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You are on page 1of 32

10.2 Method of Composite Areas Example 1, page 1 of 2

1. Determine the moment of inertia of the crosshatched region

about the x axis. y

50 mm

x

20 mm

y y y

be composed of the difference of

two circular regions.

x x x

10.2 Method of Composite Areas Example 1, page 2 of 2

2 A table of properties of planar regions gives the 3 For our particular problem,

information shown below.

1

Large circle Ix = (50 mm)4

4

= 4.9087 106 mm4

Moment of Inertia

Ix = 1 r4 1

4 Small circle Ix = (20 mm)4

y 4

Iy = 1 r4 = 0.1257 106 mm4

4

r

x Ix = Large circle Ix Small circle Ix

C

= 4.9087 106 mm4 0.1257 106 mm4

= 4.78 106 mm4 Ans.

Circle

10.2 Method of Composite Areas Example 2, page 1 of 2

2. The figure shows the cross section of a y

beam made by gluing four planks together. 150 mm 150 mm

Determine the moment of inertia of the

cross section about the x axis.

60 mm

200 mm

x

200 mm

60 mm

60 mm 60 mm

1 Consider the crosshatched region to be consist of a

small rectangle subtracted from a large rectangle.

y 60 mm + 200 mm + 200 mm + 60 mm = 520 mm y 200 mm + 200 mm = 400 mm

y

=

x 520 mm x 400 mm x

420 mm 300 mm

60 mm + 150 mm + 150 mm + 60 mm = 420 mm 150 mm + 150 mm = 300 mm

Large rectangle Small rectangle

10.2 Method of Composite Areas Example 2, page 2 of 2

2 A table of properties of planar regions y

3 For our particular problem,

gives the information shown below.

3

Large rectangle Ix = bh

3

12

Moment of Inertia

I x = bh

12 y (420 mm)(520 mm)3 520 mm x

=

3 12

Iy = hb b b

12 2 2 = 4.9213 109 mm4

h

2 420 mm

x

C y

h

2

4 For our particular problem,

Rectangle 3

Small rectangle Ix = bh

12

400 mm x

3

(300 mm)(400 mm)

=

12

= 1.6000 109 mm4

300 mm

5 For the composite region, subtracting gives

= 4.9213 109 mm4 1.6000 109 mm4

= 3.32 109 mm4 Ans.

10.2 Method of Composite Areas Example 3, page 1 of 3

3. Determine the moment of inertia of the

beam cross section about the x centroidal

axis.

y

80 mm 80 mm

20 mm

120 mm

120 mm

20 mm

20 mm

10.2 Method of Composite Areas Example 3, page 2 of 3

1 Consider the cross section to be composed of a large rectangle minus two small rectangles.

y y y y

120 mm + 120 mm = 240 mm

80 mm 80 mm

20 mm

120 mm =

x 280 mm x 240 mm x x

240 mm

120 mm

20 mm

20 mm

180 mm 80 mm 80 mm

80 mm + 20 mm + 80 mm = 180 mm

20 mm + 120 mm + 120 mm + 20 mm = 280 mm

y

y 2 Two regions of the same size and same position

relative to the x axis can be combined into 2

times a single region.

= 2 x

x

10.2 Method of Composite Areas Example 3, page 3 of 3

3 y

3 Large rectangle Ix = bh

12

=

12

= 3.2928 108 mm4

280 mm x

180 mm

y

3

4 Small rectangle Ix = bh

12 240 mm

(80 mm)(240 mm)3 x

= 12

= 0.9216 108 mm4

5 For the composite region, subtracting gives

80 mm Ix = Large rectangle Ix 2 Small rectangle Ix

10.2 Method of Composite Areas Example 4, page 1 of 3

4. A composite beam is constructed y

from three plates and four standard

110 mm 110 mm 10 mm

rolled-steel angles. Determine the

moment of inertia of the cross

section about the x centroidal axis. A = 877 mm2

xc

C

140 mm Ixc = 0.202 106 mm4

C 16.2 mm

x

140 mm

10 mm

10 mm

1 Consider the cross section to be composed of four angles and three rectangles.

y y y y

= +2 +4

x x x x

plates are identical. are identical.

