑkt/ electronic pen which directs a beam of noun a market which can take only a light which. 왍 limitation of liabil- ity the fact of making someone liable line chart /lan tʃɑt/ noun a chart or for only a part of the damage or loss graph using lines to indicate values limited /lmtd/ adjective restricted line divestment /lan da- vestmənt/ noun the dropping or sell- limited company /lmtd ing of an entire product line so as to k mp(ə)ni/. line il- holder is responsible for repaying the lustration /lan ləstreʃ(ə)n/ noun a company’s debts only to the face value drawing or illustration consisting only of the shares they own (NOTE: short. too many of the target audience are line /lan/ noun 1. 쑗 She drew a thick line before something ends or the point where you the column of figures. lineage /land/ noun a method of ited to twenty-five units each agent is measuring a classified advertisement by allowed only twenty-five units to sell counting the lines. etc. can read it and send information limiting /lmtŋ/ adjective which back to a computer limits 쑗 a limiting clause in a contract light viewer /lat vjuə/ noun a per. a long mark printed light viewers.

The catalogue lists ten models of fax livery /lvəri/ noun a company’s own machine. but who does not own the lists a living wage he does not earn enough list building /lst bldŋ/ noun find. send me literature about your new prod- 쑗 I can’t find that item on our stock list. uniforms. a cata. owns a direct mail list lets another com- one to sell alcohol pany use it for a fee list /lst/ noun 1. 왍 to load a someone who is talking or to something lorry or a ship to put goods into a lorry which you can hear or a ship for transporting 쑗 to load cargo onto a ship 쑗 a truck loaded with listening area /ls(ə)nŋ eəriə/ boxes 쑗 a ship loaded with iron 왍 a noun the area covered by a radio sta. 2. heat ing names and addresses and entering and rent them into a database for direct market. several items written literature /lt(ə)rətʃə/ noun written one after the other 쑗 They have an at. but area 쑗 to list products in a catalogue 쑗 not to the wet parts. 3.line rate 157 load manager is responsible for doing what list host /lst həυst/ noun a company his superior tells him to do that provides connections to the Internet line rate /lan ret/ noun the rate and storage space on its computers charged for advertising space. 쑗 She lithography /lθɒ"rəfi/ noun a print- crossed the item off her list. 쑗 Please add this item to the list. the share of the total audience enjoyed to put a program into a computer 쑗 by a radio station Load the word-processing program be- . uct range. or investments which can be tion of renting a mailing list quickly converted into cash list renting /lst rentŋ/ noun an ar- liquor licence /lkə las(ə)ns/ noun rangement in which a company that a government document allowing some. used e. 쏡 hyperlink for something as given in a catalogue liquid assets /lkwd sets/ plural list rental /lst rent(ə)l/ noun the ac- noun cash. to pay for essentials such as food. on list broker /lst brəυkə/ noun a per.g. ing process by which a design is applied logue 쐽 verb to write a series of items to a smooth flat surface with greasy ink one after the other 쑗 to list products by or a crayon. information about something 쑗 Please tractive list of products or product list. (of a ship) to take on cargo 쑗 listening share /ls(ə)nŋ ʃeə/ noun The ship is loading a cargo of wood. load /ləυd/ noun goods which are ing purposes transported 왍 the load of a lorry/of a list cleaning /lst klinŋ/ noun container the goods carried by a lorry checking the details of a mailing list to or in a container 왍 maximum load the make sure they are correct largest weight of goods which a lorry or listen /ls(ə)n/ verb to pay attention to plane can carry 쐽 verb 1. based on which can store the files for a user’s the line space used in a newspaper or website (NOTE: also called a ‘host ser- vice or hosting service provider’) magazine list maintenance /lst line simplification /lan smplf- mentənəns/ noun the process of keʃ(ə)n/ noun the removal of some keeping a mailing list up to date products from a product line to make the whole line more easily manageable list manager /lst mndə/ noun a person who promotes a mailing list to link /lŋk/ noun graphics or an image potential users which moves the user to another page or online location when the user clicks on list price /lst pras/ noun the price it. fully loaded ship a ship which is full of tion’s signal cargo 2. office decoration and vehicles son who arranges to sell mailing lists to living /lvŋ/ noun 왍 he does not earn users. The surface is wetted and category 쑗 to list representatives by ink will adhere to the greasy parts. special design and colours.

films are made 쑗 We still have to decide loading dock /ləυdŋ dɒk/ noun the on locations for the advertisements. and the distribu- ‘…the business agent for Local 414 of the Store tion of finished products to the end Union said his committee will recommend that user.load-carrying capacity 158 long-range fore you start keyboarding. law-makers to support a particular cause logistics /lədstks/ noun the task or interest or science of managing the movement. decision-making which assume that pur- puting. which broadcasts over a small area of loading /ləυdŋ/ noun assigning the country work to workers or machines 쑗 The pro. local /ləυk(ə)l/ adjective located in or storage. 4. manufac- figure’ [Sunday Times] turing or processing. for a long period of time in the future 왍 tions in a small area of the country long-range economic forecast a fore- local newspaper /ləυk(ə)l cast which covers a period of several njuzpepə/ noun a newspaper which years . localized London gold fixing /l ndən adjective which occurs in one area only "əυld fksŋ/ noun system where the localised advertising strategy world price for gold is set each day in /ləυkəlazd dvətazŋ strtədi/ London noun planning an advertising cam. design dvətazŋ/ noun advertising in the or group of letters used by a company as area where a company is based a mark on its products and in advertising localised /ləυkəlazd/. extra payment for some service 쑗 That local radio station /ləυk(ə)l company is notorious for loading its rediəυ steʃ(ə)n/ noun a radio station prices. a duction manager has to ensure that place where something is 2. and tra charges to a price mainly carries news about that area load-carrying capacity /ləυd local press /ləυk(ə)l pres/ noun kriŋ kəpsti/ noun the amount of newspapers which are sold in a small goods which a lorry is capable of area of the country 쑗 The product was carrying only advertised in the local press as it loaded price /ləυdd pras/ noun a was only being distributed in that area price which includes an unusually large of the country. and processing of materials and providing a service for a restricted area information in a supply chain (NOTE: Lo- ‘…each cheque can be made out for the local gistics includes the acquisition of raw equivalent of £100 rounded up to a convenient materials and components. the time it takes for a page of chasing is the result of a set of rational data to open completely in a window decisions made by the purchaser 쑗 Log- lobby /lɒbi/ noun a pressure group ical models do not allow for the unpre- that tries to persuade a government or dictable side of buying behaviour. is sold only in a restricted area. location /ləυkeʃ(ə)n/ noun 1. a place. part of a harbour where ships can load logical models /lɒdk(ə)l or unload mɒd(ə)lz/ plural noun models of buyer load time /ləυd tam/ noun in com. to add ex. long lease /lɒŋ lis/ noun a lease paign for a particular country or area of which runs for fifty years or more 쑗 to a market rather than a global campaign take an office building on a long lease local media /ləυk(ə)l midiə/ plural long-range /lɒŋ rend/ adjective noun newspapers and radio and TV sta.) the membership ratify the agreement’ [Toronto Star] logistics management /lə- ‘EC regulations insist that customers can buy dstks mndmənt/ noun the cars anywhere in the EC at the local pre-tax management of the distribution of prod- price’ [Financial Times] ucts to the market local advertising /ləυk(ə)l logo /ləυ"əυ/ noun a symbol. es- careful loading makes the best use of pecially a site where still photographs or human resources.

not having some. high prices. not amortized’ [Hongkong Standard] making any profit 쑗 The company is ‘…the company began to experience a demand trading at a loss. any more 왍 to lose an order not to get low-hanging fruit /ləυ hŋŋ an order which you were hoping to get frut/ noun an easy short-term sales or 쑗 During the strike. [Globe and Mail (Toronto)] the state of being worth less or having a look and feel /lυk ən fil/ noun the lower value 쑗 Shares showed losses of appeal of the design. 왍 the company low-involvement hierarchy /ləυ is losing sales or is losing market nvɒlvmənt harɑki/ noun a hierar- share the company has fewer sales or a chy of response to advertising where the smaller share of the market than before customer is relatively indifferent to the product or service and only responds to lose out /luz aυt/ verb to suffer as a repeated marketing result of something 쑗 The company has lost out in the rush to make cheap com. the sheet of advertising material slipped company made a net profit of FFr 300. that is bought by consumers without loss /lɒs/ noun 1.000 last between the pages of a publication year’ [Financial Times] lorry-load /lɒri ləυd/ noun the low-grade /ləυ "red/ adjective 1. the use of a website to potential customers state of weighing less 왍 loss in weight and the way the site fits the image the goods which weigh less than when they company is trying to put across were packed 왍 loss in transport the amount of weight which is lost while loose /lus/ adjective not attached goods are being transported loose insert /lus ns&t/ noun a ‘…against losses of FFr 7. 왍 to cut your losses to stop do- money used to finance these loans diminished’ ing something which is losing money 3. 쑗 We lost out to a Japanese vɒlvmənt prɒd kt/ noun a company who put in a lower tender for low-priced product for everyday use the job. vice. low-involvement product /ləυ n- puters. 왍 low-pressure sales sales where the . 쑗 Their service is so slow that they have been losing customers.long-standing 159 low-pressure long-standing /lɒŋ stndŋ/ ad. giving much thought to brands thing any more 왍 loss of customers not low-pressure /ləυ preʃə/ adjective keeping customers because of bad ser. 쑗 We sold the shop at for longer-term mortgages when the flow of a loss. 왍 loan a loan to be repaid many years later the car was written off as a dead 왍 long-term objectives aims which will loss/a total loss the car was so badly take years to achieve damaged that the insurers said it had no ‘…land held under long-term leases is not value 왍 at a loss making a loss. amount of goods carried on a lorry or in not very important 쑗 a low-grade offi- a container 쑗 They delivered six cial from the Ministry of Commerce 2. etc. 왍 loss of an order jective which has been arranged for a not getting an order which was expected long time 쑗 a long-standing agreement 왍 the company suffered a loss of mar- 왍 long-standing customer or customer ket penetration the company found it of long standing a person who has been had a smaller share of the market 2. the a customer for many years state of having less money than before long-term /lɒŋ t&m/ adjective 왍 on or not making a profit 왍 the company a long-term basis for a long period of suffered a loss the company did not time 왍 long-term debts debts which make a profit 왍 to report a loss not to will be repaid many years later 왍 show a profit in the accounts at the end long-term forecast a forecast for a pe. not of very good quality 쑗 The car runs lose /luz/ verb not to have something best on low-grade petrol. 4.7m two years ago. the company lost market opportunity which provides a six orders to American competitors. 왍 to quick profit without too much effort (in- lose customers to have fewer customers formal ) . lorry-loads of coal. layout and ease of up to 5% on the Stock Exchange. of the year 쑗 The company reported a riod of over three years 왍 long-term loss of £1m on the first year’s trading.

of as their incomes rise 쑗 The company ing customers. noun expensive items which are not ba- ers discounts over a period of time to sic necessities encourage them to remain as customers luxury product /l kʃəri prɒd kt/ loyalty scheme /lɔəlti skim/ noun noun a product which people buy more a scheme to keep the business of exist. not of good quality 쑗 They tried to sell lump sum /l mp s m/ noun money us some low-quality steel.g. by special discounts has gone upmarket and is now selling for loyalty card holders luxury products.low-quality 160 luxury product salesperson does not force someone to lull /l l/ noun a quiet period 쑗 After buy. but only encourages them to do so last week’s hectic trading this week’s low-quality /ləυ kwɒlti/ adjective lull was welcome. the same brand or using the same shop luxury /l kʃəri/ noun. not in several low season /ləυ siz(ə)n/ noun a pe. paid in one single amount. (NOTE: you are not necessary but which is good to have loyal to someone or something) 쑗 Luxury items are taxed very heavily. loyalty card /lɔəlti kɑd/ noun a luxury goods /l kʃəri "υdz/ plural special plastic card which gives custom. adjective re- 쑗 The aim of the advertising is to keep ferring to an expensive thing which is the customers loyal. small sums 쑗 When he retired he was riod when there are few travellers 쑗 Air given a lump-sum bonus. . 쑗 She sold her fares are cheaper in the low season. house and invested the money as a lump loyal /lɔəl/ adjective always buying sum. e.

in. every month or every week 2.g. before it is mailed or sold dustry. same larly. 왍 by sea mail sent by post abroad. advertising sheet put into a magazine covering a wide area when it is mailed or sold 왍 to insert a macroeconomics /mkrəυikə. factors outside ing something by hand or by messenger the area of marketing which cannot be influenced by the marketing effort. reces. such as legislation or mail. a whole group of the magazine mailing /m"əzin population or a whole country. etc. 왍 to send a package by surface mail to cluding demographics. which comes out regu. owned by one publisher and offering ad- omy. usually with pictures and printed on They mailed their catalogue to three glossy paper. to send some- suit thing by post 쑗 to mail a letter 쑗 We mailed our order last Wednesday. send a package by land or sea. Compare magazine by post to subscribers microeconomics (NOTE: macroeco- nomics takes a singular verb) 왍 mac.Ma and Pa shop 161 mail M Ma and Pa shop /mɑ ən pɑ ʃɒp/ special colour supplement published noun a small family-run business with a newspaper 왍 magazine insert an macro. leaflet in a specialist magazine to put nɒmks/ noun a study of the eco. the natural envi. 쑗 Mail to some of the islands develop a flexible planning system to in the Pacific can take six weeks. a system of send- varənmənt/ noun 1. in several publications as a packaged sion. a as email . macromarketing /mkrəυ using a plane 왍 we sent the order by mɑktŋ/ noun the study of trading ac- tivity within a whole economic system first-class mail we sent the order by the such as a country. in order melŋ/ noun the sending of copies of a to help in economic planning. a whole in. 3. an advertising leaflet into a magazine nomics of a whole area./mkrəυ/ prefix very large. the general ing letters and parcels from one place to environmental factors that affect an another 쑗 The cheque was lost in the organisation. with its political. not by air ronment. e. inflation. a pa- per. 쑗 magazine /m"əzin/ noun 1. not send- macroenvironment. kitchen cabinets 쑗 a made-to-measure same as email 쐽 verb 1. letters sent or received 쑗 Has the mail arrived yet? 쑗 The first made-to-measure /med tə meə/ adjective made to fit the requirements of thing I do is open the mail. magazine network /m"əzin roeconomic conditions factors that netw&k/ noun a group of magazines influence the state of the overall econ. and employment levels deal macroenvironment /mkrəυ n. most expensive mail service. 왍 by allow for major changes in the mail using the postal services. 2. 쑗 The re- the customer 쑗 made-to-measure ceipt was in this morning’s mail. eco. interest rates. changes in gross national vertisers the possibility of buying space product. 2. designed nomic and social implications to be faster 2. thousand customers in Europe. using a ship 왍 by air mail sent by post abroad. mail /mel/ noun 1. 쑗 The invoice was put in the mail the country’s economy 쑗 We must yesterday.

vertisement placed again in a magazine ate in the mail survey we’ll include a or newspaper free of charge. mailing house /melŋ haυs/ noun where the shops and banks are a company which specialises in carrying majority /mədɒrti/ noun more than out mailings for other companies half of a group mailing list /melŋ lst/ noun a list major selling idea /medə selŋ of names and addresses of people who adiə/ adjective the central theme in an might be interested in a product. and are and supplying a product by post often processed in small batches. usually accompanied by a letter which need protection 쑗 a diskette which may be personalised mailer mailsort /melsɔt/ noun computer mailing /melŋ/ noun the sending of software used by mailing companies to something by post 쑗 the mailing of pub. product manufactured 쑗 Japanese makes of cars 쑗 a standard make of mailing tube /melŋ tjub/ noun a equipment 쑗 What make is the new com- stiff cardboard or plastic tube.) . used to mail items mail. a practical.mail drop 162 make-to-order mail drop /mel drɒp/ noun the mail. the sending of a questionnaire to respon. sort mailings before they are sent to the licity material 왍 to buy a mailing list to post office. because a free sample with the questionnaire. spent ten weeks making the table. 왍 to make a profit to have more dents by post for a survey 쑗 Not enough money after a deal consumers responded to the mail inter. 쑗 To encourage people to cooper. used for puter system or What’s the make of the mailing large pieces of paper such as new computer system? 쐽 verb 1. makegood /mek"υd/ noun an ad- view. mistake was made in it when it was pre- mail merge /mel m&d/ noun a viously published word-processing program that allows a make out /mek aυt/ verb to write 쑗 standard form letter to be printed out to to make out an invoice 쑗 The bill is a series of different names and made out to Smith & Co. placing orders and sending goods lifestyle classification. 왍 to make out addresses a cheque to someone to write some- mail order /mel ɔdə/ noun a sys. one’s name on a cheque tem of buying and selling from a cata. mail out /mel aυt/ verb to send pro- ing of promotional material to a large motional material by mail number of addresses mailout /mel aυt/ noun a piece of mailer /melə/ noun packaging made promotional material sent by direct of folded cardboard. 쑗 The mail survey /mel s&ve/ noun US factory makes three hundred cars a day. maker /mekə/ noun in the VALS logue. 2. usually by using special la- pay a society or other organisation bels with barcodes money to buy the list of members so that Main Street /men strit/ noun US you can use it to mail publicity material the most important street in a town. to pro- posters duce or to manufacture 쑗 The workmen mail interview /mel ntəvju/. inde- by mail 쑗 We bought our kitchen units pendent person who is interested in by mail order. list of advertising campaign names and addresses of members of a society 쑗 to build up a mailing list 쑗 make /mek/ noun a brand or type of Your name is on our mailing list. products that are good value but not mail-order catalogue /mel ɔdə necessarily fashionable kt(ə)lɒ"/ noun a catalogue from make-to-order /mek tυ ɔdə/ which a customer can order items to be noun the making of goods or compo- sent by mail nents to fulfil an existing order (NOTE: mail-order selling /mel ɔdə Make-to-order products are made to selŋ/ noun selling by taking orders the customer’s specification.

