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10.

2 Method of Composite Areas


10.2 Method of Composite Areas Example 1, page 1 of 2
1. Determine the moment of inertia of the crosshatched region
about the x axis. y

50 mm

x
20 mm

1 Consider the crosshatched region to


y y y
be composed of the difference of
two circular regions.

x x x
10.2 Method of Composite Areas Example 1, page 2 of 2
2 A table of properties of planar regions gives the 3 For our particular problem,
information shown below.
1
Large circle Ix = (50 mm)4
4
= 4.9087 106 mm4
Moment of Inertia
Ix = 1 r4 1
4 Small circle Ix = (20 mm)4
y 4
Iy = 1 r4 = 0.1257 106 mm4
4

For the composite region, subtracting gives


r
x Ix = Large circle Ix Small circle Ix
C
= 4.9087 106 mm4 0.1257 106 mm4
= 4.78 106 mm4 Ans.
Circle
10.2 Method of Composite Areas Example 2, page 1 of 2
2. The figure shows the cross section of a y
beam made by gluing four planks together. 150 mm 150 mm
Determine the moment of inertia of the
cross section about the x axis.

60 mm
200 mm
x
200 mm
60 mm

60 mm 60 mm
1 Consider the crosshatched region to be consist of a
small rectangle subtracted from a large rectangle.
y 60 mm + 200 mm + 200 mm + 60 mm = 520 mm y 200 mm + 200 mm = 400 mm
y

=
x 520 mm x 400 mm x

420 mm 300 mm
60 mm + 150 mm + 150 mm + 60 mm = 420 mm 150 mm + 150 mm = 300 mm
Large rectangle Small rectangle
10.2 Method of Composite Areas Example 2, page 2 of 2
2 A table of properties of planar regions y
3 For our particular problem,
gives the information shown below.
3
Large rectangle Ix = bh
3
12
Moment of Inertia
I x = bh
12 y (420 mm)(520 mm)3 520 mm x
=
3 12
Iy = hb b b
12 2 2 = 4.9213 109 mm4
h
2 420 mm
x
C y
h
2
4 For our particular problem,
Rectangle 3
Small rectangle Ix = bh
12
400 mm x
3
(300 mm)(400 mm)
=
12
= 1.6000 109 mm4
300 mm
5 For the composite region, subtracting gives

Ix = Large rectangle Ix Small rectangle Ix


= 4.9213 109 mm4 1.6000 109 mm4
= 3.32 109 mm4 Ans.
10.2 Method of Composite Areas Example 3, page 1 of 3
3. Determine the moment of inertia of the
beam cross section about the x centroidal
axis.
y
80 mm 80 mm

20 mm
120 mm

120 mm
20 mm

20 mm
10.2 Method of Composite Areas Example 3, page 2 of 3
1 Consider the cross section to be composed of a large rectangle minus two small rectangles.
y y y y
120 mm + 120 mm = 240 mm
80 mm 80 mm

20 mm
120 mm =
x 280 mm x 240 mm x x
240 mm
120 mm
20 mm

20 mm
180 mm 80 mm 80 mm
80 mm + 20 mm + 80 mm = 180 mm
20 mm + 120 mm + 120 mm + 20 mm = 280 mm
y
y 2 Two regions of the same size and same position
relative to the x axis can be combined into 2
times a single region.

= 2 x
x
10.2 Method of Composite Areas Example 3, page 3 of 3
3 y
3 Large rectangle Ix = bh
12

(180 mm)(280 mm)3


=
12
= 3.2928 108 mm4
280 mm x

180 mm
y

3
4 Small rectangle Ix = bh
12 240 mm
(80 mm)(240 mm)3 x
= 12
= 0.9216 108 mm4
5 For the composite region, subtracting gives
80 mm Ix = Large rectangle Ix 2 Small rectangle Ix

= 3.2928 108 mm4 2(0.9216 108 mm4)

= 1.450 108 mm4 Ans.


