4 views

Uploaded by Madhav Surya

To design a shaft

- Guided Cantilever Method
- Machine Design Key
- 21 Design of Leaf Springs
- Strength Design of RCC Hydraulic Structures
- IJMMME 0101016
- Vol2_Section13
- Concrete Tanks Design Notes
- Experimental and Computational Investigation of the Roll Forming Process
- machine design chapter 8 solutions.docx
- 1 Way Slab Design
- 39748813.pdf
- reportBakker.pdf
- US6236118.pdf
- Mathcad C 8220
- Samputensili_Tools_en_v005.pdf
- Design of Ground Anchors Sand
- Finite_Element_Analysis_of_Truck_Chassis (1).pdf
- Symbols
- Coiled Tubing Loads and Forces
- SX028a-EN-EU-Example- Design resistance of a screwed connection of cold-formed members.pdf

You are on page 1of 68

208, Machine Design section

Department of Mechanical Engineering

IIT Madras

email: ratna@iitm.ac.in

1/46

Outline I

1 Shaft Basics

Shaft Materials

Shaft Layout

2 Shaft Loads

Shaft stresses

Stress concentration

Shaft Failure

3 Shaft Design

General guidelines

ASME shaft design

Equivalent stress in shafts

Design based on Goodman theory

Example Problem

Design data

Design of a shaft for deflection

2/46

Outline II

4 Design of Keys

Types of Keys

Stresses in Keys

Key Materials

3/46

Shaft Basics

Shaft Basics

What is a shaft?

A shaft usually is a rotating element which transmits torque from a

driving device

Shafts usually carry other machine elements such as gears,

pulleys, sheaves or sprockets

4/46

Shaft Basics Shaft Materials

Shaft Materials

Many shafts are made from low-carbon, cold-drawn or hot-rolled

steel such as AISI 1020-1050 steels

Significant strengthening and surface hardening is usually not

required

When used as journals, they need to be surface hardened

(Carburizing grades: AISI 1020, 4320, 4820, 8620)

Cold drawn steels for diameters less than 3 inches and need not

be machined all over

Hot-rolled steels should be machined all over

Cast-iron may be used in cases where the gears and shafts are

required to be cast together

In highly corrosive environment, stainless steel may be used

5/46

Shaft Basics Shaft Layout

Shaft Layout

6/46

Shaft Basics Shaft Layout

Stress raisers

shaft assembly

Bearings

Clamp Collar

Key

Snap ring

Taper pin

Press and shrink fits

Set screws

Ease of assembly and disassembly for maintenance

7/46

Shaft Loads

Shaft loads

Fluctuating torque and fluctuating moment together with axial

loads

8/46

Shaft Loads

Shaft loads

Fluctuating torque and fluctuating moment together with axial

loads

A general case of complex multiaxial stress state

8/46

Shaft Loads

Shaft loads

Fluctuating torque and fluctuating moment together with axial

loads

A general case of complex multiaxial stress state

Simple multiaxial stress state: direction of principal alternating

stress remains constant

8/46

Shaft Loads

Shaft loads

Fluctuating torque and fluctuating moment together with axial

loads

A general case of complex multiaxial stress state

Simple multiaxial stress state: direction of principal alternating

stress remains constant

Most rotating shafts are loaded in bending and torsion

8/46

Shaft Loads

Shaft loads

Fluctuating torque and fluctuating moment together with axial

loads

A general case of complex multiaxial stress state

Simple multiaxial stress state: direction of principal alternating

stress remains constant

Most rotating shafts are loaded in bending and torsion

We will consider the case of fluctuating bending moment and

constant torque in this class, i.e., simple multiaxial case

8/46

Shaft Loads Shaft stresses

Shaft stresses I

Ma y Mm y Ta r Tm r

σa = kf , σm = kfm τa = kfs , τm = kfsm

I I J J

For a solid circular shaft, y = d/2 For a solid circular shaft, r = d/2

and I = πd 4 /64. and J = πd 4 /32.

σa = kf , σm = kfm τa = kfs , τm = kfsm

πd 3 πd 3 πd 3 πd 3

kf and kfm are bending fatigue kfs and kfsm are torsional fatigue

stress concentration factors for stress concentration factors for

the alternating and mean the alternating and mean

components. components.

