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Negative Derivative Feedback for Vibration Control of Flexible Structures

Negative Derivative Feedback for Vibration Control of Flexible Structures

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An H2 norm approach for the actuator and sensor placement in vibration control of a smart structure

P Ambrosio, F Resta and F Ripamonti

F Cola, F Resta and F Ripamonti

H Tjahyadi, F He and K Sammut

M Serra, F Resta and F Ripamonti

G Cazzulani, S Cinquemani, L Comolli et al.

Reduction of spillover effects on independent modal space control through optimal placement of

sensors and actuators

S Cinquemani, D Ferrari and I Bayati

structures

H Tjahyadi, F He and K Sammut

control

Xu Guo and Jun Jiang

IOP PUBLISHING SMART MATERIALS AND STRUCTURES

Smart Mater. Struct. 21 (2012) 075024 (10pp) doi:10.1088/0964-1726/21/7/075024

control of flexible structures

G Cazzulani, F Resta, F Ripamonti and R Zanzi

Politecnico di Milano, Mechanical Engineering Department, Via La Masa 1 Milano, Italy

E-mail: gabriele.cazzulani@mail.polimi.it

Published 22 June 2012

Online at stacks.iop.org/SMS/21/075024

Abstract

In this paper a resonant control technique, called negative derivative feedback (NDF), for

structural vibration control is presented. Resonant control is a class of control logics, based on

the modal approach, which calculates the control action through a dynamic compensator in

order to achieve a damping increase on a certain number of system modes. The NDF

compensator is designed to work as a band-pass filter, cutting off the control action far from

the natural frequencies associated with the controlled modes and reducing the so-called

spillover effect. In the paper the proposed control logic is compared both theoretically and

experimentally with the most common state-of-the-art resonant control techniques.

(Some figures may appear in colour only in the online journal)

1. Introduction IMSC is the so-called spillover effect [10], which can lead

the system to instability associated with significant modes

In recent decades, vibration control has assumed more and neglected in the control tuning.

more importance owing to the significant development of light To solve this problem several approaches have been

and highly flexible structures. The main problem for these proposed, such as those in [9, 11]. In this sense, one of the

systems is related to the amplification of vibrations near their best known control strategy families is the so-called ‘resonant

natural frequencies, mainly due to the low damping ratio control’. These control logics calculate the feedback action

associated with the first structure modes. A high vibration through a dynamic system, typically a first- or second-order

level can lead to a degradation of system performance in terms compensator. It returns a control force that, at the resonance

both of positioning error (consider, for example, a robotic frequencies under investigation, is opposite in phase to

manipulator) and system health and lifetime. the velocity and so produces a damping effect on the

In order to prevent this issue a possible approach is to corresponding vibration modes.

act directly on the input disturbance. In this sense many One of the first resonant control logics, developed

examples about the disturbance estimators/compensators [1, by Caughey and Fanson in the 1980’s [12, 13], is the

2] and the input shaping method [3, 4] are present in the positive position feedback (PPF) [14–17]. In this solution,

scientific literature. On the other side, vibration suppression the generalized displacement is fed back with a positive

can be applied, improving the system frequency response sign through a second-order dynamic system acting, in

function (FRF) through a suitable control action able to reduce other words, as a low-pass filter. As a consequence, the

the resonance peaks. PPF effectively reduces the spillover on the higher modes,

Since in many flexible structures only few vibration but it introduces a significant static error and in general

modes are significant, modal space control techniques are a worsening of system response at lower frequencies. A

very attractive for active vibration suppression. One of the dual solution is represented by the active modal tuned mass

most important control logics is the independent modal space damper (AMTMD) [18]. This control logic, developed in

control (IMSC) [5–7], developed in the 1980s, but still used modal approach as well, is based on an active realization

with success nowadays [8]. Under a number of assumptions, of the classic passive TMD theory and supplies a control

it allows one to modify the damping and stiffness of each force 90◦ shifted with respect to the displacement at the

controlled mode independently. The most important limit of system resonance frequencies. As shown below, it works as a

0964-1726/12/075024+10$33.00 1 c 2012 IOP Publishing Ltd Printed in the UK & the USA

Smart Mater. Struct. 21 (2012) 075024 G Cazzulani et al

x Kx , the coordinate change from physical to modal

feedback (NPF) [19], which is based on a negative feedback space can be performed through

of the compensator displacement, has been presented. Besides

these logics, in recent years another resonant control x = Φtot qtot , (2)

technique, called integral resonant control (IRC) has been where qtot is the vector containing all the n modal coordinates.

