You are on page 1of 336



Cover Story

The picture on the cover was at Maria’s request. She is very proud that she comes
from a family of native speakers and especially proud of the longevity and
productivity of her family.

They are the children of Moses Christjohn, bom April 26, 1878 and Lucy Hill, bom
July 20, 1884. They were born and raised in Oneida, Wisconsin and all are Native
Speakers. Her Grandmother, Louise Christjohn who spoke the language as it was
spoken in the New York Homeland, raised her and her brother and sister until they
went to boarding school.

Anna John, was bom on November 30, 1905. She was instrumental in planning and
making our Nursing Home a reality for the Oneida Community. The Nursing
Home is named in her honor. She did it with several other ladies by raising the
money themselves and acquiring other sources of funds, including federal grants.
They were instrumental in the establishment of the Oneida Bingo and Tobacco
sales and assisted in other fund raising efforts. She has been active in Tnbal
affairs since 1960 and prior to that worked with her husband Noren with the tribal
elders of the community. She is presently working for the Tribe’s Personnel
Commission and participates in the screening and hiring of personnel.

Amos Christjohn was bora on April 8, 1908. Amos is currently working at the
Oneida High School and Language and Culture. He has just finished an Oneida
Dictionary with Maria and edited by Cliff Abbott. He spent many summers
studying linguistics at Lakehead University in Thunder Bay, Canada under Bill
Cook and graduated there.

Am ns and Maria have transcribed hundreds of stories from the 1939 WPA project.
Maria and Amos’s job was to convert the stories from tapes into the written
language and then into English. This partial collection was transcribed by Maria.

Maria Hinton was bom on June 5, 1910. Maria Hinton graduated from the
University of Wisconsin Green Bay when she was 69 years old. She has been
teaching the Oneida Language for the Oneida Tribal School for about 17 years and
at Mt. Senario College for several years. Previous to that she worked with Oneida
Language students in Milwaukee with her cousin Emily Swamp. She is currently
working at the Oneida Turtle School as a certified Oneida Language Teacher. She
is doing what she loves to do best, teach Oneida Language to the little children.
Maria is also a Faithkeeper with the Oneida Longhouse.

The members of this family have passed on to their descendants a long tradition of
the ways of the OnAyoIc9a ka

Oneida has six vowel sounds. Unlike English each letter stands for one
and only one sound. Here are the letters used and the sounds they
'a' has the sound of the 'a' in ah or father
'e' has the sound of the 'e' in egg or eight
'i* has the sound of the 'i' in ski^ ot machine
'o’ has the sound of the 'o' in h£pe or low
The remaining two vowels are nasalized. That means they are pronounced
more through the nose than the usual English sounds. Roughly, then:
'u' has the sound of the 'un' in tune
'a' has the sound of the 'on' in son

Most of the consonants have the same sounds as they usually do in
English. This is true for:
h, 1, n, v, and y
The letters 't', ’k', and 's' each have two pronunciations depending
on the other sounds near them.
’ t' normally has the sound of the 't' in cUy, wa_ter or stove.
Notice in those words 't' sounds more like 'd'. If a 'k',
'h', or 's' follows then the 't' has the usual English sound
as in U>p.
'k' normally has a g-like sound as in skill but if a 't', 's',
or 'h' follows, it wounds like the usual English 'k' as in
's' often has a sound halfway between the 's' in sea and the
z-like sound of the 's' in wa_s. When it comes between two
vowels it always has the z-like sound and when it comes before
or after 'h', then it has the sound of the 's' in sea.

Other symbols used in writing Oneida:

' *» * is used to represent a special consonant sound (called a
glottal stop) that English doesn't have. The sound is made by
quickly stopping the flow of air in the throat, a kind of catch.
/ this symbol is written above a vowel to indicate the stressed
syllable in a word.
this symbol is used after a vowel to indicate the vowel is
lengthened or dragged out a bit. (Vowels marked with both
the dot and the stress mark have a slightly falling tone.)
underlined sounds are whispered and not said aloud

This, then, is the Oneida alphabet used in this booklet,

a, e, h, i, k, 1 , n, o, s, t, u, w, y, % a

Some special combinations are:

'tsy' or 'tsi' sound like the 'j' in j_am or j^udge
'tshy' or 'tshi' sound like the 'ch' in church
'sy' sounds like the 'sh' in s_hoe or hush

Kaya9kwahele9 . . . Jefferson Baird I.
(The Monster)

* e’lhal LoyAnaha wi Ohkwali . . . . Abraham Smith 4.

(Dog Tracking Bear)

Ohkwali okhale9 SkAhnaksA . . . Issac J. Webster 5.

(The Bear and Fox)

Lola9nhau Ohkwa'li Ahato'late. . . Fillmore Cooper 15.

(He knows how the Bear to Hunt)

Tehn yashA Otsi9nowa . ... Ida Blackhawk 19.

(Two Mice)

Tsi9 Nahohte9 Aoli wa Tsi9 Ka NihAtahses

Ne9n Ohkwa'li . . Walter Skenandore 21.
(The Reason Why That His Tail is Short the Bear)


Tu wis Yakyato lats Otshukalo lA. . . . William House 23.

tmy (Thomas and I Hunted Rabbits)

Tkahyuhwahutsi9. . . . . Rachel Swamp 30.

(Black Creek)

** KJtKit Ohkale9 Bol . . . . . Dennison Hill 33.

(Chicken and Bull)

Koskos Lalyohslc. . .Levi Elm 35.

(How He Butchered His Pig)

Tsya n Tsyotink/, Ohkwa li Wahyatliyo. .Thomas Elm 36.

(John Jordan Bear They Fought)
Lonalase . Sophie Hill 38.

Otsinuwa . . . Ulysses Webster 41.

(Hunting Worm)

Otholeke Nukwa Tryo^nutakwalute ko . Marie Webster 43.

(In the Northern Country, There is a Big Mountain)

Tuwisko’ Luwayats . Ed Metoxen 53.

(Big Thomas Is His Name)

Ohlcwa li Okhale? Lu’kwe. . Lewis Webster 55.

(Bear and Man)

Othahyu-ni Okhale^ Lu'kwe. Alex Metoxen 57.

(Wolf and the Man)

Lukwe Wahalu tate TshukaloL/\ . Alex Metoxen 58.

(Man Shot a Rabbit)

Lukwe Okhale1? TshuhkaloLA . Marie Webster 59.

(Man And The Rabbit)

Ohkwa'li Tsi? Lotashyutu he . Dick Christjohn 61.

(How the Bear Lost His Tail)


Laksa Wahatunhete. William House 65.

(A Boy Child is Bom)

Akwilut Linkin. Mrs. Simon King 67.

(Abraham Lincoln)

Ukwe^takayuskwe . Abraham Smith 68.

(Old Timers)

Tekni Teyohwe nole7 Jessie Peters 69.

(Two Hemispheres)
Tehaluhyawaku. .... Lucy Rose King 71.
(He Who Holds Up The Blue Heavens)

Tsi? Ni yot Tsi? LutlAnayAhahkwe Wahu m'se

OnA . . . Abram Archiquette 76.
(How They Used to Pray, It’s Long Ago Now)

LatilihwAhaskwe . . . Abram Archiquette 78.


AhsuhkA Tehatikalyahkwe Tax. .Rachel Swamp 79.

(Before They Had Paid Taxes)

Tsi1? nu Nikahya tu ne^n Lanukwehu-we

LaotiyantlAhsla-kA . . .. . . . Melissa Cornelius 81.
(Where It Was Written, The Oneida Laws)

The Customs of The Oneida’s . . Jim Antone 83.

Lotkanunihko-. .... Chauncey Baird 85.

(A Very Rich Man)

Elhuwa Kj\h Nu TsahA'newe Ne^n

LAnukwehuw'e . . . . Oscar Archiquette 88.
(When First Here They Arrived the Oneidas)

akwilut LinkAn . .... LaFront King 91.

(Abraham Lincoln)


Wa^thotyelunyuhse. .Levi Elm 92.

(He Imagined He Saw a Vision)


WAto^wa nA Yo^kala u . .Elizabeth Huff 95.

(Christmas Eve)

Oyan . Mrs Ren Hoxlalnr 97

(Happy New Year)
KanAStohale . . . .
Jonas Elm 102.
(Indian Com Bread)

OnAste? Kukwitene Latiy/thos

(Com is Planted in the Spring) . Jonas Elm m

Bread) .. Arehilluette 106


layaui iviaiKA.
. Jefferson Baird 108.
(John Denny)


LahsAnowA okhale^ LaonirnawA Ill

.. vjuy nnti ill.
(The Big Shot and the Pipe)

Wahonaskuti Laotseru shuha Kohsa t/s . • Mrs. Ben Doxtator 113.

(Lost His Animals, Horses)

Tsistokahtahne . .
(Lightening Bugs)

LonatA'lo Wa^thyatlane
. . . . Wesley Thomas 1-28
(His Friend He Met)

WahakwatetsahnitA Skanutanuwe
• • • * vv cj>icy i nomas IzO.
(An Owl Scared You)

Lukwehu we Lato lats

• • • * oimon weosier 122.
(Young Men Went Hunting)

Yakonuhso ta Yakowi layA AhsA Na^tehaosli yaku

(She Lived In this House, She Had a Three Year Old Child)

Tcwakwata ses YohokalAle

. . Oscar Archiquettc 125.
Otsihkwa. .Lafayette Webster 127.

LahnanatayAtosko. 129.
(Big Potato Planter)

La^slu'ni Tehotithale Lukwehuwe. .: Ida Blackhawk 131.

(White Man Talking to an Oneida)

LatAnihas . .Chauncey Baird 132.

(He Borrows)

Lukwe Lato'lats . 133.

(A Man Hunts)

Lattokha Laotse nA elhal . 134.

(His Smart Dog)

Lu’kwe Lonohrsehe1..Ida Blackhawk 136.

(This Man is Lazy)

Shakokwatani La^ohwa tsi lc . . Anonymous 138.

(Inviting the Family)

LahkotkA. . Harrison Smith 139.

LatikwA'nAhse Okhale^ La^slu ni. . John Skenandore 140.

(Chief and White Man)

Latolatsko. .Guy Elm 142.

(Great Hunter)


Lu kwc KAtsi'? Waha tu . .Fillmore Cooper 144.

(Man Became Fish)

Yolu9kwakelha .Alex Metoxen 149.

(The Water Lily (Easter Lily)

Lonah . . . PAGE
(Man and Wife) 154.

Se^niku lalak . .
(Be Careful) 156.

MARRIAGE stories-

(He is Dragging a Pole)

Tsi7 Ni yohtu ne Tsi? Yakonyaks

. rvauc e.omcnus 159.
(The Way They Used to Get Married)

Kanyalotuhk/i Tsya ho^nya ke^

(Thomas John Gets Married)

Lamk Washakokwa^tani Tsi^kay/, 1166.


(A Young Man Gave A Party)

Onuta ke . .
(New York) 168.

Olihwaka yu Tsi? NiyolihotA hne Yakonyaks

.... Andrew Beechtree 170.

medicine storif.s-

(Medicine) .. ,i!l: >71


Phoebe Hill 173.

LaksotkA Lashat
Chauncey Baird 174.
(William Hill)
Yukya^lahse. . . . Dennison Hill 177.
(My Cousin)

Otsi^now/Jiko. . . . Dennison Hill 179.

(Big Rat)

LashlohA e'lhal . . . Abraham Smith 182.

(A Courageous Dog)

Cassie Wala^aslu nihe . . . . Cassie Denny 183.

Yokst/vha7 Kahwista^ekta . Lucy Rose King 185.

(Old Clock)

Jubilee Singers . . . Albert Webster 187.

Tehalukwe^nyaku Okhale? Lo ne . . . Sarah Summers 192.

Broken Spine and his Wife)

Lokst/La Wahakhlolyan>oi Tsi9 Nihoya^tawAu Tshihaksa1 . . . Anonymous 195.

(Old Man Told What Happened When He was a Child)

Sheku Shaya tat LotatA'lu. Oscar Archiquette 198.

(There is Still One Man Left)


Civil War Story . . . . Thomas Elm 199.

Yakwatsikhe?tuni . . . Martin Williams 201.

(Making Maple Syrup)

Ukwehuwe Okhale'? KayotAsIa . Rachel Swamp 203.

(Oneidas at Work)

O^sluni Laothelsehsli. . . . Anonymous 205.

(White Man’s Flour)

Lona. .... Louis Hill 206.

(Husband and Wife)
Lalihw/Jiawise Tsi^ Latinakle'? Ukwehu we. Louis Hill 208.
(Carrying Messages Where They Live, the Oneidas)

NilcAtsyanakLvne . Jessie Peters 210.

(Fish Story)

LutlutA^awitha .; Abrahras Archiquette 214

Driving Logs)

Kav/jna Ta ts . .... Mark Powless 217.

(Governor Dodge)

Crime Story'. .... ELizabeth Huff 220.

Yukwe Yo^tehane. Mrs George Haas 227.

(A Woman Was Immoral)

LutUnotha. . . . Chauncey Baird 230.

(Oneida Band)

Lu^tsrn/Oahlohalha. . . Hannah Cornelius 234.

(Seventh Day Adventist)

Onuhsatkvditi Kaliste . . Cornelius Wheelock 237.

(Church Bell)

Ku^alunihe . Josephine Webster 239.

(Lace Work)

Akokst/iia Otsto khwi Yu yaks. .Tom Elm 244.

(An Old Woman Picking Blueberries)

YanikyX OnuDia .
. Jonas Elm 246.
(Jane’s Mother)

KawelowanA .
(Big Wind)

Shaya’tal YakA''' TiksAnne Yahthwatsilihcwc . Andrew Beechlree 249.

(One Man It’s Said DcPerc Took His Family)
Tehutshihkwaeks Tewa9alatu . .Guy Elm 251.
(Playing Ball lacrosse)


Dehaluhyawaku .. . . William House 254.

(The Iroquois God)

TwakehtakwA Tsi? Awatu TAtsyetha L\

Ne^n YakawAheyu . .... Mitchell Elm 259.
(I Believe You Can Communicate With Dead People)

The Lord’s Prayer . . Oscar Archiquette 262.


Awelu^usketsla . . . Chauncey Baird 264.


Yakotla^swahtu. .... Susie Baird 268.


Onelu^uske AkuwatinAhalya^khu hake . . . Ida Blackhawk 271

(They Killed the Witches)

.J || | tmg- m *
M'.- 'w \
Kaya9kwahele9 , . . ... . . Jefferson Baird
(The Monster)
E lhaJ LoyAnaha wi ... Abraham Smith
(Dog* Tracking Bear)
I I sf" I S*A -S ^
6hfcwa*li Okhaie^ SkAhnaksA ... . Issac 3. Webster
(The Bear and the Fox) '
''' l

Lola9nhau OhkwaTi ^hato late.. Fillmore Cooper

(He Knows How The "-Bear to Hunt)

Tehn yashA Otsi9no wa V.. . . Ida Blacfchawk

(Two Mice) If j|feA> ! *-> * \
i vv,/ a IHB
Tsi9 Nahohte9 Aoli-wa Tsi^^'^ihAtahses /
Ne9n OhkwaTi .... j^ff|j . *.)<Vdter Skenandore
(The Reason Why That^His Tail is Short the Bear)

uskah utlatste*? wahuiuke*? tsi? sheku yotatA'lu ka^ik/ kaya^kwahele*?. On/ kwi

tsyatdk nihati wa^thotilihwayAtase ahutoiate akuwalyo' so tsi teyolyo^tanu-yanit ne^n

autatWAnryoke. Ne- yak/ wi eso yako^w/thu^ lutolats. Tsi1? nu tshikahawi yah

tehotihulayA-tu ne^n lAnuhkwehirwe. Na kwi ya^kahewe wahuto-latha. Shayatal

ka^ik/ theokat ne kali? wa^thotilihwayAta se ne Ahohsle'?. Ne- yakA1? tho niyolihotA

ka^i-k/ kaya'^kwahele'? kanyo on/ tAyotAnuko ukwe nahohte*?, ne ki9 Ayak6hsle^ Lsi9

niyo le*? yAyakohn/tlane?. Na kwi wahutlihwaslu ni tsi*? nlj na^tAhatin/iayA-. Na kwi

wa^thataw/lye kalhakushu ka^k/ tsi? kay/- teho kat. Na yakA? nAtho tsahotinoluse

on/ lonathute wa?tyohA‘lehte'? nA kwi lonaniihte*? tsi*? on/ tahohsle'? ne*?n lut/io. Kwah

yak^7 ne tho tsi*? niyole nahatu kohte'? tsi? tehotin/'layA ka?i-k/ yayahk niha ti, isi?

niyo le na^tehutluni oya ok k/s yakA? sahulu-tate1? kwah ok tho ya'tyonuwrlehte'?

kalhakushu, tahtu ne- ka^ik/ kahuIe'We nihotihulo tA kwah yak/^ ne- ok tsi9

ya^thotiyelihse shotinAyatA laotihule*? nale'? tho sahotiketohte, tok niyole yusahnikwathu'?

ne yalcA*? teknihatuthne ithlate*? tsusahalutate'? wahattoke? tsi? on/ wahakalewahte'? n/

uni kAlakla'?slune'? khale? wi on/ ya^kuwalyo. Ne'? tho ne*? ne- tyolihwa-htu

kaya^kwahele1? na^kaya^tohtA.