10.2 Method of Composite Areas Example 4, page 2 of 3

y

4 Middle rectangle

3

Middle rectangle Ix = bh

12 140 mm

3

(10 mm)(140 mm + 140 mm)

= C' x

12

= 1.8293 107 mm4 (1) 140 mm

10 mm

5 Upper rectangle

Area

Distance between xc' and x 6 Here,

Moment of inertia y (110 mm + 110 mm)(10 mm)3

bh3

about axis xc' through 10 mm Ixc' = =

110 mm 110 mm = 5 mm 12 12

centroid of rectangle 2

xc' = 18333 mm4

C'

10 mm d = 140 mm + 5 mm = 145 mm

140 mm

A = (110 mm + 110 mm)(10 mm)

x

= 2200 mm2

10.2 Method of Composite Areas Example 4, page 3 of 3

7 The parallel axis theorem, Eq. 2, now gives 9 The parallel axis theorem gives

= 18333 mm4 + (145 mm)2(2200 mm2) = 0.202 106 mm4 + (123.8 mm)2(877 mm2)

y

8 Angle 16.2 mm

C'

xc 140 mm

C

A = 877 mm2 d = 140 mm 16.2 mm = 123.8 mm

16.2 mm x

Ixc = 0.202 106 mm4

10.2 Method of Composite Areas Example 5, page 1 of 4

5. Determine the moment of y

inertia of the trapezoidal region

about the x and y axes. 3 in. 3 in.

6 in.

x

4 in. 4 in.

y y y

3 in. 3 in. 3 in. 3 in.

= +2

6 in. 6 in. 6 in.

x x x

4 in. 4 in. 3 in. 1 in.

10.2 Method of Composite Areas Example 5, page 2 of 4

2 Ix and Iy for the rectangle 3 Since the centroid C' does not lie on the x axis, we have to use

y the parallel axis theorem to calculate Ix.

=

12

xc' + (3 in.)2[(3 in. + 3 in.)(6 in.)]

C'

= 432 in4 (1)

3 in.

6 in. use the parallel axis theorem for Iy.

Rectangle Iy = Iyc'

=

12

= 108 in4 (2)

10.2 Method of Composite Areas Example 5, page 3 of 4

5 Ix and Iy for the triangle 6 For our particular triangle bh3

y yc' Ixc' =

36

A table of properties of planar regions gives the

information below. (1 in.)(6 in.)3

=

36

3

Ixx = bh Moment of Inertia = 6 in4

36 6 in.

3 b'(h')3

IBB = hb xc'

Iyc' =

12 36

bh C'

Area = (6 in.)(1 in.)3

2

2h =

x 36

3

C 1 in. = 0.1667 in4

x x

h

3

B B 7 Parallel axis theorem applied to triangle

b y yc' Triangle Ix = Ixc' + dx2A

Triangle

= 6 in4 + (2 in.)2(3 in2)

= 18 in4 (3)

6 in.

1

Area, A =

2

(1 in.)(6 in.) xc' Triangle Iy = Iyc' + d2A

C' 6 in.

= 3 in2 1

dx = = 0.1667 in4

3

in. 3 = 2 in. + (3.3333 in.)2(3 in2)

x

3 in. 1 in. = 33.4994 in4 (4)

1

dy = 3 in. + in. = 3.3333 in.