developed in [20–22]. The IRC is based on the assumption of Equation (1) becomes

interlaced poles and zeros, keeping the phase of the controlled

system FRF, between the actuator and the sensor, in the Mtot q̈tot + Rtot q̇tot + Ktot qtot = ΦTtot ΛT fc + fd , (3)

[−π ; 0] range. In any case, this assumption holds if and only

if sensor and actuator are co-located, limiting its use in many where Mtot and Ktot are always n × n diagonal matrices, while

real applications where the sensors/actuators positioning is Rtot is a diagonal matrix under the assumption of Rayleigh

not fully manageable by the control designer. proportional damping. Equation (3) is a series of n decoupled

In this paper a different resonant control logic, the equations representing the contribution of each mode on the

negative derivative feedback (NDF), is proposed. Like PPF, system’s vibrations.

NPF and AMTMD it calculates the feedback force by In any case, in typical applications, disturbance forces act

means of a second-order dynamic system. In any case, the only in a limited range of frequencies. Besides, higher modes

compensator design allows the NDF to be more robust than are typically very damped and hard to excite and they can

other logics with respect to the spillover effects. In fact, acting often be neglected in the control formulation. If the system

as a pass-band filter, it cuts off both the higher and lower dynamics in the considered frequency range are governed only

uncontrolled modes’ contribution. by a few modes q, (2) can be rewritten as

For the sake of completeness, in the first part of the paper

the modal space theory is reported. Next, the most common x = Φq, (4)

resonant control logics, already present in the literature, are where q contains only the contribution of the m considered

briefly described, highlighting their main features. Then the modes and Φ is a n × m partition of Φtot containing only

NDF is described in detail, pointing out its characteristics the eigenvectors associated with the m considered modes.

and its advantages with respect to state-of-the-art techniques. Substituting (4) in (1), and normalizing the eigenvectors so

Finally a numerical and experimental investigation, carried that the modal mass is unitary, m decoupled modal equations

out on a specifically created test rig, is reported and the can be obtained

performances of the different control logics are compared.

q̈i + 2ξi ωi q̇i + ωi2 qi = uc,i + fd,i , (5)

2. Modal space formulation where the subscript ‘i’ represents the generic ith mode,

while ξi and ωi are respectively the damping ratio and

Consider a generic linear mechanical system, whose dynamics natural frequency of the ith mode. uc,i and fd,i represent the

are governed by second order differential equations: generalized control and disturbance forces acting on the ith

mode. The relationship between the physical control forces fc

Mx ẍ + Rx ẋ + Kx x = ΛT fc + fd , (1)

and the generalized modal forces uc is

where

fc = (ΦT ΛT )−1 uc . (6)

• Mx , Rx and Kx are the inertial, damping and stiffness

matrices of the system; Supposing a number of actuators and sensors equal to the

number of modelled modes m, the generic control law can

• x is the independent variable vector;

be designed to act independently on each mode. In any case,

• Λ is the Jacobian matrix linking the displacement of the the truncation error can affect the stability of the controlled

points where the control forces fc are applied and the

system. The uncontrolled modes in fact can be excited by

degrees of freedom x of the system;

the actuators and read by the sensors, causing the so-called

• fd represents the generalized disturbance forces acting on spillover effect [10] and worsening the system’s dynamic

the system. behaviour.

In many practical applications, the number of degrees

of freedom and, as a consequence, the dimension of the 3. State-of-the-art resonant controllers

system matrices is too large. This situation is typical of both

complex lumped systems and distributed systems such as Among the different control techniques known in the scientific

flexible structures, where (1) comes from a discretization of literature, the resonant control family represents a widespread

the infinite degrees of freedom of the system. These equations solution to vibration control problems. The aim is to apply a

can hardly be used to define active control strategies. In force 90◦ out-of-phase with respect to the displacement. In

this sense, modal space formulation becomes very attractive particular, resonant control is a strategy that calculates the

since it describes the system’s behaviour in a certain range feedback forces through a compensator (figure 1). Typically

of frequencies considering a limited number of degrees of the cut-off frequency of the compensator is set equal to the

freedom (i.e. modes). Calling Φtot the n×n eigenvector matrix natural one (ωi ) of the considered mode.

