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Brain Bee Preparation

There are 11 complete chapters in the Brain Facts and could be divided as follows:

Chapter

Chapter

Number of

Person

Questions

1

Neuron

15

20

Howell Fu

2

Brain Development (20Q)

 

3

Sensation and Perception (15Q)

15

Jesse Zhang

4

Learning, Memory and Language (15Q)

15

Jasper Little

5

Movement (15Q)

15

Lincoln Ye

6

Sleep + Stress

15

20

Henry Yuen

7

Ageing (20Q)

 

8a

Neural Disorders Part I: (we need to cover the neural disorders quite extensively) Addiction -->Brain Tumors (inclusive) (15Q)

15

Qiheng Yang

8b

Neural Disorders Part II: (we need to cover the neural disorders quite extensively) Down Syndrome --> Pain (inclusive) (15Q)

15

Bathiya Ratnayake

8c

Neural Disorders Part III: (we need to cover the neural disorders quite extensively) Parkinsons' --> Tourette Syndrome (inclusive)

15

Sanjay Patel

(15Q)

9

New Diagnostic Methods (10Q)

10

Jun Young Lee

10

Potential Therapy (10Q)

10

Daniel Hidajat

The questions for the more important sections will be well covered. The total number of questions will be about 140. 50% for Individual challenge, 50% for mock challenge. Please send this to all team members.

Make questions of varying levels of difficulty, particularly leaning towards ones dealing with the more tricky/difficult/obscure details (as these are apparently picked on in the real challenge)

The specific questions will be collated to form one long document actual questions asked generated randomly.

Format questions documents follows (for ease of reference).:e.g ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ Chapter 8A 8A Q1: What is the percentage of the American population where drugs are abused on a regular basis? 8A Q2:

?

~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~

Neuro Questions Chapt 1&2 The Neuron & Brain Development:

1. What is the difference between oligodendrocytes and Schwann cells?

2. How fast (roughly) can an action potential travel?

3. About how many years ago was ACh discovered?

4. What does GABA stand for?

5. Name one benzodiazepine.

6. Which are the catecholamines?

7. What is Korsakoff's Syndrome?

8. What does cAMP stand for and what enzyme makes it?

9. From what embryonic structure does the eye develop?

10. What do ectodermic cells form?

11. Sonic hedgehog governs the differentiation of tissue into which cell types?

12. What structures guide developing axons?

13. What is apoptosis and how is it triggered?

14. Name the four regions of the nervous system.

15. Which area of the brain is the last to be myelinated?

Chapter 3 Sensation and Perception Jesse

3

Q1: What does the visual process begin by comparing?

3

Q2: What is the name of the place where the optic nerves from each eye cross over?

3

Q3: Where in the brain is the lateral geniculate nucleus found?

3

Q4: How many visual processing systems are there and what do they do?

3

Q5: Where is the tectorial membrane located in the ear?

3

Q6: Describe how sound travels from the outer ear to the cochlea in detail.

3

Q7: Which membrane do hair cells in the cochlea ride on?

3

Q8: How are the left auditory cortex and the right auditory cortex different?

3

Q9: What is the name of the protuberances in which taste buds are embedded?

3

Q10: How many taste buds do humans have?

3

Q11: How many specialised sensory cells does each taste bud consist of?

3

Q12: Where are olfactory receptor cells found?

3

Q13: What is the name given to the sensory fibres that respond to tissue damaging stimuli?

3

Q14: What is the function of prostaglandins?

3 Q15: Why does pain often remain even after the harmful stimulus has been removed (explain in terms of the different neurones involved)?

Chapter 5 Movement 1What are muscle fibers controlled by?

2Complete the sentence: Skilled movements are started by a)

b)

and stopped by

3Receptors in muscles are called muscle

4What senses the force applied by the muscle, and is located in the muscle tendons?

5Actions by muscles can be separated into two main groups, v

6Where is the v

7, Multi choice, choose 3 parts of the brain, which are involved in movement

and i

(your answer to the first part of 5) actions controlled in the brain.