The Monster

uskah utlatste? wahuluke? tsi? sheku yotatA'Iu ka?i-kA kaya?kwahele?. O na kwi

One time they heard that was still left this monster. Now then

tsya tdk nihati wa?thotilihwayAtase ahuto late akuwalyo', so tsi

seven of them agreed to hunt and kill this animal because

teyolyo^tanu-yanit ne?n autatwAniyoke. Ne- yakA wi e-so

it was too fierce an animal for it to be free. Then it’s said, a lot

yako?w/\thu? lutoiats. Tsi? nu tshikahawi yah tehotihulayA'tu ne?n

she killed many hunters. At that time, they didn’t have guns these

lAnuhkwehu we. Na kwi ya?kahewe wahuto latha. Shaya tat ka?ikA

Oneidas. It was time for them to hunt. This one man

teho kat ne kati? wa?thotilihwayAtase ne Ahohsle?.

was a fast runner then they all agreed (that the fast runner would chase this monster.)

Ne- yakA*? tho niyoliho'tA ka?ikA kaya?kwahele? kanyo o-nA tAyotAnuko ukwe nahohte?,
It s said, the habit of this monster whenever she senses a human being,

ne ki? Ayakohsle? tsi? niyo'le? yAyakohnAtlane?. Na kwi wahutlihwasluni

then it will chase them until she catches up to them. Now then they made plans

tsi*? nu na'?tAhatinAiayA\ Na kwi wa^thataw/iye kalhakushu ka?rkA

where they would ambush this animal. Now then he traveled in the forrest this one,

tsi*? kay/- theokat. Na yakA? nAtho tsahotino’lifse ooa lonathu te

the fastest runner. Then it’s said they were about to give up when they heard

wa?lyohA-lehte? nA kwi lonanuhte? tsi? on/i tahohsle? ne?n lut/ lo.

it let out Gerce yell. So now they know, now she’s chasing their friend.

Kwah yakA? ne tho tsi? niycle nahatukohte? tsi? tehotinA layA

It was just a short distance away they went through, where they’re waiting,

ka?i kA ya yahk niha ti. isi? niyo le na?tehutlu ni oya ok kAS yakA?
these six men. Spaced just a short distance apart, each taking

sahulutate7 kwah ok tho ya7yonuwilehte7 kalhakushu, tahtu ne‘ ka7i'kA
a turn shooting at it until it disappeared into the forrest, but then, and

kahule7uwe nihotihulotA kwah yakA7 ne' ok tsi7 ya7thotiyelihse

these guns used only one shell at a time. Then it’s said, they would just have time

shotinAyatA laotihule7 nale7 tho sahotike'tohte, tok niyo'le yusahnikwathu7 ne yakA7

to reload their guns again they appeared, When they came close enough that the

teknihatuthne ithlate7 tsusahalutate7 wahattoke7 tsi7 om wahakalewahte7

second man standing, shot again, when he noticed that now', she was injured.

nA uni kAtakla7slune7 khale7 w'i oela ya7kuwalyo. Ne7 tho ne7 ne-
so this animal was stumbling and finally they did kill her. At that time

tyolihwahtu kaya7kwahele7 na7kaya7tohtA.

was the last of this feriocious animal.

The Monster

One time they heard that this monster was still here. Seven of them agreed to hunt
and kill this animal because it was too fierce an animal to be free. They say that she
killed many hunters. At that time the Oneidas didn’t have guns. When it was time to
hunt, they all agreed the faster runner would chase the monster. They said it was the
habit of the monster to chase a human if she senses them. Well, they made plans
where they would ambush her and the fastest runner went ahead. They were about to
give up when they heard a fierce yell. So now they knew that it was chasing their
friend. They went just a short distance spacing themselves a short distance apart, each
taking a turn shooting at it until it disappeared into the forest, but these new guns
would shoot only one bullet at a time and by the time they reloaded it would come
back. Finally, one man was able to shoot at her and injured her and then they all
killed her. The was the last of this ferocious animal.

Told by Jefferson Baird to Dennison Hill (2-20-39)

Transcribed by Maria Hinton (11-11-39)
E’lhal LoyAnahawi Ohkwali

Ne- uhte^ ne^n olihwiyo yetsi^n ne^n e lhal to ni-yot tsi? ahuwanyehese ne?n

ahoyAnahawe nefri ohkwali, ne- elhal yotka-te AhatsitAte*? ua Ahuttoke tsi?

ohkwa li tho rwehskwe. NekA’tuhe? tsi? ne kuwatsanise tho nikaya^totA.

Elhal LoyAnaha wi Ohkwa li

Dog Tracking a Bear

Ne- uhte^ ne?n olihwi-yo yetsi^n ne^n e lhal to ni yot tsi*? ahuwanyehese ne?n
It takes a lot of courage for a dog to undertake the task of

ahoyAnahawe ne9n ohkwa li, ne- elhal yotka-te AhatsitXte7 nA Ahuttoke tsi?
tracking down a bear. Most dogs will whine when they notice that

ohkwa-li tho i wehskwe. NekA tuhe^ tsi? ne kuwatsani se tho nikaya^totA.

a bear has been around. Meaning that they are afraid of such a thing.

Dog Tracking a Bear

It takes a lot of courage for a dog to undertake the task of tracking down a bear
Most dogs will whine when they notice that a bear has been around. Meaning
that they are afraid of such a thing.

Told by Abram Smith to Dennison Hill (5-5-39)

Transcribed and Taped by Maria Hinton (4-22-80)
Ohkwali okhale9 SkAhnaksA

SkAhnaksA9 tehotawAlyehati9, wahatyel/ kohsatAS tho yotas tho wahanu9keiila, tsi9 on/

wahohtane9 yuhsahaninhoskwahawe9 yuhsahatAna9tlahawe. Kwah kA niyoleha9

nyeshawemi, tho wa9thyatlane9 ne9 ohkwa li. Wa9h/iu9 ne9n ohkwa'li, “nahte9 ne' thik/

sanhoskwanhutati9”. Wa9h/lu9 ne9n skAhnaksA9 “k/tho kwi tyo tahs kohsatAS tho

waknukela”, “Yats” yaka9 wa9h/lu9 ohkwa'li, ‘1o kali9, takna9lunina tsi9 nu tyotahs,

I sa aknu9kela”. da kwi ne' sahyakehle9, tho yuhsanewe tsi9 mi tyotas ne9n kohsat/s.

Na kwi ne- tahatahsawA9 ohkwa li wahanu9tahnekila9 kwah tsi9 niyoie' wahohtane.

Wa9h/iu9 skAhnaksA9, “ne- uhte9 tyoyanle9 yusetnihawe9, tyotkut ne' AyukniyAtake,”

wa9h/iu9 yakA9 ne9n ohkwali, “ot ne- nAtniyele9 yusetninihawe9 tsi9 niyoya9takste9,”

wa9h/iu9, skAhnaksA9, “yah kwi, nahte9 te9WAtoie, i se wi' se9shatste9, i-se wi

Atehsatilu tA”, wa9h/iu9 skAhnaksA9, “yah ne' nahte9 te9WAtoie, tAknitahsaslolA okhna9

tho Akhwanha ke9, kwah ik/ tsi9 Akhniiate9, ok ni- ohna kA ni' Atekhleke,” okhna9 kwi'

ne9n ohkwa li wahathutate. Okhna9 kwi' skAhnaksA9, wa9h/iu9, “ha kwi' wa ksane9, nA

kA salhale” Okhna9 tahakwatase- taha9nyuhsali'ke ne9n kohsa tAS. O n/ ki okwi' ne-

tutakatAsta tsi9 ne9n kohsat/s, kwah ok k/ thya9katakhe9 tho wa9ohkwa litAtu ne. To ok

yakA9 niyoie nya9ohkwa litAtu ne tsi9 niyo ie nA tsa9thanitahsyabke9. Na

tsusulahkwa9litanyuta ko, okhna9 kwi' ne9n ohkwa h wahonakhwA9. Kwah nok

tahatlihwatsA'li Aholyo9 nc9n skAhnaksA9 o n/ tAshyatlane9. O n/ yak/*9 wi',

wa9thataw/ii loya9ti saks ne9n skAhnaksA9 khale9 kwi- ne' o n/ ya9tuhsahyatlane,

wa9h/iu9, ne9n ohkwa li, ‘Svahu nise o n/ tshikuya9tisaks, n/ kati9 wi' Atnitakwahlihsi9
ihi kA leskyelu'nih”. “Na kali? wi- kwah ok tho k/'tho AkunuAwashslih”. Wa^-lu‘\

ne9n s^hnaksA^, “yah ki? nahte? teyotyeIa, nok tsi9 so'tsi9 teya’tihA wene wi ne tsi?

AskeshA-m”. Wa^hA-lu'? skAhnaksA, “kawyenAtau nok tsi? tetsya lu Atyanityohkunf,

okhna? kwi waholi^wanu tu se ne9n ohkwah, “katsa?nu, nikahawi i hselhe? aetwatliyo9”

wa7hA-lu9, yakA? ne^n ohkwali, “a?e tkalutote^ko- onutahala ke tho nu ya9tAtwatlane9,

tekni tAtsyohwista^hake AyoUiAne. Na kwi ne' tuhsahyalekhsi. “Ohkwah nA ki ok wi*

lahalahsawA^ washakoya?lal6-loke9 ne9n luliiyos. Tho kati9 wr wa9thyallane9 ne9n

koskos, wa9hA lu9 ne9n ohkwa li, “yotsina9tolu IcAny/h kwah ne- kehsaks ne9n lalliyosko \

Wa9hyv lu9 ne9n koskos, “ne- kwi ni nakwah ne- kehsaks, yah nuwAlu te9yuke9shA'nih.”

Na ki ok wr sahokwahte9 ne9n koskos tho yuhsane tsi9 nu mhutliyohsle. SkAhnaksA9

nA ki9 ok um ne- lanha9tsli saks. I si niyole ne- nyehawenu tho wa9thyatlane9 ne9n

e-lhal, a9e na9tehohnAhsa9 lats09kahtane, okhna9 wa’luUu? sk/JmaksA, “wa90yanUne

kAnyA tsi9 tsi9 wa9ictyatlane9, katliyohsle9 Ayolh/ne” wa9hA'lu9 ne9n e-lhal, “ne- wi- ni'

nakwah ne wakatlihute9, yah nuwAtu te9yuke9shA-ni.” Na ki9 6k wi', sahokwahte9.

Kwah kA9 ok niyo le nyehoncnu okhna9 tho ya9thutlane9 takohs okhale9 wi'

waholi9wanu tu se Ahakweni kA Ahatliyo kwah kati9 ne' kawyenAta u okhna9.

SkAhnaksA9 wa9hA lu9, Na ki9 uhte? wi- tho ya9taetyoya9ake tsi9 nu nitwatliyohsle.”

Na kwi ne' yehoti, ne9n ohkwa h okhale9 koskos tsi9 nu tkalutote k6', okhna? wa9hA'lU9

ohkwa h, “KA'tho, kj9 uhte9 wi' aklathA kalutake. Yaakatkattho oa Ica thoha

utahotike tot”. Ok nC9n koskos wa9hA'Iu9, “loWho ki9 uhte? wi' ni' akatohshA tsi9

yotahala nA, 6nlahtC9 Akatya9to l6kte9 tSi? nahe9 Atyatnutuhle9”. Okhna9 yakA? wi a9e

kaluta ke yehAlskwahele ne9n ohkwa li ya9tehakane91e, “akkch! na kwi

tayonAhlakelohle9 , wa9hA'Iu9, ne9n ohkwali, “ela kwi Ikelhe9 wa9tyukwatA'nukse, kwah

olihwiyo tsi9 yukhishAni, tayotyokwiyohati,” wa9hyWu9 ne9n koskos, “nahte9 aoliwa”?

Wa9h/\lu9 ne9n ohkwali, “shaya-tat tahotya9lahlati9 tabonAyohJukwAhati9” (ne- wi ne9n

latsokahtane9) elhal ne- a9e na9tehohnAhsa okhale9 shaya tat tahotnakalahlati9 (Ne- wr

ne^n lonitahsotali takohs). Wa9hAlu9 ne“?n koskos, “ta t nuwa ne- tyoyanle ne9n

usesnilihwasluni ne?n skyvhnaksA1? kanyo o"ny' Ahy/newe. Okhna9 yakA9 wi’ tahata'ti ne9n

e neke thAtskwahele tsi9 oela tho wahA'newe, wa9hy\lu9, “kwah kwi a9nyoh ne-

ayaknilako uselnilihwasluni, kwah ok oksAn/ thik/hak tsi9 tetsi9twatekhahsi.” Na kwi

ne skyJmaksA9 wa9hy»iu9, “syuh! akwah kAny/, kwah ki9 ok thikawAnryo”. Okhna9

yakA9 wi- ne9n takohs tahata'ti, wa9h/\iu9, “akwah wa9kenha-t/, kw'i ni' tsi9 kwah a^nyo?

yah tetwatliyohsle”. Okhna1? takohs wa9hy/lu9, “kA kwi ni- nutukyelAke9

ayukwatliyoke . Na se9 ok wi" tho ya9thanitskwahkwe tsi1? nu nitwatoya9nluhe?

oniahte9, koskos ne- tho ya9tho9nyukwaliste9, okhna9 ne9n koskos wa9thohy>-lehte9, nA ki9

ok wi- ne9n takohs yusahotkAhla-tahkwe9 tsi1? nulahatu neke. Kwah ok tho wahalathA9

tsi9 kalu tole tsi9 thAtskwahele9 ne9n ohkwa li, okhna9 so"tsi9 tahatuneke ne9n ohkwali

wa9thohA'lehte9 wa9hAlu9, ‘"wakiheye9 kwi ni' on/!” kwah yakA1? wi" ne- ok

tutahatlihwatSA li kwah ok tho thatutahanitskwakwe ohwyAtsya ke, yakA9,

yusakwalitakw/talane ok ne9n e lhal, ne- yakA17 ne- wahohsle ne9n koskos, kwah ok kAh

nukwa" tsyusahohna9tsaLikhune tho kali9 wi" ne nu nikaha wi Kah yakA9 lastelista ne9

sahate'ko ne9n latlokha ko skAhnaksA9.