9/46

Shaft Loads Shaft stresses

Shaft stresses II

Axial stresses

A tensile axial stress: usually a mean component only

Fz 4Fz

σmaxial = kfm = kfm 2

A πd

10/46

Shaft Loads Stress concentration

Stress-concentration effects

Stress-concentration with fluctuating stresses

The alternating component should be treated the same way as the

fully reversed case. The local alternating stress:

σa = kf σanom , kf = 1 + q(kt − 1)

brittleness) of the material

If ductile, then amount of yielding possible at the notch should be

considered

If brittle, full value of geometric stress concentration factor (kt ) is

used as kf .

The mean fatigue stress concentration factor (kfm ) depends on the

level of mean stress σm at the notch compared to the yield

strength

11/46

Shaft Loads Stress concentration

Sy − kf σanom

If kf |σmaxnom | > Sy , then : kfm =

|σmnom |

If kf |σmaxnom − σminnom | > 2Sy , then : kfm = 0

12/46

Shaft Loads Stress concentration

How do you decide on kfm ?

13/46

Shaft Loads Stress concentration

14/46

Shaft Loads Shaft Failure

Combined

torsion and

bending of

ductile

materials in

fatigue is found

to follow elliptic

relationship.

Gough ellipse

15/46

Shaft Design

Shaft design

Key points J

Shafts should be designed for both stress and deflection

16/46

Shaft Design

Shaft design

Key points J

Shafts should be designed for both stress and deflection

Stresses can be calculated at various locations by knowing the

approximate cross section at the point

16/46

Shaft Design

Shaft design

Key points J

Shafts should be designed for both stress and deflection

Stresses can be calculated at various locations by knowing the

approximate cross section at the point

Deflection calculation requires the knowledge of the entire

geometry

16/46

Shaft Design

Shaft design

Key points J

Shafts should be designed for both stress and deflection

Stresses can be calculated at various locations by knowing the

approximate cross section at the point

Deflection calculation requires the knowledge of the entire

geometry

Hence, the shafts are first designed for stress and then for

deflection

16/46

Shaft Design General guidelines

Shaft design

General guidelines

Minimize deflection and stress: the length should be kept as short

as possible

17/46

Shaft Design General guidelines

Shaft design

General guidelines

Minimize deflection and stress: the length should be kept as short

as possible

Avoid overhangs

17/46

Shaft Design General guidelines

Shaft design

General guidelines

Minimize deflection and stress: the length should be kept as short

as possible

Avoid overhangs

Locate stress raisers away from regions of large bending moment

17/46

Shaft Design General guidelines

Shaft design

General guidelines

Minimize deflection and stress: the length should be kept as short

as possible

Avoid overhangs

Locate stress raisers away from regions of large bending moment

Deflections at gear mount positions should not exceed 0.005

inches

17/46

Shaft Design General guidelines

Shaft design

General guidelines

Minimize deflection and stress: the length should be kept as short

as possible

Avoid overhangs

Locate stress raisers away from regions of large bending moment

Deflections at gear mount positions should not exceed 0.005

inches

Operational/forcing frequency of the shaft should be far away (10

times smaller) from its natural frequency

17/46

Shaft Design General guidelines

Shaft design

General guidelines

Minimize deflection and stress: the length should be kept as short

as possible

Avoid overhangs

Locate stress raisers away from regions of large bending moment

Deflections at gear mount positions should not exceed 0.005

inches

Operational/forcing frequency of the shaft should be far away (10

times smaller) from its natural frequency

Refer to Norton’s text book on several other guidelines.

17/46

Shaft Design ASME shaft design

Assumption: Reversed bending and steady torsion

σa 2 τm 2

n + n =1

Se τy

√

Note that τy = Sy / 3 and hence,

σa 2 √ τm 2

n + n 3 =1

Se Sy

18/46

Shaft Design ASME shaft design

1/3

s

kf M a 2 kfsm Tm 2

16n

d= 4 + +3

π Se Sy

Note J

For a rotating shaft with constant bending moment and torsion, the

bending stress is completely reversed and the torsion is steady. In that

case, the above equation can be simplified by setting Mm = 0 and

Ta = 0.

19/46

Shaft Design Equivalent stress in shafts

loading

" 2 2 #1/2

1/2 32kf Ma 16kfs Ta

σae = σa2 + 3τa2 = +3

πd 3 πd 3

" 2 2 #1/2

e

2

1/2 32kfm Mm 16kfsm Tm

σm = σm + 3τm2 = +3

πd 3 πd 3

Note:

e should have contribution from σ

Ideally, σm maxial also which is neglected

in the above equation.