Pons, oblongata medulla, movement cortex, basal ganglia, hypothalamus, hippocampus, amygdale, cerebellum, cerebrum, thalamus, hindbrain.

8, What does Parkinson’s disease cause? 9, a depletion of what neurotransmitter, causes the Parkinson disease? 10, What substance, can regenerate the depleted neurotransmitter mentioned above?

Answers

Answers:

1, alpha motor neuron in the brain

2, a,agonists

b,antagonists

3, spindles 4, golgi tendon organs 5, voluntary and involuntary. 6, motor cortex 7, thalamus, basal ganglia, cerebellum, And movement cortex does not exist for the record. 8, movement disorders, rigidity 9, dopamine. 10, levodopa

Chapter 6: Sleep + Stress (Henry)

1)

How many people in USA are affected by sleep disorders?

2)

What is the cost of sleeping disorders a year? What accounts for this cost?

3)

What machine is used to examine human brain waves during sleep?

4)

What is the time period over which the first phase of slow wave sleep occurs, according to

5)

research? What is atonia?

6)

What muscles are not paralysed by atonia?

7)

How long does the first REM period last?

8)

In what phase of sleep to infants spend most time in?

9)

How many hours do infants sleep a day?

10) What is the most common sleeping disorder? 11) Insomnia manifests itself in more than one form. Describe two ways. 12) What type of drugs can help insomniacs? 13) How do these drugs work (from Q 12) ? 14) What is the name given to the disorder when as sleep deepens, airway muscles relax until the airway is closed, causing arousal from sleep? 15) What is the common name for Wittmaack-Ekbom's Syndrome? 16) How does Periodic Limb Movements of sleep arouse one from sleep? 17) What is the name of the disorder where muscles fail to become paralysed during REM, and dreams are 'acted out'? 18) Periodic Limb Movements disorder and the above disorder Q17 is common with with disease? 19) Name a drug which is used to treat the two disorders in Q18- also name the type of drug it is classified under. 20) How does Narcolepsy work? 21) What chemical is missing in narcoleptics? 22) Define hypnagogic hallucination? 23) What is the name given to attacks of paralysis where control over muscles is lost, and can be triggered by emotional experiences? 24) Name the 4 main monoamines. 25) What is the meaning of cholinergic? 26) Damage to which part of the brain causes irreversible insomnia? 27) Which neurotransmitter produced by a group of nerve cells promotes wakefulness and suppresses REM? 28) What chemical does caffeine block? 29) Account for the 4 locations through which impulses are passed to regulate the brain's circadian timing system and sleep cycles? (Hint: they have long names)

Stress 30) What is another informal name for cortisol? 31) What are the two branches under the autonomic nervous system? 32) What are the two major stress hormones? 33) Account for the difference between epinephrine and norepinephrine. 34) What do adrenal glands secrete? 35) What is the formal name for cortisol? 36) When do cortisol levels peak in a 24 hour period? 37) Account for the production of epinephrine? (*)

38) When cortisol levels are very high, what happens to the hippocampus? 39) Define autoimmune disorders? 40) Which two synthetic glucocorticoids suppress the immune system? 41) Where is corticotrophin releasing hormone released and where does it act? 42) Where is adrenocorticotrophin released and where does it act?

Chapter 7 Ageing (Henry)

1)

Who was the oldest woman and how old was her when she died in 1997 (give your answer in

2)

the number of years and days)? What was the average life expectancy in 1900?

3)

More than what percentage of the population was older than 65 in 2003?

4)

What fraction of people over 85 are affected by senile dementia?

5)

What is the difference between normal ageing and Alzheimers'?

6)

In research conducted, what significant function improves as ageing progresses?

7)

What happens to the remaining neurons when the circuitry begins to break down with ageing?

8)

In which main cortical Areas are the most neurons retained during ageing?

9)

At what age does the brain reach its maximum weight?

10) Outline the structure of the basal ganglia 11) Outline the structure of the passacaglia.

Chapter 8A Neural Diseases

8A Q1. What are the two types of drugs classed under Psychostimulants?