Ohkwali okhale7 Sk/JmaksA

SkAhnaksA tehotawAlyehati7, wahatye l/ kohsat/s tho yotahs tho

Fox was traveling along, to his surprise, horse there slept then

wahanu7kehla, tsi7 oela wahotane7 yuhsahaninhoskwahawe7

he sucked milk, now when he had enough, he took a mouthful along

yuhsahatxnatslahawe. Kwah kA niyoleha7 nyeshawenu, tho wa7thyallane7

he took along for his lunch. A short distance he had gone, there he met

ne9n ohkwa li. Wa7h/ iu7 nc7n ohkwali, “Nahle7 ne thi k/i
the bear. He said, the bear, What is that

sanhoskwanhutati7.” Wa7hA4lu7
mouthful bulging in your cheek as you’re going along.” He said

ne9n skAhnaksA7 “k/’tho kwi tyotahs kohsatA tho waknu7kela”, “Yats”

the fox> “Over here there she sleeps a horse, there I sucked milk,” “Gosh”

yakA7 wa7liA'lu7 ohkwa li, “to kati7, takna7lu nina tsi7 nu tyo tahs, i s/\
they said, he said the bear, “Well then, come show me where she sleeps, I

aknu7kelhla. Na kwi ne' sahyakehte7, tho nuhsane we tsi7 nu tyo tahs

too will go suck milk. So then they went back, there again where she sleeps

ne7n kohsa t/s. Na ki7ok wr ne- tahatahsa'WA7 ohkwa h wahanu7tahnki la7

the horse. Immediately he started the bear to drink milk from the horse

kwah tsi7 niyo le' wahohtane. Wa7hA'lu7 skAhnaksA7, “ne- uhte7 tyoyanle
just about until he had his fill. Said the fox, “I think it’s best

yuhsetmha we, tyokut ne4 AyukniyA take7”, wa7hA'lu7, yakA7 ne7n ohkwa h, “ol nc
we take it along, always then we will have it”, he said, they say the bear, “how

nAtmye le7 yAsetni hawe7 tsi7 niyokste7?” Wa7hA'lu7, skAhnaksA7, “yah kwi ne4,
will we manage to lake it along, it’s so heavy?” He said, the fox, “Thai’s nothing,

nahte7 lc7WAlo le, i sc wi4 seshatsle7, i se kwi4 Atehsatilu tA.” Wa7hA4lu7 yakA7
it s no problem, you are the strongest, you then will do the pulling.” Said, they say.

ne- ohkwa li, “oh nenAkyele?” “AtkahlilulA?”, wa?h/lu? skAhnaksA?, “yah ne- nahte?
the bear, “How will I do it?” “I will pull it,” said the fox, “There’s nothing

te?WA'to le, tAknjtahso lA okhna? tho Akhwanhake?, kwah ik/ tsi?

hard about it, I will splice your tails then there I will tie it together, just very good

Akhni late?, okhni obna kA? nr Atekhlcke” Okhna? kwi- ne?n ohkwa'li wahathutate.
and tight, then behind I 11 get and push. Then by then bear consented.

Okhna? kwi- sk/JinaksA?, wa?h/lu?, “nA kwi- waksane?, n/ Ica salhale?” Okhna?
Then the fox, he said. “Now then I’m finished, are you ready?” Then

tahakwatahse taha?nyushali ke ne?n kohsat/s. O il/, ki?ok wf- ne' tutakalAStalsi? ne?n
he came around and bit the snout of the horse. Immediately she jumped up this

kohsa t/s kwah ok k/ thya?katakhe? tho wa?ohkwali?tAtu'ne?. To ok yakA?

horse and away she ran with the bear hanging on behind. It was, they say

niyo-le nya?ohkwali'tAtume? tsi? nA lsa?lhanitahsyahke?. Na tsusutahkv\'ali?tanyuta-ko.

some distance the bear was hanging when his tail broke. When the bear became loose

okhna? kwr ne?n ohkwaTi wahona?klrwA?. Kwah nok tahathhwatSAii tsi? Aholyo
then of course the bear became very angry. He just his only thought was to kill

ne?n skAhnaksA? o na tAhshya?tlane?. O nyl yak/^?, wa?thataw/ li loya?ti saks ne?n

the fox whenever they meet again. Now they say, he traveled around looking for

skAhnaksA? khale? kwi- ne- o nA ya?tuhsahyatlane?, wa?h/ lu?, ne?n ohkwa li,
the fox and it was sometime later, they met again, he said, the bear,

hvahu nise o n/ tshikuya?ti-saks, n/ kati? o n/ Atnitakwali hsi

it s a long time now, I’ve looked for you, so then now straighten out that little matter

thi"k/ teskyelumh, nA kati? wr kwah ok k/ lho

that trick you played on me, now then it just right here

AkunAwasla li. Wa?h/ lu?, ne?n sk/vhnaksA?, “yah ki? nahle?

I 11 beat the daylights out of you.” He said, the fox, “It doesn’t make

te?yotye l/, nok tsi? so tsi? tetyatUhA we ne wi ni tsi?

any difference, but then because there’s such a difference in our size, it’s plain to see

Ahske^sh/' ni. Wa9hA-lu9 skAhnaksA, “kawycnAlau, nok tsi9
you would get the best of me,” Said fox, “It’s alright with me, but then

tetsyalu Atyanityohkuni,” okhna9 kwi- waholi9wanutuse ne9n ohkwa li, “katsa9nu,

both of us will get up a gang,” then now he asked him the bear, ‘‘Where,

nikaha wi i hselhe9 a9etwatliyo9” wa9liA'lu9, yakA9 ne9n ohkwali, “a9e

what time do you want for us to fight? ” he said, they say the bear, “Over

tkaluloteko- onutahala ke tho nu ya9lAtwatlane9, tekni tAtyohwista9ahake ne9n

there is a great big tree on the hill there we will meet, two o’clock on

AyolhA nc.” Ohkwali ru„ ki ok tahatahsawA9 washakoya'haloloke iutliyos.

the morrow.” Bear immediately started to gather the fighters.

Tho wi- wa9thyatlane9 ne9n koskos, wa9hA-lu9 ne9n olikwa li,

There then they met this pig, he said the bear.

“yolsi9natolu lovnyAh kwah ne- kehsaks latliyosko”. Wa9hA-lu9

Dam it! you look pretty flashy, just what I’m looking for, a great fighter.” He said

ne?n koskos, “ne- ni nakwah ne- kehsaks, yah nuwAtu uhka9 te9yukeshA-m”
the pig. That’s exactly what I’m look for, not ever has anyone beat me.”

Na ki9 ok wi- sahokwahte9 ne9n koskos tho yusane tsi9 nu nihutliyohsle.

Immediately he invited the pig to go back where they are going to fight.

SkAhnaksA9 ila uni ne- lanha9tsli saks. I si niyole ne- nyehawcnu tho
F°x now also he was looking for help. It was some distance he had gone there

ya9thyatlane ne- elhal, a9e na9tehohiL\hsa Iatso9kahtane, okhna9 wa9hA’lu9

he met the dog, big shoulders he had and walked lame, then he said

skAhnaksA, “wa9oyanUne kAnyA tsi9 wa9tetyatlane9, katliyohsle? AyolhAne”

the fox, “It sure is good that we met, I’m going to fight tomorrow,”

wa9hA'lu9 ne9 e lhal, “ne- kwi ni nakwah nahte9 wakath'hute9, yah nuwAtu uhka
he said, the dog, “That’s just about what my business is, not ever has anyone

te9yukeshA-ni. Na ki9 ok wr, sahokwahle9. Kwah kA9 ok niyo le

beat me. Immediately then, he invited him along. Just a little further

nyehonenu okhna7 tho wa7thutlane7 takohs okhale7 wi waholi7wanutuse
they had gone when there they met cat and again he asked him

Ahakwe ni kA Ahatlryo kwah kati7 ne' kawyen/tau okhna7. Sk/hnaksA7 wa7hA'lu7,

if he could fight just then right now he was then. Fox he said,

“Na ki uhte7 wr tho ya7taetyoya7ake tsi7nu nitwatliyohslc7.” Na

“Now it’s about time that direction we should go where 'we are going to fight.” They

kwi ne- nyehoti, ne7n ohkwali okhale7 koskos tsi7nu tkalutoteko-, okhna7 wa7h/lu7
had already arrived bear and pig where the big tree is, then he said

ohkwali, “KWtho, ki7 uhte7 wi AklathA kalulake. YAkalkattho n/' k/ thoha7

the bear, “Here, I think 1 will climb tliis tree. I will look see if they arc

utahotike-tole”. Ok ne7n koskos wa7hA lu7, “k/Vlho ki7 uhte7 wi'- ru• Akatolishy> tsi7
in sight.” But the pig he said, “Here I guess then 1 will rest where

yotahala nA, onlahte7 Akatya7to lokle7 tsi7 nahe7 Atyatnuhtuhle7.” O n/, yak/,7
it’s shady, leaves I will cover myself with while we are waiting.” Now they say

wi- a7e kalula ke yeh/tskwahele, ne7n ohkwa li ya7tehakanehle, “akkeh! n/

way up there in the tree, he was sitting, the bear looking around. “Wow! here

kwi tayonAhlake tohte7”, wa7hA-lu7, ne7n ohkwa li, “wa7tyukatAnukse, kwah olihwi yo
comes that gang , he said, the bear, “We made a mistake, for sure

tsi7 yukhi7shAnyu ne7, tahotyokwiyohatih,” wa7h/Wu7 koskos,

that we are going to gel a beating, he has a tough gang coming,” said the pig,

“nahte7 aoli wa ? Wa7h/.-lu7 ne7n ohkwa li, “shaya tat

“what’s the reason7” He said the bear, “one of them

tahotyalahla ti lonAyohJukwAhati7” (ne- wi ne- latsokahtane7)

is carrying a sack on his shoulders, picldng up stones” (that was the limping dog)

(e lhal ne- a7e nihohnAhsa) okhale7 shaya tat

(dog with the big shoulders) and the other

one is carrying a club on his shoulders, that was the cat with his tail up in the air.

Wa7hA'lu7 ne7n koskos, “ta t nuwa nc- tyoyanle ne7n usesnilihwahsluni ne sk/imaksA
He said the pig, “Maybe it’s best that you would make up the fox

kanyo o'ni Ah/rnewe.” Okhna7 yakA7 wi tahatati ne7 e nekc

when now they will arrive.” And so it is said he called down the one

thAlskwahele7 tsi7 on/ tho wahAnewe, wa7hA'Iu7, “kwah ki7 a7nyoh ne'
up there was perched when now there they arrived, he said, “Well I think we would

ayaknilako uselnilihwaslum, kwah ok okskAn/ IhikAhak tsi7

prefer wc should make up, just be peaceful with each other

le7lsi7twalekhahse” Na kwi ne' skAhnaksA7 wa7hA'lu7, “syuh! akwah UnyA,

and go our separate ways.” Then the fox he said, “Shucks' that’s funny,

kwah ki7ok thikawAniyo”. Okhna7 yakA nc takohs tahata ti, wa7liA'lu7, “kwah
but it’s ok, it’s perfectly ok me.” Then they say the cat spoke up, saying, “That’s

kAnyAh wa7kenhalA kwi ni' tsi7 kwah a7nyo yah te7twatliyohsle”. Okhna7 ne7n
funny, I’m sorry really I am, it seems that no fight will take place”. Then the

ta kohs wa7h/\lu7, “kAh kwi nrnutukyeT/Jhke7 ayukwa7tliy6ke7” Na

cat said, “As for me, I would have done like this if we had fought.” And

se ok wr tho ya7thanitskwakwe tsi7 nu nitwatolya nyuhe onlahte7, koskos ne' tho

immediately, there he jumped where there was movement in the leaves, a pig there

ya7thonyukwalisle7, okhna7 ne7n koskos wa7lhohA'lehte7, ela ki7 ok ne7n ta kohs

he grabbed by the snout, the the pig let out a squeal, immediately cal

yusahotkAhlatahkwe7 tsi7 nutahatu neke. Kwah ok tho thahalathA

released him that he became so frightened too. Right then and there, he climbed

tsi7 kalutote tsi7 thAtskwahale ne7n ohkwa li, okhna7 so tsi7 tahtu neke ne7n ohkwali
that tree where he sat this bear, then because he got so scared this bear

wa7thohA'lehte7 wa 'hA'lu7, “wa7kiheye kwi ni- o n/”, kwah yakA7 wi- ne ok

he yelled and said, “This is the end of me now, just, the story goes,

tutahatlihwatsA'li tutahanitskwakwe ohwystya ke, yakA7,

the only thing he could think of was jump to the ground, they say,
yusukwali7takw/JitaTane. ok ne7n e'lhal, ne' yak/,*? ne- wahohsle ne7n koskos, kwah ok
landed the flattened bear. As for the dog, they said, he took after the pig, while he

k/Jb nukwa tsyusahohna7tsalikhune tho kati7 wi- ne- nu nikaha wi kah yakA7
running off in this direction biting the pig’s rear, the smart old fox ran away laughing.

lastelistame7 sahate ko ne7n lattokha ko sk/JinaksA7.

The Bear and the Fox

A fox was traveling along, when suddenly he came upon a sleeping horse. He sucked
milk from the horse until, when he had his fill, he took another mouthful along with him
for his lunch.

He hadn’t gone very far when he met the bear. The bear said, “what is that mouthful
of stuff that you’re going along with (bulging in your cheek7) The fox said, “There’s a
horse sleeping over there, I sucked milk from her,” “Gosh”, said the bear, “How about
showing me where she’s sleeping so I can suck too!” Then they went again where the
horse was sleeping. The bear started in at once, and drank the milk until he had his fill.
The fox said, “I think it would be a good idea for us to take her with us, then we can
always have her.” The bear said, “How' will we manage to take her with us, she is so
heavy7” The fox said, “That’s easy, you are very strong, you will do the pulling.” Then
the bear said, “How will I manage to pull her?” The fox said, “There’s nothing hard
about that, I will splice your tails together and tie them up, I’ll make them too and tight,
and I’ll get behind and push.” And so the bear consented.

Soon the fox said, “O.K. I’m finished, are you ready7” And he went around and bit the
horse in the snout, immediately the horse jumped up and away she ran, with the bear
hanging on behind. It was quite a distance they say, that the bear was hanging, before
his tail finally broke and he got himself loose. Then the bear got mad, and he just
made up his mind, he would kill the fox the next time he meets him.

Now they say, he traveled around some time later, he caught up with him again. The
bear said, “It’s been a long time that I’ve been looking for you, now then we will
straighten out the matter of that trick you played on me. Right here and now, I’m going
to beat the daylights out of you”, said the fox, “It doesn’t make any difference to me,
except that there is so much difference in size between us, it’s plain to see that you will
get the best of me.” Fox continued, “It’s alright with me, only let’s each of us get up a
gang.” Then he asked the bear “When would you like to fight7” The bear said, “There’s
a great big tree on lop of the hill, that’s where we will meet at two o’clock tomorrow.”
Then they parted once more. The bear began at once collecting fighters.

oneerthar,hii!lhe??Tf Pi,g> ,Said lhe b6ar’ “Daniedlf y°u like a pretty tough
2 ?! Whf Im for> a g°od fighter ” The pig answered, “That’s exactly
bear invTted°0thng ^ be6D bcked by anybody yet” Immediately the
bear invited the pig along to go back where they were going to fight

LnVwben^ T^-r f° u0lang f°r hdp’ 11 Was ^uite sorae ^stance he had
Thwi'rt.* f h T«uP7 nlh 3 d°g that had br°ad shouIders was walking lame.
Then the fox said Well it sure is a good thing that we met, I am going to have a fight
tomorrow. The dog answered, “That’s exactly what my business is I’ve never kPp g
beaten by anybody yet.” So immediately he invited him along. Just a little further on
hey met up with a cat. So he asked him if he could fight It was O K hv him a a

- -** - - - A wetd

N°; Jbe bear and the Pig had already arrived in the vicinity of the big tree The bear
m lb 17° l WlU ^ ^ tree hCre S° 1 Ca» see Aether they £ SLgZJSL
sight yet. the pig said, “I think I’U rest here in the shade, “I’ll cover myself with
eaves while we're waiting" And, so they say, the bear was sitting way up in he tee

^ Ts a ZZ here .C°meS tha' gan&” S2jd lhC b^' “N™ 1 -Uze we ntade a
comtas" 2 WV.C 1° 8C‘ cleaned up' he has such a louSh crowd
rarrvi8 ^ * !be rfason? the pig. The bear answered, “One of them is
arryrng a sack on his shoulders and going along picking up stones” (that was the
hmping dog with the broad shoulders), “and one of them is carrying a club on his
t°uU dT „(th,a' W3S the Ca‘ Wilh pP i» the air). Thence pig said "Maybe it
would be best if you would make up with the fox, when they get here." And so it is
wouldhe °rDe r ? Up h*8*1 called down when lhey arrived and said, “I think we
would prefer to make up with you, let’s be iiiends and go our separate ways in Peace”
Then the fox said, "That’s funny!, but it’s perfectly O.K by me ” NowTTs said T„

10nave a fight after all. “““’u
Then the cat said ‘further,
“ SOny “Aslhal
for “me
thisUke we're
is the wav I going
would have done „ ,f we had fought.” And immediately, he jumped onto whe e tL

soLTTiTedi* 5 iT"' ^ PU' Ws P3WS inl° the pig'a -ou,“he pfg Te, a
tree thal rt^h^r' thu, “* . “ g0 again he «01 s0 scared He just climbed up the
"This is ih d f 33 S!.Umg m' Phe bear g°l s° scared that he let out a yell sayinc
aL h betTand: I,” Wdl> ^ lW"g 1 “aId of, 7°^
took aflerX tSt, u P " °n ,hc gr0Und' ^ “ for lbe dog, they say he

smart old fox ^ “ "* d'KC"°n ^ P‘S’S lhc

Told by Isaac J. Webster to Guy Elm (2-23-39)

Transcribed and Taped by Maria Hinton, (11-8 79)
Recopicd and Corrected by Maria Hinton (9-3^89)

Lola7nhau Ohkwa Li Ahatoiate

Lola7nhau ohkwa li ahatoiate7. Wahunise tsi7 nu tshutakawr ne7n lAnukwehu we

she ku nuyakstet nukwa1 thAnehse kalhowa ruse tsi7 nu nihulolatstakhwa

kalutowA’n^se nya7tekahsokwake tho yotu ni okhale7 nya7tewahyakeshu ne uhte7

aoli wa sotsi7 kanakle7 nya7tekalyotake tahnu tyonale7s/se ne- kati7 wi- IakhsotkA

e'so lokalatuni tsi7 nihola7nha7une ohkwaii ahato iate.

uskah utlatsle7 eu\ ki ale7 wi wahtoiatha7, tahnu tyonute-ni okhale7 tuhwAtsyaksAse

YotiliwaksA kanyo- wa7twilahawe khale7 wi kanyo kwah nok tsi7 tAhswiskwahte,

nA Asalu tate7 ne- tetyotelyA7thaiak tAtwalahtate Asahuiakhwa kanyo- Asahnuilane.