10.2 Method of Composite Areas Example 4, page 1 of 3
4. A composite beam is constructed y
from three plates and four standard
110 mm 110 mm 10 mm
rolled-steel angles. Determine the
moment of inertia of the cross
section about the x centroidal axis. A = 877 mm2
xc
C
140 mm Ixc = 0.202 106 mm4
C 16.2 mm
x

140 mm
10 mm

10 mm

1 Consider the cross section to be composed of four angles and three rectangles.
y y y y

= +2 +4
x x x x

2 The top and bottom 3 The four angles


plates are identical. are identical.
10.2 Method of Composite Areas Example 4, page 2 of 3
y
4 Middle rectangle
3
Middle rectangle Ix = bh
12 140 mm
3
(10 mm)(140 mm + 140 mm)
= C' x
12
= 1.8293 107 mm4 (1) 140 mm

10 mm
5 Upper rectangle

Use parallel axis theorem:

Ix = Ixc' + d2A (2)


Area
Distance between xc' and x 6 Here,
Moment of inertia y (110 mm + 110 mm)(10 mm)3
bh3
about axis xc' through 10 mm Ixc' = =
110 mm 110 mm = 5 mm 12 12
centroid of rectangle 2
xc' = 18333 mm4
C'
10 mm d = 140 mm + 5 mm = 145 mm
140 mm
A = (110 mm + 110 mm)(10 mm)
x
= 2200 mm2
10.2 Method of Composite Areas Example 4, page 3 of 3

7 The parallel axis theorem, Eq. 2, now gives 9 The parallel axis theorem gives

Upper rectangle Ix = Ixc' + d2A Angle Ix = Ixc + d2A

= 18333 mm4 + (145 mm)2(2200 mm2) = 0.202 106 mm4 + (123.8 mm)2(877 mm2)

= 4.6273 107 mm4 = 1.3643 107 mm4 (3)


y
8 Angle 16.2 mm

C'
xc 140 mm
C
A = 877 mm2 d = 140 mm 16.2 mm = 123.8 mm
16.2 mm x
Ixc = 0.202 106 mm4

10 For the composite region, adding gives

Ix = Middle rectangle Ix + 2 Upper rectangle Ix + 4 Angle Ix

= 1.8293 107 mm4 + 2(4.6273 107 mm4) + 4(1.3643 107 mm4)

= 165.4 106 mm4 Ans.


10.2 Method of Composite Areas Example 5, page 1 of 4
5. Determine the moment of y
inertia of the trapezoidal region
about the x and y axes. 3 in. 3 in.

6 in.

x
4 in. 4 in.

1 Consider the trapezoid to be the sum of a rectangle and two triangles.


y y y
3 in. 3 in. 3 in. 3 in.

= +2
6 in. 6 in. 6 in.

x x x
4 in. 4 in. 3 in. 1 in.
10.2 Method of Composite Areas Example 5, page 2 of 4
2 Ix and Iy for the rectangle 3 Since the centroid C' does not lie on the x axis, we have to use
y the parallel axis theorem to calculate Ix.

Rectangle Ix = Ixc' + d2A

3 in. (6 in.)(3 in. + 3 in.)3


=
12
xc' + (3 in.)2[(3 in. + 3 in.)(6 in.)]
C'
= 432 in4 (1)
3 in.

x 4 Since the centroid C' lies on the y axis, we do not have to


6 in. use the parallel axis theorem for Iy.