쑗 decisions The manager of our Lagos branch is in management accounts London for a series of meetings. the person in charge preparation and use of financial infor. the head of a department in a company 쑗 management accountant She’s a department manager in an engi- /mndmənt əkaυntənt/ noun an neering company. management by exception 왍 to manage property to look after /mndmənt ba ksepʃən/ noun a rented property for the owner management system whereby deviations ‘…the research director will manage and direct from plans are located and corrected a team of graduate business analysts reporting on consumer behaviour throughout the UK’ management by objectives [Times] /mndmənt ba əbdektvz/ noun manageable /mndəb(ə)l/ adjec. rectors. 쑗 The production manager take decisions has been with the company for only two management accounting weeks. man resources manager if you have a mation for managers so that they can problem. 왍 to be appointed to a management buyout managerial position to be appointed a /mndmənt baaυt/ noun the take. 1 managerial productivity problem in /mndmənt əkaυnts/ plural noun America is managers who are out of touch with financial information prepared for a their people and out of touch with their manager so that decisions can be made. customers’ [Fortune] including monthly or quarterly financial managerial /mnədəriəl/ adjec- statements. a way of managing a business by plan- tive which can be dealt with easily 쑗 ning work for the managers to do and The problems which the company faces testing if it is completed correctly and are too large to be manageable by one on time person. to direct ployees. often in great detail. 쑗 Good management or efficient manage.manage 163 managerial manage /mnd/ verb 1. usually senior managers and di- or to be in charge of 쑗 to manage a de. 쑗 Our sales manager started as /mndmənt əkaυntŋ/ noun the a rep in London. management consultant /mndmənt kəns ltənt/ noun a managed economy /mndd person who gives advice on how to kɒnəmi/ noun an economy that is manage a business controlled by a government management course management /mndmənt/ noun /mndmənt kɔs/ noun a training 1. directing or running a business 쑗 She course for managers studied management at university. /mndmənt dveləpmənt/ noun tion. a group of managers or tim/ noun a group of all the managers directors 쑗 The management has de. 쑗 Go and see the hu- accountant who prepares financial infor. manager 왍 decisions taken at manage- over of a company by a group of em. 쑗 a managers management graduate or a graduate in management team /mndmənt management 2. working in the same company cided to give everyone a pay increase. management technique ‘…the management says that the rate of /mndmənt tekniks/ noun a way loss-making has come down and it expects of managing a business further improvement in the next few years’ [Financial Times] manager /mndə/ noun 1. rial level decisions taken by managers . 쑗 Bad management or inefficient the selection and training of potential management can ruin a business. of a branch or shop 쑗 Mr Smith is the mation to support management manager of our local Lloyds Bank. ‘…the No. Abbr MBO partment 쑗 to manage a branch office 2. 2. management development ment is essential in a large organisa. with tive referring to managers 쑗 All the analysis of actual performance against managerial staff are sent for training the budget every year.

Abbr MD cotton manufacturer 쑗 Foreign manu- facturers have set up factories here.managership 164 margin managership /mndəʃp/ noun manufactured goods /mnju- the job of being a manager 쑗 After six fktʃəd "υdz/ plural noun items years. which is often reduced by the re- manifest /mnfest/ noun a list of tailer 쑗 ‘All china – 20% off the goods in a shipment manufacturer’s recommended price’ Abbr MRP mannequin /mnkn/ noun a model of a person. used to display manufacturing /mnjυfktʃərŋ/ clothes in a shop window or inside a noun the production of machine-made store products for sale 쑗 We must try to re- duce the manufacturing overheads. the differ- manufacture /mnjυfktʃə/ verb ence between the money received when to make a product for sale. manufacturer /mnjυfktʃərə/ managing director /mnədŋ noun a person or company that produces darektə/ noun the director who is in machine-made products 쑗 a big Indian charge of a whole company. using ma.g. 쐽 noun the making of a product smallest possible in order to be competi- for sale. a which the manufacturer suggests the health warning on cigarette product should be sold on the retail mar- advertisements ket. 쑗 manpower /mnpaυə/ noun the Manufacturing processes are continu- number of employees in an organisa. mapping /mpŋ/ noun the drawing power needs /mnpaυə nidz/ plural up of a map of an area noun the number of employees needed margin /mɑdn/ noun 1. e. tion. and how many will manufacturing industries actually be available /mnjυfktʃərŋ ndəstriz/ plural manpower planning /mnpaυə noun industries which take raw materi- plnŋ/ noun the process of planning als and make them into finished to obtain the right number of employees products in each job map /mp/ noun a chart which shows manpower requirements a geographical area /mnpaυə rkwaəmənts/. of a product which a factory is capable ing how many employees will be of making needed in the future. selling a product and the money paid for chines 쑗 manufactured goods 쑗 The it 왍 we are cutting our margins very company manufactures spare parts for fine we are reducing our margins to the cars. man. she was offered the managership which are made by machine of a branch in Scotland. industry or country manufacturing capacity /mnjυ- manpower forecasting fktʃərŋ kəpsti/ noun the amount /mnpaυə fɔkɑstŋ/ noun calculat. mandatory /mndət(ə)ri/ adjective required by law or stipulated in a manufacturer’s agent /mnjυ- contract fktʃərəz edənt/ noun a person ‘…the wage talks are focusing on employment who sells on behalf of a manufacturer issues such as sharing of work among and earns a commission employees and extension of employment manufacturer’s brand /mnjυ- beyond the mandatory retirement age of 60 years’ [Nikkei Weekly] fktʃərəz brnd/ noun a brand which belongs to the manufacturer and mandatory blurb /mndət(ə)ri has the same name bl&b/. mandatory copy manufacturer’s recommended /mndət(ə)ri kɒpi/ noun certain price /mnjυfktʃərəz words which are required by law to be rekəmendd pras/ noun a price at included in an advertisement. using machines 왍 products of tive 왍 our margins have been foreign manufacture products made in squeezed profits have been reduced be- foreign countries cause our margins have to be smaller to . ally being updated.

mrtam/ hardly worth the money paid 2. 쑗 The revenju/ noun the income from sell. noun land which is almost not worth mark down /mɑk daυn/ verb to farming make the price of something lower marginal pricing /mɑdn(ə)l mark-down /mɑkdaυn/ noun 1. of- p&tʃs/ noun something which a buyer ten in the open air where farm produce feels is only just worth buying and household goods are sold 쑗 The fish marginal revenue /mɑdn(ə)l market is held every Thursday. /mɑdn(ə)l prɒd ktvti/ noun ex. 쑗 Here are this week’s market already sold prices for sheep. hardly worth the money noun a lawyer who specialises in legal paid matters concerning ships and cargoes ‘…pensioner groups claim that pensioners have the highest marginal rates of tax. maritime /(adjective). a prasŋ/ noun the practice of basing the reduction of the price of something to selling price of a product on its variable less than its usual price 2. product might be sold or the group of tlti/ noun satisfaction gained from us. Income earned maritime trade /mrtam tred/ by pensioners above $30 a week is taxed at 62. (NOTE: usually writ- /mɑdn(ə)l kɒst prasŋ/ noun a ten DM after a figure: 25DM. money for- noun the cost of making a single extra merly used in Germany 쑗 The price was unit above the number already planned twenty-five marks.marginal 165 market stay competitive 2. extra space or time marine insurance /mərin n- allowed ʃυərəns/ noun the insurance of ships ‘…profit margins in the industries most exposed and their cargoes to foreign competition – machinery. D-Mark) 쐽 verb price per unit that covers marginal costs to put a sign on something 쑗 to mark a and makes an acceptable contribution to product ‘for export only’ 쑗 an article fixed costs marked at £1. maritime lawyer /mrtam lɔjə/ vestment 3. the ing one more unit of a product possible sales of a specific product or demand for a specific product 쑗 The margin of error /mɑdn əv erə/ market for home computers has fallen noun the number of mistakes which can sharply. the percent- costs of production plus a margin. open-air market is held in the central ing a single extra unit above the number square. transportation equipment and electrical goods – marine underwriter /mərin are significantly worse than usual’  ndəratə/ noun a person or company [Australian Financial Review] that insures ships and their cargoes marginal /mɑdn(ə)l/ adjective 1. marked price /mɑkt pras/ noun tra productivity achieved by the use of the price which is marked on or attached one more factor of production to an article for sale marginal purchase /mɑdn(ə)l market /mɑkt/ noun 1. 2. Also pricing method that involves fixing a called Deutschmark.50 쑗 She used a black pen marginal land /mɑdn(ə)l lnd/ to mark the price on the book. more than the highest marginal rate’ goods by sea [Australian Financial Review] mark /mɑk/ noun 1. an area where a marginal utility /mɑdn(ə)l ju. not very adjective referring to the sea profitable 쑗 a marginal return on in. 왍 to pay black marine /mərin/ adjective referring to market prices to pay high prices to get the sea items which are not easily available 쐽 . 쑗 There’s no market for calculation electric typewriters.5 noun the transporting of commercial per cent. a sign put on an marginal cost /mɑdn(ə)l kɒst/ item to show something 2. people who might buy a product 3. a place. 쑗 The mark rose marginal cost pricing against the dollar. 쑗 We have 20% of the British be accepted in a document or in a car market. 4. but age amount by which a price has been excluding fixed costs lowered 쑗 There has been a 30% marginal productivity mark-down on all goods in the sale.

through pricing. fktə ənləss/ noun a forecasting market day /mɑkt de/ noun the method which concentrates on key mar- day when a market is regularly held 쑗 ket factors that are believed to affect Tuesday is market day. which is almost is challenging the market leaders the sole channel for their services. of a product which bring about a change in prices . their customers market coverage /mɑkt market-facing enterprise /mɑkt k v(ə)rd/ noun a market share or fesŋ entəpraz/ noun an organisa- measurement of what proportion of the tion that is sensitive to the needs of its sales of an article is accounted for by a markets and customers and arranges its particular brand 쑗 The marketing direc. and is now market challenger strategy becoming a marketer of its own prod- /mɑkt tʃlndə strtədi/ noun ucts as well. so the streets are demand closed to traffic. market factor analysis /mɑkt erage by at least ten per cent. marketer /mɑktə/ noun a person or sessing the sales potential of a product company that carries out marketing ac- by adding up the number of potential tivities 쑗 The company has been in buyers in each market segment manufacturing for ten years.marketable 166 market forces verb to sell a product 쑗 This product is market-driven /mɑkt drv(ə)n/ being marketed in all European adjective which is driven by market countries. promotion or product marketface /mɑktfes/ noun the design 쑗 It’s a new aggressive company point of contact between suppliers and adopting a market challenger strategy. activities with them in mind tor’s brief was to increase market cov. a TV viewing services area or a representative’s territory marketeer /mɑktə/ noun same as market build-up method /mɑkt marketer bld p meθəd/ noun a method of as. e. market forces /mɑkt fɔsz/ opment for our tractors is part of the plural noun the influences on the sales company’s growth strategy. Adopting a market follower strategy veləpmənt/ noun a strategy involving greatly reduces expenditure on research the search for and exploitation of new and development. a profitable corner of the market 쑗 market development /mɑkt d. but attempts to product is falling. 쑗 Most direct marketers a strategy adopted by a company which support the Post Office. markets for a product 쑗 Market devel.g. in the stock market tion and report of a market market economy /mɑkt market area /mɑkt eəriə/ noun a kɒnəmi/ noun an economy in which geographical area which represents a there is a free market in goods and particular market. as fashions have benefit from their innovations and gain changed. market follower strategy /mɑkt market demand /mɑkt dmɑnd/ fɒləυə strtədi/ noun a strategy of a noun the total demand for a product in company which does not directly chal- the market 쑗 Market demand for this lenge the market leaders. forces ‘…market analysts described the falls in the market dues /mɑkt djuz/ plural second half of last week as a technical correction to a market which had been pushed noun the rent to be paid for a stall in a by demand to over the 900 index level’ market [Australian Financial Review] market economist /mɑkt marketable /mɑktəb(ə)l/ adjective kɒnəmst/ noun a person who which can be sold easily specialises in the study of financial market analysis /mɑkt structures and the return on investments ənləss/ noun the detailed examina.

through product design. ments that make up marketing such as ernment or by a group of producers to price. radio spective. mndə/ noun a person in charge of a pany’s products marketing department 쑗 The marketing marketing audit /mɑktŋ ɔdt/ manager has decided to start a new ad- noun an examination of the effective. consumer satisfaction and the programme. often using a com- communicating a message involved in puter. marketing model /mɑktŋ ganisation for its marketing activities mɒd(ə)l/ noun an overview of the en- marketing channels /mɑktŋ tire marketing process which can be tʃn(ə)lz/ plural noun the means of shown graphically. the market that can help a marketing effort successful applicant will be responsible for the marketing management development of a training programme for the new sales force’ [Times] /mɑktŋ mndmənt/ noun the or- ganising of a company’s marketing marketing agreement /mɑktŋ ə"rimənt/ noun a contract by which marketing manager /mɑktŋ one company will market another com. marketing information and produces cess of identifying needs and satisfying material on which marketers can make these needs with suitable goods or ser. television. distribution and advertising 쑗 help producers to market a certain type Personal selling is a vital part of the of product company’s marketing mix. company dealing with marketing and which are more difficult to sell into sales market gap /mɑkt "p/ noun an marketing director /mɑktŋ da- opportunity to sell a product or service rektə/ noun a director who is responsi- which is needed but which no one has ble for an organisation’s marketing sold before. and profitability . əbdektvz/ plural noun aims set losophy based on the importance of for an organisation’s marketing profit. decisions vices.g. distribu- tion and promotion. and fails to see the point of and sales literature view of the customer marketing concept /mɑktŋ marketing objectives /mɑktŋ kɒnsept/ noun a business idea or phi. forecast 167 marketing objectives market forecast /mɑkt fɔkɑst/ marketing consultancy /mɑktŋ noun a forecast of prices on the stock kəns ltənsi/ noun a firm which gives market specialist advice on marketing market fragmentation /mɑkt marketing department /mɑktŋ fr"mənteʃ(ə)n/ noun the splitting dpɑtmənt/ noun the section of a of a market into many small segments. market welfare of the general public share. either as a business marketing intelligence /mɑktŋ or as a non-profit-making organisation nteldəns/ noun information about a ‘…reporting to the marketing director. including sales. vertising campaign. and used to solve problems the process of marketing marketing myopia /mɑktŋ ma- marketing communications əυpiə/ noun a problem which occurs /mɑktŋ kəmjunkeʃ(ə)nz/ plural when a business is ‘short-sighted’ and noun all methods of communicating only views the world from its own per- used in marketing. ness of a company’s marketing plans marketing mix /mɑktŋ mks/ marketing board /mɑktŋ bɔd/ noun the combination of all the ele- noun an organisation set up by the gov. 쏡 gap activities market hall /mɑkt hɔl/ noun the building in which a market is held marketing information system /mɑktŋ nfəmeʃ(ə)n sstəm/ regularly noun computer software which analyses marketing /mɑktŋ/ noun the pro. Compare the four P’s marketing budget /mɑktŋ b dt/ noun money set aside by an or.

where a market is held 쑗 You can park teldəns/ noun information about a in the marketplace when there is no market that can help a marketing effort market. media research market opening /mɑkt and product research əυp(ə)nŋ/ noun the possibility of marketing services /mɑktŋ starting to do business in a new market s&vsz/ plural noun marketing func. pricing a product low enough to achieve keting strategy was one of expansion market penetration through diversification and market development. 2. the open space in the middle of a town market intelligence /mɑkt n. e. market re. listing the securities he or been drawn up yet? 쑗 The marketing she is willing to buy or sell. marketplace /mɑktples/ noun 1. and makes plan is flexible enough to allow for an his or her money by charging a commis- increase in advertising costs. specifying stock market and offers to do so in a cer- expenditure and expected revenue and tain list of securities (a marketmaker op- profits 쑗 Has this year’s marketing plan erates a book. usually annual. pentreʃ(ə)n/ noun the percentage of marketing strategy /mɑktŋ a total market which the sales of a com- strtədi/ noun a strategy or plan for pany cover marketing activities 쑗 What marketing market penetration pricing strategy should be adopted to reach /mɑkt pentreʃ(ə)n prasŋ/ noun these long-term objectives? 쑗 The mar. they may ‘…most discounted fares are sold by bucket enjoy a reputation for quality simply by being at shops but in today’s competitive marketplace the top. pɒlsi/ noun the basic attitudes under. cluding market research. market niche. market opportunity /mɑkt ɒpə- tions other than selling. a market 쑗 In producing this unusual s&tʃ/ noun all research carried out in product. in. for a com. share 쑗 We are the market leader in 쑗 What’s the reaction to the new car in home computers. the company has found itself a the interests of successful marketing. tjunti/ noun the possibility of going search and advertising 쑗 Our sales drive into a market for the first time is supported by well-developed and plan 168 market potential marketing plan /mɑktŋ pln/ marketmaker /mɑktmekə/ noun noun a plan. or they may actually produce a superior any agent can supply them’ [Business Traveller] product that gives them both a large market share and high profits’ [Accountancy] market position /mɑkt pə- market leader strategy /mɑkt zʃ(ə)n/ noun the place a company lidə strtədi/ noun a strategy of a holds in a market company which is a market leader and market potential /mɑkt pə- wants to maintain a dominant market tenʃəl/ noun the sales of a product that share or to keep its reputation as an should be achieved with the right kind innovator of marketing effort 쑗 The product is . a person who buys or sells shares on the pany’s marketing activities. market penetration /mɑkt fective marketing services. specifying in terms of the number and type of con- expenditure and expected revenue and sumers and the activity of competitors 쑗 profits One look at the market map shows we marketing policy /mɑktŋ are aiming at the wrong target market.g. sion on each transaction) marketing planning /mɑktŋ market map /mɑkt mp/ noun a plnŋ/ noun making a plan for a com. the situation and environment market leader /mɑkt lidə/ noun in which goods are sold 쑗 Our salespeo- the company with the largest market ple find life difficult in the marketplace. graph showing the structure of a market pany’s marketing activities. market niche /mɑkt niʃ/ noun a lying a company’s marketing activities particular segment or specialised area of marketing research /mɑktŋ r. the marketplace? 쑗 What’s the market- ‘…market leaders may benefit from scale place reaction to the new car? economies or other cost advantages.