2

Smart Mater. Struct. 21 (2012) 075024 G Cazzulani et al

controllers.

presented. Since these control logics work in modal space,

the single-mode equation (5) can be considered to describe

the controllers’ formulation. The extension to a multi-modal

control can be performed through (6). Figure 2. Frequency response function between the PPF control

force and the modal velocity.

3.1. Independent modal space control

of the system modal coordinates. In this sense it can be seen

as a particular case of resonant control. Using this approach

it is possible to set the natural frequencies and damping ratios

of each controlled mode. The control action is defined by

uc,i = −Gp,i qi − Gv,i q̇i , (7)

where Gp,i and Gv,i are two control gains, which can be

calculated by imposing the eigenvalues of the controlled

system (natural frequency and damping ratio) or by optimal

control methods such as LQR. In many vibration control

applications the target is the increase of damping in order to

reduce resonance dynamic amplification, while the system’s

natural frequencies are generally kept equal to those of the

Figure 3. Schematics of a classical passive TMD.

uncontrolled system. In these cases it is possible to set Gp,i =

0 and the control force becomes proportional to the system’s

modal velocity. depending only on the knowledge of the system’s natural

frequency. Owing to its low-pass nature, the PPF rolls off

3.2. Positive position feedback quickly at frequencies higher than its resonance (ωf ) and, for

this reason, it is robust to spillover problems due to higher

Positive position feedback (PPF) is based on a first- or modes. On the other hand it causes a worsening of system

second-order compensator which considers the displacement behaviour under the natural frequency. Figure 2 shows the

of the system (or modal coordinate) as an input. For first-order frequency response function (FRF) between the control force

PPF, the control force is calculated as and the modal velocity q̇, highlighting the low-pass nature of

ui = hωf ηi η̇i + ωf ηi = ωf qi , (8) this controller.

compensator, ωf is the cut-off frequency of the compensator 3.3. Active modal tuned mass damper

and h is the control gain. For the second-order PPF, on the

other hand, the control force is computed by The tuned mass damper (TMD) is a widely used solution for

passive vibration suppression, based on the idea of providing

ui = hωf2 ηi an inertial force 90◦ shifted with respect to the system

(9)

η̈i + 2ξf ωf η̇i + ωf2 ηi = ωf2 qi , position. The simplest way to provide this force consists

where ξf represents the damping of the compensator. in connecting an additional mass to the structure through

Considering the single degree of freedom system, PPF a spring–damper element (figure 3) and opportunely tuning

stability is assured by the additional elements, synchronizing the natural frequencies

and optimizing the damping. However, passive TMD has

2

ωi some limits related to the possible working frequencies, to the

h≤ , (10)

ωf additional masses and to the maximum achievable damping

3

Smart Mater. Struct. 21 (2012) 075024 G Cazzulani et al

Figure 4. Frequency response function between the AMTMD Figure 5. Frequency response function between the NDF control

control force and the modal velocity. force and the modal velocity.

and, in general, it performs less well for low-frequency modes auxiliary variable η

owing to its inertial nature.

Starting from the TMD formulation, it is possible to ui = −gi η̇

(12)

define a resonant controller, called active modal tuned mass η̈i + 2ξi ωi η̇i + ω2 ηi = ki (q̇i − η̇i ) ,

damper (AMTMD), which works as a PPF on the system

where ki and gi are two gains and ξi and ωi are the natural

modal coordinates and overcomes the limits of passive TMD.

frequency and damping ratio of the compensator, equal to

Considering again the single degree of freedom, the modal

those of the system. Equation (12) allows us to calculate the

force and the compensator can be now defined as

transfer function between the control force and the modal

ui = mci (ωc2 (q − η) + 2ξc ωc (q̇ − η̇)) velocity as

(11)

η̈i + 2ξc ωc η̇ + ωc2 η = 2ξc ωc q̇ + ωc2 q, Ui (s) ki gi s

=− 2 , (13)

Q̇i (s) s + (2ξi ωi ) s + ω2

where ηi is again the compensator variable, ξc and ωc

represent respectively the damping ratio and natural frequency where s is the Laplace variable. Equation (13) represents the

of TMD, while mc,i represents the inertial term of the mass transfer function of a band-pass filter. For this reason, the

damper, typically set between 5% and 10% of the modal control force rolls off both for frequencies higher and lower

mass. The values of these parameters can be tuned using than the controlled one (figure 5), reducing both the spillover

optimization rules typical of passive TMD [23]. Considering effects typical of IMSC and AMTMD and the low-frequency

the single degree of freedom equation this formulation, thanks amplification occurring with PPF.