20/46

Shaft Design Design based on Goodman theory

J

Goodman line

1 σe σe

= a + m

n Se Sut

21/46

Shaft Design Design based on Goodman theory

Goodman line J

1 σe σe

= a + m

n Se Sut

e from the previous slide and

21/46

Shaft Design Design based on Goodman theory

Goodman line J

1 σe σe

= a + m

n Se Sut

e from the previous slide and

q

16n 1

d= 4(kf Ma )2 + 3(kfs Ta )2 +

π Se

1/3

1

q

2

4(kfm Mm ) + 3(kfsm Tm )2

Sut

21/46

Shaft Design Design based on Goodman theory

Possibility of yielding in

first loading cycle

should be checked

Soderberg and ASME

takes care of yielding to

some extent

Gerber and Modfied

Goodman do not guard

against yielding

22/46

Shaft Design Design based on Goodman theory

J

Von-mises maximum stress:

q

e

σmax = (σm + σa )2 + 3(τm + τa )2

Sy

ny = e

σmax

e

A highly conservative estimate of σmax is

e

σmax ≤ σae + σm

e

23/46

Shaft Design Example Problem

Example-1

At a machined shaft shoulder the small diameter d is 1.100 in, the

large diameter D is 1.65 in, and the fillet radius is 0.11 in. The bending

moment is 1260 lbf-in and the steady torsion moment is 1100 lbf-in.

The heat-treated steel shaft has an ultimate strength of Sut = 105 kpsi

and a yield strength of Sy = 82 kpsi. The reliability goal is 0.99.

(a) Determine the fatigue factor of safety of the design using each of

the fatigue failure criteria described in this section.

(b) Determine the yielding factor of safety.

24/46

Shaft Design Example Problem

25/46

Shaft Design Example Problem

26/46

Shaft Design Example Problem

Solution

D/d = 1.5, r /d = 0.1

27/46

Shaft Design Example Problem

Solution

D/d = 1.5, r /d = 0.1

kt = 1.68, kts = 1.42

27/46

Shaft Design Example Problem

Solution

D/d = 1.5, r /d = 0.1

kt = 1.68, kts = 1.42

q = 0.85, qshear = 0.92

27/46

Shaft Design Example Problem

Solution

D/d = 1.5, r /d = 0.1

kt = 1.68, kts = 1.42

q = 0.85, qshear = 0.92

kf = 1 + q(kt − 1) = 1.58

27/46

Shaft Design Example Problem

Solution

D/d = 1.5, r /d = 0.1

kt = 1.68, kts = 1.42

q = 0.85, qshear = 0.92

kf = 1 + q(kt − 1) = 1.58

kfs = 1 + qshear (kts − 1) =

1.39

27/46

Shaft Design Example Problem

Solution

D/d = 1.5, r /d = 0.1

kt = 1.68, kts = 1.42

q = 0.85, qshear = 0.92

kf = 1 + q(kt − 1) = 1.58

kfs = 1 + qshear (kts − 1) =

1.39

Se0 = 0.5Sut =

27/46

Shaft Design Example Problem

Solution

D/d = 1.5, r /d = 0.1

kt = 1.68, kts = 1.42

q = 0.85, qshear = 0.92

kf = 1 + q(kt − 1) = 1.58

kfs = 1 + qshear (kts − 1) =

1.39

Se0 = 0.5Sut = 52.5 kpsi

27/46

Shaft Design Example Problem

Solution

D/d = 1.5, r /d = 0.1

kt = 1.68, kts = 1.42

q = 0.85, qshear = 0.92

kf = 1 + q(kt − 1) = 1.58

kfs = 1 + qshear (kts − 1) =

1.39

Se0 = 0.5Sut = 52.5 kpsi

Creliab

27/46

Shaft Design Example Problem

Solution

D/d = 1.5, r /d = 0.1 Csize

kt = 1.68, kts = 1.42

q = 0.85, qshear = 0.92

kf = 1 + q(kt − 1) = 1.58

kfs = 1 + qshear (kts − 1) =

1.39

Se0 = 0.5Sut = 52.5 kpsi

Creliab

27/46

Shaft Design Example Problem

Solution

D/d = 1.5, r /d = 0.1 Csize

kt = 1.68, kts = 1.42

q = 0.85, qshear = 0.92

kf = 1 + q(kt − 1) = 1.58

kfs = 1 + qshear (kts − 1) =

1.39

Se0 = 0.5Sut = 52.5 kpsi b

Csurf = ASut

Creliab

27/46

Shaft Design Example Problem

Solution Contd..