8A Q2.What toxin had showed effectiveness in treating brain tumour and what does it do?

8A Q 3.What does GHB stand for and what is it known as?

8A Q 4. What was the first effective treatment of OCD inspired by?

8A Q 5.Mutation in a gene that codes for what that is responsible for some forms of ALS?

8A Q 6. How do opiates work after they are taken into the body?

8A Q 7.What are the lifetime prevalence rate of PTSD in the United States?

8A Q 8. Why are the effects of Nicotine dangerous?

8A Q 9.What can you tell us about the prevalence of Bipolar disorder in the US?

8A Q 10.How are the short term memory problems caused by Marijuana explained?

Chapter 8B Brain Bee Questions

DOWN SYNDROME

1. QHow prevalent in babies is Down syndrome?

2. QWhat chromosome is typically associated with this disease?

3. QHow can you accurately detect Down syndrome?

4. QHow many characteristics approximately is Down syndrome associated with? DYSLEXIA

5. Qwhat approximate percentage of America have some sort of learning disability?

6. Qwhat percentage of all identified Americans as having learning disabilities does Dyslexia affect?

7. QWhat is the process of converting letters to sounds of the language termed?

8. QWhat is Broca’s Area?

9. QWhat are risk alleles? HUNTINGTONS

10. QHuntingtons killed which folk singer in 1967?

11. QWhen does Huntingtons usually appear?

12. QWhat 2 primary areas does Huntingtons normally affect

13. QWhat is the genetic cause for HD? Major Depression

14. QHow many more times are depressed individuals likely of conducting suicide?

15. QWhat percentage of the American population is affected by major Depression annually?

16. QWhat delicate system involving the hypothalamus and pituitary and adrenalglands does this desease affect?

17. QWhat stress, hormone do depressed patients excrete excessively?

18. Qwhat two transmitters do most antidepressant drugs usually affect?

19. Qwhat do monoamine oxidase inhibitors do?

20. Qwhat does SSRIs stand for?

21. QWhat are SSRIs similar to with their function?

MULTIPLE SCLEROSIS

22. QHow much does the US lose annually for families with MS?

23. QIn Ms what part of the neurone is thought to be believed is acted upon as foreign tissue?

24. QWhat are lesions or plaques in association with MS?

25. Qwhat climates is MS more prevalent in?

26. QWhat are contractures? NEURALOGICAL AIDS

27. QHow many people in the world are living with HIV?

28. QWhat is a Cytokine?

29. Qwhat protein secreted by infected cells is suspected of neurotoxicity?

30. Qwhat happens to the brains of these patients? NEURALOGICAL TRAUMA

31. Qwhat is the approximate economic cost of those living with traumatic injury?

32. Qwhat is oedema?

33. Qwhat percentage of moderate to severe head injury deaths was cut by the hormone progesterone in a clinical trial?

34. Qto reduce intracranial presseure doctors may remove part of the skull to allow the brain to swell, what is this process called?

35. Qspinal cord injuries may become less severly impaired if they receive high doses of which steroid drug within eight hours?

36. Qwhat is the process of giving birth to new nerve cells termed? PAIN

37. Qlocal anaesthesia affects which ion channel?

38. QWhat are the four types of analgesias?

39. Qwhat area are opiate receptors concentrated in the body?

40. Qwhat is the peripheral nerve fiber that initially responds to injury?

Chapter 8C 8C Q1: In the event of a stroke free radicals are released. What does it cause damage to? 8C Q2: Which neurobiological disorder is characterised by vocal and motor tics? 8C Q3: What do antiepileptics drug, which are administered to epileptic patients, target? 8C Q4: What causes Parkinson’s disease? 8C Q5: What substance is added to levadopa and what does it prevent? 8C Q6: What are typical symptoms of Parkinson’s disease? 8C Q7: The surgical removal of which nuclei reduce the symptoms of Parkinson’s? 8C Q8: Approximately what percentage of the American population is affected by schizophrenia? 8C Q9: What percentage of patients die from stroke? 8C Q10: The use of which arm after a stroke can aid in recovery, the affected arm or the unaffected arm? 8C Q11: There are two types of epilepsies, what are they? 8C Q12: An implantable pacemakerlike device can be implanted in epileptic patients. Via what cranial nerve does the signal travel and what type of epilepsy does it reduce the frequency of? 8C Q13: Name one the stimulant drugs given to TS patients. 8C Q14: TS patients often have other associated conditions (e.g. learning difficulties). Name another associated conditions. 8C Q15: What are the annual costs of schizophrenia?