to its passive nature, is stable for every parameter value. From the stability point of view, the NDF compensator

Owing to its formulation, the relationship between the control equation (12) must be evaluated together with the system

force and the modal velocity is represented by a high-pass modal equation (5)

filter (figure 4). Similarly also NPF, being a particular active ( ) " #( )

realization of the mechanical dynamic absorber in which in q̈i 2ξi ωi gi q̇i

+

the equivalent mechanical system the spring and damper are η̈i −ki 2ξi ωi + ki η̇i

in series instead of parallel, acts as a high-pass filter. " #( ) ( )

ωi2 0 qi fd,i

+ = . (14)

0 ωi 2

ηi 0

4. Negative derivative feedback

It can be seen that, while the inertia and stiffness matrices

As described in section 3.3, all the resonant controllers

are always symmetrical and defined positive, the damping

presented are designed to reduce the interaction between

matrix is not symmetrical. It means that the stability of the

control action and higher or lower uncontrolled modes.

controlled system depends on the values of the two gains gi

However, each control logic introduces a side effect that can

and ki and on the damping of the uncontrolled system.

reduce the stability margin on the uncontrolled modes.

To overcome these problems, a control logic able to 5. Numerical and experimental analysis

reduce the effects both for high and low frequencies is

proposed. This logic has been called negative derivative This section describes the numerical and experimental tests

feedback (NDF) because of the formulation of the control carried out to validate the proposed control logic and compare

force, including a negative feedback of the velocity of the it with the solutions already known. In order to consider

4

Smart Mater. Struct. 21 (2012) 075024 G Cazzulani et al

accelerometers (Bruel & Kjaer 4501A), while the control

forces are provided by two piezoelectric patches (Mide

QP20W). A disturbance force can be applied to the system

through a third piezoelectric patch. A numerical model of

the beam was created through the finite-element method

(FEM) to tune the parameters of the different control logics

and to define the best location for sensors and actuators.

The position of each sensor and actuator with respect to

the clamp is summarized in table 1 and it was decided to

obtain a significant contribution on each controlled mode in

order to ensure system controllability and observability. In

fact,as known in the literature [24], the position of sensors

and actuators can strongly affect the performance of the

control in vibration suppression. The contribution of the

Figure 6. The test rig used to test the resonant control techniques.

sensors is evaluated in terms of modal displacement, while

the most general case, non-co-located actuators and sensors the contribution of the actuators is evaluated in terms of

were considered and two structural modes were controlled. modal curvature, since the piezoelectric patches work on the

The first part of the section describes in detail the test curvature of the beam, and thus they are able to effectively

rig and its numerical model, while later some experimental excite a given mode if mounted in a region of high curvature

results, highlighting the performance of the different resonant of that mode shape (figure 7).

controllers, are shown. The numerical model was validated through experimental

tests. Since all the control strategies considered are based

5.1. The test rig and the numerical model on modal space, it becomes important to verify that both

natural frequencies and modal shapes are represented well

The test rig is represented by a clamped aluminum beam, by the numerical model. Besides, the two constants α and

whose dimensions are 1 m×0.04 m×0.0061 m (figure 6). The β describing system damping (Rayleigh assumption) are

Figure 7. Position of the accelerometers with respect to the modal shape of mode 1 (a) and 2 (c) and position of the actuators with respect

to the modal curvature of mode 1 (b) and 2 (d).

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Smart Mater. Struct. 21 (2012) 075024 G Cazzulani et al

Figure 8. Numerical/experimental comparison of first (a) and second (b) modal shapes.

Position Position

Actuator (mm) Sensor (mm)

Control 1 100 Accelerometer 1 400

Control 2 300 Accelerometer 2 600

Disturbance 500 Accelerometer 3 950

eigenfrequencies and damping ratios.