Se = Csurf Csize Creliab Se0 = (0.787)(0.87)(0.814)(52.5) = 29.3 kpsi

The shaft is rotating with a constant bending moment, i.e., Mm = 0

Steady torque is applied, implies Ta = 0

Ma = 1260 lbf-in and Tm = 1100 lbf-in

Applying Goodman criterion for multi-axial fatigue:

q

1 16 1 1

q

= 2

4(kf Ma ) + 3(kfsm Tm ) 2

n πd 3 Se Sut

Hence, n = 1.62.

Based on ASME elliptic, n = 1.88

28/46

Shaft Design Example Problem

Sy

ny = e

σmax

e

σmax = 18300psi

Hence, ny = 4.48

29/46

Shaft Design Example Problem

Design a shaft to support the attachments shown in the Figure

30/46

Shaft Design Example Problem

Design a shaft to support the attachments shown in the Figure with a

preliminary design of shaft configuration. The shaft is expected to transmit 2

hp at 1725 rpm. The torque and the force on the gear are both constant with

time.

Assume that

No applied axial loads

Steel as a shaft material

stress-concentration factor of 3.5 for the step radii in bending, 2 in

torsion and 4 at the keyways.

Assume that the ratio of tensions on tight side to slack side on the v-belt

sheave is 5.

31/46

Shaft Design Example Problem

Roller Bearings Standard Dimensions

32/46

Shaft Design Design of a shaft for deflection

Maximum Ranges for Slope and Transverse Deflection

33/46

Shaft Design Design of a shaft for deflection

Due to change of cross section, M/EI changes along the length

Integrate M/EI twice to find deflection at any given point

Shaft as a torsion bar

T`

θ=

GJ

The torsional stiffness is

T GJ

kt = =

θ `

For a stepped shaft, the torsional stiffness is more complicated

Stepped shaft can be assumed as torsional springs in series

1 1 1 1

= + +

kteff kt1 kt2 kt3

34/46

Design of Keys

A demountable machine element which, when assembled into

keyseats, provides a positive means for transmitting torque between

the shaft and hub

Types of keys

35/46

Design of Keys

Square and Rectangular Key Sizes

36/46

Design of Keys Types of Keys

Parallel Keys

Made from cold-rolled bar stock (negatively toleranced)