3

10.2 Method of Composite Areas Example 5, page 4 of 4

8 For the composite region, using Eqs. 1, 2, 3, and 4 gives

Ix = Rectangle Ix + 2 Triangle Ix

` Iy = Rectangle Iy + 2 Triangle Iy

10.2 Method of Composite Areas Example 6, page 1 of 5

6. Determine the moment of inertia of the

crosshatched region about the y axis.

y

2 in. 4 in. 4 in. 2 in.

x

minus two circular regions plus two semicircular regions.

y y

=

x x

y y

2 +2

x x

10.2 Method of Composite Areas Example 6, page 2 of 5

2 Iy for rectangle

y

4 in. 4 in.

2 in.

C' x

2 in.

rectangle, the parallel axis theorem is not needed.

Rectangle Iy = Iyc'

=

12

= 170.6667 in4 (1)

10.2 Method of Composite Areas Example 6, page 3 of 5

4 For the circular region, a table of properties of planar

y yc'

regions gives the information shown below.

d = 4 in.

r = 0.8 in.

Moment of Inertia C' x

Ix = 1 r4

4

y

Iy = 1 r4 5 For our particular problem,

4

1

Iyc' = (0.8 in.)4

4

r

x = 0.3217 in4

C

Area, A = r2

= (0.8 in.)2

Circle

= 2.0106 in2

10.2 Method of Composite Areas Example 6, page 4 of 5

7 For the semicircle, a table of properties of y B yc' 8 We would like to apply the

planar regions gives the information shown parallel-axis theorem:

below. r = 2 in.

Iy = Iyc' + d2A (3)

Moment of Inertia x

r4 C'

Ix = to compute Iy for the semicircle.

8

Unfortunately, the table gives us the

r4 B moment of inertia with respect to the

Iy = y

8 4 in. base, BB, of the semicircle, not with

4r 4r

yc = respect to the axis through the

3 3

centroid yc'.

yc r4

IBB =

C 8

r

x

9 But we can still make use of the result IBB from the table by

applying the parallel axis theorem between the BB axis and

Semicircle the yc ( yc' ) axis :

or,

r4 4r 2 r2

8 = Iyc' + ( )( )

3 2

Solving gives

8 4

Iyc' = ( )r (4)

8 9

10.2 Method of Composite Areas Example 6, page 5 of 5

y yc'

4r

3

r = 2 in.

x

C'

4 in.

8 9 3 2

Substituting r = 2 in. and evaluating the resulting expression gives

10.2 Method of Composite Areas Example 7, page 1 of 5

7. A precast concrete floor beam has the cross section shown.

Locate the centroid of the section and determine the moment of

inertia about a horizontal axis through the centroid.

y

250 mm 250 mm

300 mm 300 mm

75 mm

425 mm 50 mm 50 mm

1 Definition of centroid

Xc = 0, by symmetry

ycA

Yc = (1)

A

where yc is the centroidal coordinate of the

region with area A.

10.2 Method of Composite Areas Example 7, page 2 of 5

2 Consider the section to be composed of a horizontal

rectangle and and two identical vertical rectangles.

y y

x x

+2

x

10.2 Method of Composite Areas Example 7, page 3 of 5

3 Upper rectangle y

C' (centroid) 75 mm 75 mm

= 37.5 mm

2

A = (1200 mm)(75 mm)

=9 104 mm2

yc' = 425 mm + 37.5 mm yc'

425 mm

= 462.5 mm

x

2 (250 mm + 50 mm + 300 mm) = 1200 mm

4 y yc'

Lower rectangle

C' (centroid)

4 2

= 2.125 10 mm 425 mm

425 mm

yc' =

2 yc'

= 212.5 mm

x

50 mm

5 Set up table 2 lower rectangles

upper rectangle 9.000 104 462.5 41.625 106

lower rectangles 2(2.125 104) 212.5 9.031 106

A = 13.250 104 yc'A = 50.656 106

10.2 Method of Composite Areas Example 7, page 4 of 5

6 Eq. 1 gives the distance to the centroid of the entire cross section.

ycA

Yc =

A

50.656 106

=

13.250 104

= 382.31 mm Ans. 75 mm = 37.5 mm

2

y

7 Ix of upper rectangle C' (centroid of rectangle)

75 mm

3

bh

Ixc' = xc'

12

(1200 mm)(75 mm)3 d

= xc

12 C (centroid of entire section)

= 4.2188 107 mm4

425 mm

d = 75 mm + 425 mm Yc = 382.31 mm

= 80.19 mm

Upper rectangle Ixc = Ixc' + d2A Area A was calculated previously (See the table).