5 market share /mɑkt ʃeə/ noun to give the selling price the percentage of a total market which the sales of a company’s product cover mark-up percentage /mɑk p pə- 쑗 We hope our new product range will sentd/ noun the mark-up expressed increase our market share. 쑗 in a market who are definable by their Since I was last in the store they have particular needs put at least a 10% mark-up on the whole market segmentation /mɑkt range of items. and has an ex. espe. marque /mɑk/ noun a famous brand pertise in the media industry in these name for a car. Jaguar. the price of something cially an area into which a firm sells mark-up /mɑk p/ noun 1. production and overhead costs. a large group of market structure /mɑkt people 2.5 segmentation. or markets Ferrari market stall /mɑkt stɔl/ noun a mart /mɑt/ noun a place where things light wooden stand where a trader sells are sold goods in a market mass /ms/ noun 1. the difference be- se"menteʃ(ə)n/ noun the division of tween the cost of a product or service the market or consumers into categories and its selling price (NOTE: Mark-up is according to their buying habits 쑗 Our often calculated as a percentage of the strategy is based on satisfying the de. noun the basic characteristics of a par. MG. as a percentage either of the cost price market specialist /mɑkt or of the selling price 쑗 What’s the speʃəlst/ noun a person who concen. a large number 쑗 We have a str ktʃə/ noun the way in which a mass of letters or masses of letters to . mark-up percentage on these items? trates on a few markets. a share. e. there was a uct will sell in a market further fall in short-term market rates’ [Financial Times] market trends /mɑkt trendz/ plural noun gradual changes taking market research /mɑkt rs&tʃ/ noun the process of examining the pos- place in a market sible sales of a product and the possible market value /mɑkt vlju/ noun customers for it before it is put on the value of an asset. centration of suppliers or consumers. a product or a market company if sold today market sector /mɑkt sektə/ noun mark up /mɑk  p/ verb to increase a particular section of a market. and mands of many different types of buyer represents the profit made on the prod- and therefore requires thorough market uct or service. market targeting /mɑkt ticular market tɑ"tŋ/ noun planning how to sell a market rate /mɑkt ret/ noun the product or service into a particular normal price in the market 쑗 We pay the market market rate for secretaries or We pay market test /mɑkt test/ noun an secretaries the market rate examination to see if a sample of a prod- ‘…after the prime rate cut yesterday. and the the power of a business within a market. competitiveness of players in the market usually based on the firm’s market market survey /mɑkt s&ve/ position noun a survey or general report on mar- market price /mɑkt pras/ noun ket conditions 쑗 The market survey sug- the price at which a product can be sold gests that there is no longer much market profile /mɑkt prəυfal/ demand for this type of product.) 왍 we work to a 3. power 169 mass promising but has not yet achieved its full market is organised. an in- market segment /mɑkt crease in price 쑗 We put into effect a se"mənt/ noun a group of consumers 10% mark-up of all prices in June. including the con- market potential. times mark-up or to a 350% mark-up we take the unit cost and multiply by 3.g. the market power /mɑkt paυə/ noun ease of entry or barriers to entry.

which usually cess of making something as large as contains the logo of the organisation possible 쑗 profit maximisation or that owns the page. tion. the advertisement’s message too weak cies) compiled by research organisations to achieve maximal awareness.g.mass customisation 170 maximisation write.g. television or newspapers same level with other managers working mass-produce /ms prədjus/ in other locations or on different prod- verb to manufacture identical products ucts or projects in large quantities 쑗 to mass-produce mature /mətʃυə/ adjective 왍 mature cars economy a fully developed economy 쐽 master /mɑstə/ adjective main or verb to become due 왍 bills which ma- original 왍 master budget a budget pre. consisting of a very system to check that a company has large number of customers enough materials in stock to do its work mass marketing /ms mɑktŋ/ 왍 materials handling the moving of noun marketing which aims at reaching materials from one part of a factory to large numbers of people another in an efficient way ‘…in the good old days of mass marketing. production. maximization noun the pro- at the top of a webpage. to help a company’s market research maximisation /mksma- masthead /mɑsthed/ noun the area zeʃ(ə)n/. and through relationships at the e. to be altered to fit the ucts in tests specific requirements of individual material /mətəriəl/ noun a sub- customers stance which can be used to make a fin- mass market /ms mɑkt/ noun ished product 왍 materials control a the whole market. with lit- tration in order to provide a main budget tle potential for increased sales for the whole company 왍 the master copy of a file the main copy of a com. noun a well-established market.. kept for security purposes stage in a product life cycle when a product is well established in the market master franchise /mɑstə though no longer enjoying increasing frntʃaz/ noun a franchise given to a sales. and often a search maximiatison of profit . the matrix /metrks/ noun an arrange- things marketers did to attract new customers ment of data in horizontal and vertical tended to be the same as the things they did to keep existing customers – competitive prices. 쑗 They received a mass of orders box and a set of links to important areas or masses of orders after the TV of the website commercials. ture in three weeks’ time bills which pared by amalgamating budgets from will be due for payment in three weeks various profit and cost centres such as mature market /mətʃυə mɑkt/ sales. to compare reactions to different prod- e. marketing or adminis. after which sooner or later it will single entrepreneur who then sells sub. a bicycle. əweənəs/ noun the point at which a tion (MBA) noun full form of MBA consumer is convinced enough by a master sample /mɑstə sɑmpəl/ product’s advertising to buy the product noun a collection of basic sampling 쑗 The marketing director considered units (such as parliamentary constituen. maturity /mətʃυərti/ noun the third puter file. start to decline sidiary franchises to others maximal awareness /mksməl Master of Business Administra. mass-produced item. columns (NOTE: plural is matrices) high quality and good service’ matrix management /metrks [Marketing Week] mndmənt/ noun management that mass media /ms midiə/ noun the operates both through the hierarchical means of communication by which chain of command within the organisa- large numbers of people are reached. radio. matched sample /mtʃd mass customisation /ms sɑmpəl/ noun the use of two samples k stəmazeʃ(ə)n/ noun a process that of people with the same characteristics allows a standard.

readership and geo- (NOTE: plural is same) 쐽 plural noun graphical distribution money or resources 쑗 The company has media event /midiə vent/ noun a the means to launch the new product. Full form Master of Business behalf of clients Administration media buying /midiə baŋ/ noun m-commerce /em kɒm&s/ noun the placing of advertisements in the me- marketing functions other than selling.g. TV. aim is to maximie sprofits. thing in the media 쑗 We got good media coverage for the launch of the new means /minz/ noun a way of doing model. dia on behalf of an organisation 쑗 Effi- e. something 쑗 Air freight is the fastest means of getting stock to South Amer. e. such as circulation. pump tity 쑗 It is the maximum the insurance mechanical data /mknk(ə)l company will pay. 쐽 noun the average or number calcu- media class /midiə klɑs/ noun a lated by adding several quantities to. maximize Such a level of investment is beyond the verb to make as large as possible 쑗 Our means of a small private company. media data form /midiə detə ica. 쑗 Do we have any means of copying fɔm/ noun a document giving basic all these documents quickly? 쑗 Bank data or information about a publication transfer is the easiest means of payment. market research and advertising cient media buying is impossible without a good knowledge of compara- mean /min/ adjective average 쑗 The tive media costs. dia is followed by a singular or plural els were reached last week. radio or gether and dividing by the number of the press quantities added 쑗 Unit sales are over media coverage /midiə the mean for the first quarter or above k v(ə)rd/ noun reports about some- the first-quarter mean.g. basic type of medium. exports to the maximum to increase e. planning MBA /em bi e/ noun a degree media buyer /midiə baə/ noun a awarded to graduates who have com. and so has to work benefits flat out to maximise his earnings.maximise 171 media event maximise /mksmaz/. 쑗 Maximum production lev.g. 쑗 The maximum load for the truck uct or service to the public (NOTE: me- is one ton. places advertisements in the media on ies. mechanical /mknk(ə)l/ adjective maximum /mksməm/ noun the worked by a machine 쑗 a mechanical largest possible number. 쑗 The coop. means test /minz test/ noun an in- eration of the workforce will be needed quiry into how much money someone if we are to maximise production. 왍 to in.20%. mean annual increase in sales is 3. format or column width exports as much as possible 쐽 adjective largest possible 쑗 40% is the maximum media /midiə/ noun the means of income tax rate or the maximum rate of communicating a message about a prod- tax. price or quan. 쑗 happening which is staged by or organ- . verb) ‘…both advertisers and agencies agree that the crease production to the maximum media owners do their bit to keep advertisers level to increase it as much as possible well informed’ [Marketing Workshop] maximum price /mksməm ‘…media costs represent a major expense for pras/ noun the highest legal price for a advertisers’ [Marketing] product 쑗 The government insists on media broker /midiə brəυkə/ such a low maximum price that we’ll noun a business which offers organisa- never break even. 왍 up to a maximum detə/ noun information regarding the of £10 no more than £10 왍 to increase printing of newspapers or magazines. 쑗 He earns to see if they are eligible for state is paid on results. 쑗 Demand for the tions a media-buying service and possi- product is so low that no company is bly additional services such as media charging the maximum price. person in an advertising agency who pleted a further course in business stud. independent 172 merchandise ised so as to attract the attention of the media selection /midiə slekʃən/ mass media noun the process of choosing the right type of media for a promotional cam- media independent /midiə nd. 쑗 Proper media planning of a country avoids overexpenditure on promotion. paign 쑗 The agency will give us guid- pendənt/. merchandise noun /m&tʃəndaz/ sation’s promotional activities goods which are for sale or which have media schedule /midiə ʃedul/ been sold 쑗 The merchandise is shipped noun all the details of advertising to be through two ports. viewers. the by a wide variety of means. 쐽 verb to sell goods used in a promotional campaign. medium /midiəm/ noun one particu- mation or entertainment to their lar means of communicating informa- subscribers. advertising or sending samples 쑗 advertisements to merchandise a product . or readers while at tion to the public (NOTE: plural is the same offering marketers a way of media) reaching audiences with print and medium-term /midiəm t&m/ ad- broadcast messages jective referring to a point between short media owner /midiə əυnə/ noun a term and long term 왍 medium-term person or company that owns a maga. but with. mərin/ noun all the commercial ships ning session. such as dis- timing and positioning of play. mercantile paper /m&kəntal media research /midiə rs&tʃ/ pepə/ noun a negotiable document noun the study or evaluation of a target used in commerce audience in order to improve an organi. forecast a forecast for two or three zine or newspaper or radio or TV station years media plan /midiə pln/ noun a megastore /me"əstɔ/ noun a very plan showing what type of media will be large store used and how much advertising will be mercantile /m&kəntal/ adjective done and when commercial 왍 mercantile country a media planner /midiə plnə/ country which earns income from trade noun a person who deals with media 왍 mercantile law laws relating to planning business media planning /midiə plnŋ/ mercantile agent /m&kəntal noun a strategy concerned with what edənt/ noun a person who sells on type of media should be used and how behalf of a business or another person much advertising should be done and and earns a commission when 쑗 The marketing manager and mercantile marine /m&kəntal media buyer are having a media plan. media service /midiə s&vs/ out the creative services usually offered noun an organisation which provides by advertising agencies the full range of media functions to its clients median /midiən/ noun the middle number in a list of numbers media shop /midiə ʃɒp/ noun same as media independent media objectives /midiə əb- dektvz/ plural noun aims which an media strategy /midiə strtədi/ advertiser has in advertising through the noun action plans for achieving media media objectives media option /midiə ɒpʃən/ noun media vehicle /midiə vik(ə)l/ a single unit of advertising space or time noun the specific programme or publi- cation used to carry an advertising media organizations /midiə message ɔ"ənazeʃ(ə)nz/ plural noun organi- sations whose aim is to provide infor. media shop /midiə ʃɒp/ ance on media selection. e. noun a business which offers organisa- tions a media-buying service.

the company is now the largest in the field. launches new companies on the Stock Exchange. merchandize verb to sell goods by a message /mesd/ noun 1. of raw materials. such as hospitals. or merchant marine /m&tʃənt mə. first-quality merchandise and sell the goods at gether of two or more companies 쑗 As a rock-bottom prices’ [Duns Business Month] result of the merger. espe. instructions as to what message the ad- ganising the display and promotion of vertisement should convey. an idea that is communicated by pro- merchandising /m&tʃəndazŋ/. jective of good enough quality for sale metamarketing /metəmɑktŋ/ and use noun US marketing applied to all kinds merchant account /m&tʃənt of organisations. buys and sells shares. a piece of wide variety of means. 쑗 merchandise a product I’ll leave a message with her secretary. message effect has been. e.g. motion 쑗 The agency was given clear merchandizing noun the process of or. 쑗 After the a wine merchant campaign we’ll try to assess what the merchantable /m&tʃəntəb(ə)l/ ad. such as supply firm merged with its main competitor. of suppliers is one the greatest problems ing to remove duplicate addresses in our microenvironment.merchandise 173 microenvironment ‘…fill huge warehouses with large quantities merger /m&də/ noun the joining to- but limited assortments of top-brand. merchandise2 /m&tʃəndaz/. message effect was lost because so cially one who buys imported goods in many people didn’t understand the joke bulk for retail sale 쑗 a coal merchant 쑗 used in the advertisement. message on the target audience 쑗 The nessperson who buys and sells. organises the display and promotion of message effect /mesd fekt/ goods noun the effect of an advertisement’s merchant /m&tʃənt/ noun a busi. debt rin/ noun all the commercial ships of a country microenvironment /makrəυ n- varənmənt/ noun the elements or fac- merge /m&d/ verb to join together 쑗 tors outside a business organisation The two companies have merged. central part of a large city nance. 2. 쑗 The which directly affect it. demand for its prod- merge-purge /m&d p&d/ noun ucts and rival companies 쑗 Unreliability combining two mailing lists and check. 쑗 The message on the merchandiser /m&tʃəndazə/ poster was conveyed in only three noun a person or company that words. action of buying and selling Compare macroeconomics 왍 micro- merchantman /m&tʃəntmən/ noun economic trends trends in a country’s a commercial ship economy. 쑗 Few peo- goods in retail outlets 쑗 the ple interviewed in the survey knew what merchandising of a product 쑗 the the advertisement’s message was sup- merchandising department posed to be. news which is sent to someone 쑗 He advertising or sending samples 쑗 to says he never received the message. consumer income and patterns of spending./makrəυ/ prefix very small but does not provide normal banking microeconomics /makrəυ ikə- services to the general public nɒmks/ noun the study of the eco- merchanting /m&tʃəntŋ/ noun the nomics of people or single companies. as well as to e-merchant at a financial institution to profit-making concerns receive the proceeds of credit-card me-too product /mi tu prɒd kt/ transactions noun a product which is a very similar merchant bank /m&tʃənt bŋk/ to an existing market leader noun a bank which arranges loans to metro area /metrəυ eəriə/ noun the companies. micro. wages. savings. such as display. əkaυnt/ noun an account opened by an churches and religions. . deals in international fi.

can move about seʃ(ə)n/ noun the right to dig a mine on mock-up /mɒk p/ noun the model a piece of land of a new product for testing or to show miscellaneous /msəleniəs/ ad. frikwənsi/ noun the minimum num. to possible buyers 쑗 The sales team jective various. sionary selling. /mʃ(ə)n(ə)ri selzp&s(ə)n/ noun a keting strategy of an individual business salesperson who approaches a new mar- middleman /md(ə)lmn/ noun a ket with a product businessperson who buys from the man.micromarketing 174 model micromarketing /makrəυ missionary salesperson mɑktŋ/ prefix the study of the mar. missionary selling /mʃ(ə)n(ə)ri ufacturer and sells to retailers or to the selŋ/ noun the act of approaching new public 쑗 We sell direct from the factory customers with a product 쑗 We have to the customer and cut out the middle. description in the salesperson emphasises support services form of mathematical data 쐽 adjective rather than taking orders which is a perfect example to be copied .g. mixed. e. a small copy of something made to show what it will wrong statement in order to persuade look like when finished 쑗 They showed someone to enter into a contract such as us a model of the new office building.g. 2. different things together mindset /mandset/ noun a way of mixed /mkst/ adjective made up of thinking or general attitude to things different sorts or of different types of mindshare /mandʃeə/ noun the things together density of the interconnects found by a mixed economy /mkst kɒnəmi/ search engine. in which payment is made. guns. (NOTE: plural is middlemen) for missionary selling. 쑗 Some sales military hardware /mlt(ə)ri reps are not aggressive enough for mis- hɑdweə/ noun military equipment. never sold there before. e. so be prepared man. sentence or little poem which helps you ber of exposures for an advertisement to remember something be effective mobile /məυbal/ adjective which mining concession /manŋ kən. a person whose job is missionary sales /mʃ(ə)n(ə)ri to wear new clothes to show them to selz/ plural noun a sales pitch where a possible buyers 4. the reasons for the existence of an ticular product or service 쑗 We intend to organisation milk the product hard for the next two mix /mks/ noun an arrangement of years. cheque misrepresentation /msreprzen- teʃ(ə)n/ noun the act of making a model /mɒd(ə)l/ noun 1. 3. 쑗 I drive a 2001 model purpose Range Rover. one for buying a product or service a style or type of product 쑗 this is the mission /mʃ(ə)n/ noun a group of latest model 쑗 The model on display is people going on a journey for a special last year’s. before it becomes obsolete. that is the number of noun a system which contains both na- pages that have links to a website tionalised industries and private minicontainer /mnikəntenə/ enterprise noun a small container mixed media /mkst midiə/ plural minimarket /mnimɑkt/ noun a noun various types of media used to- very small self-service store gether in a promotional campaign minimum frequency /mnməm mnemonic /nmɒnks/ noun a word. cash or ture is not itemized in the accounts. or not all of the were shown a mock-up of the new car. rockets and tanks mission statement /mʃ(ə)n milk /mlk/ verb to make as much stetmənt/ noun a short statement of profit for as long as possible from a par. same sort 쑗 miscellaneous items on the mode /məυd/ noun a way of doing agenda 쑗 a box of miscellaneous pieces something 왍 mode of payment the way of equipment 쑗 Miscellaneous expendi.