Tahnu tsi7 nihotihuloiAse ne7 tho ne7 uskah ok watnAyata7as laotihuie, Na akti7

wi-ale7 latoiats tho wahayato-Lvne ohkwaii. Na ki ok wi laulha wahate-ko okhna7

wahohsle7 tho yakA7 tsi7 kaluto’tu tho e-La ok yeshotahsehtu kwah kAS yak\7 nok

sayola kalele7 tho wa7tkatsi7eloiane ka aks okhale7 akte nu wa yeheslate tsi7

kaluto'tu thothi yot tsi7 niyoie wa7tkahwishAye7 kwah nok tsi7 yotu u tsi7 katakhe

nA kwi laulha nu wa th6 nukwa sahatoiyahte7 tsi7 nu kwa thonuhsote7 kwah yakA7

isi7 niwa- kahAtayA.

Wahatye lA tho tayoke tohte ne7n ohkwaii nA wi ne1 tok/.ske wahonatetshA ne7n

kanuhsku thati telu7 ya7lehatika ncle kwah ki ok tutku tahkwe tho nulayawenuhati.

Wahutyc 1a ne riAhke tahatolihati nc7n lotolalhu kwah yakA7 tho kanuhsakla elhuwa

o nA kwah i kA tahate7lshAnjyoste7 wahalutatc7 wahalyo ne7n ohkwaii. Na kwi

ne lok/ske wahotihnehla'ko wahuwali7wanu tu sc nahte7 aoli wa yah oksa

tehalu'ftatu m\ tshathyatlane, wahAlu1? ne?n lato lats “so'tsi'? kwi yoya'ftakste tho

niyole nutukwahkwisluti.”

Lola^nhau Ohkwa li Ahatolate

He Knows How the Bear to Hunt

Lola^nhau ohkwa li ahato late1?. Wahunise tsi*? nu tshutakahawr ne*?n

He knows how the bear to hunt. A long time ago about the time the

lAnukwehu we she'ku nuyakstet nukwa- tshithvaie-se.

the Oneidas still New York State there they were yet.

kalhowaruse tsi'? nu nihutolatstakhwa. KalutowA'nAse

There were big forests yet, where they used to hunt. There were big trees too,

nya'ftekahsokwake tho yotu-nf okhale? nya^tewahyakeslu. ne uhle?

all kinds of nuts there grew and all kinds of berries too. I guess

aoli-wa so'tsi*? kanakle1? nya*?tekalyo take tahnu tyonale’^s/se'?. Ne' kati*?

that’s why that they were so plentiful, wild game and they were so fat. So then

wr lakhsotk/ e'so lokalatirni tsi*? nihola^nhaume ohkwa'h

he my grandfather so many stories he told about how well he knew, the bear

to hunt.

uskah utlatste*? nA ki ale*? wi wahtolatha*?, tahnu tyonute ni

One time now was the time again to go hunting and it was a very hilly

okhale7 tyohwAtsyakAse. YotiliAvaksA kAS kanyokawilAhawi okhale'? wi kanyo

and rugged country. They are ugly too if she has a baby and then if

kwah nok tsi'? lAhswiskwaht nA Asalu'ftate'? ne' sa letyotelyA'fthalak

you would only wound her when you shoot her, another thing to worry about

tAtwalahlat, Asahu lakhwa kanyo' Asahnutlane tahnu

she will run after you, take your gun away from you if she catches you and
tsi9 nihotihulo tAse ne9 tho ne9 uskah ok watnAyata9as laotihule.
the kind of guns they had at that time, one only shell it used, their gun. (musket)

Th6 Icas yakA9 niwAtole usahatinAyatane9 laotihuye n/, kati9 ale9

It took, it’s said, too much time to put another shell in their gun, so now then

wr lato'lats tho wahaya9toL\ne ohkwah. Na ki okwi laulha wahateko okhna9

again this hunter there found a bear. So right now he ran away and

wahohsele9 tho yakA9 tsi'7 kalutotu tho elA ok yehotahsehtu

she chased him, it’s said, that among the trees, he was dodging behind the trees,

kwah Icas yakA9 nok sayolakalele9 tho wa9tkatsi9elolane ka aks

you could, they say, hear the noise where her claws were tearing in the tree

okhale9 akte9 nuwa yeheslate tsi'? kaluto tu. Thothi yot tsi9 niyoie
and some place else he’d be standing among the was that way until

wa9tkahwishAhe9 kwah nok tsi9 yotu u tsi9 skatakhe9 nA kwi laulha nu wa tho
she got so tired and she was just lumbering along now then he this time that

nukwa9 sahatodyahte9 tsi9 nukwa- thonuhsote9. Tahnu yakA9 tsi9 nihonuhsote,

this time he drove her towards his house. And it’s said, that near his house.

kwah yakA9 rsi niwa kahAtahvA.

quite, they say, is a large field.

Wahutye lA tho tayoke tohte ne9n ohkwali nA wi ne- tok/ske

They were surprised to see coming this bear, now they were really

wahonatetshA ne9n kanuhsku thatitehlu9 ya9tehatika-nele kwah ki ok

afraid those in the house sitting around looking it just kept

tulku lahkwe tho yulaya wenu hati. Wahalye lX ne nAhke tahatoli hati,
right on coming in their direction. They soon found this way, he was driving it,

ne9n lololathu Kwah yakA9 tho kanuhsakta elhuha oiia kwah ikA
him that went hunting. Just they say near the house, just now a real good

tahac>shAniyoslc9 wahalu tate9 wahalyo ne9n ohkwali. Na kwi ne lokAske

and careful aim he look to shoot he killed thjs bear. Now they were reallv
wahotihnehlako wahuwah?wanutuse nahte^ aolrwa yah oksa tehalu^ta tu
surprised, they asked him why right away he didn’t kill it

tshathyatlane, wah/iu? ne*?n latoiats “so'tsi? kwi yoya'hakste tho niyole

when they first met, said the hunter, “because she is so heavy that far

nutukwakwislu ti .”
I should struggle with it.”

He Knows How the Bear to Hunt

The bear knows how to hunt. A long time ago about the time the Oneidas were
still living in Oneida Castle, New York State. There were still large forests there
where they still hunted. There were big trees with all kinds of nuts growing on
them and all kinds of berries grew wild too. Wild game too was plentiful, they
were very fat and healthy. My grandfather used to tell many stories about’how
well a bear could hunt.

One time now it was time to go hunting again, and this place where they went
hunting, it was a very rugged and hilly country. A bear is ugly if she has a baby
and if you only wound her when you shoot her and another thing to worry about
she will chase you and take your gun away from you. In those days, the men
only had muskets which used only one shell. It took a little time to reload it.
This one time a man was hunting, he saw this bear and immediately ran away, she
chased him, he dodged back and forth behind the trees. You could hear her claws
where she was scratching the bark on the trees finally he had her so tired, she was
just lumbering along. Now he drove her toward his house, and it’s said near his
house there was quite a large field. Those people sitting around near his house
saw this bear coming toward them, they were frightened but they soon found out
that he was behind her, now he took a good and careful aim with his gun. He
ki led her. These men asked him why he didn’t kill her before this. He said
Well, she is too heavy, that far I could not carry her.”

Told by Fillmore Cooper to Guy Elm (3-22-39)

Transcribed and Taped by Maria Hinton (11-19-80)
TehnyashA Otsi9nowa
Two Mice

TehnyashA otsi9no'wa yakA9 wa9tyatlihotalhu inelhe9 kwak tsa9teku ahniyena

tsi-9 skAhnaksA tehalihwaskenhasko- nahaya9to'tA ne' wahuwanliAne9 tashakokhahsi.

Na kwi tahatahsawA wahatekhwa'ko ahSA'iiA wa9thayake9 tsi'r?. Wahostohse

shaya'tat otsi9no-WA da kwi she'ku sahatekhwa'ko ne9n skAhnaksA. Thome9 on/

ne' nuwa9n shaya'tat tahoto'ktahse, Na kwi sahatekhwa'ko ok k/.s tsi9 niyo'le

wahatekhwisane9 ne9n tsi^. Tho ne*? o'ha wah/'lu9 skAhnaksA “Na kwi

tsa9tyawAne tesnitsyalu yah nahte9 teshi'yAta'u.”

TehnyashA Otsi9nowa
Two Mice

Tehn'yashA otsi9no-wa yakA9 wra9tyatlihotalhu imelhe9 kwah tsa9teku

Two mice they say, quarreled, they wanted about the same amount

ahniyema tsi'9 SkAhnaksA tehalihwaskenhasko' nahaya9to'tA ne'

to get of cheese. The fox a great lawyer the way he looks so,

wahuwanhAne9 tashakokhahsi. Na kwi tahatahsawA wahatekhwa'ko ahsA'n/

they hired him to divide. So then he started to bite into half

wa9thayake9 tsi'9. Wahostohse shaya'tat otsi9nowA nA

be broke the cheese. One thought he didn’t get enough one of the mice, so

kwi she ku sahatekhwa'ko ne9n sk/dmaksA. Thome9 o'ela ne- nuwa9n shaya'tat
then again he took another bite the fox. So by now the other mouse

tahoto'ktahse. Na kwi sahatekhwa'ko ok k/s tsi9

was dissatisfied, he didn’t have enough. The he took another, and another bite

niyo le wahatekhwisane7 ne?n tsR Tho ne7 o*na wah/Wu7 skAhnaksA “Na kwi
until he ate all the cheese. So he said the fox, “Now you

tsa^tya-WAne tesnitsyalu yah nahte7 teshiyAtau.”

are even, both of you did not have nothing.”

Two Mice

There were two mice that were after some cheese. They were quarreling about it
when they decided to ask the Fox to help them out, especially since be looked like
a lawyer anyway. Well, the Fox tried to even it out by taking big bites out of
the cheese.. By now the mice were dissatisfied that they weren’t getting enough
so the fox just kept taking bites until all of the cheese was gone. The Fox finally
said, “Now you are even, both of you did not have nothing.”

Told by Ida Blackhawk to Floyd Lounsbury (2-11-39)

Transcribed and Taped by Maria Hinton (12-5-75)

Tsi9 Nahohte9 Aoliwa Tsi9 Ka NihAtahses Ne9n Ohkwali
The Reason Why That His Tail Is Short the Bear

uskah utlatste9 yakA9 wi sk/JmaksA ohkwa li wa9thyatlane9 lotsyayAtati ne9n

skAhnaksA. Ohkwa li waholi9wanutuse9 katsa9 nu tahsitsyahawe9, wah/lu9,

“owisake ne9n tsi9 tkawyuhatati”, wahA'lu9, “ihselhe9 k/, kAtsi9”. Na Ics\i

wahnitsyakona tho ne9 o n/, yahanewe9 tsi9 tkawi sayA9 tho yoka lAhte9.

WahA'lu9, “kA tho yahsanitahsowe. Na kwi tho wahati tahnu9 yothoie. Tho ne9

owise utu ne9 tsi9 yoka l/hte. Okhna9 takaliliAtho tho ne wa9thanitahsyahke. Ne-

kati9 ne aoh'wa tsi9 yah tekotkutakkwAnj tsi9 k/h niliAtahses ne9n ohkwa li.

Tsi9 Nahohte9 Aoli wa Tsi9 Ka NihAtahses Ne9n Ohkwa li

The Reason Why That His Tail Is Short the Bear

uskah utlatste9 yak/,9 wi- skAhnaksA wa9thyatlane9 ohkwa'li, lotsyayAtati

One time they say this fox they met bear he had some fish

ne9n sk/hnaksA. Ohkwa'li waholi9wanu-tu-se9, “katsa nu tahsitayahawe9”,

the fox. Bear asked him, “where did you gel the fish”,

wahA'lu9, “Owisa ke ne9n tsi9 tkawyuhuhatati”, wah/i lu9, “ihselhe9 Ica kAtsi9”. Na
he said, in the ice down by the river”. he said, “do you want fish” So

kwi wahmtsyako ha9 tho ne- yahanewe9 tsi9 tkawi sayA tho yoka lAle.
then they went fishing there they arrived there by the ice there was a hole in it.

WahA’lu9, “kA'tho yahsanilahso’we,” n/ kwi tho wahati tahnu yotho ie.

He said, “here put your tail in there,” so then there, he sal, and it was cold.

Tho- ne o wise utu ne9 tsi9 yoka lAte. Okhna9 tahatihAtho

It was then frozen it became in the opening of the ice. When he jerked

tho ne- waVthanitahsyahke. Ne- kali? ne- aoliwa tsi?
that’s when his tail broke off. So then that’s the reason that

yah teholkutahkwA’ni tsi? Ica nihAtahses ne?n ohkwali.

It has always remained just a short tail bear.

The Reason Why That His Tail Is Short the Bear

They say that at one lime this fox had some fish and he met up with the bear
T, h r “ked *“!>] where he got the fish and the fox told hi./that he got the
The heaW" * H ‘7 f" The f°X asked ,he bear if hc wanted to go fishing
The bear agreed and they arrived (here by the hole in the ice. The fox told the

.‘d rhe h0lea The bear pul ws 1211 “ hole and because U
„ ? ° d ^ tai1 froze and whcn hc j^ed his tail broke off. So that is the
reason the bear has a short tail.

Told by Walter Skenandore (2-17-39)

Transcribed and Taped by Maria Hinton (4-6-81)

animai/man stories

Tu'wis Yakyato lats OtshukaloLA . William House

(Thomas and I Hunted Rabbits)

Tkahyuhwahutsi7 . Rachel Swamp

(Black Creek)

KitKit Ohkale7 Bol Dennison Hill


K o sMs Laly^hsk . . .Levi BIm

(How: He Butchered His Pig)
8 >
V—> ff s < '
'■ ' , • • v.
/ «J \
’ >: , .
S-B TsyotinkA Ohkwa li WahyaUiya.. • Thomas Elm
*'-'"an Bear They Fought)
3KS8s|<£: > s'* 4 */ -.N ' ‘■'v-jWviV ■“\N §gig«g ''/$&/' '%/ X
wk'<?.' ^v* -' < ^. /■ 4.';
Lonala se .\ ..• ♦ • • » • * . . Sophie Hill

Otsinuwa . . . sses Webster

(Hunting Worm)

Otholeke Nukwa Tiyo7nuttkwalute*Jk6 .