Rectangle Iy = Iyc'

(3 in. + 3 in.)(6 in.)3


=
12
= 108 in4 (2)
10.2 Method of Composite Areas Example 5, page 3 of 4
5 Ix and Iy for the triangle 6 For our particular triangle bh3
y yc' Ixc' =
36
A table of properties of planar regions gives the
information below. (1 in.)(6 in.)3
=
36
3
Ixx = bh Moment of Inertia = 6 in4
36 6 in.
3 b'(h')3
IBB = hb xc'
Iyc' =
12 36
bh C'
Area = (6 in.)(1 in.)3
2
2h =
x 36
3
C 1 in. = 0.1667 in4
x x
h
3
B B 7 Parallel axis theorem applied to triangle
b y yc' Triangle Ix = Ixc' + dx2A
Triangle
= 6 in4 + (2 in.)2(3 in2)

= 18 in4 (3)
6 in.
1
Area, A =
2
(1 in.)(6 in.) xc' Triangle Iy = Iyc' + d2A
C' 6 in.
= 3 in2 1
dx = = 0.1667 in4
3
in. 3 = 2 in. + (3.3333 in.)2(3 in2)
x
3 in. 1 in. = 33.4994 in4 (4)
1
dy = 3 in. + in. = 3.3333 in.
3
10.2 Method of Composite Areas Example 5, page 4 of 4
8 For the composite region, using Eqs. 1, 2, 3, and 4 gives

Ix = Rectangle Ix + 2 Triangle Ix

= 432 in4 + 2(18 in4)

= 468 in4 Ans.

` Iy = Rectangle Iy + 2 Triangle Iy

= 108 in4 + 2(33.4994 in4)

= 175 in4 Ans.


10.2 Method of Composite Areas Example 6, page 1 of 5
6. Determine the moment of inertia of the
crosshatched region about the y axis.
y
2 in. 4 in. 4 in. 2 in.

0.8 in. 0.8 in.


x

1 Consider the crosshatched region to be composed of a rectangle


minus two circular regions plus two semicircular regions.
y y

=
x x

y y
2 +2

x x
10.2 Method of Composite Areas Example 6, page 2 of 5
2 Iy for rectangle
y
4 in. 4 in.

2 in.

C' x
2 in.

3 Since the y axis passes through the centroid of the


rectangle, the parallel axis theorem is not needed.

Rectangle Iy = Iyc'

(2 in. + 2 in.)(4 in. + 4 in.)3


=
12
= 170.6667 in4 (1)
10.2 Method of Composite Areas Example 6, page 3 of 5
4 For the circular region, a table of properties of planar
y yc'
regions gives the information shown below.
d = 4 in.
r = 0.8 in.
Moment of Inertia C' x
Ix = 1 r4
4
y
Iy = 1 r4 5 For our particular problem,
4
1
Iyc' = (0.8 in.)4
4
r
x = 0.3217 in4
C
Area, A = r2

= (0.8 in.)2
Circle
= 2.0106 in2

6 Applying the parallel axis theorem gives

Circle Iy = Iyc' + d2A

= (0.3217 in4) + (4 in.)2(2.0106 in2)

= 32.4913 in4 (2)


10.2 Method of Composite Areas Example 6, page 4 of 5
7 For the semicircle, a table of properties of y B yc' 8 We would like to apply the
planar regions gives the information shown parallel-axis theorem:
below. r = 2 in.
Iy = Iyc' + d2A (3)
Moment of Inertia x
r4 C'
Ix = to compute Iy for the semicircle.
8
Unfortunately, the table gives us the
r4 B moment of inertia with respect to the
Iy = y
8 4 in. base, BB, of the semicircle, not with
4r 4r
yc = respect to the axis through the
3 3
centroid yc'.
yc r4
IBB =
C 8
r
x
9 But we can still make use of the result IBB from the table by
applying the parallel axis theorem between the BB axis and
Semicircle the yc ( yc' ) axis :

IBB = Iyc' + d2A

or,
r4 4r 2 r2
8 = Iyc' + ( )( )
3 2
Solving gives
8 4
Iyc' = ( )r (4)
8 9
10.2 Method of Composite Areas Example 6, page 5 of 5
y yc'
4r
3
r = 2 in.

x
C'

4 in.