allowing data to be sent from one cover your original investment 왍 to computer to another make money to make a profit 왍 to put money into the bank to deposit money modification /mɒdfkeʃ(ə)n/ into a bank account 왍 to put money noun a change 쑗 The board wanted to into a business to invest money in a make or to carry out modifications to business 쑗 She put all her redundancy the plan. country change rate for a currency monies /m niz/ plural noun sums of money /m ni/ noun coins and notes money 쑗 monies owing to the company used for buying and selling 왍 to earn 쑗 to collect monies due . pany has been losing money for ing – modeled) months the company has been working modem /məυdem/ noun the device at a loss for months 왍 to get your which links a computer to a telephone money back to make enough profit to line. bank interest money-spinner /m ni spnə/ noun rates. [Financial Times] money supply /m ni səpla/ noun monetary standard /m nt(ə)ri the amount of money which exists in a stndəd/ noun the fixing of a fixed ex. The American spelling is model. loss. 왍 to put money eral important modifications. money into a shop. not to make a profit 왍 the com- elled. to make something fit a different use 쑗 money-back guarantee /m ni The car will have to be modified to pass bk "rənti/. taxes.modem 175 monies 쑗 a model agreement 쐽 verb to wear money to have a wage or salary 왍 to new clothes to show them to possible earn good money to have a large wage buyers 쑗 She has decided on a career in or salary 왍 to lose money to make a modelling. especially as a de- ent pressed for modifications to the posit 쑗 We put £25 down and paid the contract. 쑗 The cli.000 up front before they will product or the supplier has changed consider the deal. government expenditure an item which sells very well or which and borrowing is very profitable 쑗 The home-delivery ‘…the decision by the government to tighten monetary policy will push the annual inflation service has proved to be a real rate above the year’s previous high’ money-spinner. down to pay cash. 쑗 He had to put from the time of the previous purchase money up front before he could clinch modify /mɒdfa/ verb to change or the deal. 왍 money up front modified rebuy /mɒdfad riba/ payment in advance 쑗 They are asking noun a buying decision where either the for £10. 쑗 The refrigerator /m ni bk ɒfə/ noun a guarantee was considerably modified before it that money will be paid back to custom- went into production. money-back offer the government tests. 쑗 The new model has had sev. e. ers who are not satisfied with their modular /mɒdjυlə/ adjective made purchases of various sections money-making /m ni mekŋ/ ad- mom-and-pop operation /mɒm jective which makes money 쑗 a ən pɒp ɒpəreʃ(ə)n/ noun US a small money-making plan business owned and run by a couple money-off coupon /m ni ɒf monadic test /mɒndk test/ noun kupɒn/ noun a coupon in a newspaper a product test involving only one or on a package which can be cut off product and used to claim a discount on the next purchase monetary /m nt(ə)ri/ adjective re- ferring to money or currency money order /m ni ɔdə/ noun a ‘…a draft report on changes in the international document which can be bought for monetary system’ [Wall Street Journal] sending money through the post monetary policy /m nt(ə)ri money rates /m ni rets/ rates of pɒlsi/ noun the government’s policy interest for borrowers or lenders relating to finance. rest in instalments. (NOTE: modelling – mod.g.

noun research designed to find out the monopoly profit /mənɒpəli consumer’s motives for purchasing a prɒft/ noun profit earned by a busi. 1. 쑗 The sales staff will have to for a particular product or service 쑗 Mo- work hard if they want to move all that nopsony gives the buyer leverage in de- stock by the end of the month. espe- get control of all the supply of a product cially to work or to sell 왍 highly monopolist /mənɒpəlst/ noun a motivated sales staff sales staff who business which is the sole seller in a are very eager to sell market ‘…creative people aren’t necessarily motivated by money or titles. of a product 왍 the sales staff lack moti- monopoly /mənɒpəli/ noun a situa. vation the sales staff are not eager tion where one person or company is the enough to sell only supplier of a particular product or motivation research /məυt- service 쑗 to be in a monopoly situation veʃən rs&tʃ/.monopolisation 176 multi-dimensional scaling monopolisation /mənɒpəla. most favoured nation /məυst zeʃ(ə)n/. moving averages /muvŋ monthly /m nθli/ noun a magazine v(ə)rdz/ plural noun a method for which is published each month 쑗 The working out averages while allowing for holidays were advertised in all the seasonal variations. use of more than one distribution ket segments by exploring various di. (NOTE: plural is monthlies) under consideration is moved forward at monthly sales report /m nθli regular intervals selz rpɔt/ noun a report made every multi. eager- ers of cotton in the country it was a ness to work well or sell large quantities clear case of monopolistic competition. They want to see their ideas implemented’ [Nation’s Business] situation where there are only a few pro- ducers who therefore control the market motivation /məυtveʃ(ə)n/ noun between them 쑗 With only three suppli. motivational re- 쑗 The company has the monopoly of im. channel mensions such as countries and market multi-dimensional scaling /m lt types damenʃ(ə)nəl skelŋ/ noun a . manding a low price. monopolization noun the fevəd neʃ(ə)n/ noun a country process of making a monopoly which has the best trade terms monopolise /mənɒpəlaz/. motivate /məυtvet/ verb to encour- olize verb to create a monopoly or to age someone to do something. an encouragement to staff 2. 쑗 Detailed sales methods of communication to do reports help the sales manager work out business an effective sales strategy. they don’t often want more /mənɒpəlstk kɒmpətʃ(ə)n/ noun a responsibility. they may not want a larger monopolistic competition office or more work. monop. search /məυtveʃən(ə)l rs&tʃ/ ports of French wine. or to sell 쑗 Over Christmas the stock hardly monopsony /mənɒpsəni/ noun a moved at all but noe it is finally starting situation where there is only one buyer to sell./m lti/ prefix referring to many month showing the number of items things sold or the amount of money a company has received for selling stock 쑗 In the multi-channel /m lt tʃn(ə)l/ ad- sales reports all the European countries jective using both online and offline are bracketed together. multi-channel system /m lt morphological analysis /mɔfə. in which the period monthlies. product or service ness through having a monopoly motive /məυtv/ noun something that forces someone to take a particular monopsonist /mənɒpsənst/ noun action a sole buyer of a particular product or service move /muv/ verb to be sold. tʃn(ə)l sstəm/ noun a distribution lɒdik(ə)l ənləss/ noun a method system used by a producer which makes of identifying the most profitable mar.

variables and one dependent variable tive material from a range of different media such as text. sound.49 which cannot be explained in some stores. video. two dichotomous scale (usually 1 to 5) on which they base questions and one open question. tionship between several independent tronic document that contains interac. utes. multiple pricing /m ltp(ə)l multimedia /m ltimidiə/ adjective prasŋ/ noun the practice of fixing the referring to several media used in a pro. and animation noun one store in a chain of stores multinational /m ltinʃ(ə)nəl/ multiplexing /m ltpleksŋ/ noun noun a company which has branches or an arrangement where several TV chan- subsidiary companies in several coun. their replies multiple correlation /m ltp(ə)l multilateral /m ltilt(ə)rəl/ adjec. or where several messages are one of the big multinationals. The questionnaire had eight multiple in which the respondents are given a choice questions. for each pack bought at ensuring equal proportions of various full price categories existing in the population and then using random sampling to select re- multiple /m ltp(ə)l/ adjective many spondents within these categories 쐽 noun a company with stores in sev- multitasking /m ltitɑskŋ/ noun eral different towns performing several different tasks at the ‘…many independents took advantage of the bank holiday period when the big multiples same time were closed’ [The Grocer] mystery /mst(ə)ri/ noun something ‘…the multiple brought the price down to £2. The whole process produces opportunity to buy space in their maga. suring the effect of several independent lateral agreement 왍 multilateral trade variables on one dependent variable trade between several countries multiple discriminant analysis multilevel marketing /m lti /m ltp(ə)l dskrmnənt ənləss/ lev(ə)l mɑktŋ/ noun same as net. of these attributes to different market ferent publishers offer advertisers the segments. This noun a person employed by a kind of activity is bad for the brand and we market-research company to visit shops cannot afford it’ [The Grocer] anonymously to test the quality of multiple choice question service /m ltp(ə)l tʃɔs kwetʃən/ noun a mystery shopping /mst(ə)ri type of question used in a survey which ʃɒpŋ/ noun shopping done by anony- allows the respondent to choose a single mous employees of a market-research answer from several possible ones 쑗 company to test staff reactions. noun a method for assessing products work marketing by separating out their various attrib- multimagazine deal /m ltim"ə. nels are transmitted by one cable net- tries 쑗 The company has been bought by work. an assessment of the general potential of zines at the same time a product. graph. combined in the same transmission medium multi-pack offer /m lti pk ɒfə/ noun a special promotional offer in multi-stage sample /m lt sted which an extra pack is offered free. We had not agreed to this deal mystery shopper /mst(ə)ri ʃɒpə/ and they sold out very rapidly. noun a method for discovering the rela- midiə dɒkjυmənt/ noun an elec. multiple regression analysis /m ltp(ə)l r"reʃ(ə)n ənləss/ multimedia document /m lti. . etc. When they reordered we would not give it to them. multiple store /m ltp(ə)l stɔ/ ics. same price for several different products ject 쑗 We are going for an all-out multi- media advertising campaign. kɒrəleʃ(ə)n/ noun a method for mea- tive between several parties 쑗 a multi.multilateral 177 mystery shopping method of carrying out market research. and estimating the relative values zin dil/ plural noun a deal where dif. or at sɑmpəl/ noun a sample selected by a reduced price.

national /nʃ(ə)nəl/ adjective refer. the sales of goods and services in a aging director of Smith’s Ltd. 쑗 It was natural noun a brand which is recognised for the workers to feel aggrieved when . noun a launch of a product over the son named in the policy the person whole country at the same time. 왍 under the name of us. 쑗 His first country name is John. normal 쑗 It was vertises in every part of a country. 3. nationalization noun the the name of ‘Best Foods’ using the taking over of private industry by the name ‘Best Foods’ as a commercial state name. for their best cloths. but I am not sure of his other names. not just in the country capital 쑗 We took national advertising to promote our new 24-hour delivery nationwide /neʃənwad/ adjective service. not just in a Nigeria (NOTE: no plural. and not the name of the company national launch /nʃ(ə)nəl lɔntʃ/ named /nemd/ adjective 왍 the per. not made by national advertiser /nʃ(ə)nəl people 쑗 They use only natural fibres dvətazə/ noun a company that ad. 2. naira is usu. nationalisation /nʃ(ə)nəla- ing a particular name 왍 trading under zeʃ(ə)n/. animal or thing 쑗 I nk m/ noun the value of income from cannot remember the name of the man. national retailer /nʃ(ə)nəl ring to the whole of a particular country ritelə/ noun a retailing company 왍 national advertising advertising in which has branches throughout a every part of a country. branches or offices all over the country found in the earth 쑗 The offices are heated by natural gas. not only natural that the shopkeeper should just in the capital city feel annoyed when the hypermarket was national brand /nʃ(ə)nəl brnd/ built close to his shop. 왍 national campaign a sales or all over a country 쑗 We offer a nation- publicity campaign in every part of a wide delivery service. local area ally written N before figures: N2. national account /nʃ(ə)nəl əkaυnt/ noun a customer with natural /ntʃ(ə)rəl/ adjective 1.000 National Debt /nʃ(ə)nəl det/ say ‘two thousand naira’) noun money borrowed by a government name /nem/ noun the word used for national income /nʃ(ə)nəl referring to a person. as op- whose name is given on an insurance posed to launching it in some areas only policy as the person insured national newspaper /nʃ(ə)nəl njuzpepə/ noun a newspaper which narrowcasting /nrəυkɑstŋ/ is sold throughout a whole country and noun the act of reaching only a small carries national and international news special audience through an electronic medium such as cable television national press /nʃ(ə)nəl pres/ noun newspapers which sell in all parts nation /neʃ(ə)n/ noun a country and of the country 쑗 The new car has been the people living in it advertised in the national press. 쑗 The new car is country being launched with a nationwide sales campaign.naira 178 natural N naira /narə/ noun currency used in throughout a whole country.

000 loan with the bank buy much more of as their incomes rise he came to an agreement with the bank 쑗 Consumers find shopping for neces. six hours discussions stopped because negotiable /n"əυʃiəb(ə)l/ adjective no agreement was possible which can be transferred from one per. i. to anyone who holds break it natural resources /ntʃ(ə)rəl r. ‘…after three days of tough negotiations. so as to can survive 쑗 Being unemployed makes reach an agreement 쑗 The management it difficult to afford even the basic ne. after talks pected 쑗 The unexpected increase in have stopped for a time 왍 to break off raw material prices meant a negative negotiations to stop discussing a prob- variance of $5000. 쑗 Fancy packag. for a loan of £250. in partic. a bill of exchange or a cheque navigation /nv"eʃ(ə)n/ noun the negotiable paper /n"əυʃiəb(ə)l action of guiding and steering.g. changed for cash 왍 ‘not negotiable’ duction methods without consultation. without gotiate with someone to discuss a prob- which nothing can be done or no one lem formally with someone.e. words written on a cheque to show that natural break /ntʃ(ə)rəl brek/ it can be paid only to a specific person 왍 noun a convenient or reasonable point negotiable cheque a cheque made pay- in a TV programme for a commercial able to bearer. 왍 to cessities. 쑗 A sudden fall in lem 왍 to conduct negotiations to nego- revenue resulted in a negative variance tiate 왍 negotiations broke down after for the year as a whole.natural break 179 negotiation the management decided to change pro. pepə/ noun a document which can be ular the graphics which lead users to dif. ument which can be exchanged for cash. the son to another or exchanged for cash 왍 company reached agreement with its 1. ‘…many of the large travel agency chains are ing will not increase sales of necessity able to negotiate even greater discounts’ products. (NOTE: plural is necessities) negotiate terms and conditions or to necessity product /nəsesti negotiate a contract to discuss and prɒd kt/ noun an ordinary everyday agree the terms of a contract 왍 he nego- product which consumers tend not to tiated a £250. and which may be fləυ/ noun a situation where more different from standard commissions money is going out of a company than is negotiation /n"əυʃieʃ(ə)n/ noun coming in the discussion of terms and conditions negative demand /ne"ətv d. negotiable instrument /n- zɔsz/ plural noun raw materials "əυʃiəb(ə)l nstrυmənt/ noun a doc- which are found in the earth.g. [Duns Business Month] negative /ne"ətv/ adjective mean. discussing a problem again. discussed before a decision is reached 왍 negative variance /ne"ətv to enter into negotiations or to start veəriəns/ noun a difference between a negotiations to start discussing a prob- financial plan and its outcome that lem 왍 to resume negotiations to start means a less favourable profit than ex.000 sity products boring. transferred from one owner to another ferent websites for cash necessity /nəsesti/ noun something negotiate /n"əυʃiet/ verb 왍 to ne- which is vitally important.200 unionized workers’ [Toronto Star] not negotiable which cannot be ex- . coal. "əυʃietd kəmʃ(ə)n/ noun commis- tive the answer was ‘no’ sion agreed with an advertising agency negative cash flow /ne"ətv kʃ before work starts. refused to negotiate with the union. in order to reach an agreement 왍 con- mɑnd/ noun firm decisions by con. tract under negotiation a contract sumers not to buy a particular product 쑗 which is being discussed 왍 a matter for Negative demand was due to offensive negotiation something which must be advertising. negotiated commission /n- ing ‘No’ 왍 the answer was in the nega. e. gas or iron e.