10.2 Method of Composite Areas Example 7, page 5 of 5

8 Ix of lower rectangle y yc'

bh3 C (centroid of entire section)

Ixc' =

12

(50 mm)(425 mm)3 xc

=

12 d

8 4

= 3.1986 10 mm 425 mm xc'

d = 382.31 mm 212.5 mm 425 mm

= 212.5 mm

2

= 169.81 mm x

Yc = 382.31 mm 50 mm C' (centroid of rectangle)

Parallel axis theorem:

10.2 Method of Composite Areas Example 8, page 1 of 6

8. A beam is built up from two standard rolled-steel channels and a

cover plate. Locate the centroid of the section and determine the

moments of inertia with respect to horizontal and vertical axes through

the centroid.

y

100 mm 100 mm

yc

40 mm Centroid of channel

127 mm

A = 3780 mm2

254 mm xc Ixc = 32.6 106 mm4

C

Iyc = 1.14 106 mm4

127 mm

x

15.3 mm

1 Definition of centroid

Xc = 0, by symmetry

ycA

Yc = (1)

A

where yc is the centroidal coordinate of the region with area A.

10.2 Method of Composite Areas Example 8, page 2 of 6

2 Consider the cross section to be composed of a rectangle and two channels.

y y y

= +2

x x x

Centroid of channel

127 mm

C'

3 Note that yc' is known.

127 mm yc' = 127 mm

x

10.2 Method of Composite Areas Example 8, page 3 of 6

y

4 Rectangle

yc' 40 mm

= 20 mm

5 Locate centroid of rectangle: 2

yc' = 254 mm + 20 mm

127 mm + 127 mm = 254 mm

= 274 mm

6 Set up table

Region A ( mm2 ) yc' ( mm ) yc'A ( mm3 )

Channel 2(3780) 127 0.9601 106

Rectangle 8000 274 2.1920 106

A = 15560 yc'A = 3.1521 106

7 Eq. 1 gives the distance to the centroid of the entire cross section:

ycA

Yc = (Eq. 1 repeated)

A

3.1521 106

=

15560

= 202.58 mm Ans.

10.2 Method of Composite Areas Example 8, page 4 of 6

8 Ixc and Iyc of channels (Ixc', Iyc', and A are given.) y yc' Centroid of

channel

Use the parallel axis theorem. Centroid of entire beam section

= 32.6 106 mm4 + (202.58 mm 127 mm)2(3780 mm2) dx

xc'

= 54.193 106 mm4 (2) Yc = 202.58 mm C'

dy = 15.3 mm

= 2.025 106 mm4 (3)

10.2 Method of Composite Areas Example 8, page 5 of 6

9 Ixc and Iyc of upper rectangle y

bh3 40 mm

Ixc' = 100 mm 100 mm = 20 mm

12 2

40 mm C' xc'

3

(100 mm + 100 mm)(40 mm)

= d

12

C xc

= 1.067 106 mm4

d = (40 mm + 254 mm) (20 mm + 202.58 mm)

254 mm Yc = 202.58 mm

= 71.42 mm

Area A was calculated previously. x

2

Rectangle Ixc = Ixc' + d A

Centroid of entire beam section

= 1.067 106 mm4 + (71.42 mm)2(8000 mm2)

bh3

Rectangle Iyc =

12

=

12

= 26.667 106 mm4 (5)

10.2 Method of Composite Areas Example 8, page 6 of 6

10 For the composite region,

by Eq. 4 by Eq. 2

by Eq. 5 by Eq. 3

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