(In the Northern County-ilhere is a Big Mountain)

Tuwisko1 Luwa'yats . Ed Metoxen

(Big Thomas is His Name)

Ohkwa li Okhale7 Lukwe.Lewis Webster

(Bear and Man)

Othahyu ni Okhale7 Lu kwe . Alex Metoxen

Wolf and Man)
Lirkwe Wahalu tate Tshuhkalo-U . Alex Metoxen
(Man Shot Rabbit)

Lu kwe Okhale7 TshuhkaloLA .Marie Webster

(Man and the Rabbit)

Ohkwa li Tsi7 Lotashyutu he Dick Christjohn

(How the Bear Lost His Tail)
Tuwis Yakyatoi&ts Otshukalol/

Wahunrse? tho L\s yotelhate?ko- akta tsi9 yukwanuhsote. Ne- kati9 ka?i-k/ Tuwis

yotka'te yakyatolals otshuhkalol/, ohkwes/, tsyokwil/tu sa, kwah ki? ok tsyok

nahohte?. Ne- kati? ka?rk/ kA niyoleha tsi. kanuhsote? tho kelhite?, ka?rk/ o?neyal

yotsokuni ne-tho. Ne- kati9 wi- tho kusteh'sta olite? kutihsokwakwas uhte? wahe. Ne-

katl? kanyo o-n/ yo?kalashA yotityokwan/ kA tho kutitskwahluni. Tho kAS

wayakwehte. Tho kAS washakoli ta t nuwa ahsA kaye nikuti? aya?kwa?walake.

Yukwekase? ne- naka?wahlo-tA. Ne- kati9 ka?i-k/ Tu wis yah ne- teh/telu ka?rk/

mwAhmsla-te, ta t nuwa wisk nAyohwista?ehake yo?kala-sha iia /shlawe. Ne- kati9 wi

thi kA utukohte? Ati, wayokAnole, kwah ik/ tsi? tuhkwislu. Kwah kwi ne- nok

ya?twa kehte okhna? sutk/'late. Ne- kati? tsi? on/ sutAhalo'tA, tho wakehte? tsi?

tkelhi tu. Wakelhe? kwi akatk/v?se na tho ale? kA tku-nehse olite. Keihakwe ahihloli

Tu-wis nA /shlawe? ahsako'WAthu ale? kwi on/. Ne- kati? tsi? yaha kewe? yah kwi

ne kani ke tekutrlate. Tahnu? kA na?teyakwatleha kwi o?slu-ni tho k/s yeya?kwaktus

yakhrk/he lotin/skwayA- koskos, kwah rk/ tsi? kutikwan/lise. Ne- kati? tsi? o n/

saya?kyahtA ti katnaskwahawise, se wahe yukwatse n/ elhal, Ica ok niyo le okhna?

sakahahalane? ka?ik/ kA niyohaha tsi? nitwakenu. Ne- kati? wi tsi? o n/

yusakahahalane?, yakatkallho? tsi? nukwa tkanuhsotc?. Wakatkattho? thok nahte? tho

la we, o?swA la nikaya?to lA tahnu? tkakwa'n/. Ne- kati? wi- tho yoskawalc?

yonlahtu ni akta. Na kali? wi tho wa?tkanihyeskwAhlalhu ohnahk/,. Wa kelhe? kwi

AlkatuncktA. Wa kelhe? kwi ne- koskos k/ tho la we?. Sotsi? se wi ni tshikeksa.

elhuwa uhte? ta t nuwa uskah yawA'le na?lewakohliya'ku, netho'ne?, yah kwi nahte?

s6 tsi? thate?wakya?tolehtu. Ne- kati*? naku tsi? tkSlhite tho yewakatkotot, Tahnu? tsi?

o ru wa?ka-late tho uni' ne nutahatakhe yukwatsem e'lhal. Kya?takta wahalate tahnu?

we ne tsi’’ JotetsAU. Kwah loya?tutawetu ne' kati? wi tsi? ya?tekka'nele? tho Icas

wahani?nyuhso tA tsi? tekyanalati onawatstakeshu Ica ok na?tekalu. f ki? uhte? wi

tahakyAnaha'wi okhale? kAS swatye lA kAS wahathakwa-welu wahateswahtani latto kas tsi?

tho rkehse katsa?ok nu okhale? nA sa wa?kattoke tsi? yah se koskos tehkA so'tsi?

lonuhwelhse. Kwah sa yowisklohale la?nyu ke' okhale? o'ya sa ni'yot tsi? iie so tsi?

ya wet tehahsinowa'nAhse. Na kwi yahakhewe? tsi? ohkwali nyvhke. Na tok/ske

ukwatetSA, wakathu te? kAS luthlolyanyuhe? tsi? ayakotiye'na yeksa kanyo AyakotkA

kalhaku tahnu kwi tsi? nA se akta, waiawe? ne', ki? ok ni sakatliho Une? tho kwi

yakatya?tu ti tsi? yoska ote okhale? wa?twakhA'lehte?, kwah tsi? ni ku wa?kwe'm

yolakale ni. Wa?krlu? “So wai” ok ne?n e'lhal ya?thamtskwakwe? uni ha? ne' kwah

kwi kAh niyosno le tusahatkalhateni, tho ne'nyusahatakhe? tsi? nitya?we'nu, tsi? otla

ute'ko e lhal ne' wahahsle Ica ok na?teka'lu? okhale? wahala tahk, kwah tsi? ni'ku

wahaka h okhale? Icas wa?twatnuhsi'sle, nA Icas kwi ne' sahototalishi akta tsi? kanuhsote

ne kalhowanA'ke nukwa nyuhsakaye'late? okhale? okhna? kwi ni tho wakatu'kohtu kiti.

Tsi? on/ yuhsake we?, wa?kfiu?, “TasatkAse'na i si, tetkayana lu ohkwali. Na kwi

wayakwatkA?se na tsi? nyeyawe nu. Kwah se ne' ayakonehla ko tsi? niyoshuwe'suhsc

tsi? nu niyonatukohlu aolsi?eia tsi? yotlatakwA, okhale? a?e niwa sc

yotlawalsisanAtashukwA ka?i kA tsi? ok nu ostuha tsi? yolu kohlu.

Tu wi's Yakyatoldts OtshukaloL/,
Thomas and I Hunted Rabbits

Wahunj-se? tho Icas yotelhate?k6- sikta tsi? yukwanuhsote. Ne- kati? ka?rkA
Long ago there used to be a forest near by our house. So it was this

Tu-wis yotkate yakyatoiats otshuhkalolA, ohkwesA, tsyokwiLvtu sa, kwah ki1? ok

Thomas quite often, we hunted rabbits, partridge,'squirrels too, just about

tsyok nahohte?. Ne- kati^ ka^i kA kA niyoleha tsi*? kanuhsote? tho kelhite*?,
any kind of game. So then this short distance from our house there a tree,

ka^rkA o^ne-yal yotsoku-ni ne- tho. Ne- kati*? wi- tho kustehsta
this beechnut there was plentiful. So then it was there these hung around there

olrte*? kutihsokwakwas lihte*? wahe. Ne* kali*? kanyo onA yo^kalashA

pigeons gathering nuts I guess. So then when now it’s evening

yotityokwa-nA Ica tho kutitskwahlir ni. Tho Icas wayakwehte. Tho Icas
there were many of them sitting around. There we used to go. There he

washakdli ta-t nuwa dhsA kaye nikuti"? aya?kwa?walake. Yukweka-se?

used to kill maybe about three or four of them for us to eat. We liked the

ne1 naka'i’wahlo'tA. Ne- kati^ ka'i’i-kA Tu-wis yah ne- tehAte lu ka^rkA
taste of that kind of meal, So then this Thomas he wasn’t home this

niwAhmsla'te, ta t nuwa wisk nAyohwista^ehake yo^kala sha nA /shla-we.

certain day, maybe about five o’clock in the evening when he will return

Ne- kati^ wi thi'lcA utu k6hte^ Ati, wayokAnole kwah i k/ tsi9 tuhkwislu. Kwah
So then it was past noon, it rained really hard that it poured. Really,

kwi ne” nok ya^twa kehte okhna^ sutkA'late. Ne- kati^ tsi1? onA
it was just very sudden then it stopped. So then when now

sutAhalo tA, tho wakehte*? tsi^ tkelhilu. Wa kelhe^ kwi

the sun came out and was shinning over there I went by the trees. I thought then

akatkA^sc na tho ale*? kA tkunehsc oli te. Kelhakwc ahihlo li

I should go and see there again if they were there pigeons. 1 thought of telling him
Tu wis ha /shla-we1? ahsako'WAthu ale? kwi om, Ne- kati? tsi^
Thomas when he came home, he’d go hunting too now. So then when

yahakewe? yah kwi ne- kani ke tekuli-late. Tahnu? kA na?teyakwatleha

I arrived there, not anywhere were they sitting around. And not to far from us lived

kwi o?slu m tho Icas yeya?kwaktus yakhrkAhe lotinAskwayA- koskos, kwah i k/

these white people, we used to visit them and see their animals, pigs, veiy truly

tsi? kutikwa-nAhse. Ne- kati? tsi*? otia saya?kyahtA‘ti katnaskwaha wise, se wahe
they were large. So then now that we’re going home I had my animal, you see

yukwatse-nA e'lhal. Ka ok niyole okhna? sakahabalane? ka?ikA

our pet dog. Just a short distance when I got back on the road this

kA niyohaha tsi? nitwake-nu. Ne* kati? wi tsi? on/ yusakahahalane?,

small path that I had come on. So then when now I’m back on the’ road,

yakatkattho? tsi? nukwa tkanuhsote?. Wakatkattho? thok nahte? tho ta we,

I looked in the direction of the house. I saw something there was

o^swA ta nikaya?totA tahnu? tkakwa n/. Ne- kati? wi' tho yoskawale?
coming, it was black in color and it was large. So then there were brushes

yonlahtu ni akta. Na kati? wi tho wa?tkanihyeskwAhtalhu ohnahk^

full of leaves nearby. Now then right there I laid flat on my stomach back there.

Wakelhe? kwi AtkatunektA. Wa-kelhe? kwi ne- koskos kA tho tawe? Sotsi? se
I thought that I 11 scare her. I thought maybe it’s a pig there was coming. Because I

wi ni tshikeksa, elhuwa uhte? ta t nuwa uskah yawAle na?tewakohliyaku, nethone?

was just a child, maybe, I guess, about eleven years old, at that time,

yah kwi nahte? sotsi? thale?wakya?tolehtu. Ne- kati? na ku tsi? tkelhite tho
not a thing because I didn’t use the right judgement. So then under the tree there

yewakatketot, tahnu? tsi? otia wa?kalate tho uni- ne nutahatakhc yukwalsenA

watched, also when now I laid down there also he came running, our pet

e lhal. Kya?lakta waha late tahnu? we ne tsi? lotetSAU. Kwah

dog. Near me he laid down and it was plain to see he was afraid. He was

loya7tutaw£tu ne- kati7 wi tsi7 ya7tekkanele7 tho k/s wahani7nyuhsot/ tsi^
trembling so then as I looked from this distance, he was sniffling along

tekyanaldti onawatstakeshu kA ok na7tekalu. Iki7 uhte7 wi tahakyAnahawi

in my tracks through the mud, every little ways me. I guess then he was following

okhale7 L\s swatyel/ kAS wahathakwawelu wahateswahtani lattokas tsi7 tho

and then sometimes he would raise his head and sniff, he senses that

i k£hse katsa7ok nu okhale7 ha sa wa7kattoke tsi7 yah se koskos tehkA so'tsi7

I am there someplace and now also I realized that it’s not a pig, either, because

lonuhwelhse. Kwah sa yowisklohale Ia7nyuke- okhale7 oya sa ni'yot tsi7

he was funy. Also too there was a white tip on his nose and different like the

lie so tsi*? ya wet tehahsinowa'n/hse. Na kwi yahakhewe7

way he walked, also it seems that his legs were very large. Now I could make out

tsi? ohkwa li n/hke. Na tok/ske ukwatetSA, wakathute7 Icas luthlolyanyuhe7

that bear it was. Now really I became frightened, I heard they used to tell about

tsi^, ayakotiye-na yeksa kanyo Ayakotrk/ kalhaku tahnu kwi tsi7 nA

them, they will catch a child if they saw them in the woods and then now

se akta, walawe7 ne-, ki7 ok ni sakatliho-lAne7 tho kwi yakatya7tu-ti tsi7

nearer, he s coming, immediately my only thought was there to throw myself in

yoska 6te okhale7 wa7twakhAlehte7, kwah tsi7 ni ku wa7kweni yolakaleni. Wa7kiiu7

the brushes and I screamed, just about as I was able loudly. I said

‘S6-waT ok ne7n elhal ya7thamtskwakwe7 uni nA7 ne-. Kwah kwi kAh niyosno-le
‘So wai but the dog he jumped in there also. Just that fast

tusahatkalhate ni, tho nenyusahatakhe7 tsi7 nitya7wenu tsi7, O n/ ute ko

he turned around, that way he ran, the way she came from, Now as she ran away

eihal ne- wahahsle kA ok na7teka lu7 okhale7 wahala tahk, kwah tsi7 ni ku
dog he chased her every so often he would nip her heels, just every time

wahaka If okhale7 Icas wa7twatnuhsrsle, nA Icas kwi ne" sahototalishi akta tsi7
he bit then he would drag his rear end, then now he would loose his near the

kanuhsote ne kalhowan/ke nukwa nyuhsakayeiate? okhale? okhna^ kwi ni
house of the forest that’s the direction she went and when I

tho wakatukohtu kiti. Tsi^ o'ha yuhsake we7, wa^krlu^,

through there was passing, hurridly. Then now I arrived home again, I said,

“TasatkAsena i si, tetkayanaiu ohkwali.” Na kwi wayakwatkA^sena tsi?

“Come and see over there, there are tracks of bear.” ‘Now1 then we went to see where

nyeyawenu. Kwah se ne- ayakonehla ko tsi1? niyoshuwesuhse tsi? nu niyonatuk6htu

she went. Just so very it was surprising the deep holes where the traces of

aotsPeia tsi? yotlatakwA okhale? a?e niwa se yotlawatsisanAtashukwA ka?ikA tsi'? ok nu

it’s claws from it’s tracks and great big chunks of bark there here and

ostuha tsi? yotu-kohtu.

there bits of it where it went through.

Thomas and I Hunted Rabbits

Long ago there used to be a forest by our house. Thomas and I used to hunt rabbits,
partridge, squirrels too, just about any kind of game. A short distance from our house
stood a beechnut tree that was plentiful and the pigeons nested there and gathered nuts.
In the evening we would go and kill about three or four for us to eat. We liked the
taste of that kind of meat.

So then this Thomas wasn’t home this day, about five o’clock he would return. It was
about noon and it really rained hard, then it stopped and the sun came out and was
shinning over there by the trees. I thought it would be a good idea to check on the
pigeons. I thought of telling Thomas when he got home and then he could go hunting
too. When I got there, there weren’t any sitting around. Not too far from there were
white people living and we used to go and visit them and see their animals. They had
truly large pigs. On my way home I had my dog and we were walking on the road
when I saw a huge black animal coming our way. So then I laid down flat on my
stomach under some brushes full of leaves. I thought I would scare the animal,
thinking it was a pig. I was only eleven years old and not using good judgement.
Anyway, my dog came running and laid down by me and he was really scared. This
big animal came down the path sniffing, I suppose he could smell me. I then realized
that it wasn t the pig because he was furry and had a white tip on the end of his nose
and he walked different. Now I realized this animal was a big bear and I got so
scared because I had heard stories that they would catch a child if they saw them in

the woods. I started screaming “S6‘wai” and the bear turned around and started running
back from the way she came from and my dog nipping at her heals. Every time she
bit she would drag her rear end. When I returned home I said “Come and see over
there, there are bear tracks.” When we went to see her tracks we were surprised to see
deep claw marks and chunks of bark here and there.