. a net weight /net wet/ noun the person who works in an estate agency weight of goods after deducting the nester /nestə/ noun a person who has packing material and container left the family home and is buying his or network /netw&k/ noun a system her own home which links different points together 쐽 net /net/ adjective referring to a price. different people or groups of people 2. etc. etc.. value of all the property of a person or duced by a discount company after taking away what the net profit /net prɒft/ noun the person or company owes 쑗 The amount by which income from sales is upmarket product is targeted at individ- larger than all expenditure uals of high net worth. their careers after deducting overheads network marketing /netw&k net margin /net mɑdn/ noun the mɑktŋ/ noun a marketing campaign percentage difference between received carried out through a complete maga- price and all costs. including overheads zine network net names /net nemz/ plural noun network programming /netw&k the names left in a mailing list after a prəυ"rmŋ/ noun the practice of merge-purge has removed the duplicate scheduling TV programmes over the entries whole network net national product /net network society /netw&k sə- nʃ(ə)nəl prɒd kt/ noun the gross saəti/ noun a society that regularly national product less investment on cap. the aim of achieving agreement between discounts to retailers. uses global networks for the purposes of ital goods and depreciation work. investments after deduction of tax vertisement at least once neural network /njυərəl netw&k/ net receipts /net rsits/ plural noun noun a computer system designed to im- receipts after deducting commission. etc. When shareholders receive this it will be net. pay. an advertisement at least once school friends.000 (NOTE: through several TV stations netting – netted) network analysis /netw&k ‘…out of its earnings a company will pay a ənləss/ noun an analysis of a project dividend. etc. brain . net reach /net ritʃ/ noun the total net yield /net jild/ noun profit from number of people who have seen an ad. after all deductions network a television programme to have been made 쐽 verb to make a true send out the same television programme profit 쑗 to net a profit of £10. sstəm/ noun a computer system where leʃ(ə)n/ noun the total sales figure of a several PCs are linked together so that publication after adjusting for error and they all draw on the same database or discounting unsold copies use the same server net cover /net k və/ noun the pro. communication. discounts. so that all the mem- bers of the group can help each other in net loss /net lɒs/ noun an actual loss. itate the nerve patterns of the human tax. that is it will have had tax deducted at 30 that charts the individual activities in- per cent’ [Investors Chronicle] volved. so that the timing of the the difference between the money com. a net sales /net selz/ plural noun person who discusses a problem with sales less damaged or returned items. networking /netw&kŋ/ noun keep- portion of a target audience exposed to ing in contact with former colleagues. verb to link together in a network 왍 to weight.negotiator 180 neural network negotiator /n"əυʃietə/ noun 1. each with the time needed for its net cash flow /net kʃ fləυ/ noun completion. whole can be planned and controlled ing in and the money going out networked system /netw&kt net circulation /net s&kjυ. and government net price /net pras/ noun the price net worth /net w&θ/ adjective the of goods or services which cannot be re.

occupied by one company (a pany who work together on a new ‘niche company’) 쑗 They seem to have product development project 쑗 The new discovered a niche in the market. nixies /nksiz/ plural noun US (infor- news agency /njuz edənsi/ mal ) 1. records that do not match a file . use it 쑗 The company sent out a news new /nju/ adjective recent or not old release about the new product launch. 쏡 products or improving existing ones 쑗 concentrated marketing The company fell behind because it Nielsen Index /nilsən ndeks/ an failed to invest enough in new product American publication belonging to A. product committee met regularly to niche market /niʃ mɑkt/ noun monitor the progress in the product’s small speciality market. ring to various types of outlet and ways reads the business news or finan. 쑗 Financial night rate /nat ret/ noun cheap rate markets were shocked by the news of the for telephone calls at night devaluation. usually daily or noise level /nɔz lev(ə)l/ noun the weekly. sold to the general public when searching the Internet news release /njuz rlis/ noun a nominal ledger /nɒmn(ə)l ledə/ sheet giving information about a new noun a book which records a company’s . development.never-never 181 nominal ledger never-never /nevə nevə/ noun buy. small wooden shop on a pavement. ʃuz dpɑtmənt/ noun the section of next-to-reading matter /nekst tə a bank which deals with issues of new ridŋ mtə/ noun advertising mate- shares rial placed next to editorial matter in a publication new product committee /nju prɒd kt kəmti/ noun a group of peo. news stand /njuz stnd/ noun a ganisational buying in which a com. noise /nɔz/ noun a random signal pany newsletter a printed sheet or present in addition to any wanted signal. temperature. with a number of different re- news /njuz/ noun information about tail and wholesale audit services refer- things which have happened 쑗 She al. power company supply. noun an office which distributes news to correctly 2. TV and radio stations so that they can her car on the never-never. usually taken to dskaυnt/ noun a reduction in the price be the autumn and winter programming of an advertisement which uses the season same artwork as a previous one newsletter /njuzletə/ noun 왍 com. niche /niʃ/ noun a special place in a ple from different departments in a com. for pletely new product is bought selling newspapers new entrant /nju entrənt/ noun a new technology /nju teknɒlədi/ company which is going into a market noun electronic devices which have re- for the first time cently been invented new issues department /nju next matter /nekst mtə/. little competition new product development /nju niche marketing /niʃ mɑktŋ/ prɒd kt dveləpmənt/ noun the pro. which gives items of general amount of unwanted information found news. Abbr NPD Nielsen. small newspaper giving news about a caused by static. different areas of the country cial news first in the paper. magnetic or electric fields and newspaper /njuzpepə/ noun a also from stars and the sun regular publication. noun the promotion of a product aimed cess of developing completely new at one particular area of the market. where there is development.C. new buy /nju ba/ noun a type of or. market. event which is sent to newspapers and ing on credit (informal ) 쑗 She bought . mail returned as unable to newspapers and television stations be delivered new season /nju siz(ə)n/ noun the no-change discount /nəυ tʃend start of the TV ‘year’.

without increasing customer loy. and campaigning bodies. and religious. all accounts except those re. or slowness to respond to a message dividual person and lateness in arriving for a meeting. which is to be thrown away when it has non-durable goods /nɒn djυərəb(ə)l been used and not returned to the sender "υdz/ plural noun goods which are used up soon after they have been bought. The the failure to deliver goods that have American English is non-profit been ordered corporation. Non-profit-making organisations are cated marketing techniques. non-directed inter.g. vertiser and an individual customer which are kept in separate ledgers) non-price competition /nɒn pras non. (NOTE: Non-profit became a fundraiser for a non-business organisations include charities. community. non-returnable packing /nɒn r- t&nəb(ə)l pkŋ/ noun packing non-durables /nɒn djυərəb(ə)lz/. involving any contact between the ad- lating to debtors. non-personal channels /nɒn is estimated to make up 65–90% of all p&s(ə)n(ə)l tʃn(ə)lz/ plural noun communication. bzns ɔ"ənazeʃ(ə)n/ noun US an non-profit organisation /nɒn prɒft organisation (such as a club) which is ɔ"ənazeʃ(ə)n/ noun an organisa- not allowed by law to make a profit 쑗 tion (such as a club) which is not al- Though only a non-business organisa. trade unions. non-refundable /nɒn rf ndəb(ə)l/ rektv ntəvju/.) . pro- organisation. not set in advance and no fixed pattern is followed 쑗 Non-directed interviews non-returnable /nɒn rt&nəb(ə)l/ adjective which cannot be returned give candidates a good chance to show their creative potential. 182 non-verbal communication transactions in the various accounts channels that carry a message without (normally. the charity used highly sophisti. failure adjective which does not apply to an in. which includes. food or newspapers tstk(ə)l erə/ noun a distortion of the results of a survey owing to bias and non-franchise-building promo. for ex- non-personal /nɒn p&s(ə)n(ə)l/ ample.) non-directive interview /nɒn da./nɒn/ prefix not kɒmpətʃ(ə)n/ noun an attempt to non-acceptance /nɒn əkseptəns/ compete in a market through other noun a situation in which the person means than price such as quality of who is to pay a bill of exchange does not product and promotion accept it non-profit-making organisation non-business organisation /nɒn /nɒnprɒftmekŋ ɔ"ənazeʃən/. body language. fessional associations. creditors and cash.non. mistakes made in conducting the survey tion /nɒn frntʃaz bldŋ prə- məυʃ(ə)nz/ noun sales promotion non-store retailing /nɒn stɔ aimed at increasing sales in the short ritelŋ/ noun the selling of goods and term. re- non-delivery /nɒn dlv(ə)r/ noun search. non-statistical error /nɒn stə- e. services electronically without setting alty or repeat sales up a physical shop non-negotiable instrument /nɒn non-traditional media /nɒn trə- n"əυʃəb(ə)l nstrυmənt/ noun a dʃ(ə)n(ə)l midiə/ noun 쒁 support document which cannot be exchanged media for cash. a crossed cheque non-verbal communication /nɒn non-payment /nɒn pemənt/ noun v&b(ə)l kəmjunkeʃ(ə)n/ noun 왍 non-payment of a debt the act of not any form of communication that is not paying a debt that is due expressed in words (NOTE: Non-verbal communication. 쑗 He exempted from tax. silence. e.g. arts. adjective which will not be refunded 쑗 view /nɒn darektd ntəvju/ noun You will be asked to make a an interview in which the questions are non-refundable deposit. lowed by law to make a profit 쑗 tion.

or that terms are going to be changed 왍 numeric data /njumerk detə/ until further notice until different in.nullified) a note 쑗 I left a note on her desk. ask to take money out of the account liveries are made on Tuesdays and Fri. referring to the results percentage of total readers who note an of a sample and meaning a symmetrical advertisement 쑗 The amount of adver- distribution of values around a mean or tising we will need to do depends on the average. 쐽 verb numeric /njumerk/.g. understanding. e. 쑗 Now that supply difficulties noticeboard /nəυtsbɔd/ noun a have been resolved we hope to resume board fixed to a wall where notices can normal service as soon as possible. the time allowed be- supplier will not take back unsold returns policy 183 numeric data no returns policy /nəυ rt&nz £200 on the 30th of each month until pɒlsi/ noun a trading policy where the further notice. so that you can be confident anticipated noting score. 1 before 2. 33 be- notice /nəυts/ noun 1. numbers 왍 in numerical order in the stand it order of figures. and in notice with very little warning 쑗 The return allows the retailer an extra bank manager will not see anyone at discount short notice. an advertisement in a normal distribution /nɔm(ə)l publication dstrbjuʃ(ə)n/ noun a term used in noting score /nəυtŋ skɔ/ noun the sampling theory. that the sample is properly representa. nullification /n lfkeʃ(ə)n/ noun vate a business to carry on a type of pro. 왍 be put up 쑗 Did you see the new list of under normal conditions if things prices on the noticeboard? work in the usual way 쑗 Under normal noting /nəυtŋ/ noun the act of notic- conditions a package takes two days to ing. with no meaning normal product /nɔm(ə)l 2. /njumerk(ə)l/ adjective referring to tion but not necessarily read or under. an act of making something invalid duction or selling nullify /n lfa/ verb to make some- note /nəυt/ noun a short letter or short thing invalid or to cancel something piece of information 쑗 to send someone (NOTE: nullifying. an official fore 34 쑗 File these invoices in numeri- warning that a contract is going to end cal order. 2. which cannot legally be enforced 왍 prɒd kt/ noun a product which people the contract was declared null and buy more of as their incomes rise and void the contract was said to be not less of as their incomes fall valid 왍 to render a decision null to normal profit /nɔm(ə)l prɒft/ make a decision useless or to cancel it noun a minimum profit that can moti. seven days before you want it days. noun data in the form of figures structions are given 쑗 You must pay . 왍 you must give seven normal /nɔm(ə)l/ adjective usual or days’ notice of withdrawal you must which happens regularly 쑗 Normal de. numerical to notice an advertisement in a publica. the price that can be expected for a NPD abbr new product development product under normal market conditions null /n l/ adjective 1. novelty /nɒv(ə)lti/ noun an original tive of the people being surveyed in a amusing article which is often bought as study a gift 쑗 A novelty shop provided paper normal price /nɔm(ə)l pras/ noun hats for parties. though not necessarily reading and get to Copenhagen. fore something takes place 왍 at short chandise in exchange for credit.

쐽 adjective considered from a general point of view rather than from obsolete /ɒbsəlit/ adjective no lon- that of the person involved 쑗 You must ger used 쑗 Computer technology be objective in assessing the perfor. e. technology.95 or 0. because this seems to be most effec- duty to do something 쑗 There is no obli. few boxes left out of the total shipment dektv meθəd/ noun a method of 왍 to do odd jobs to do various pieces of calculating an advertising appropriation work by setting objectives. have a few odd boxes left we have a objective and task method /əb.O&M 184 off O O & M abbr organisation and methods date because of progress in design or objective /əbdektv/ noun some. is not usual rather than interviews 쑗 The observa. 왍 two weeks’ free trial customers to buy 쑗 Students can study without obligation the customer can try the psychological bases of odd-even the item at home for two weeks without pricing.g. observational research numbers are on the south side of the /ɒbzəveʃən(ə)l rs&tʃ/ noun a mar. cellaneous items for sale at an auction thing to feel it is your duty to do some- oddments /ɒdmənts/ plural noun thing 왍 he is under no contractual 1. a previous price 쑗 The shares closed 2% obsolescence /ɒbsəles(ə)ns/ noun off. 2. 17 or 33 쑗 Buildings with odd meθəd/. off /ɒf/ adverb 1.99 or even involved numbers such as 1. a ing. having to buy it at the end of the test 왍 odd lot /ɒd lɒt/ noun a group of mis- to be under an obligation to do some. deciding what odd-even pricing /ɒd iv(ə)n tasks are needed to achieve them and prasŋ/ noun the practice of using odd then calculating the actual costs numbers such as 0. 쑗 We give 5% off for quick settle- the process of a product going out of ment. not working or not in tion method does not tell you anything operation 쑗 The agreement is off.50 when pric- obligation /ɒbl"eʃ(ə)n/ noun 1. changes so fast that hardware soon be- mance of the staff. pieces of large items obligation to buy he has signed no con- sold separately tract which forces him to buy 2. tive becoming out of date tives. 쐽 preposition subtracted from 쑗 . items left over 2. tive psychologically in persuading gation to buy. 쑗 obsolescent /ɒbsəles(ə)nt/ adjec- We set the sales forces specific objec. street ket research method that obtains infor. asked to carry out an objective survey of odd /ɒd/ adjective one of a group 왍 we the market. lower than product. odd size /ɒd saz/ noun a size which mation through personal observation. and therefore becoming less thing which you hope to achieve 쑗 The useful or valuable company has achieved its objectives. 쑗 They have been comes obsolete.00 or 2. 쑗 about the consumers’ attitudes to the They called the strike off. a debt 왍 to meet your obligations to pay your odd number /ɒd n mbəz/ noun debts numbers which cannot be divided by observation method /ɒbzəveʃən two.

000 for the rate 185 off-the-peg research to take £25 off the price 쑗 We give 10% official receiver /əfʃ(ə)l rsivə/ off our normal prices. for sale a situation where a company offset / ɒfset/ noun a method of print- advertises new shares for sale to the ing from a plate to a rubber surface and public as a way of launching the com. USA. 왍 the house off-peak period /ɒf pik pəriəd/ is under offer someone has made an of. θɒ"rəfi/ noun a printing process used der’ or a ‘placing’. and to close it down 쑗 off-card rate /ɒf kɑd ret/ noun a The court appointed a receiver for the specially arranged price. to say that you are it is printed on to the paper willing to pay a specific amount of money for something 쑗 to offer some. 쑗 The company is in the on the rate card. special prices on winter holidays in the adverb ready made in standard sizes. noun the time when business is less fer to buy the house and the offer has busy been accepted provisionally 왍 we are open to offers we are ready to discuss off-price label /ɒf pras leb(ə)l/ noun a label on a product which shows a the price which we are asking 왍 or near reduced price offer or or best offer US or an offer of a price which is slightly less than the off-season noun /ɒf siz(ə)n/ the price asked 쑗 The car is for sale at less busy season for travel. a licence to sell alcohol for offensive spending /əfensv drinking away from the place where you spendŋ/ noun spending on advertising buy it which aims to attract users of a rival offload /ɒfləυd/ verb to pass some- brand or to attack the competition thing which you do not want to someone offer /ɒfə/ noun 1. 쑗 They are offering off-the-peg /ɒf ðə pe"/ adjective. 왍 She received for printing books.000 for their house 쑗 She of. lower than that company. off 56% from its high nancial difficulties. home 2. to pay off its debts last July’ [Wall Street Journal] as far as possible. for advertising space or hands of the receiver. baŋ/ noun the buying of items which fered £10 a share. 2. tredŋ/ noun a government depart. then to paper pany on the Stock Exchange.000 is the off-peak /ɒf pik/ adjective not dur- best offer I can make. Abbr OFT search which has already been carried .875 a share in pointed to run a company which is in fi- NYSE composite trading. 3. 쑗 We made a writ. usually dur- £2. The other offset lithography /ɒfset l- ways of launching a company are a ‘ten. off-the-page buying /ɒf ðə ped one £100. and not fitted specially 쑗 She buys all Office of Fair Trading /ɒfs əv feə her clothes off-the-peg. where the ink sticks six offers of jobs/six job offers six to image areas on the plate and is trans- companies told her she could have a job ferred to an offset cylinder from which with them 쐽 verb 1. a off-card rate for space which was still shop which sells alcohol for drinking at empty the day before publication.000 or near offer. 2. to say that you are have been advertised in magazines or willing to sell something 쑗 We offered newspapers the house for sale. time 쑗 The newspaper offered us an off-licence /ɒf las(ə)ns/ noun 1. a statement that else 왍 to offload excess stock to try to you are willing to pay a specific amount sell excess stock 왍 to offload costs onto of money to buy something 쑗 to make a subsidiary company to try to get a an offer for a company 쑗 We made an subsidiary company to pay some offer of £10 a share. 쑗 £1. charges so as to reduce tax ten offer for the house. 쑗 We accepted an ing the most busy time offer of £1. off-the-peg research /ɒf ðə pe" r- ment which protects consumers against s&tʃ/ noun the practice of taking re- unfair or illegal business. noun a government official who is ap- ‘…its stock closed Monday at $21. a statement that ing the winter 쑗 Air fares are cheaper in you are willing to sell something 왍 offer the off-season.