10 Eqs. 3 and 4 can now be applied to the semicircular region

Semicircle Iy = Iyc' + d2A

=( 8 )r4 + (4 in. + 4r )2( r2)


8 9 3 2
Substituting r = 2 in. and evaluating the resulting expression gives

Semicircle Iy = 149.4808 in4 (5)

11 For the composite region, using Eqs. 1, 2, and 5 gives

Iy = Rectangle Iy 2 Circle Iy + 2 Semicircle Iy

= 170.6667 in4 2(32.4913 in4) + 2(149.4808 in4)

= 405 in4 Ans.


10.2 Method of Composite Areas Example 7, page 1 of 5
7. A precast concrete floor beam has the cross section shown.
Locate the centroid of the section and determine the moment of
inertia about a horizontal axis through the centroid.
y
250 mm 250 mm
300 mm 300 mm
75 mm

425 mm 50 mm 50 mm

1 Definition of centroid

Xc = 0, by symmetry
ycA
Yc = (1)
A
where yc is the centroidal coordinate of the
region with area A.
10.2 Method of Composite Areas Example 7, page 2 of 5
2 Consider the section to be composed of a horizontal
rectangle and and two identical vertical rectangles.
y y

x x

+2

x
10.2 Method of Composite Areas Example 7, page 3 of 5
3 Upper rectangle y
C' (centroid) 75 mm 75 mm
= 37.5 mm
2
A = (1200 mm)(75 mm)

=9 104 mm2
yc' = 425 mm + 37.5 mm yc'
425 mm
= 462.5 mm

x
2 (250 mm + 50 mm + 300 mm) = 1200 mm

4 y yc'
Lower rectangle

A = (425 mm)(50 mm)


C' (centroid)
4 2
= 2.125 10 mm 425 mm
425 mm
yc' =
2 yc'
= 212.5 mm
x
50 mm
5 Set up table 2 lower rectangles

Region A ( mm2 ) yc' ( mm ) yc'A ( mm3 )


upper rectangle 9.000 104 462.5 41.625 106
lower rectangles 2(2.125 104) 212.5 9.031 106
A = 13.250 104 yc'A = 50.656 106
10.2 Method of Composite Areas Example 7, page 4 of 5
6 Eq. 1 gives the distance to the centroid of the entire cross section.
ycA
Yc =
A
50.656 106
=
13.250 104
= 382.31 mm Ans. 75 mm = 37.5 mm
2
y
7 Ix of upper rectangle C' (centroid of rectangle)
75 mm
3
bh
Ixc' = xc'
12
(1200 mm)(75 mm)3 d
= xc
12 C (centroid of entire section)
= 4.2188 107 mm4
425 mm
d = 75 mm + 425 mm Yc = 382.31 mm

(37.5 mm + 382.31 mm) x


= 80.19 mm

Parallel axis theorem:

Upper rectangle Ixc = Ixc' + d2A Area A was calculated previously (See the table).

= 4.2188 107 mm4 + (80.19 mm)2(9 104 mm2)

= 6.2093 108 mm4 (2)


10.2 Method of Composite Areas Example 7, page 5 of 5
8 Ix of lower rectangle y yc'
bh3 C (centroid of entire section)
Ixc' =
12
(50 mm)(425 mm)3 xc
=
12 d
8 4
= 3.1986 10 mm 425 mm xc'
d = 382.31 mm 212.5 mm 425 mm
= 212.5 mm
2
= 169.81 mm x
Yc = 382.31 mm 50 mm C' (centroid of rectangle)
Parallel axis theorem:

Lower rectangle Ixc = Ixc' + d2A Area A was calculated previously.

= 3.1986 108 mm4 + (169.81 mm)2(2.125 104 mm2)

= 9.3261 108 mm4 (3)

9 For the composite region, using Eqs. 1and 2 gives

Ixc = Upper rectangle Ixc + 2 Lower rectangle Ixc

= 6.2093 108 mm4 + 2(9.3261 108 mm4)

= 249 107 mm4 Ans.