Told by William House to Andrew Beechtree (5-2-39

Transcribed and Taped by Maria Hinton (11-8-79)

U‘°IatSk6' ^ WaiaiU “kaou ,, kwah th0 up ndhe9 kalhakhshu

tehotaWAlyehatese ha waha- kX- oskwhy „a kwi wahalHa.C wa9lh4ikwahte, oni

note,9 u tu. yahute ko a* kwi wahayanahawi walelhe^atsyok kwi AWafu

AshaliWate7 isi, ok tehu9 lho yaM-kaiawe ^ ^ Du]ma

nyusa ie UP niihawe nu okhaie? 0-nX .eiyhkalas 0Da tetyokalaa o n/- oni

wa9tho9nitelyahke9 onX- oni wahatkatho uhka90k lotted isi9 njyo-K [h6

nyaha le9 khale9 onX yaha lawe9 lho tko.askwahele uhka,ok ^ ^

yahanhohaya9ake UP oX- wahuwanho,ukwahSe9 wahonehiako- UP 0,sIunj. n, (ho

loiinuhaoLe nX oni wahuwakwaht69 kanaka nukwa- ya ahatdwyahle9 om. kwi

wahuwali9waiiutuse9 teytfuh* kA wahA,u9 h, ,>ah le,wakatya,taitu nok ^

yah te9wakanuhte9 kaisa nu twaknuhsoie" nA kwi wahUwaya9tantoa,e9 onX oof

wahuwa ouieo oa kwi washakohloli UP nahoya.ahwA khale9 kwi o nX

wahunuhwelha9 oshU9kalake yalu wahuwahnuktolase u-,0- ki wahoxa we asiehtsi

kW' ^ o nX wahuwahlo-Ii' UP .kahyuhwaintei ate yehe-,ehse9

o nX- oni wahuwahio ii bi9 nukwa na9lAlh]e ohka,e, ^ ^ ^ ^

yusa lawe9 UP .hohiXii wahaihio li- lsi9 kayhuhah utsi9 kuwa-yais tsi9 Du yahah

lho nc yakA9 nc kuwahsAna wi kayhuhahu tsi9 „e “Kayhuhahulsi’".

Black Creek

Mishlyhunicr Ihcyl^^'Icft' os^anu‘*JI kwh <ho lap nal,c9

y y ,ui 10 S° hunl,nS deer all the while
kalhakushu teholawAlyehatese ha waha- k/' osknutu- da kwi wahalutate7
in the woods traveling around then he saw her deer so then he shot her,

wa7thahkwahte7 oni noktsi7 u’tu- yahute ko nA kwi

he hit her even but even at that she ran beyond. So then

wahayanahawi- walelhe7 atsyok kwi Awa tu

he started to follow her tracks he thought after a while he will be able

Ashalutale7 isi7 ok nishu7 thoyaho'kalawe nA kwi ne'

to shoot her again, kept on hanging around and got dark on him so then he

wahanuhtuni7 tho nukwa nyusa le tsi7 nithawenu okhale7 on/ tetyokalas

started thinking to go towards the way he came from and now it was dark

on/1 oni wa7tho7niku lyahke7 o n/' oni wahatkatho uhka7ok lotsistote7 isi7
and now he was depressed, and now he saw' somebody had his light on

niyo le tho nyahale7 khale7 o n/ yaha lawe7 tho ne' thotaskwahele

quite far he went there it was sometime when he got there he had cottage there

uhka7ok nA kwi yahanhohaya7ake tsi7 nA' wahuwanhotukwahse7

somebody so then he knocked at the door when they open the door for him,

wahonehla ko- tsi7 o7slunr ne' tho lotinuhsote n/ oni

he was suprised that white people were living there (their house) and now

wahuwakwahte7 kanuska nukwa' ya ahatawyalite7 o'nA* kwi wahuwali7wanutuse7

they invited inside the house he went in now then they asked him

lotya7tabtu 1<a wahA'lu7 he- “yah te7wakatya7tahtu nok tsi7 yah te7wakanuhte7
If he was lost but he said No, I am not lost but I don’t know

katsa nu twaknuhsote.” nA kwi wahuwaya7taniistate7 o nA oni

where my house is located.” so then they asked him to stay and now

wahuwa nute7 nA kwi washakohlo li tsi7 nahoya tahwv, khale7 kwi o n/

they fed him now then he told them what happened to him and so now'

wahunuhwelha7 oshu7kala ke yak'A wahuwahnuklotasc u tu ki

they went to bed on the floor they say they let him sleep it was possible

waho ta we astehtsi kwi tsi7 nahatikhw/ ta ne7 o n/

lor him to sleep in the morning when they got through eating then
£ ssrejr s* rr. st trzr■
“• -' “ - SU“ ESflU t msl
r 1!h°iU,i "ahal,Uo'li' lsi? kayhuhah ulsil kuwayats tsi? nu yahah kehlc?
his home he told the people where he had been, Black Creek ~
, t

ne- tho ne- yak/,*? ne- kuwahsAnawi kayhuhahu-tsi?

t ey say he had been, from then on,

ne- “kayhuhahutsi?”
Black Creek was called Black Creek,

Black Creek

,i ... heThSel
so ne shot her but‘,°she
f° kept running
^ away
WMk he
He waa “
followpd w

for him on the Door Th, ? • wha' 1>° font- They fixed a bed
at Black Creek Thev h ”0™ng, after breakfast they told him that he was

was called Black Creek. ’ * C k<
h“ whcnKhe n bre
Frorn then on Kayhuhahutsi?

Told by Rachel Swamp to Dennison Hill (2-20-39)

Transcribed by Maria Hinton (10-4-76)

KitlCit Ohkale? Bol

Owahake yak/^ wa^thyalane bol ohkale'? kitkit. Kwah yakA9 ka^niyo le

lohkwatasehati ne?n kitkitlatsi'n. Ne' yakA? tsi? ya^teholi'wake Tahotye'lase ne?n bol

wahAlu, “oh nahte? ale"? oiia nisastoslawAhse”? WahA’lu? ne?n kitkitlatsi'n “kutsanise

isle1? Icas taskwatmCalotyAte.” Sah/Wu ne?n bol kwah “nise tho niku tesatuliAtsyone,

kwah ne' ok tayesanAStuty/Jhse.”

KilKit Ohkale*? Bol

Chicken and Bull

Owaha ke yakA? wa^lhyalane bol ohkale^ kitkit. Kwah yakA^ ka^niyole

They say they met on the road the bull and chicken, They say just so far he

lohkwatasehati ne?n kitkitlatsi'n. Ne' yaltA1? tsi? ya?teholrwake

Went around this rooster. They say that’s because he was such a comical joker.

Tahotye'lase ne?n bol w'ahAlu, oh nahte? ale'? oua nisastoslaw'Ahse.

He was insulted, this bull he said, “what now is the matter you feathered fowl?”

WahAIu? ne?n kitkitlatsi'n “kutsa nise isle"? kAs taskwatnu?alo'tyAte.

The rooster said, “I’m afraid of you, you always want to butt me with your horns.”

Sah/'lu ne?n bol kwah “ni'se tho niku tesatuhAtsyone,

The bull said it again, ‘‘that’s all you know, and that’s all you want,

kwah ne- ok tayesanAslutyAhse.”

Is somebody to throw com at you.”

Chicken and Bull

They say that the chicken and the bull met on (he road. The chicken went way around
the bull, being a comical joker, but the bull was insulted and asked him “What now is
the matter with you, you leathered fowl? The rooster said. “I’m afraid of you, you

always want to butt me with your horns.” The bull said, “all you want is for someone
to throw com at you.”

Told by Dennison Hill (2-24-39)

Transcribed by Maria Hinton (11-1-76)

Koskos Laly6hs]e

6ses Kola^nkA, y&kA? ldle^SAhslumhe? k6skos lalydhsle yAtsyolh/hne. Tsi^ niwahsutes

lothute tutayoh/iehte. Tho yak/^ kahuiote akta tsi*> L\nta-kele?. Nok tsi9, kwah

ydk/i^ nok wahatkAho I6ke. Wa^olhAne^ wahatye'lAne ohkwa’li ne- yeyoya^t/ha ne^n


Koskos Lalyohsle
His Pig He Will Butcher

6ses Kola^nkA, y&kA9 l&le^sAhslu-nihe'? koskos lalyohsle yAtsyolhAhne.

Moses Coulon, they say, was fattening his pig he will butcher day after tomorrow.

Tsi? niwahsu t£s lothu'te tutayohA'lehte, Tho yakA^ kahu iote akta tsi*?
During the night he heard her squealing. There, they say, was a gun near where

lAnta'kele^ Nok tsi*? kwah yalcA1? nok wahatkAho-loke.

he was lying. But just, they say, that he covered himself with his covers.

Wa^olhAne? wahatyeUne ohkwa-li ne- yeyoya^tAha ne^n koskos.

The next morning he noticed that a bear had carried away the pig.

Fattening His Pig

Moses Coulon, who is now deceased, was fattening his pig to butcher the next day.
During the night he heard the pig squealing, and he had a gun near his bed, he paid no
attention to the pig squealing, he just covered up with his covers. But the next day he
was very suprised, because the bear had carried the pig away.

Told by Levi Elm to Ida Blackhawk (2-17-39)

Transcribed and Taped by Maria Hinton (8-28-80)
Tsyi n Tsyotink/ Ohkwali Wahyatliyo

Tsy4'n Tsy0link/ kha,e9 Lohsi?takehte?kA yakA? wahyatolatha kalhaku tho

ya9,hullai>e9 ohkwa li- Tsyan Tsyotink/ yatholdhtale? uskah ok lois yakA?

wiwalnayila’as kdhule? ne?n loti y/ ne?tho ne? nu tshikahawi yah kali? wi

thyatehoyelihseniu o y4 usahanAyatane?, da kwi tho nuw4 nyahalakhe isi? nu

iThlate? ne?n Lohsi?lakehte? walelhe? ne kwi nuwa Ashaluiate? wahk lu? yakA?

DC?n ^hsitakahte? “tasalnutli?tu-nek”, okhna? wahatehko. Na kwi ne?„ Tsya n

TsyotinkA wahyalU y6 ne?n ohkwah. e lhal laotse nA ne wahakali ohkwa li oa kwi

sulihko. Nok tsi? lowihla lu lus lakuksne tsi? nu na?tehonakhu ne?n ohkwa li.

Ohkwa h wah6hsle? Bito?kwitkA. Ne wahohsle? ohkwa h ohaha?keshu kalhaku

yahala ti ne ok aoh-wa yah tehohnutlau tsi? lehokahlu ne kwah tsi? niyo le

tusahalhdtkawe iu sutehko.

Tsya n Tsyotink/ Ohkwa li Wahyatliyo

John Jordan Bear They Fought

Tsya n Tsyotink/ khale9 Lohsi9takehte9kA yakA9

wahyatol&tha kalha ku
John Jordan and Abram Summers, it’s said
, went hunting in the woods

aw, ”r, - - sr sf
wi lhyale9yolisetuu oya usahanAyatane9 Na kwi tho
didn’t then it’s said.
wasn’t time enough another shell to put in. Now then that

nuwa nyahatdkhe*? tsi*? nu rthlate? ne^n Lohsi'?lak6hte‘? walelhe? ne kwi
way he ran where he was standing this Abram Summers, be thought, well

nuwa Ashalu tate? wah/ lu? yak*? ne*?n Lohsitakehte*?

this time he will shoot at the bear. He said, they say, this Abram Summers

“tasalnutli^tunek”, okhna? wahatehko. Na kwi ne^n Tsya n

“get your rear end out of here” then he ran away. So now then John

TsyotinkA wahyatfryo ne*?n ohkwali. e lhal laolsenA ne wahakali ohkwah

Jordan he fought with the bear. Dog his pet he bit her the bear now

kwi sutehko. Nok tsi? lowihla lu kAS lakuksne tsi*? nu

then she ran away. But he has scars always on his face where

na^teyonakhu ne?n ohkwali. Ohkwa'li wahohsle Bito9kwitkA.

she had scratched him the bear. Bear chased Martin Hill

ne wahohsle'? ohkwa li ohaha^ke shu kalha ku yohata ti

it was him she chased, bear on the road in the woods, was the road

ne ok aoli-wa yah tehohnutliu tsi*? tehokahtu ne kwah tsi1?

the only reason she didn’t catch him was that he was a fast runner just all

niyo le tusahalhotkawe ny, sutehko.

the way until he came to the clearing of the woods, then she ran away.

John Jordan A Bear He Fought With

John Jordan and Abram Summers, it’s said, went hunting, when they arrived in the
woods they met a bear. She ran toward John Jordan. He had only a single
barreled gun, but he didn’t have a chance to reload it. He ran toward his friend
Abram, he thought he would take a shot at the bear. He told him “get your rear
end out of here and ran away. Now John would have to fight this bear, his pet
dog took a bite at the bear, but she did scratch him and he had scars on his face
where she had scratched him. She chased Martin Hill on the road in the woods,
but he was a fast runner and she couldn’t catch him. She chased him to the
clearing in the woods, than she ran away.

Told by Thomas Elm to Ida Blackhawk (2-27-39)

Transcribed and Taped by Maria Hinton (1-30-81)
Lonald se

YS yahk niwehnrtake *9 n4he wahana.ahleniwe ^ ,sj, ^

lonald se Kuhkalo 1a. Kwah kwi ts,9 niyohsies tho U.!«? oa ka.i9 ya,kihewe

usahahtA lA da kwi sahmahkwahslu m. WahA'Iu9 tsuhkalolX Akye nS ki9

uhte^wahe. Tho ka.i9 «9 tkayhuha.a.i .ho nAkwa nyahi ne. N6 ^ tho

yowisaklane (ho ya?(hanilskwahkwe ne9„ anold. Tho lalati owisake lsi9

yohtAtyuhati wa^.hali wahkwe ha sakah.A'.i kyaVna .ho .u.ahaliwahkwe ne9„

Isuhkalo U Atsitehoe sa kyaseh .utahJi wahkwe ne9n ano k, yah se .hasweni kyaseh

tho kwi thi kA .ehyata.hhwa'tslakwAnihet kwah ok .ho .hyahoouwWeh.e? ne9„

an6-ki. Nc- bi9 o-nX shaulhatsiwa ne9n .suhkalo'lX .ho wahal, kayhuhalCa ha

wa9.hasA.ho, Na tokXske .ehasX.hos oa ,ho wahoke .oh.e9 ohkwa h wahXl.,9,

yau! mhaya9.6 tA lu9 .ehasXlhos ne9„ „a9,ehahu.esuhse .ho „c9 „■„/

yaha.kAhla,ahkwe M9 .ehasXthos ne9D .sahkalo-U, WahX',u9 ne se aoliwa .ho

mkahulotAhse tsi9 kayeluni leyUk]a9n4niJakskwe tshika n- ^



Yayahk niwehnrtake
Six monlhs tS'7 ^he , wahanatahle nawe ano’ki tsi? lonuhsote nc?n
how long he visited muskrat at his house the
lonala se tsuhkalo lA.
Kwah kwi isP niyohsles tho l/ tlu^
cousin rabbit.
11 Wa*s Just about all winter, there he stayed

n/> kali'? ya?kahewe usahahtAl/ m
now then it was getting to be that time for him to go home, so then

sahatahkwahslu ni. Wah/ilu? tsuhkalol/i Akyena kj9 uhte? wahe Tho kati9 tsi?
he got himself ready. He said, “Rabbit, I will catch it I guess"’
There then at

tkayhuhatdti tho nAkwa nyaMne. Ne tsi? o ha tho yowisdklane tho

the nver that way they went. And as now there was ice floating by over

ya?thamtskwahkwe ne?n ano ki. Tho Iatati owisa ke tsi? yohtAtyuhati

there he jumped this muskrat. There he stood on the ice as it floated by,

wa?thaliwahkwe m, sakahtAti kyaVna tho tutahaliwahkwe ne?n

e sang Now I’m going home cousin”, then he sang back to him the

tsuhkalo lA Atsitehne
sa kya se tutahliwahkwe ne?n anoki
rabbit “I will go along
too cousin , he sang back to him again the muskrat

yah se thaswe ni kyase tho kwi thrkA

“You can’t do that cousin” that’s how it was
then, they were singing back and

^h ok tho thyahonuwilehte? ne?n ano ki Ne- tsi? o’nA

forth to each other nght up until he got out of sight, the muskrat.
Now then now

shaulhatsiwa ne?n tsuhkalo lA tho wahati

ny. wa?thasAtho.
he was alone the rabbit, there he sat down and cried.

Na to-kAske tehas/thos nA tho wahoke tohte? ohkwafl. WahA'lu?, “yats!

Really hard he was crying when there appeared bear.
He said, “Gosh!

ME hn t, , . lebasA,b°s na’tehahuhlesuhse" Iho n< O’nA

look al him how he looks, here he’s crying, his long ears”, then

yahallcAhlatahkwe tsi? tehas/thos ne?n Isuhkalo 1a.