vices which the company normally sells op-ed /ɒp ed/ noun in a newspaper.oil-exporting country 186 open out in another context. on-pack promotion /ɒn pk prə- ing where advertisements are used to məυʃ(ə)n/ noun advertising material obtain orders directly on the outside of packaged goods 쑗 We one-stop /w n stɒp ʃɒpŋ/ adjec. selling to each customer as an vertisement which covers several differ. use on-pack promotion to stimulate buy- tive offering a wide range of services to ing at the point-of-sale. is only placed once tion where only a few sellers control the market 쑗 An oligopoly means that one-to-one /w n tə w n/ adjective prices can be kept high. This is a service that which favours one side and not the other may make them more popular as consumers in a negotiation 쑗 a one-sided become more experienced online shoppers’ agreement [Financial Times] one-sided message /w n sadd online shopping /ɒnlan ʃɒpŋ/ mesd/ noun a message which only noun same as electronic shopping gives the benefits of a product or service online shopping mall /ɒnlan one-step approach /w n step ʃɒpŋ mɔl/ noun same as cyber mall əprəυtʃ/ noun a form of direct market. a one-stop shopping centre /w n page that has signed articles expressing stɒp ʃɒpŋ sentə/ noun a shopping personal opinions. usually involving voice mes- s&ve/ noun a survey to which several sages about the firm and its products companies subscribe. individual and trying to differentiate be- ent products tween customers omnibus agreement /ɒmnbəs on-hold advertising /ɒn həυld ə"rimənt/ noun an agreement which dvətazŋ/ noun advertising to tele- covers many different items phone callers while they are waiting to omnibus research /ɒmnbəs r. the product made (NOTE: also called ‘…there may be a silver lining for ‘clicks-and-mortar’ stores that have both an fixed costs) online and a high street presence. not necessarily services promotion is designed to complement which are related to the product or ser. Many of these one-sided /w n sadd/ adjective are accepting returns of goods purchased online at their traditional stores. tomer. be connected to the person they want to s&tʃ/. 쑗 Our on-pack a customer. online /ɒnlan/ adverb linked directly cific questions of its own to a mainframe computer 쑗 The sales oncosts /ɒnkɒsts/ plural noun office is online to the warehouse. designed to open /əυpən/ adjective ready to ac- cover all of a customer’s shopping cept something 왍 the job is open to all needs applicants anyone can apply for the job . omnibus survey /ɒmnbəs speak to. usually found oppo- centre with a comprehensive choice of site the editorial page shops and supermarkets. the TV advertising campaign. where one person has to deal with one other person only oligopsony /ɒl"ɒpsəni/ noun a sit- uation where only a few buyers control one-to-one marketing /w n tə the market w n mɑktŋ/ noun marketing through a website which aims to estab- omnibus advertisement lish a personal relationship with a cus- /ɒmnbəs ədv&tsmənt/ noun an ad. a particular time which is not scheduled spɔtŋ k ntri/ noun country which to be repeated produces oil and sells it to others one-time rate /w n tam ret/ noun a special rate for an advertisement that oligopoly /ɒl"ɒpəli/ noun a situa. each adding spe. and using it as one-time order /w n tam ɔdə/ the basis for taking particular decisions noun an order for an advertising spot for oil-exporting country /ɔl k. 쑗 We money spent in producing a product get our data online from the stock con- which does not rise with the quantity of trol department.

operant conditioning /ɒpərənt uate. 쑗 We 2. noun a standard for computers and re- can English is open-end) lated products that allows pieces of open-ended question /əυpən equipment from different manufacturers endd kwestʃən/ noun a question in a to operate with each other questionnaire which allows respondents open up /əυpən  p/ verb 왍 to open to answer in some detail as they like up new markets to work to start busi- without having simply to say ‘yes’ or ness in markets where such business has ‘no’ 쑗 Open-ended questions elicit an. open-ended /əυpən endd/ adjec- tive with no fixed limit or with some open rate /əυpən ret/ noun an ad- items not specified 쑗 They signed an vertising rate where discounts are avail- open-ended agreement. the act pany is ready to discuss an offer which of starting a new business 쑗 the opening is lower than the suggested price 쐽 verb of a new branch 쑗 the opening of a new to start a new business 쑗 She has market or of a new distribution network opened a shop in the High Street. since the question involves stating that behaviour can be modified the respondent’s personal feelings. opening /əυp(ə)nŋ/ noun 1. not been done before swers that are original but hard to eval. or the first open account /əυpən əkaυnt/ of several noun an account where the supplier of- opening balance /əυp(ə)nŋ fers the purchaser credit without bləns/ noun a balance at the begin- security ning of an accounting period open-air market /əυpən eə mɑkt/ noun a market which is held opening bid /əυp(ə)nŋ bd/ noun on stalls in the open air the first bid at an auction open communication /əυpən opening entry /əυp(ə)nŋ entri/ kəmjunkeʃ(ə)n/ noun a policy in. tive being at the beginning. open pricing /əυpən prasŋ/ noun the attempt by companies to achieve open-door policy /əυpən dɔ some cooperation and conformity in pɒlsi/ noun policy in which a country pricing 쑗 Representatives from the ma- accepts imports from all other countries jor companies in the industry are meet- on equal terms ing to establish an open-pricing policy. opportunity to do something 쐽 adjec- have opened a branch in London. noun the first entry in an account tended to ensure that employees are able opening hours /əυp(ə)nŋ aυəz/ to find out everything they want to plural noun hours when a shop or busi- know about their organisation ness is open open credit /əυpən kredt/ noun opening sentence /əυp(ə)nŋ credit given to good customers without sentəns/ noun the first sentence in an security email open dating /əυpən detŋ/ noun opening stock /əυp(ə)nŋ stɒk/ the practice of putting the sell-by date noun the stock details at the beginning on a packet in an uncoded form which of an accounting period can be understood by the consumers 쑗 open market /əυpən mɑkt/ noun Open dating is considered by many to a market where anyone can buy or sell be an important feature of consumer protection in food products. 쑗 The candidate able for frequent or bulk orders was offered an open-ended contract open standard /əυpən stndəd/ with a good career plan. by stimuli and also by the consequences open general licence /əυpən which follow on from the behaviour den(ə)rəl las(ə)ns/ noun an import itself . licence for all goods which are subject sonable offer 왍 the company is open to to special import restrictions offers for the empty factory the account 187 operant conditioning 왍 open to offers ready to accept a rea. 쑗 An open-ended question is kəndʃ(ə)nŋ/ noun a learning theory needed here. (NOTE: Ameri.

쑗 The rules works 2. operational budget /ɒpəreʃ(ə)nəl 2. ʃɒpŋ/ noun the practice of trying to pany’s operations in West Africa 쑗 He find an auditor who interprets the law in heads up the operations in Northern the same way that the company does. asking a sample group of people what 쑗 We are now ordering operating sup. is Europe. sympathetically and will approve the industrial and commercial products requires a company’s financial statements. so as to guess the opin- plies for next month’s production. referring to how something operate from January 1st. 쑗 Before starting sstəm/ noun the main program which the new service. to make something work or function b dt/ noun a forecast of expenditure 왍 to operate a machine to make a ma. to be in operational /ɒpəreʃ(ə)nəl/ adjec- force 쑗 The new terms of service will tive 1. on running a business chine work 쑗 He is learning to operate the new telephone switchboard. find last month’s expenditure. lidə rs&tʃ/ noun research into the at- plaz/ plural noun low-priced industrial titudes of opinion-leaders products that are normally bought by producers 쑗 Production came to a opinion poll /əpnjən pəυl/ noun standstill for lack of operating supplies.operate 188 opinion shopping operate /ɒpəret/ verb 1. 쑗 The ce- profit or loss 쑗 The operating statement lebrity used in the sales promotion cam- shows unexpected electricity costs. the company carried operates a computer out nationwide opinion polls. opinion-leader /əpnjən lidə/ noun operating statement /ɒpəretŋ someone well known whose opinions stetmənt/ noun a financial statement influence others in society 쑗 A pop-star which shows a company’s expenditure is the ideal opinion-leader if we are and income and consequently its final aiming at the teenage market. operation /ɒpəreʃ(ə)n/ noun busi. 쑗 paign was not respected enough to be a Let’s look at the operating statement to true opinion-former. working or in operation operate on inland postal services only. likely to view the company’s actions ‘…a leading manufacturer of business. opinion-leader research /əpnjən operating supplies /ɒpəretŋ sə. ion of the whole population 쑗 Opinion polls showed that the public preferred operating system /ɒpəretŋ butter to margarine. operational costs /ɒpəreʃ(ə)nəl ‘…the company gets valuable restaurant kɒsts/ plural noun the costs of running locations which will be converted to the a business family-style restaurant chain that it operates and operational planning franchises throughout most parts of the US’ [Fortune] /ɒpəreʃ(ə)nəl plnŋ/ noun the plan- ning of how a business is to be run operating /ɒpəretŋ/ noun the gen- eral running of a business or of a operational research machine /ɒpəreʃ(ə)nəl rs&tʃ/ noun a study ‘…the company blamed over-capacity and of a company’s way of working to see if competitive market conditions in Europe for a it can be made more efficient and £14m operating loss last year’ [Financial Times] profitable operating budget /ɒpəretŋ operations review /ɒpəreʃ(ə)z r- b dt/ noun a forecast of income and vju/ noun examining the way in which expenditure over a period of time a company or department works to see how it can be made more efficient and operating manual /ɒpəretŋ profitable mnjυəl/ noun a book which shows how to work a machine opinion-former /əpnjən fɔmə/. opinion shopping /əpnjən ness organisation and work 쑗 the com. even if branch manager to head up its mid-western Canada operations based in Winnipeg’ the company has been involved in deal- [Globe and Mail (Toronto)] ings that other auditors might consider questionable . their opinion is.

ordered a new Rolls Royce for the man- . normally so that they can keep up ordered but not delivered 쑗 This item is to date with a topic or industry out of stock. opt-in /ɒpt n/ noun a process that re. an official re- quest for goods to be supplied 쑗 to give quires people who want to receive infor- someone an order or to place an order mation or services for a website to do with someone for twenty filing cabinets something that shows they have actively 왍 to fill an order or to fulfil an order chosen to do so. e. email list tive in terms of profits that could have OR abbr operational research been gained through an alternative plan Oracle /ɒrək(ə)l/ a UK teletext ser- 쑗 It’s a good investment plan and we vice broadcast by the IBA will not be deterred by the opportunity cost. Abbr OTS marketing rights to the product. which has been offered and to put it into portunities an average member of the action 쑗 They exercised their option or target audience will have to see an ad. 왍 ity of deciding something 왍 to grant pay to Mr Smith or order pay money someone a six-month option on a to Mr Smith or as he orders 왍 pay to the product to allow someone six months order of Mr Smith pay money directly to decide if they want to be the agent or to Mr Smith or to his account 쐽 verb 1. 3. an item option /ɒpʃən/ noun the opportunity which has been ordered 쑗 The order is to buy or sell something within a fixed to be delivered to our warehouse. us an order on the Chartered Bank. be added if wanted done in order to ensure sound strategic opt out /ɒpt aυt/ noun the action of planning asking not to receive advertising email opportunity cost /ɒpətjunt messages and being removed from an kɒst/ noun the cost of a business initia. 5. yellow goods elements or activities that can be orbit /ɔbt/ noun the practice of rotat- achieved in a marketing mix 쑗 If it ing advertisements among different achieves optimal balance the company programmes on a TV station will soon be a market leader. noun an item that is not essential but can tages and disadvantages in its situation. order /ɔdə/ noun 1. 왍 items available to order which each recipient has specifically only items which will be manufactured asked to receive advertising email mes.g. they took up their option to acquire sole vertisement. if they want to manufacture the product. an period of time at a fixed price 왍 to have instruction 4. bləns/ noun the best combination of Compare red goods. 2. orange goods /ɒrnd "υdz/ plural noun goods which are not bought as of- optimal /ɒptm(ə)l/ adjective best ten as fast-moving items but are re- optimal balance /ɒptm(ə)l placed from time to time. clothing. opportunity and threat analysis /ɒpətjunt ən θret ənləss/ noun optional extra /ɒpʃən(ə)l ekstrə/ a company’s analysis of both the advan. to ask for goods to be supplied 쑗 They etc. only if someone orders them 왍 on order sages. before the website to supply items which have been or- owner can send them email dered 쑗 We are so understaffed we can- opt-in mailing list /ɒpt n melŋ not fulfil any more orders before lst/ noun a list of email addresses in Christmas.opportunities to see 189 order opportunities to see /ɒpətjuntiz cise an option to accept the option tə si/ plural noun the number of op. but is on order. 왍 to take up an option or to exer. a document which allows first option on something to have the money to be paid to someone 쑗 She sent right to be the first to have the possibil. 왍 I opportunity /ɒpətjunt/ noun the want to leave my options open I want chance to do something successfully to be able to decide what to do when the ‘…the group is currently undergoing a period of time is right rapid expansion and this has created an exciting optional /ɒpʃən(ə)l/ adjective which opportunity for a qualified accountant’ [Financial Times] can be added if the customer wants 쑗 The insurance cover is optional.

[Duns Business Month] meʃ(ə)n/ noun an email message in. a group or which was used or made first 쑗 They institution which is arranged for effi. such as a company or p&tʃs/ noun a copy of a magazine or government department. orientated action of taking an order. and suggesting how it can be the reference number printed on an made more efficient. OS abbr outsize ing how a company or an office is organised O/S abbr out of stock OTO abbr one time only organise /ɔ"ənaz/. 2. Abbr O & M order orientation /ɔriənteʃ(ə)n/ noun order picking /ɔdə pkŋ/ noun the main interest or type of activity 쑗 the process of collecting various items The company’s orientation is towards in a warehouse in order to make up an production and it has little marketing order to be sent to a customer experience.order book 190 outbid aging director. organized labour and business to stimulate economic growth’ order confirmation /ɔdə kɒnf. /ɔriəntetd/ adjective interested in sponsibility of the salesperson or involved with 쑗 Our strategy is ori- ented towards achieving further growth organisation /ɔ"ənazeʃ(ə)n/. 쐽 ‘…working with a client base which includes noun the first copy made 쑗 Send the many major commercial organizations and original and file two copies. to instruct 쑗 to order ‘…we organize a rate with importers who have twenty filing cabinets to be delivered to large orders and guarantee them space at a fixed rate so that they can plan their costs’ the warehouse [Lloyd’s List] order book /ɔdə bυk/ noun a book ‘…governments are coming under increasing which records orders received pressure from politicians. but an- . rather than simply read by organisation chart /ɔ"əna. 2. sent a copy of the original invoice. them zeʃ(ə)n tʃɑt/ noun a diagram show. 쑗 The promotion is organization noun 1. organize verb to set up a system for doing something OTS abbr opportunities to see 쑗 the company is organised into six outbid /aυtbd/ verb to offer a better profit centres 쑗 the group is organised price than someone else 쑗 We offered by sales areas £100. a way of arrang. order taking /ɔdə tekŋ/ noun the oriented /ɔrientd/. nationalized industries’ [Times] originally /ərdən(ə)l/ adverb first organisational buying /ɔ"əna. 쑗 He cient work kept the original receipt for reference. order fulfilment /ɔdə fυlflmənt/ organisation and methods noun supplying items which have been /ɔ"ənazeʃ(ə)n ən meθədz/ noun a ordered process of examining how an office order number /ɔdə n mbə/ noun works. the main re. organised market /ɔ"ənazd forming a purchaser that an order has mɑkt/ noun a market controlled by been received regulations set down by government or order form /ɔdə fɔm/ noun a pad an official organisation 쑗 The govern- of blank forms for orders to be written ment feels that an organised market is on not conducive to business initiative. ing something so that it works effi- ciently 쑗 the organisation of the head origin /ɒrdn/ noun the place where office into departments 쑗 The chairman something or someone originally comes handles the organisation of the AGM. as opposed to newspaper which is actually bought by purchases by individual consumers the reader. or at the beginning zeʃ(ə)nəl baŋ/ noun buying by a original purchase /ərdən(ə)l large organisation.000 for the warehouse. in the export market. 쑗 from 쑗 spare parts of European origin The organisation of the group is too original /ərdən(ə)l/ adjective centralised to be efficient. entirely product-oriented.