Clearance fit between key and keyseat in general with some

exceptions

The clearance between key and keyseat leads to impact and high

stress called back lash when torque changes from positive to

negative

A set screw in the hub placed at 90◦ to the key prevents backlash

Length of the key ` ≤ 1.5d, where d is shaft diameter

For higher strength, more keys may be used at different

orientations

37/46

Design of Keys Types of Keys

Tapered Keys

The tapered key is a locking key which holds the key axially

through friction

The gib head is optional

Tapered keys orient the radial clearance to one side thus creating

eccentricity between the shaft and hub

Woodruff Keys

Used on small shafts

Self-aligning and hence are preferred for tapered shafts

Semi-circular shape leads to a larger keyseat depth which resists

key rolling

Weakens the shaft due to larger keyseat depth

38/46

Design of Keys Stresses in Keys

Stresses in Keys

Modes of failure in keys

Shear failure: shearing across its width at the interface between

the shaft and the hub

Average stress due to direct shear

F

τxy = , Ashear = `w

Ashear

Average bearing stress is defined as

F

σx = , Asquare

bearing = (h/2)`

Abear

failure may be considered static

39/46

Design of Keys Key Materials

Key Materials

Soft low-carbon steel is the most common material

Brass/Stainless steel under corrosive environment

Square and rectangular keys are merely cut from cold-rolled bar

stock

Tapered and Woodruff keys are also made from soft cold-rolled

steel

Lower strength materials than that of shaft

40/46

Design of Keys Key Materials

Key Design I

Shaft diameter at the key seat determines the key width

Key height is determined by width

The design variables are: the length and number of keys

Key is sized such that it fails before the keyseat or other locations

in the shaft

Key is relatively inexpensive and easy to replace if the keyseat is

undamaged

Focus on stress concentration factors due to sharp corners

41/46

Design of Keys Key Materials

Key Design II

and torsion

42/46

Design of Keys Key Materials

Solve Norton’s example problem-9.4

43/46

Design of Keys Key Materials

Design shafts for vibration

Critical speed of shafts

Lateral vibration

Shaft whirl

Torsional vibration

44/46

Design of Keys Key Materials

References

2 R. G. Budyanas and J. K. Nisbett, Shigley’s Mechanical

Engineering Design

45/46

- Guided Cantilever MethodUploaded bySeungmin Paek
- Machine Design KeyUploaded byNikash Pandey
- 21 Design of Leaf SpringsUploaded byPRASAD326
- Strength Design of RCC Hydraulic StructuresUploaded byAqeel Ahmad
- IJMMME 0101016Uploaded byAchintyaParadkar
- Vol2_Section13Uploaded byBasong San
- Concrete Tanks Design NotesUploaded byJulían Darío Medina
- Experimental and Computational Investigation of the Roll Forming ProcessUploaded byakhilesh120
- machine design chapter 8 solutions.docxUploaded bySubhash Korumilli
- 1 Way Slab DesignUploaded byEngineerArMan
- 39748813.pdfUploaded byBorna Dasović
- reportBakker.pdfUploaded byShaileshRastogi
- US6236118.pdfUploaded byglazy Brian
- Mathcad C 8220Uploaded byLandon Mitchell
- Samputensili_Tools_en_v005.pdfUploaded byEd Per
- Design of Ground Anchors SandUploaded byMUHAMMAD ALI
- Finite_Element_Analysis_of_Truck_Chassis (1).pdfUploaded byThanakorn Vichiensamuth
- SymbolsUploaded byGema Tigit
- Coiled Tubing Loads and ForcesUploaded byKevin Steinbach
- SX028a-EN-EU-Example- Design resistance of a screwed connection of cold-formed members.pdfUploaded byW
- Catálogo Sit SerlockUploaded byalfonso_gonzale3544
- ACAD R 15 Teaching PlanUploaded bynitinmg
- thanhUploaded byRaman Babu
- Pb 2002101744Uploaded byYacoub Cheikh
- Miller 2017Uploaded byM Mirza Abdillah Pratama
- Letcure38Uploaded byamol
- 03.Analysis Design Method & MaterialUploaded byAndini, Puteri eka desianti
- 11.25D100Uploaded byWessam Nour
- Strengthening of Concrete Slab Bridges With Regard to Shear CapacityUploaded byAlin Salagean
- ergonomic chairUploaded byapi-285313928

- Attitudes of parents towards their mentally retarded children a rural area examination - N Govend.pdfUploaded byUzmaShirazi
- Research Project Protocol.docxUploaded byNikita Jacobs
- Pemasaran 1 - Pengantar MarketingUploaded bynucke
- Prevalence of anticardiolipi.pdfUploaded byRezaTiansah
- Daster, Bisulfitt Addition, HalofoarmUploaded bydevita
- 05_NSTSE_Solution_439_2018Uploaded byG Kumar
- Introduction to Biologics, A History of Agents Made From Living Organisms in the Twentieth CenturyUploaded byPickering and Chatto
- JD 425 445 Operators ManualUploaded bytheoneman1
- Inverter User ManualUploaded bySam
- Reasons Advantages and Disadvantages of City Big or VillagesUploaded bySandy Blros
- Delirium TremensUploaded byYusuf Candra Adityawan
- 6e50af608c30ece1a3f30d19c32711c9_attachUploaded byHervis Fantini
- Plant Optimizing PresentUploaded bydee1985
- Satuan Acara Pengajaran Dampak GadgetUploaded byYunita
- Minimally invasive surgery spineUploaded byMohammad Abid
- Axel CountersUploaded byAmitJolly
- ToR Provincial Coordinator_MITRA Youth_ENTUploaded bymiindonesia
- Chest Pain (Autosaved)Uploaded byKelvinTMaikana
- 00042752-201011000-00006Uploaded byalvarosg90
- Starbucks' crisisUploaded byautumn333
- ADLUploaded byCatalina Buzdugan
- is.1320.1988Uploaded byak
- Stress and Social SupportUploaded byMuhammad Adeel
- Parish Bulletin for June 30, 2013Uploaded byRoy Avila
- December PresentationUploaded byfaagoldfish
- Investigation of Domestic Violence in Local SettingUploaded byVanessa Basa
- SSP 203 1.0 37kw Petrol EngineUploaded byภูเก็ต เป็นเกาะ
- LSU ACL study aims to advance sports medicine into new era; 'This is a big deal' | LSU | theadvocate.comUploaded byAnonymous skUzILIiHD
- Anulom - LeaveAndLicense SampleUploaded bySiddhart Kulkarni
- YOGIC STHULA VYAYAMAUploaded byGerardo Antonio Contreras Guerrero