10.2 Method of Composite Areas Example 8, page 1 of 6
8. A beam is built up from two standard rolled-steel channels and a
cover plate. Locate the centroid of the section and determine the
moments of inertia with respect to horizontal and vertical axes through
the centroid.
y

100 mm 100 mm
yc
40 mm Centroid of channel

127 mm
A = 3780 mm2
254 mm xc Ixc = 32.6 106 mm4
C
Iyc = 1.14 106 mm4
127 mm

x
15.3 mm

1 Definition of centroid

Xc = 0, by symmetry
ycA
Yc = (1)
A
where yc is the centroidal coordinate of the region with area A.
10.2 Method of Composite Areas Example 8, page 2 of 6
2 Consider the cross section to be composed of a rectangle and two channels.

y y y

= +2

x x x

Centroid of channel

127 mm

C'
3 Note that yc' is known.
127 mm yc' = 127 mm

x
10.2 Method of Composite Areas Example 8, page 3 of 6
y
4 Rectangle

Area, A = (40 mm)(100 mm + 100 mm) C' 40 mm

= 8000 mm2 100 mm 100 mm


yc' 40 mm
= 20 mm
5 Locate centroid of rectangle: 2

yc' = 254 mm + 20 mm
127 mm + 127 mm = 254 mm
= 274 mm

2 channels (area was given) x


6 Set up table
Region A ( mm2 ) yc' ( mm ) yc'A ( mm3 )
Channel 2(3780) 127 0.9601 106
Rectangle 8000 274 2.1920 106
A = 15560 yc'A = 3.1521 106

7 Eq. 1 gives the distance to the centroid of the entire cross section:
ycA
Yc = (Eq. 1 repeated)
A
3.1521 106
=
15560
= 202.58 mm Ans.
10.2 Method of Composite Areas Example 8, page 4 of 6
8 Ixc and Iyc of channels (Ixc', Iyc', and A are given.) y yc' Centroid of
channel
Use the parallel axis theorem. Centroid of entire beam section

Channel Ixc = Ixc' + (dx)2A C xc


= 32.6 106 mm4 + (202.58 mm 127 mm)2(3780 mm2) dx
xc'
= 54.193 106 mm4 (2) Yc = 202.58 mm C'

Channel Iyc = Iyc' + (dy)2A 127 mm

= 1.140 106 mm4 + (15.3 mm)2(3780 mm2) x


dy = 15.3 mm
= 2.025 106 mm4 (3)
10.2 Method of Composite Areas Example 8, page 5 of 6
9 Ixc and Iyc of upper rectangle y
bh3 40 mm
Ixc' = 100 mm 100 mm = 20 mm
12 2
40 mm C' xc'
3
(100 mm + 100 mm)(40 mm)
= d
12
C xc
= 1.067 106 mm4
d = (40 mm + 254 mm) (20 mm + 202.58 mm)
254 mm Yc = 202.58 mm
= 71.42 mm

Use the parallel axis theorem.


Area A was calculated previously. x
2
Rectangle Ixc = Ixc' + d A
Centroid of entire beam section
= 1.067 106 mm4 + (71.42 mm)2(8000 mm2)

= 41.874 106 mm4 (4)


bh3
Rectangle Iyc =
12

(40 mm)(100 mm + 100 mm)3


=
12
= 26.667 106 mm4 (5)
10.2 Method of Composite Areas Example 8, page 6 of 6
10 For the composite region,

Ixc = Rectangle Ixc + 2 Channel Ixc

by Eq. 4 by Eq. 2

= 41.874 106 mm4 + 2(54.193 106 mm4)

= 150.3 106 mm4 Ans.

Iyc = Rectangle Iyc + 2 Channel Iyc

by Eq. 5 by Eq. 3

= 26.667 106 mm4 + 2(2.025 106 mm4)

= 30.7 106 mm4 Ans.