Mode 1 Mode 2 Mode 3

Numerical eigenfrequency (Hz) 5.00 30.84 87.26

Numerical damping ratio (—) 0.43 0.10 0.20

Experimental eigenfrequency 5.03 30.93 87.27

(Hz)

Experimental damping ratio 0.42 0.16 0.19 Figure 9. Frequency response function between the first actuator

(—) and third accelerometer: amplitude (a) and phase (b).

estimated, allowing us to define the numerical damping ratio compared with the optimal value range of passive TMD.

associated with each mode. Table 2 resumes the numerical

Passive TMD

and estimated natural frequencies and damping ratios, while Mode 1 Mode 2 values

figure 8 compares the numerical modal shapes with the

mc,i (%) 1 1 5–10

experimental ones, evaluated at the sensor positions. ξc,i (%) 20 15 10–20

Finally, figure 9 shows the numerical/experimental

comparison in terms of the frequency response function (FRF)

between the first actuator’s input (a torque for the numerical

Considering the IMSC formulation (section 3.1), it is

FRF and a voltage command for the experimental one) and

possible to directly assign the damping ratio associated with

the tip acceleration output. The constant amplitude shift is

the controlled modes. For this application the damping was

the relationship between the input voltage and the torque of

set to 6.5% on the first mode and to 0.5% on the second

the piezoelectric patch. As expected for this kind of actuator,

mode. The low damping achieved on the second mode is due

this relationship, in the considered frequency range, is simply

to the occurrence of spillover instability on the higher modes.

a constant and the actuators can be assumed as ideal (null

Figure 10 shows the comparison between the controlled and

dynamics or delay).

uncontrolled systems in terms of the FRF amplitude between

the disturbance force and tip acceleration.

5.2. Results and discussion The AMTMD control force, as introduced in section 3.3,

works as a high-pass filter. As a consequence, this control is

The numerical and experimental tests were performed by very sensitive to high-frequency disturbances and to spillover

optimizing the control parameters in order to obtain the on higher modes and the typical optimal parameter values

maximum damping effect on the controlled modes without of classical passive TMD cannot be applied in order to

causing spillover effects on the uncontrolled ones. Thanks to keep the system stable. In particular, the reduced mass value

good agreement between the numerical model and the test rig, causes a low control force on the system, limiting AMTMD

the optimization can be computed on the numerical model. performance, as shown in figure 11. Table 3 shows the

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Smart Mater. Struct. 21 (2012) 075024 G Cazzulani et al

Figure 10. Frequency response function between disturbance force and tip acceleration with IMSC control: numerical amplitude (a) and

phase (b) and experimental amplitude (c) and phase (d).

Figure 11. Frequency response function between disturbance force and tip acceleration with AMTMD control: numerical amplitude (a)

and phase (b) and experimental amplitude (c) and phase (d).

parameters considered for this application compared with the Table 4. Parameters of PPF for the first and second mode.

optimal ones of classical passive TMD.

Mode 1 Mode 2

PPF, compared with the control logics presented so far,

has low sensitivity to high-frequency modes owing to the gi (—) 0.1 0.1

low-pass behaviour of its compensator. As a consequence, ξc,i (%) 20 60

the increase of the damping imposed on the controlled modes

causes a negligible effect on the higher modes if compared, for modes (typical of IMSC and AMTMD) and low-frequency

example, with IMSC. For each controlled mode, setting the amplification (typical of PPF). Setting the cut-off frequency

cut-off frequency of the compensator equal to the considered and damping of the compensator equal to those associated

eigenfrequency, the behaviour of PPF control is governed by with the controlled mode, the only control parameter is the

two parameters: the damping of the compensator and the gain gain. For this application, the optimal control gains are 0.045

(see section 3.2). These two values were optimized in order to and 0.002 for the first and second modes respectively. The

obtain the maximum damping effect on the controlled modes, optimal tuning of NDF allows us to obtain very good results

but limiting the ‘double peak’ effect on the frequency response in terms of peak reduction of frequency response function

function amplitude. Table 4 shows the optimized parameter amplitude, avoiding low-frequency worsening and spillover.

values, while figure 12 shows PPF performance with respect Figure 13 show the numerical and experimental comparison

to the uncontrolled system. Thanks to the optimization of the

between the controlled (with NDF) and uncontrolled system.

control parameters, only a small ‘double peak’ effect is visible

on the first mode. On the other hand, an amplification of the 5.3. Comparison between the control logics

system response is introduced, as expected, below the first

natural frequency. The experimental analysis performed with the different

Finally, the performance of the proposed negative control logics and shown in section 5.2 provided results

derivative feedback is analysed and compared with the state- consistent with the numerical analysis and with the results

of-the-art solutions. As shown in section 4, the compensator expected from the theory. IMSC allows us to directly set the

associated with this control logic works as a band-pass filter, damping associated with the controlled modes, but since these

limiting both the incidence of spillover instability on higher values are imposed starting from the reduced modal space,

7

Smart Mater. Struct. 21 (2012) 075024 G Cazzulani et al

Figure 12. Frequency response function between disturbance force and tip acceleration with PPF control: numerical amplitude (a) and

phase (b) and experimental amplitude (c) and phase (d).