Answers 1) Endothelium of the blood vessel and mitochondria of the neurons 2) Tourette syndrome 3) Ion channels and neurotransmitters receptors 4) Low levels of dopamine due to the death of dopamine producing neurons in the substantia nigra 5) Carbidopa, it prevents the peripheral breakdown of dopamine 6) Slowness of movement, muscular rigidity, tremor and postural instability 7) The pallidum and the subthalamic nucleus 8) 1% 9) 21.4% 10) The unaffected arm 11) General seizures and partial epilepsies 12) Via the vagus (X) nerve and reduces the frequency of partial epilepsies 13) Methylphenidate or dextroamphetamine 14) Obsessive thoughts or compulsive rituals or difficulties with attention 15) $32.5 billion

Chapter 9 New Diagnostic Methods

1. What does PET stand for? Positron Emission Tomography

2. How does PET measure changes in the blood flow? It detects radioactivity emitted when positrons get carried in the blood and flow into

different brain areas in proportion to blood flow.

3. What does SPECT stand for Single Photon Computed Tomography

4. How is SPECT different from PET It’s less expensive but less detailed than PET

5. How long does MRI processing last? 15 minutes

6. How is MRS different from MRI?

It measures the concentrations of specific chemicals in different parts of the brain instead of blood flow

7. What’s a recently developed technique that detects magnetic fields emitted by neurons? Magnetoencephalography (MEG)

8. What two methods work well together to enable more precise understanding of the brain activity in health and disease? fMRI and MEG

9. What technique uses waves of frequencies high enough to render a human skull transparent? What category does this frequency belong to in the EM spectrum? Near Infrared Spectroscopy (NIRS), Infrared (approx.)

10. What is the most common case of inherited mental retardation of males? And what gene is responsible for this? Where is this gene found? Fragile X mental retardation, FMR1, on the X chromosome.

JunYoung LEE

Brain Bee Potential Therapy Questions

1. How is the potency of an agent determined?

By how well it attaches to a receptor or other protein target.

2. What are trophic factors?

Factors which control the development and survival of specific groups of neurons.

3. How can antibodies be engineered to prevent/cure neurological diseases?

By tricking the body into attacking proteins that cause neurological diseases by effectively 'vaccinating' patients against these proteins.

4. What risk is there in 'vaccinating' patients with these antibodies?

The brain may react to these antibodies trying to eradicate its proteins negatively, and may cause increased inflammation for example.

5. How do scientists plan to treat patients with neurological disease using potential therapy

techniques? They insert genetic material for a beneficial neurotransmitter or trophic factor into stem cells or a virus. The cells or virus are then put into a syringe and injected into the patient where they will

produce the beneficial molecule.

6. How can viruses be used to correct neurological diseases?

They can be used as 'Trojan Horses' which carry therapeutic genes which help correct the diseases of the nervous system.

7. How can drugs aid the prevention of neurological disease?

They can be tested using high-throughput screening to alter a cellular property that represents an

important part of a disease process, thus preventing the disease from effectively forming.

8. What happens to proteins in many neurodegenerative diseases?

The proteins misfold and or clump abnormally, and in some cases there is an accumulation of

abnormal proteins.

9. What are stem cells?

Stem cells are unspecialised cells which give rise to cells with specific functions in the brain and spinal cord.

10. Stem cells can continually produce all three major cell types of the brain, what are these

cells? They are neurons, astrocytes (cells which nourish and protect neurons) and oligodendrocytes.