WahA’lu? ne se aoh wa
abruptly he stopped that he was crying the rabbit.
He said, “The reason

tho mkahulolAhsc tsi? kayeluni leyukla?nanhakskwe

these ears are like tlus that I was marked, the scarf they used to tie around my

ne tsi? niyuklihwakwenyAStahkwe.
head when 1 was
a child because they had so much respect for me.”


h:t ,h; rarfor at-«

rabbt, walked with Wm a ways" Z‘IZ ^

atoTd rr ice te if r^ r%jumped * e*
rabbit answered him saying, “I'm going along with you coMfiTl/T",
responded, “No cousin vnn ran’f ™ 7 » • . ’ cousln » Muskrat
between them until Muskrat got out of s"lh(' b^Rahh ^, ^ a"d f°rtl1
cry. He was crying so hard,8|,ke he w^br’okel^d"
along, he said, “Look here and how i™i nnearled
ri 7 ?" ^ * 8°°d
Then the bear came
Rabbit slopped crying at once he said “TheS th°SC b'g ,0nfi ears” the
because when I was a small person ve’t thevZT 1 ^ ^ ““ ,onS ears “
because they had so much respect for me”. > 3 3 SPCC,a ^ madC f°r me

Told by Mrs.
Sophie Hill to Ida Blackhawk (3-27-39)
Transcribed and Taped by Maria Hinton (9-18-80)


Wahunise, yak/,7 lukwe latolatsko- nahaya7totA. LonaskwayA'tahkwe7 thok

nakatsinuyo tA. Nc kAS yak/7 ela wahato'latha7 yAhaya7tahawe ka7ik_A otisnuwa,


ne- ka7i'k/\ otsi7nu wa Akalihuni lonuhte7 k/,s tsi7 nu ny/JhAie ya7taute Ahalyo7

nahte7 i'lelhe7 ahalyo. Yah ne' uhka teyakonuhte7 ot na7katsinu-y6'tA. Kanyo ne'

Ahok Ahane ne7n lato latsko-, nc ky^s yakA7 ne7n loy/ha Ahaye na nc7n olsi7nu wa.

Ta t akte7 nyAhA we ne7n otsi7nu wa ne7n laukwctake, n/, ki nc yah nahte7


Hunting Worm

Wahu nise, yakA7 lu kwe lato latsko' nahaya7to tA.

Long time ago, they say a man was a great hunter as his kind.

LonaskwayAta hkwe thok nikatsinuyo tA. Ne' L\s yakA7 nA

He used to have some kind of a worm. It is always they say when

wahato latha7 yAhaya7taha we ka7i kA otis7nu wa Nc ka7i k/,

he goes hunting he will take this hunting worm along. This

otsi7nu'wa Akalihu m lonuhte7 Icas tsi7 nu nyAhA'Ie ya7utaute

hunting worm will help to know it used to be where he would go always

Ahalyo7 nahte7 i lelhe7 ahalyo. Yah ne uhka teyakonuhte7 ot

he would kill what he wants to kill. Not anyone knew what

na7katsinuyo'tA. Kanyo o n/. AhokstAha ne ne7n lato latsko-, nc

kind of worm it was. If when now he will get too old this great hunter, it

Icas yak/,7 ne7n loyAha Ahaye na ne7n otsi7nu wa. Ta t akte

was always said that his son would inherit this worm or bug. If elsewhere

ny/hz/we ne^n otsinuwa, ne9n laukwe'take, n/, ki nc yah nahte^ tewasta ke.
it will go the worm, that is his relatives, so now it is worthJess.

Hunting Worm

A long time ago, they say, a man was a great hunter. He used to have a hunting
worm. They always said that when he went hunting he would take his hunting
worm along. This hunting worm would help him find his game to kill. Not
everyone knew what kind of worm this was, but they knew' that when he got too
old to hunt anymore that the worm w-ould be passed on to his son. If it went
elsewhere it would be lost.

Told by Ulysses Webster to Lewis Webster

Corrected by Andrew Beechtree
Translated and Taped by Maria Hinton
Revised by Maria Hinton (12-4-91)

Otholeke Nukwa Tyo7nutakwaluteko-

I nu othole ke nukwa tho tyo7nutakwalutek6 kalhaku ka7ik/ tsi7 yonutakwalute-

ne- ka7ik/ nuwa ne7n onlahte7 ne7n kalihtu kwah tho nikanikwAhtaloiA tsi7 ni yot

onikw/hsa. Tkayelise tho nukwa tawehte7 ne7n onikw/hsa ohtsi7klak/ kwi nukwa

ne tsi? tho nukwa tyonatli-yohne ohkwah khalc7 oskanutu. ne kati^ ka7ik/

yokAnoiehse. Yonhal. ka7ik/ tsi7 yonutakwalute7 ohkwa li tsi7 latinanakele.

utlaste7 ka7ik/ atwakanha wahathahitane ne7n ohkwah laonahahake.

WahalPwanuiuse lo ne, a ne kwah Ica niyoie nyehonenu o n/ tho yotuni ohnehta

na^kalu-to‘tA kwah ok thahyatye.U kwah tsi7 nu yahyatkattho tho ki7 itwehse7

ohkwa li. Yah teyotuu ahyate ko, yah ki7 tehonatenyAte7 ne7n ohkwa h ayakoli

ne9n tehnu kwe. Wa7tkalane tsi7 ka y/ kakwan/ ohkwa h wa7k/iu7, “ne ok

Awa tu Atsi twe ka7ik/ tsi7 tyukwaht/ ti onikw/htla yonutakwalute ko' tho kati7

wi7 nu nyAhsne-shek tsi7 niyoie yusekwat/'nyehte7 tetsya7t/ti.” Thi-k/

atwa7kanha okhale7 ne7n lo ne wahonatetslu wanelhe7 ne nA kwi ne- ka7ik/

ohkwa h Ayuknilyo. Nok tsi7 yah kwi nahte7 thau tu ahyatataskenha7, nA kwi tho

uni ne- tho wahmya7taiati tsi'? nukwa nyahA ne ne7n ohkwa h. Na kati7 ka7ik/

yo7kala sha on/ tho nyahA newe tsi7 nu thonahtAti ne7n ohkwa li ne wi- ne- o n/

onikw/htaia yonulahkwaiute7ko' latinatukhwa ne7n ohkwa li wa7tka tane7

wa7akohlo li ka7ik/ Atwa7kanha khale7 ne7 lo ne- wa7k/iu7, “o n/ kwi wesne wc

tsi7 nu ka7i k/ ne7n onikw/htaia yonutakwalute ko' yakwanalukhwa. Ne- ka7ik/

yukhisothoku k/ tho nihotiyei/ tsi7 onkw/htla onlahte7 yoluu. Ne- kali7 ka7ik/
yowhaloteko e so kay/ yostathA 6nlahte?

Ohsdkwa yoyantle kA'tho yotuni. Ne kati9 ne' Asnuhekw/vhake. Nok tsi? yah

tehonatunhahele ne inelhe? uhsahyatAti tsi? nu lonulha thonahtAti uskah utlatste?

akwe ku wahuhtAti ne^n ohkwali. Wa^hAiu? ka'hkA atwa^kanha, “katshi


tya'he'ko kalo tsi? niyole AhshAnewe ne^ ohkwali nA kwi kalhakushu

nyathnitakhe?. Kwah nA niyole- nyehotitakhenu onA wahyatolishA. Nok tsi'?

tsathyalkahtuni wahyatyelA, kwah tsi^ nu yahyatkattho, tho m lei? Hhlahte?

ohkwa li. Wa'hkatane? wa?kA-lu?, ‘Svetsyatkattho'? wi- ka'hkA atwa^kanha

tahthwa yu ne nahte^ ahatekhu ni, ok uni tsi'? nu nAhatlutake ne^n kanahktu-ni.

ne^n tho id? saha?nya-kAne ne- ne tyoyanle akalyohake. nA kwi ne?n ohkwah

wa?thuwaya?takwe, kwah Hca tsi? wa?thuwate-nihA e so wahuwanulyake yah ki ne

thyatehotikutahkwA. Nok tsi? e-so ki? wahuwalyo ne?n atwa?kanha. O na kati?

ka9i kA ohkwa-h' tho nukwa nyusahuwaya?taha-we tsi1? tyo?halote-ko- tho

yusahuwaya?tAte. Okhna wakuwahlo-li ne?n lo ne nahte? na?kaniahl6tA okhale?

na?kawatsusto tA khale? ohtehla?shuha ne- Atyehawe. On/ uni wa?kuwana?tuhahse

o?hnAka- ye-le tsi? tAkayestani ne?n onuhkwa?t ne?n atwa?kanha, on/ ki? ok ne-

sahayewA’tane. Kwah kati? kA nahe-ko- tho ni tlu ne?n atwa?kanha lonah tsi? nu

nihuwatinakto tane. nale? yah teshakok/ katsa? nu nakunehse ke ne?n ohkwa h'.

Wa?h/-lu?, “Ka tshi”, yesnu ke wahaye na okhna? kalhakushu nyalhnitakhe, kwah

i nu nyehonc nu nalc? wahyato lishA. Wa?h/lu?, “nA ki? nu wa ikclhc?

setyatatWAni yonc. On/ kwi wa?thyatkatuni kwah ale? tsi nu yahyatkattho

ohkwa li ki} tho ilkale. Kakwan/ ohkwa li wa?tkalane, wa?k/lu?” tahetswa yu

ka?ikA atwa?kanha ne?n tsinu naliAtlu'take okhale? ne?n ahatekhuni. khale?

onuhkwa?t ne?n usahayewAtane. Nok tsi9 sahanvaky/ne ki? ale? wahe. yah kali?

wr teshukwanolukhwa? ka?rkA ohkwah netwaya?to tA. ne- kati? ne- tyoyanJe

akalyohake ohkwa h wa?kAlu?, “ise tsi? iuhetswayeie. Na kati? wi' nuwa


tok/ske? tsi? wahuwanu'lyahke. Nok tsi? yah ki? ne- thyatehotikuta kwA eso

tahnu wahuwanuFyahke. Nil kati? ale? lo ne sakanukwa?lslirm okhna? taho'yu

ne?n lane Ahahnehkila. Kwah tsi? o n/; wahahnekrla ne?n onukwa?l, oksa ale?

wahayewAta ne. uskah kati? utlatste? akwe'ku ohkwa-h tho wakunewe tsi? nu

nihnrtlu ka?ikA lonah atwa?kanha. KakwanA ohkwa h wa?tkatane wa?kAiu?,

“YukwatA-lo ka?i kA. kwah ne ok aolrwa kAtho nutakniya?taha‘we. Ne wi- tsi?

yakwelhe? akwalihirni onukwa?t ayakuni. Ne- kwi ne ayakwalihirm ne?n

tesm tlu, an/ ne- kanuhkwa?tslayA leh. On/ kati? wi- Awatu Atsi?tsya?tA ti

Aya?kohhu ni ne?n akaukwehta. O nA kati? wi- ne? ohkwa h sah/ne ka?ik/

atwa?kanha lonah, kwah tho yusashakonatk/lahte? tsi? tho naht/ti. Ne tho ne-

kati? wi tyotahsawA shakotilihunyAnihe? ne?n ukwehoku oh nAyeye te

AsahuwatitsyAhte? ne?n yakonuhlyaku okhale? ne?n yakonuhwaktanibe. Kwah tsi?

ni-yot tsi? ohkwa h yakohlo li. Yah kati? wi nuwA tu teshotinikulh/u ne?n tho

latinakele tsi? so tsi? yoyanle tsi? nishakotyela se ohkwa h.

Othole kc Nukwa Tyo?nutakwalute ko"

In the Northern Country, There is a Big Mountain

1 nu olhole ke nukwa tho lyohiutakwalutcko kalhakii oni ka?ik/ tsi?

Far away in northern country there’s a huge mountain in the woods, loo this that
yonutakwalute' ne' ka'rikA nuwa ne^n onlahte*? ne?n kalihtu kwah tho
mountain range is this one with leaves of this red oak is just the

nikamkwAhtalo tA tsi? niyot onikwAhsa. Tkayelise tho nukwa tawehte^ ne^n

shade of red like blood. It’s right that way it came from the

onikwAhsa ohtsi^klak/, kwi nukwa ne' tsi? tho nukwa tyonatli yohne ohkwah
blood clouds disappeared that way because that way they had fought, bear

khale? oskanutu. ne kati^ ka’rk/ yok/jQolehse yonohal. Ka?ika tsi?

and deer. So then this rainy weather washed it away. This where

yonutakwalute^ ohkwali tho nu nihatinakele. utlaste1? ka^ik/

mountian range is bears there live. There was a time this

atwa^kanha wahathahi'tane^ ne^n ohkwa h laonahaha ke. Wahah^wanu tii'se lone,

Indian went along this the bears traveled on. He asked her his wife,

a’ne kwah L\ niyole nyehonen/i o na tho yotuni ohnehta

to go along quite a distance they had gone, now there were growing pine

na^kalu'td tA. Kwah ok thahyatye.U kwah tsi? nu

trees. Just about as anyone can be as surprised just every'

yahyatkattho tho ki^ itwehse^ ohkwa li. Yah teyotuu ahyate'ko,

where they looked there stood a bear. They weren’t able to run away

yah tehonatenyAte? ne?n ohkwa h ayakoli ne?n tehnukwe. Wa^tka tane

they didn’t try these bears to kill the human beings. She stood up

tsi? ka-y/ kakwanA ohkwa h wa^kA'lu?, “Ne ok Awa tu Atsitwe

the one that is big bear she said, “It just has to be that you will go along

ka^i lcA tsi? tyukwaht/ti onikwAhtla yonutakwaluteko- tho kati'? wi? nu

this way to our home on red mountain range, there then is the place

nAsne-shek tsi? niyole yusekwatA nyehle? tetsya*hvti.” ThikA atwa^kanha

you’ll stay until we send you back to your home.” That Indian

okhale? nc^n lo ne wahonaletshA wanelhc*? ne n/> kwi ne' ka'ri'k/, ohkwa li

and his wife they were afraid , they thought now for sure this bear
Ayuknilyo. Nok tsi9 yah kwi nahtc9 thautu ahyatatskenha9. Na kwi
will kill us. But then there was nothing we could do to help ourselves. So now

tho wahniya9talati tsi9 nukwa nyahAne ne9n ohkwali. Na kati9

they went right along the direction they went the bears. Now then

yo9kala-sha o n/ tho nyalunewe tsi9 nu tho nahlAti ne9n ohkwa li.

it was now there they arrived where their home whs these bears.

Ne wr ne- otia onikw/htala yonutahkwalute9ko- latinatukhwa ne9n

It was this place now red mountain they called it

ohkwalioku. Ne kati9 ka9rk/ ne9n kakwa n/ ohkwali wa9tkatane9 okhna9

the bears. So then this one big bear she stood up then

wa9akohloli ka9i k/ atwa9kanha khale9 ne9 lo ne- wa9k/ lu9, “o-na

she told them this Indian and his wife, she said, “Now

kwi wesne we tsi9 nu ka9i k/ ne9n onikw/hta-la yonutakwalute ko

then you have arrived where this the red mountain range

yakwanatukhwa. Ne- ka9i-k/ ne9n yukhihsothoku k/ tho nihotiye l/ tsi9

we call it. Now this then our grandparents have done this that

onkw/htla onlahte9 u tu. Ne- kati9 ka9i k/ yohalote9ko e-so ka y/

red leaves it has become. Now then this big hollow a lot there are

yostathA onlahte9. Tho kati9 thi k/ kanusku e-s6 AtitsyahtAtyuhake.

dry leaves. There then there inside a lot of times will be your home.