outdoor 191 over-

other company outbid us. (NOTE: out- outsell /aυtsel/ verb to sell more than
bidding – outbid) someone 쑗 The company is easily out-
outdoor /aυtdɔ/ adjective in the selling its competitors. (NOTE: outsell-
open air ing – outsold)
outdoor advertising /aυtdɔr outside broadcast /aυtsad 
dvətazŋ/ noun 1. advertising on the brɔdkɑst/ noun a programme not
outside of a building or in the open air, transmitted from a studio
using posters on hoardings or neon signs outside director /aυtsad da-
2. advertising in the open air, including rektə/ noun a director who is not em-
advertising in public transport, on ployed by the company, a non-executive
roadsides, at bus stops, skywriting, etc. director
outer /aυtə/ noun a piece of packag- outside poster /aυtsad pəυstəz/
ing which covers items which already noun a poster on public transport
are in packages such as buses, taxis, trains and the
outer pack /aυtə pk/ noun a con- underground
tainer which holds a number of smaller outsize /aυtsaz/ noun a size which
packaged items 쑗 The goods are sold in is larger than usual. Abbr OS 왍 outsize
outer packs, each containing twenty order a very large order
outlet /aυtlet/ noun a place where outsource /aυtsɔs/ verb to use a
source outside a company or business to
something can be sold
do the work that is needed
out-of-date /aυt əv det/ adjective,
adverb old-fashioned or no longer mod- outsourcing /aυtsɔsŋ/ noun the
ern 쑗 Their computer system is years transfer of work previously done by em-
out of date. 쑗 They’re still using ployees of an organisation to another or-
out-of-date equipment. ganisation, usually one that specialises
in that type of work (NOTE: Things that
out-of-home advertising /aυt əv have usually been outsourced in the
həυm dvətazŋ/ noun outdoor ad- past include legal services, transport,
vertising including transport, catering, and security, but nowadays
skywriting, etc. IT services, training, and public rela-
out of stock /aυt əv stɒk/ adjective, tions are often added to the list.)
adverb with no stock left 쑗 Those books ‘…organizations in the public and private
are temporarily out of stock. 쑗 Several sectors are increasingly buying in specialist
out-of-stock items have been on order services – or outsourcing – allowing them to cut
costs and concentrate on their core business
for weeks. Abbr O/S activities’ [Financial Times]
output /aυtpυt/ noun the amount
which a company, person or machine outstanding /aυtstndŋ/ adjective
produces 쑗 Output has increased by not yet paid or completed 왍 outstand-
10%. 쑗 25% of our output is exported. ing debts debts which are waiting to be
‘…crude oil output plunged during the last paid 왍 outstanding orders orders re-
month and is likely to remain near its present ceived but not yet supplied 왍 what is
level for the near future’ [Wall Street Journal] the amount outstanding? how much
output bonus /aυtpυt bəυnəs/, money is still owed? 왍 matters out-
output-based bonus /aυtpυt best standing from the previous meeting 
bəυnəs/ noun an extra payment for in- questions which were not settled at the
creased production previous meeting
output per hour /aυtpυt pər aυə/ outward mission /aυtwəd
noun the amount of something produced mʃ(ə)n/ noun a visit by a group of
in one hour businesspeople to a foreign country
output tax /aυtpυt tks/ noun VAT over- /əυvə/ prefix more than 왍 shop
charged by a company on goods or ser- which caters to the over-60s a shop
vices sold, and which the company pays which has goods which appeal to people
to the government who are more than sixty years old

overall 192 over-the-counter sales

overall /əυvərɔl/ adjective covering overprint /əυvəprnt/ verb to print
or including everything 왍 the company text on paper which already contains
reported an overall fall in profits the printed matter 쑗 The retailer’s name
company reported a general fall in prof- and address is overprinted on the cata-
its 왍 overall plan a plan which covers logue. 쑗 We will overprint the catalogue
everything with the retailer’s name and address.
overcharge noun /əυvətʃɑd/ a overproduce /əυvəprədjus/ verb
charge which is higher than it should be to produce too much of a product
쑗 to pay back an overcharge 쐽 verb overproduction /əυvəprəd kʃən/
/əυvətʃɑd/ to ask too much money noun the manufacturing of too much of
쑗 They overcharged us for our meals. 쑗 a product
We asked for a refund because we’d
been overcharged. overrider /əυvəradə/, overriding
commission /əυvəradŋ kə-
overhead budget /əυvəhed mʃ(ə)n/ noun a special extra commis- 
b dt/ noun a plan of probable over- sion which is above all other
head costs commissions
overhead costs /əυvəhed kɒsts/, overseas adjective /əυvəsiz/ across
overhead expenses /əυvəhed k- the sea or to foreign countries 쑗 Man- 
spensz/ plural noun money spent on agement trainees knew that they would
the day-to-day cost of a business be sent overseas to learn about the ex-
overheads /əυvəhedz/ plural noun port markets. 쑗 Some workers are going
the costs of the day-to-day running of a overseas to find new jobs. 왍 overseas
business 쑗 The sales revenue covers the markets markets in foreign countries 왍
manufacturing costs but not the over- overseas trade trade with foreign coun-
heads. (NOTE: American English is usu- tries 쐽 noun foreign countries 쑗 The
ally overhead.) profits from overseas are far higher
‘…it ties up less capital in inventory and with its
than those of the home division.
huge volume spreads out costs over bigger sales; overseas call /əυvəsiz kɔl/ noun
add in low overhead (i.e. minimum staff, no a call to another country
deliveries, no credit cards) and a warehouse club
can offer bargain prices’ [Duns Business Month] overseas division /əυvəsiz d-
v(ə)n/ noun the section of a company
overkill /əυvəkl/ noun a very inten- dealing with trade with other countries
sive and expensive marketing campaign
which has the effect of putting potential oversell /əυvəsel/ verb to sell more
customers off than you can produce 왍 he is oversold
he has agreed to sell more product than
overlay /əυvəle/ noun a transparent he can produce 왍 the market is over-
plastic sheet placed over artwork with sold stock-market prices are too low,
instructions for changing it, or showing because there have been too many
the artwork is to be printed sellers
overmatter /əυvəmtə/, overspend /əυvəspend/ verb to
oversetting /əυvəsetŋ/ noun text spend too much
which, when it is typeset, is too long for
the space available overstock /əυvəstɒk/ verb to have
more stock than is needed 왍 to be over-
overpayment /əυvəpemənt/ noun stocked with spare parts to have too
an act of paying too much many spare parts in stock
overprice /əυvəpras/ verb to give a overstocks /əυvəstɒks/ plural noun
higher price to something than seems US more stock than is needed to supply
reasonable orders 쑗 We will have to sell off the
overpricing /əυvəprasŋ/ noun the overstocks to make room in the
charging of a higher price than is justi- warehouse.
fied by demand 쑗 Overpricing led to the over-the-counter sales /əυvə ðə
producer being priced out of the market. kaυntə selz/ plural noun the legal

overweight 193 own-label goods

selling of shares which are not listed in owner /əυnə/ noun a person who
the official Stock Exchange list, usually owns something 왍 goods sent at
carried out by telephone owner’s risk a situation where the
overweight /əυvəwet/ adjective 왍 owner has to insure the goods while
the package is sixty grams overweight they are being transported
the package weighs sixty grams too own label /əυn leb(ə)l/ noun goods
much specially produced for a store with the
‘Cash paid for your stock: any quantity, any store’s name on them
products, overstocked lines, factory seconds’
[Australian Financial Review] own-label goods /əυn leb(ə)l
"υdz/ plural noun goods specially pro-
own brand /əυn brnd/ noun the duced for a store with the store’s name
name of a store which is used on prod- on them
ucts which are specially packed for that ‘…the company is hunting for a marketing
store director as part of an effort to expand its
own-brand goods /əυn brnd non-food division and introduce own-label. It
will also review its entire own-label ranges and 
"υdz/ plural noun products specially look at the possibility of rolling out the non-food
packed for a store with the store’s name division own-label brands’ [Marketing Week]
on them ‘…its survey of brand development indicates
that whereas branded goods appeal to over-45
year olds, supermarket own-label goods are
favoured by consumers under the age of 34’
[Marketing Week]

P2P 194 packing


P2P /pi tə pi/ adjective referring to package deal /pkd dil/ noun an
direct communications or dealings be- agreement where several different items
tween one computer to another without are agreed at the same time 쑗 They
a central server being involved (NOTE: agreed a package deal which involves
P2P stands for peer-to-peer.) the construction of the factory, training
pack /pk/ noun items put together in of staff and purchase of the product.
a container or shrink-wrapped for sell- package holiday /pkd
ing 왍 items sold in packs of 200 items hɒlde/, packaged holiday
sold in boxes containing 200 items 왍 /pkdd hɒlde/ noun a holiday
blister pack or bubble pack a type of whose price includes transport and
packing where the item for sale is cov- accomodation, and sometimes also
ered with a stiff plastic cover sealed to a meals 쑗 The travel company is arrang-
card backing 쐽 verb to put things into a ing a package trip to the international
container for selling or sending 쑗 to trade fair.
pack goods into cartons 쑗 Your order packaging /pkdŋ/ noun 1. the
has been packed and is ready for ship- act of putting things into packages 2.
ping. 쑗 The biscuits are packed in plas- material used to protect goods which are
tic wrappers. being packed 쑗 bubble wrap and other
package /pkd/ noun 1. goods packaging material 쑗 The fruit is sold in
packed and wrapped for sending by mail airtight packaging. 3. attractive material
쑗 The Post Office does not accept bulky used to wrap goods for display
packages. 쑗 The goods are to be sent in ‘…the consumer wants to be challenged by
airtight packages. 2. a group of different more individual products and more innovative
items joined together in one deal 3. a packaging’ [Marketing]
group of TV or radio programmes or ‘…promotional packaging can mean rethinking
commercial spots offered with a dis- more than just the pack graphics’ [Marketing]
count by a station 쐽 verb 왍 to package packer /pkə/ noun a person who
goods to wrap and pack goods in an at- packs goods
tractive way
‘…airlines offer special stopover rates and hotel packet /pkt/ noun a small box of
packages to attract customers to certain routes’ goods for selling 쑗 Can you get me a
[Business Traveller] packet of cigarettes? 쑗 She bought a
‘…the remuneration package will include an packet of biscuits. 쑗 We need two pack-
attractive salary, profit sharing and a company ets of filing cards. 왍 item sold in pack-
car’ [Times] ets of 20 items are sold in boxes
‘…airlines will book not only tickets but also containing 20 items each
hotels and car hire to provide a complete
package’ [Business Traveller] packing /pkŋ/ noun 1. the act of
putting goods into boxes and wrapping
packaged /pkdd/ adjective put them for shipping 쑗 What is the cost of
into a package 쑗 packaged goods the packing? 쑗 Packing is included in
‘…in today’s fast-growing packaged goods area the price. 2. material used to protect
many companies are discovering that a
well-recognized brand name can be a priceless
goods 쑗 The fruit is packed in airtight
asset’ [Duns Business Month] packing.

packing case 195 parcel

packing case /pkŋ kes/ noun a pallet /plət/ noun a flat wooden
large wooden box for carrying items base on which goods can be stacked for
which can be easily broken easy handling by a fork-lift truck, and
packing charges /pkŋ on which they remain for the whole of 
tʃɑdz/ plural noun money charged their transportation (NOTE: American
for putting goods into boxes English is skid)
palletise /plətaz/, palletize verb
packing station /pkŋ steʃ(ə)n/ to put goods on pallets 쑗 palletised
noun a place where goods are packed
for transport 쑗 From the production line
the goods are taken directly to the pack- pamphlet /pmflət/ noun a small
ing station. 쑗 The company has three booklet of advertising material or of
packing stations, each one dealing with information
goods for a particular part of the world. panel /pn(ə)l/ noun 1. a flat surface
page /ped/ noun one side of a sheet standing upright 2. a group of people
of printed paper in a book, newspaper or who give advice on a problem 쑗 a panel
magazine of experts
panel study /pn(ə)l st di/ noun a
page impressions /ped m- study that collects and analyses the 
preʃ(ə)nz/ plural noun the number of
opinions of a selected group of people
customers who land on a webpage, e.g.
over a period of time
in an ad view
panic buying /pnk baŋ/ noun a
page make-up /ped mek p/ rush to buy something at any price be-
noun the arranging of material into cause stocks may run out
pages in a publication
pantry check /pntri tʃek/, pantry
page proof /ped pruf/ noun a audit /pntri ɔdt/ noun a survey
proof after the text has been made up method where a panel or sample of
into pages, ready for checking before householders keep records of purchases
printing so that these can be regularly checked
page rate /ped ret/ noun the cost for quantity and brand 쑗 The pantry
of a whole page of advertising space 쑗 check suggests that there is little brand
What’s the page rate in that paper? 쑗 loyalty for that type of product.
The page rate is lower in August when paper /pepə/ noun 1. a newspaper 2.
circulation is at its lowest. documents which can represent money,
page traffic /ped trfk/ noun e.g. bills of exchange or promissory
the proportion of readers of a publica- notes
tion who read a particular page 쑗 Let’s ‘…the profits were tax-free and the interest on
the loans they incurred qualified for income tax
find out the page traffic before we de- relief; the paper gains were rarely changed into
cide to advertise on page two. spending money’ [Investors Chronicle]
page view /ped vju/ noun the paper loss /pepə lɒs/ noun a loss
number of times a page containing an made when an asset has fallen in value
advertisement is seen or how many but has not been sold
times a page is displayed paper profit /pepə prɒft/ noun a
paid circulation /ped s&kjυ- profit on an asset which has increased in 
leʃ(ə)n/ noun the number of copies of price but has not been sold 쑗 He is
a newspaper or magazine which have showing a paper profit of £25,000 on his
been bought. 쏡 controlled circulation, investment.
subscribed circulation parallel billboard /prəlel
paired comparisons /peəd kəm- blbɔd/ noun a billboard which is par- 
prs(ə)nz/ plural noun a test in which allel to a main road
respondents compare two brands on the parcel /pɑs(ə)l/ noun goods wrapped
basis of attributes which are common to up in paper or plastic to be sent by post
both 쑗 to do up goods into parcels 왍 to tie up

parcel delivery service 196 patent agent

a parcel to fasten a parcel with string 왍 party-plan selling /pɑti pln
parcel rates the charges for sending selŋ/ noun selling by salespeople who
parcels by post 쐽 verb to wrap and tie present their products at parties organ-
up in a parcel 쑗 to parcel up a consign- ised in their homes 쑗 Party-plan selling
ment of books (NOTE: parcelling – par- provides a relaxed atmosphere in which
celled. The American spelling is people are more inclined to buy the
parceling – parceled) products being shown.
parcel delivery service /pɑs(ə)l par value /pɑ vlju/ noun the
dlv(ə)ri s&vs/ noun a private com- value written on a share certificate
pany which delivers parcels within a passenger manifest /psndə
specific area mnfest/ noun a list of passengers on
parcel post /pɑs(ə)l pəυst/ noun a a ship or plane
mail service for sending parcels 쑗 Send passing trade /pɑsŋ tred/ noun
the order by parcel post. selling to people who go past the shop
parcels office /pɑs(ə)lz ɒfs/ without intending to buy
noun an office where parcels can be pass off /pɑs ɒf/ verb 왍 to pass
handed in for sending by mail something off as something else to pre-
tend that something is another thing in
Pareto’s Law /pəritəυz lɔ/, order to cheat a customer 쑗 She tried to
Pareto Effect /pəritəυ fekt/ noun
pass off the wine as French, when in fact
the theory that a small percentage of a
it came from outside the EU.
total is responsible for a large propor-
tion of value or resources pass-on readership /pɑs ɒn
ridəʃp/ noun the number of people
part exchange /pɑt kstʃend/ who read a publication who have not
noun the act of giving an old product as bought it, but have borrowed it from a
part of the payment for a new one 쑗 to purchaser 쑗 We know the magazine’s
take a car in part exchange circulation, but will have to estimate the
participation /pɑtspeʃ(ə)n/ level of pass-on readership. (NOTE:
noun taking part in something, e.g. American English is pass-along
when advertisers buy commercial time readership)
on TV patent /petənt, ptənt/ noun an
partnering /pɑtnərŋ/ noun same as official document showing that a person
strategic partnering has the exclusive right to make and sell
an invention 쑗 to take out a patent for a
partnership /pɑtnəʃp/ noun a new type of light bulb 쑗 to apply for a
business set up by two or more people
patent for a new invention 왍 ‘patent ap-
who make a contract with each other
plied for’ or ‘patent pending’ words
agreeing to share the profits and losses
on a product showing that the inventor
(NOTE: A partnership is not an incorpo-
has applied for a patent for it 왍 to forfeit
rated company and the individual part-
a patent to lose a patent because pay-
ners are responsible for decisions and
ments have not been made 왍 to infringe
a patent to make and sell a product
part payment /pɑt pemənt/ noun which works in the same way as a pat-
the paying of part of a whole payment 쑗 ented product and not pay a royalty for
I gave him £250 as part payment for the it 왍 to file a patent application to apply
car. for a patent 쐽 verb 왍 to patent an in-
party /pɑti/ noun 1. an organisation vention to register an invention with the
or person involved in a legal dispute or patent office to prevent other people
legal agreement 쑗 How many parties from copying it
are there to the contract? 쑗 The com- patent agent /pt(ə)nt edənt/
pany is not a party to the agreement. 2. noun a person who advises on patents
a group of people who meet to celebrate and applies for patents on behalf of
something or to enjoy themselves clients

ptəntd/ ad. etc. 왍 to pay in in- jective which is protected by a patent stalments to pay for an item by giving patentee /petənti/ noun a person small amounts regularly 쑗 We are buy- or business that has acquired a patent 쑗 ing the van by paying instalments of We shall have to obtain the patentee’s £500 a month. not patent medicine /pet(ə)nt by using cash or credit card 왍 to pay by med(ə)s(ə)n/ noun a medicine which credit card to pay using a credit card. 왍 payable at sixty days which has to be paign that follows a general global paid by sixty days after the date on the approach invoice 왍 cheque made payable to pattern book /pt(ə)n bυk/ noun a bearer a cheque which will be paid to book showing examples of design the person who has it. 쑗 We ents and supervises them phoned to ask when they were going to patent rights /pet(ə)nt rats/ plural pay the invoice. phone system installed. paycheck) ceive the item bought or before the ser- vice has been completed 쑗 We had to pay down /pe daυn/ verb 왍 to pay pay in advance to have the new tele. please give £10 in cash or by cheque ganisation or charity financial support 쑗 ‘…recession encourages communication not She is a patron of several leading because it makes redundancies easier. not after a period of 쑗 The car park is for the use of hotel pa. easier to accept’ [Economist] patronage /ptrənd/ noun the ‘…the yield figure means that if you buy the state of being a regular customer shares at their current price you will be getting patronise /ptrənaz/. restaurant. of a hotel. to give money patent office /pt(ə)nt ɒfs/ noun which is owed or which has to be paid 쑗 a government office which grants pat. a person who gives an or. not to any particu- patterned interview /pt(ə)nd lar name written on it 왍 shares payable ntəvju/ noun an interview using on application shares which must be questions set in advance and following a paid for when you apply to buy them fixed pattern payback period /pebk pəriəd/ pay /pe/ verb 1.000 for earn back the money invested in a a car 쑗 How much did you pay to have project the office cleaned? 왍 ‘pay cash’ words pay-cheque /pe tʃek/ noun a written on a crossed cheque to show that monthly cheque by which an employee it can be paid in cash if necessary 왍 to is paid (NOTE: the American spelling is pay in advance to pay before you re. (NOTE: paying.g. but because it makes low or zero pay increases charities. to give money to buy noun the length of time it will take to an item or a service 쑗 to pay £1.patented 197 pay down patented /petəntd. payable /peəb(ə)l/ adjective which is due to be paid 왍 payable in advance pattern /pt(ə)n/ noun the general which has to be paid before the goods way in which something usually hap- are delivered 왍 payable on delivery pens 쑗 the pattern of sales or The sales which has to be paid when the goods are pattern is quite different this year. 쑗 She pays tax at because of a patent the highest rate. is registered as a patent not a cheque or cash 2. 2. delivered 왍 payable on demand which pattern advertising /pt(ə)n must be paid when payment is asked for dvətazŋ/ noun an advertising cam. e. a regular 왍 to pay on demand to pay money customer. complete sum in cash 왍 to pay by cheque to pay by giving a cheque. credit 왍 please pay the sum of £10 trons only. 왍 to pay cash to pay the permission to manufacture the product. money down to make a deposit 쑗 They . patronize 5% before tax on your money if the company pays the same dividend as in its last financial verb to be a regular customer 쑗 I year’ [Investors Chronicle] stopped patronising that restaurant when their prices went up. He was late paying the bill. 쑗 You will have to pay noun the rights which an inventor holds duty on these imports.paid) patron /petrən/ noun 1. when it is asked for.