Figure 13. Frequency response function between disturbance force and tip acceleration with NDF control: numerical amplitude (a) and

phase (b) and experimental amplitude (c) and phase (d).

unwanted spillover effects can arise, compromising control Table 5. Damping ratios (%) of the controlled modes with different

performance and leading the system to instability. AMTMD resonant control techniques compared with those of the

uncontrolled system.

calculates the control force starting from the formulation of

classical passive TMD. Thanks to the correspondence with Mode 1 Mode 2

a passive system, each compensator parameter has a precise No control 0.42 0.16

physical meaning and it can be tuned starting from the IMSC 6.50 0.51

knowledge of passive TMD optimized solutions. Since the AMTMD 1.90 0.90

PPF 4.20 1.25

tuning is done on the reduced model, spillover effects can

arise owing to the high-frequency sensitivity of this control NDF 14.12 1.96

algorithm. In this case, the reduction of the virtual mass of

the compensator allows us to reduce control forces and, as the other resonant controllers, achieving better performance in

a consequence, high-frequency problems, but at the same terms of vibration reduction and damping increase.

time it reduces also control performance on the considered A synthetic comparison between the resonant control

modes if compared with IMSC. PPF allows us to overcome logics is shown in table 5, where the damping ratios

the problems shown by IMSC and AMTMD, through the achieved on the controlled modes with the different solutions

introduction of a low-pass compensator tuned to the natural compared with the uncontrolled system damping are reported.

frequency considered. Unfortunately, as a side effect, PPF is Figures 14 and 15 show the decay tests respectively on the first

more sensitive to low-frequency disturbances. and second mode with and without control. In both cases the

Finally, the proposed negative derivative feedback allows damping increase due to NDF is higher than that due to the

us to obtain better performance, since it limits both the other controls.

problems of IMSC, AMTMD and PPF. The band-pass 6. Conclusions

formulation of its compensator allows NDF to be effective

in filtering out higher and lower frequency disturbances. For In the present work a resonant control technique for

this reason, the control gains can be increased with respect to damping increase and vibration suppression, called negative

8

Smart Mater. Struct. 21 (2012) 075024 G Cazzulani et al

Figure 14. Controlled and uncontrolled decay on the first mode using IMSC (a), AMTMD (b), PPF (c) and NDF (d).

Figure 15. Controlled and uncontrolled decay on the second mode using IMSC (a), AMTMD (b), PPF (c) and NDF (d).

derivative feedback (NDF), was proposed. This control logic, motion is numerically integrated on the control board. The

formulated considering a modal space approach, is based control action is provided through a negative feedback of the

on a second-order dynamic compensator, whose equation of first derivative of the compensator variable. NDF has been

9

Smart Mater. Struct. 21 (2012) 075024 G Cazzulani et al

designed to behave as a band-pass filter on the control force, [11] Fang J Q, Li Q S and Jeary A P 2003 Modified independent

in order to overcome the limitations typical of state-of-the-art modal space control of m.d.o.f. systems J. Sound Vib.

resonant controllers, such as high-frequency spillover and 261 421–41

[12] Goh C J and Caughey T K 1985 On the stability problem

low-frequency amplification of system response. caused by finite actuator dynamics in the collocated control

The proposed NDF was tested on an experimental test of large space structures Int. J. Control 41 787–802

rig and the corresponding numerical model. It shows better [13] Fanson J L and Caughey T K 1990 Positive position feedback

performance with respect to all the other techniques analysed, control for large space structures AIAA J. 28 717–24

both in terms of achieved damping and robustness to low- and [14] Baz A, Poh S and Fedor J 1992 Independent modal space

control with positive position feedback J. Dyn. Syst. -

high-frequency problems.

Trans. ASME 114 96–112

[15] Friswell M I and Inman D J 1999 Relationship between

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