a business regarding when it should be peak year /pik jə/ noun year when paid for goods or services that it sup. cash with order. 쑗 Demand peaks in Au- goods produced 왍 payment supra pro.. e. an e-book or payment /pemənt/ noun 1. payee /pei/ noun a person who re. payment on duced or when sales were highest delivery or payment within a particular pedestrian precinct /pədestriən number of days of the invoice date prisŋkt/ noun the part of a town pay package /pe pkd/ noun which is closed to traffic so that people the salary and other benefits offered can walk about and shop . test payment of a bill of exchange by a peak output /pik autpυt/ noun the third party to protect the debtor’s hon.g. back. 쑗 on delivery and want more time to settle He has reached the peak of his career. same as pay-per-view son whose name is on a cheque pay-per-play /pe pe ple/ noun a payer /peə/ noun a person who gives website where the user has to pay to money to someone play an interactive game over the payload /peləυd/ noun the cargo or Internet passengers carried by a ship. the e-magazine money exchanged for goods or a service 쑗 We always ask for payment in cash or pay television /pe telv(ə)n/. achieved his ambition of becoming man- creases with the amount of work done or aging director. the largest quantity of products was pro- plies. 쑗 The payment of interest or the service that is paid for by regular interest payment should be made on the subscriptions 22nd of each month. but none peak /pik/ noun the highest point 쑗 for payment after delivery.g. 왍 payment after PC abbr personal computer delivery paying for goods at an agreed PD abbr physical distribution date after delivery 쑗 There is a 10% dis- count for payment on delivery. train or pay-per-view /pe pə/ noun a plane for which payment is made website where the user has to pay to see digital information. 쑗 Shares 왍 payment in kind paying by giving have peaked and are beginning to slip goods or food. but not money 왍 pay. It gets peak time /pik tam/ noun the time authorisation for the payment from the during the day when the greatest num- credit-card company and transfers ber of people are watching television 쑗 money into the retailer’s bank account. pay-per-click /pe pe klk/ noun ceives money from someone. e. money paid 왍 repayable in easy peak period /pik pəriəd/ noun the payments repayable with small sums time of the day when something is at its regularly highest point. 쑗 He peaked early and never ment by results money given which in. 쐽 up. cash payment and not payment by pay TV /pe ti vi/ noun a television cheque.payee 198 pedestrian precinct paid £50 down and the rest in monthly with a job 쑗 The job carries an attrac- instalments. after which sales usually decline. tive salary package. 쑗 With- for goods when they are delivered 쑗 drawals from bank accounts reached a Some customers won’t agree to payment peak in the week before Christmas.g. For the price of a 30-second spot at payment terms /pemənt t&mz/ peak time we can get two minutes in plural noun the conditions laid down by mid-morning. highest output our 2. gust. 쑗 The share index has fallen 10% owed 왍 payment on delivery paying since the peak in January. 왍 payment on invoice paying verb to reach the highest point 쑗 Pro- money as soon as an invoice is received ductivity peaked in January. or the per. 왍 payment The shares reached their peak in Janu- on account paying part of the money ary. when most commu- payment gateway /pemənt ters are travelling or when most electric- "etwe/ noun software that processes ity is being used online credit-card payments. e.

kɒmpətʃ(ə)n/ noun (in economic the- ory) the ideal market. sessed by a person etrate a market to get into a market and capture a share of it perceptual map /pəseptʃuəl mp/ noun a map or diagram which repre- penetrated market /pentretd sents how consumers view various com- mɑkt/ noun a market where more of parative products on the basis of a company’s products are sold. the percentage of a perfect adjective /p&fkt/ com- target audience reached by an pletely correct with no mistakes 쑗 We advertisement check each batch to make sure it is per- fect. money spent divided by the number of peer-to-peer adjective full form of people involved P2P per capita income /p& kptə peg /pe"/ verb to maintain prices at a nk m/ noun the average income of specific level (NOTE: pegging. 쐽 verb /pəfekt/ to develop or im- prasŋ/ noun the practice of pricing a prove something until it is as good as it product low enough to achieve market can be 쑗 They perfected the process for penetration 쑗 Penetration pricing is making high-grade steel. uct design and marketing strategy. num? 쑗 What is his total income per an. or identify with. series of ninety-nine figures below tract contains a penalty clause which which a percentage of the total falls fines the company 1% for every week the completion date is late. because they belong to the same age group.. each member of a particular group of pegged) 쐽 noun a hook to hang clothes people. shown specific factors or attributes 쑗 Thorough as a percentage of the total market. usually once a month or once a week . by aggressive pric. using ink ber of email messages returned as unde- penalty clause /pen(ə)lti klɔz/ liverable.peer group 199 periodical peer group /pə "rup/ noun the num? 쑗 She earns over £100. ad- verb for each person the same opinions 쑗 Consumers are found to be especially influenced by the per-capita expenditure /pə tastes and opinions of those in their peer kptə kspendtʃə/ noun the total groups. where all products penetration strategy /pen- are equal in price and all customers are treʃ(ə)n strtədi/ noun selling provided with all information about the more of a company’s products into a products market segment.000 per class of people that a person can respect annum. shown as a percentage of the noun a clause which lists the penalties total sent which will be imposed if the terms of percentile /pəsental/ noun one of a the contract are not fulfilled 쑗 The con. sentd baυnst bk/ noun the num- ing with. perfect market /p&fkt mɑkt/ ing and advertising. magazine which comes out regularly. perception /pəsepʃən/ noun the way in which something is viewed and as- penetrate /pentret/ verb 왍 to pen. social class or have per capita /pə kptə/ adjective. helping us acquire a bigger market share at the expense of short-term perfect competition /p&fkt profits. 쑗 She did a perfect keyboarding penetration pricing /pentreʃ(ə)n test. e. us. shown as a percentage of the total market. the citizens of a country on percentage bounced back /pə- pen /pen/ noun an instrument for writ. 쏡 market noun an imaginary market where there penetration is perfect competition per annum /pər nəm/ adverb in a periodical /pəriɒdk(ə)l/ noun a year 쑗 What is their turnover per an.g. the percentage of a target market that accepts a product 2. analysis of perceptual maps was fol- ing aggressive pricing and advertising lowed by decisions on changes in prod- penetration /pentreʃ(ə)n/ noun 1.

little pressure to adapt it. personalisation /p&s(ə)nəla- rect marketing that requires the seller to zeʃ(ə)n/.g. ily 쑗 perishable goods 쑗 perishable items 쑗 a perishable cargo personal computer /p&s(ə)n(ə)l kəmpjutə/ noun a small computer perishables /perʃəb(ə)lz/ plural which can be used by one person in the noun goods which can go bad easily home or office. 쑗 It’s cording to the average income they ex- possible that interviewers’ bias may in- pect to receive in their lifetime fluence results in a personal interview.376 supermarkets run by 119 companies. 쑗 The ticket permits initials of a person printed on it 쑗 She three people to go into the exhibition.. e. famous person. Will we be permitted to use her name in personalised mailing the advertising copy? 쑗 Smoking is not /p&s(ə)nəlazd melŋ/ noun a permitted in the design studio. serious. usually connected with mand for a product 쑗 Persistent demand television or sport 2. personalization noun 1. the process by which a website presents fore sending him or her any promotional customers with selected information material that is designed to meet their individual needs 2. 쑗 the permanent staff and part-timers 쑗 personal interview /p&s(ə)n(ə)l She is in permanent employment. personality /p&sənlt/ noun 1. etc. hours. cheerful. which covered 7. by permanent income hypothesis meeting them 쑗 The advantage of a per- /p&mənənt nk m hapɒθəss/ sonal interview is that we have the noun the theory that people spend ac- chance to explain the questions. to permanent /p&mənənt/ adjective withdraw cash from a cash machine or which will last for a long time or for to pay in a store ever 쑗 He has found a permanent job.9%. a telephone call not re. promotion /p&sənlt prə- ferring to one person məυʃ(ə)n/ noun a promotion which personal call /p&s(ə)n(ə)l kɔl/ makes use of a famous person to en- noun 1. personality advertising /p&sə- nlt dvətazŋ/.permitted) people by name persistent demand /pəsstənt d.g. promoting beauty products. 쑗 The product e. as. espe- for the product means that there is very cially the tone of an advertising email. That /p&s(ə)n(ə)l adentfkeʃ(ə)n decline. Abbr PC ‘…the survey. also the largest on record. 쑗 has a personalised briefcase. found that Personal Identification Number sales of food at the stores dropped by 2. (NOTE: mailing of letters addressed to particular permitting. such as the addressee’s first name in a ument which allows someone to do mailing campaign something 쐽 verb /pəmt/ to allow someone to do something 쑗 This docu. was due to n mbə/ noun a unique number allo- increasing price awareness among customers and the lower price of perishables’ cated to the holder of a cash card or [Nikkei Weekly] credit card. a mɑnd/ noun a continuous or stable de. personality personal /p&s(ə)n(ə)l/ adjective re. personalised /p&s(ə)nəlazd/. permission marketing /pəmʃ(ə)n mɑktŋ/ noun any form of online di. 쑗 A famous lated to business 쑗 Staff are not allowed pop star was chosen for the personality . a telephone call where you ask dorse a product 쑗 Personality promo- the operator to connect you with a par. by which he or she can enter an automatic banking system. using personal information permit noun /p&mt/ an official doc.perishable 200 personality advertising perishable /perʃəb(ə)l/ adjective to make personal calls during office which can go bad or become rotten eas. the character. is so useful that it is not surprising there is a persistent demand for it. tion is a tried and tested method of ticular person 2. per- ment permits you to export twenty-five sonalized adjective with the name or computer systems. ntəvju/ noun an act of questioning respondents in a survey directly. get permission from each recipient be.

either face to face or physical inventory /fzk(ə)l by telephone 쑗 Personal selling allows nvənt(ə)ri/ noun an act of counting any doubts the prospective customer actual items of stock may have to be cleared up by the physical retail shopping salesman. customer 2. the warehouse and delivers them to the shown as Political. Environmental. finished "revŋ/ noun a process of producing a picture messaging /pktʃə metal plate for printing. So. fishy-back freight tapsetŋ/ noun typesetting by photo. Compare phototypesetting /fəυtəυ. by photograph. Abbr PD personal contact. rather than by making ties 쑗 Persuasibility will depend on a conscious decision to buy consumer’s experience with products picking list /pkŋ lst/ noun a list of similar to the ones we are promoting. pilfering graphic means rather than by using /plfərŋ/ noun the stealing of small metal type amounts of money or small items from physical distribution /fzk(ə)l an office or shop dstrbjuʃ(ə)n/ noun the process of pilot /palət/ adjective used as a test. mesdŋ/ noun the transmission of ing an image onto the plate which is images and photographs from one mo- then etched in such a way that prints can bile phone to another be taken from it piggy-back advertising /p"i bk photogravure /fəυtəυ"rəvjυə/ dvətazŋ/. a service which takes goods from the various outside influences on a firm. noun the actual items of stock held in a persuasibility /pəswezblti/ warehouse noun US the degree to which a target picking /pkŋ/ noun selecting a audience can be persuaded through ad. place on the shelf. the end user 쑗 Physical distribution is personal selling /p&s(ə)n(ə)l always a problem because of high trans- selŋ/ noun selling to a customer by portation costs. product made by the same company tjunti/ noun an arranged situation piggy-back freight /p"i bk where a famous person can be filmed or fret s&vs/ noun US the transport of photographed by journalists loaded trucks on freight trains. Technological. then to the retailer and so to ularity among the target audience. piggy-back promotion noun a type of photoengraving where /p"i bk prəməυʃ(ə)n/ noun the the design is etched into the metal rather sales promotion for one product which than in relief accompanies promotion for another photo opportunity /fəυtəυ ɒpə.personal selling 201 pilot promotion because of her widespread pop. moving goods from the producer to the which if successful will then be ex- . a service which takes cial. pilferage /plfərd/. Legislative and something away for cleaning or servic- Economic ing and returns it to the owner when photoengraving /fəυtəυn. /fzk(ə)l ritel ʃɒpŋ/ noun shop- persuade /pəswed/ verb to talk to ping that involves visiting actual shops someone and get them to do what you rather than buying online want 쑗 We could not persuade the physical stock /fzk(ə)l stɒk/ French company to sign the contract. listed according to persuasion /pəswe(ə)n/ noun the where they can be found in the act of persuading warehouse persuasion matrix /pəswe(ə)n pickup /pk  p/ noun a type of small metrks/ noun a planning model van for transporting goods which shows how responses are affected pickup and delivery service by the communications they receive /pk p ən dlv(ə)ri s&vs/ noun PESTLE /pes(ə)l/ noun analysis of 1. items in an order. wholesaler. product according to its packaging or vertising that a product has good quali.

placement test /plesmənt test/ bian people noun a test where different versions of a pink pound /pŋk paυnd/ noun new product are tested in different money spent by gay and lesbian places and with different types of con- customers sumer (as opposed to market tests. proposed TV series 2. a poster of money spent by gay and lesbian double crown size (i. to see if it will work in ‘…the head of marketing says the company is practice 쐽 noun 1. send something in an ordinary envelope nesses are involved in the product’s with no company name printed on it pipeline? plan /pln/ noun a way of doing some- piracy /parəsi/ noun the copying of thing which has been decided on and or- patented inventions or copyright works ganised in advance 쐽 verb to decide on and organise something in advance pirate /parət/ noun a person who (NOTE: planning – planned) copies a patented invention or a copy. were pirated in the Far East. advertising agency to a potential 쐽 verb to test a project on a small num. 쑗 There was breakable. whereas a specifically at the gay and lesbian laser printer has a resolution of 300–600 market pixels (also called dots) per inch. 30 inches deep customers by 20 inches wide) 2. customer ber of people. where the new product is actually sold pioneer /paənə/ verb to be the first through normal distribution channels in to do something 쑗 The company pio. copyright work 쑗 a pirated book 쑗 The pany set up a pilot project to see if the designs for the new dress collection proposed manufacturing system was ef. placement testing /plesmənt testŋ/ noun the practice of sending a pioneer selling /paənə selŋ/ product to different places for trial and noun hard intensive selling in new mar. the usefulness to a customer of receiv- ing a product at a particular place pipeline /paplan/ noun a distribu- tion channel from the manufacturer plain cover /plen k və/ noun 왍 to through wholesalers and retailers to the send something under plain cover to customer 쑗 How many different busi. since few customers had heard place utility /ples jutlti/ noun of the product or thought they needed it. 쐽 adjec- ficient. A monitor normally has a reso- dvətazŋ/ noun advertising aimed lution of 72 pixels per inch. a pilot project but does not have a pitch list at this stage’ [Marketing Week] pilot survey /palət s&ve/ noun a preliminary survey carried out to see if a pix /pks/ plural noun pictures used in full survey would be worth while advertising or design (informal ) .e. a large advertise- pink market /pŋk mɑkt/ noun ment on a stiff card the market that consists of gay and les. then interviewing the users on its perfor- kets 쑗 A campaign of pioneer selling mance 쑗 Placement testing revealed was organised to educate the public in that the product was too easily the use of the new product. the test areas) neered developments in the field of electronics. incentive and . rate copy of a book cesses. pink dollar /pŋk dɒlə/ noun US placard /plkɑd/ noun 1. ‘…the benefits package is attractive and the right work and sells it 쐽 verb to copy a compensation plan includes base.pilot survey 202 plan panded into a full operation 쑗 The com. pixel /pksəl/ noun the smallest single PIN abbr Personal Identification unit or point on a display or on a printer Number whose colour or brightness can be con- pink advertising /pŋk trolled. a trial episode of a reviewing its advertising agency arrangements. 쑗 The pilot factory has been tive copied without permission 쑗 a pi- built to test the new production pro. 쑗 She is directing a pilot scheme pitch /ptʃ/ noun presentation by an for training unemployed young people. a lot of consumer resistance to pioneer selling.

ran six commercials plugging holidays in Spain. Abbr POA planning /plnŋ/ noun the process of organising how something should be point of purchase /pɔnt əv done in the future 쑗 Setting up a new in.g. plan of action or the company’s way of used to attract customers doing things 쑗 What is the company plug /pl "/ noun 왍 to give a plug to a policy on credit? 쑗 It is against com- new product to publicise a new product pany policy to give more than thirty 쐽 verb to publicise or advertise 쑗 They days’ credit. company’s trading policy 쑗 The coun-