Ohs6-kwa yoyantle k/ tho yotu ni. Ne kati9 ne- Asnuhekw/hake”. Nok tsi9
Nuts are good here that grows. So then that’s what you will live on”. But

yah tehonatunhahele ne rnehle9 usahyatA ti tsi9 nu lonulha thonahtA ti. uskah

they weren’t happy they wanted to go home to their own home. One

utlatste9 akwe ku wahuhtA li ne9n olikwa li. Wa9h/ lu9 ka9i k/ atwa9kanha,
time all of them went away the bears. He said, this Indian,

Ka tshi tyale’ko kalo tsi9 ni yolc Ash/ne we ne9n ohkwa li.’ Na

Come here, let s run away before they come back those bears.’ So

kwi kalhakushu nyathnilakhe. Kwah nA niyole’ nyehotitakhenu on/
then through the woods they ran. It was quite some distance they ran now

wahyatolishA. Nok tsi9 tsathyatkahtuni wahyatyel/, kwah tsi9 nu

they rested. But as they looked around they were surprised, just everywhere

yahyatkattho, tho ni lei? rthlahte? ohkwa li. Wa?tka tane? wa9k/’lu9,

they looked there was a standing bear. She stood ,up, she said,

“Wetsyatkatho? wr ka9i-k/ atwa?kanha tahethwa yu ne- nahte? ahatekhuni, ok

“You both saw then this Indian we gave him something to eat, and

uni tsi9 nu n/diatlu'take ne?n kanaktuni, ne?n tho ki? saha?nya kAne ne’ ne
also some place to stay already for him, then he still ran away, it is

yoyantle akalyohake.” Na kwi ne?n ohkwa lj wa?thuwaya?takwe?,

best he should have a beating. Now then the bears picked him up bodily

kwah i lcA tsi? wa^thuwate mtu. e so wahuwanulya ke yah ki ne

such a severe shaking up they gave him. Very bad they hurt him but didn’t

thyatehotikutahkwA. Nok tsi? e-so ki9 wahuwalyo ne?n

kill him. But it was bad enough they did rough him up, the

atwa?kanha. O'rLA kati? ka?i’kA ohkwa'h tho nukwa nyusahuwaya9taha we tsi9

Indian. Now then these bears that way they carried him toward

tyo9halote ko’ tho yusahuwaya9tAte, okhna9 wakuwahlo li ne9n lome nahtc9

the big hollow, there they dropped him, then they told his wife what

na9kanlahto tA okhale9 na9kawatsisto-tA khale9 ohtehla9shuha ne- Atyeha we. O nA

kind of leaves and what kind of bark and roots to bring. Now

uni wa9kuwana tuhahse o9hnAka yele9 tsi9 tAkayeslani ne9n

also they showed her how lo mix these ingredients together for

onuhkwa9l ayu nk Tsi9 onA wahahneki la onuhkwa9! ne9n atwa9kanha, o n/ ki9

medicine to make. As now he drank the medicine this Indian, immediately

ok ne- sahayewA tane. Kwah kali9 wi kA nahe ko- tho ni tlu nc9n
he became well. It was then quite some time there they stayed this

atwa7k£nha 16nah tsi7 nu nihuwatinaktotani. Nale7 yah teshako’kA katsa7 nu
Indian couple where they had given shelter. Again not seeing them around to

nakunehseke ne7n ohkwali. Wa7hA-lu7, “Katshi”, yesnu ke wahayema okhna7

be close by the bears. He said, “Come here,” by the hand he took her then

kalhakushu nyathni'takhe, kwah I nu nyehone nu

through the woods they ran, it was quite a distance they had gone,

nale7 wahyato-lishA. Wa7hA-lu7, “Na ki7 nuwa ikelhe7 setyatatwAniyone. O n/i

again they rested. He said, “Now this time I think wc are free.” Now

kwi wa7thyatka-tuni kwah ale7 tsi nu yahyatkatlho ohkwali ki7 tho

then they looked around the same again wherever they looked a bear would be

itkate. KakwanA ohkwa li wa7tka7tane, wa7kA-lu7 “Tahetswayu ka7i-kA

standing. The big bear stood up, she said, “You gave this

atwa7kanha ne7n tsr nu nahAtlu take okhale7 ne7n ahatekhu ni, khale7
Indian a place for him to stay and also to eat, and

onuhkwa7t ne7n AsahayewA tahne, nok tsi7 sahanyakA ne ki7 ale7 wahe, yah kati7
medicine to get well, but then he ran away again, so then

wi- teshukwanodukhwa7 ka7i kA ohkwa li netwaya7to lA. Ne' kati7 ne- tyoyantle
for sure he doesn’t love us these bears our kind. So then it’s best

akalyohake,” ohkwa'Ii wa7kA'lu7, “i se tsi7 nAhetshwaye le.”

for punishment,” Big bear said, “It’s up to what you want to do with him.”

Na kati7 wi- nuwa tokAske7 tsi7 wahuwanu lyahke, nok tsi7 yah ki7 ne-
So then now they really and battered him around, but not enough

thyateholikuta kwA e so tahnu7 wahuwanu lyahke. Na kati7 ale7 lo ne

to kill him, very bad though they hurt him. Now then again his wife

sakanukwatslu ni okhna7 taho yu ne7n lo ne Ahahnehki la. Kwah tsi7 o-iia

she made medicine again and gave it to her husband to drink. Just as fast now

wahahneki la ne7n onuhkwa7t, oksa ale7 sahayewAla ne. uskah kati7 utlatsle7
as he drank the medicine, immediately again he got well. One then time
akwe ku ohkwali tho waku newe tsi9 nu nihnitlu ka9ikA Jonah atwa9kanha.
all the bears there arrived where they were living this couple Indians.

Kakwa da ohkwali wa9tkatane, w'a9kAlu9, “YukwatATo ka9ikA. kwah ne ok

Big Bear bear she stood up, she said, “We are friends, but the only

aoh'-wa kAtho nutakniya9taha-we. ne wi- tsi^ yakwelhe9

reason here that we brought you and your wife, because we wanted

akwalihuni onuhkwa9t ayaku m. Ne- kwi ne Ayakwalibu ni ne9n tesnrtlu,

to teach you medicine for her to make. That we would teach her your wife,

o nA ne' kanuhkwa9tslyAteli. O nA kati9 wr Awa tu Alsi^tsyahtA ti

already knows how to make medicine. Now then you can both go home

Ayakolihu-ni ne9n akaukwehta.” O nA kati9 wi- ne9n ohkwa h sah/ ne ka'rik/

she will teach her relatives.” Now then all the bears went with this

atwa9k&nha lonah, kwah tho yusashakonatkA'lahte9 tsi9 tho naht/ ti. Ne tho ne-
Indian couple, right there they left them to their house. It was

kati9 wi tyo9tahsawA shakotilihunyA-m ne9n ukweho'ku oh nAyeye-le

then that they started to teaching the people how to

AsahuwatitsyAhte? ne9n yakonuhlya ku okhale9 ne9n yakonuhwaktanihe.

cure if a person has an injury and if they are sick,

kwah tsi9 ni yot tsi9 ohkwa'h' yakohlo li. Yah kati'? wi nuwA tu tesbotinikulhAu
just the way the bear has told her. They then have never forgotten

ne9n tho Iatinakele tsi*? so tsi9 yoyanle tsi9

those that live in the community that such a good thing that

nishakotyelase, ohkwali.
they have done for them, these bears.

Othole ke Nukwa Tyo9nutakwalute ko

In the Cold Northern Country is a Big Mountian

Far away in the northern cold country, there is a huge mountain in the woods too.
There was a forest with red leaves from a red oak tree, it was the shade of red

blood. It became that way from the blood of a deer and a bear, who had a fight
many years ago. There was a rainy spell that washed away the blood. It was on
the mountain range where the bears lived.

One time the Indian with his wife went on the road that only the bears traveled
on. He asked his wife to go along. They came to this big forest where only
pine trees grew, they were walking along when all of a sudden they looked
around, they were surprised to see that they were surrounded only by bears.
Everywhere they looked there was a bear standing. There was one big bear, she
stood up, she said, “You will just have to come along with us bears. This way is
our home to the Red Mountain range, we’ll give you a place to stay until we send
you back to your home.” This Indian and his wife were really frightened. They
thought for sure they’re going to kill us. There was no way they could help
themselves out of this place, so they went right along with the bears. It was
evening when they arrived to the home of the bears. It was this place called the
Red Mountain.

The Big Bear stood up, she told this Indian couple, “Now you have arrived to the
home of the bears, our grandparents have done this to the Red Mountain. The big
hollow in the old tree with the dry leaves and inside of it you will be spending
most of your time, it will be your home for a while. There are all kinds of nuts
that are growing here that you will live on.

The Indian couple were not happy at all, they wanted to go back to their own
home. One time all the bears had gone away, so the Indian had an idea to the
wife, he said, “Come here,” he took her by the hand and said “Let’s run away
before the bears come back , so they ran. They had gone quite some distance
when they became tired, so they rested, but as they looked around again they were
surrounded by the bears, everywhere they looked stood a bear. The Big Bear
stood up, she said, “You saw this Indian, we gave him something to eat and also
a place was ready for him to slay, but still he ran away. It is best he should
have a punishment.” So the bears picked him up and they gave him a severe
shaking up, really roughed him up. They didn’t kill him but he was really hurt.
They earned him to the hollow of the tree and dropped him in there. They told
his wife what kind of leaves and what kind of bark and also roots to bring, they
showed her how to mix them together for medicine. She brought it to him to
dnnk and immediately he became well. Now it was some time this Indian and his
wife had been there, where they had been given shelter. Now again, he didn’t’
see the bears around. He said, “Come here” he took her by the hand, he said,
Let s run , so they ran. It was quite a distance they had gone when they rested.
It was the same again, every' where they looked there stood a bear. The Big Bear
stood up, she said, ‘You gave the Indian a place to stay and something to eat,
medicine to get well with, but he ran away again, for sure he doesn’t love us

bears. I think it’s best for a punishment.” The Big Bear said, “It’s up to you
what you want to do with him ” Now the bears severely battered him around, but
not enough to kill him, it was bad enough though. Now then again him wife
made medicine for him, she gave it to her husband to drink and immediately he
became well.

One time all the bears came to the place they were living, this Indian couple.
The Big Bear stood up, she said, “We are friends in here, the only reason we
brought you here is because we wanted to teach her how to make medicine and
teach her relatives how to make it, but she already knows how.” The bears took
them home, all the bears went along all the way to the Indian couples home The
people in that reservation have never forgotten the good thing the bears have done
for them. The medicine was a sure cure for all injuries and sickness.

Told by Marie Webster to Lewis Webster

Transcribed and Taped by Maria Hinton (12-11-80)

* Adirondack Mountains - A mountain range in N.E. New York, Mt. Marcy also
called Adirondack has the highest peak of 5344 ft.

Tuwisko- Luwayats

Tuwisko- luwa yats lothahitakhe*? kA niyohaha kalhaku tho wa^thyallane'? ne“?n

ohkwali. Tetsyalu wahyateko tahnu nukwa nya^katakhe*? ne^n ohkwali tho

taya‘?kolhahitakhcr? ne^n Ka^nilkal. Okhna wa^kuwakA ne^n ohkwa li oUma"? n

ohkwa li oksa tutaka ta ne tsi^ ha wa'^ako k/' ne^n akokstAha. Na kwi tayukwahsi

akotsyal oksa tayehwenuni akotsyal tsi1? wa^utkattho*? tutahotskala*?WAhati kwah

tsi^ myo le ya^ono lu okhna1? ne- wa^yolih, tho ne1? onA Tuwisko- lawelune tho


Tuwisko- Luwa yats

Big Thomas Is His Name

Tuwisko- luwayats lothahitakhe*? ka^niyohaha

Big Thomas is his name, was walking along the road, it W'as a small trail

kalhaku tho wa^lhyatlane*? ne^n ohkwa-li. Tetsya lu wahyate ko'? tahnu*?

in the woods, there he met this bear. Both of them ran away and

tsi"? nukwa nya^katakhe1? ne*?n ohkwa-li tho taya‘?kothahitakhe'?

the direction she ran this bear there she was coming along the trail

ne^n Ka’mtkat. Oksa wakuwakA ne*?n ohkwa li, okhna1? ne*?n ohkwali
this Ka mtkat. Right away she saw the bear, then the bear

oksa tutaka tane tsi*? nA wa*?akokA ne*?n akokstAha. Na kwi tayuhkwahsi

nght away stood up when she saw the old lady. So then quickly

akotsya 1 oksa wayehwenu ni akotsya l tsi*? wa^utkattho

she took off the shawl, she rolled up her shawl when she saw it

tayotskalawA-uhati okhna'? lho ya-uy4hle9

coming toward her with the mouth wide open, then in there she shoved

tsi9 tayotskalawA uhati, kwah tsi? niyo le
as she was coming at her with her mouth wide open, it was until

ya^ono lu okhna'? ne- wa'tyollh, tho ne^ o n/, Tuwisko- Iawelu ne

she was so fatigued then that killed her, it was then, now Big Thomas tried to


Big Thomas Is His Name

Big Thomas was walking along the road, it was a small trail in the woods and
there he met up with a bear. Both of them ran away and the direction that the
bear ran, she met up with Ka^nitkat. Right away the bear stood up when she saw
the old lady. Ka^nitkal quickly look off her shawl and rolled it up. When the
bear came at her with her mouth wide open she shoved the shawl in her mouth.
The bear became so fatigued that it killed her. It was then that Big Thomas tried
to interfere.

Told by Ed Metoxen to Alex Metoxen (2-20-39)

Transcribed and Taped by Maria Hinton (11-13-80)


Ohkwali Okhale? Lu kwe

uskah utlatste? lukwe laulha?tsi?wa l/tele tsi? lonubsote?, tsi*^ ni y6t tsi? lunhe?

lato l&s ka?ikA tsi?ok nakalyo?totA. uskah utlatste? tsi? latoiats tho wahatya?tahtu

wa?thyatlane ohkwali. Lawelu ne ahalutate? ne?n ohkwali. Wa?tkatane?,

wa?kAlu? takA Asklryo, i wakamihte tsi? nu tehsatA'ti. i Asku?thrhna kali'? wahe.

Yah kati? wr tehalib ne?n ohkwa li. Wa?k/Wu? kyJi kwi nukwa nyAtsi?tehne. Ne*

ka^7 wi? tsi*? nyusa ne wa?k/lu?, ne?n ohkwah, “to kalkAS thikA kahule?, nu kwi

taha yu kahule?, yah kati? wr nuwAtu shcku te?seshakwa-kA thikA latclatsko-.

Se?nikulalak tsi^ ka-yA yah tesheyAle li.

Ohkwali OkJbale? Lukwe

Bear and Man

uskah utlatste? lu kwe laolha?tsi?wa L\'t(e)lu tsi?

Once upon a lime a man by himself lived at

lonuhsote?, tsi? ni yot tsi? lunhe? lato iats ka?i kA

his house, just how that he made his living he hunted these

tsi?ok na?kalyoto tA. uskah utlatste? tsi? lato iats tho

all kinds of animals. One time as he hunted there

wahatya?tahtu, wa?thyatlane ohkwa h, Lawelune ahalutate? ne?n

he became lost, he met a bear. He wanted to shoot the

ohkwa li. Wa?tkatane?, wa?kAlu?, “TakA? Askliyo, i wakanuhte?

bear. She stood up, she said, “Don’t kill me, I know

tsi? nu tehsatAhti, Asku?tluhna- kali*? waheV’ Yah kati*> wi tehalih
where your home is, I’ll take you home then.” So then he didn’t kill her

ne?n ohkwa'U- Wa^k/Wu?, “KAh kwi nukwa iiAtsi^tehne.” Ne- kali? wi¬
the bear. She said, “It’s this way we will go.” So then they

tsi? nyusa-ne?, wa’kA-lu’, thrkA ohkwali, “To katkAS thikA

as they were going along, she said, the bear, “Let me see that

kahule,” nA kwi tahayir kahule?, yah kati*> wr nuwA tu

gun, so then he handed her the gun, so then it was never

she-ku le^sehsakwa kA thi' kA Iato latsko- Se^niku lalak

again did we see that mighty hunter. Be careful

tsi9 ka-y/ yah tesheyAteli.

of those you don’t know.

Told by Lewis Webster to Morris Swadesh (2-1-39)

Transcribed by Maria Hinton (12-5-75)
Recopied (4-15-91)

Othahyuni Okhale*? Lukwe
Wolf and the Man

uskah utlatste'? lu kwe wahali othahyuni. Ne^n kAtho ukwehu we ne tsi^ nu

nahalyo? ne?n othahyu ni. Swehnital tsi'? nahe? o n/ wahat/hninu ne^n

othahyuni. TewashA wahaye’na tsi^ wahali ne^n othahyum. Wahalu’tate'? tsi^

wahali ne7 othahyu’ni.

Othahyu ni Okhale? Lu kwe

Wolf and the Man

uskah utlatste9 lukwe wahali othahyuni. Ne1 kAtho ukwehu'we’ne

One time this man killed a wolf Here on the reservation

tsi^ nu nahalyo? ne^n othahyu’ni. Swehni’tat tsi7 nahe^ on/. wahatAhni’nu

where he killed this wolf. A month it was before he sold

ne^n othahyu ni. Tewash/ wahaye'na tsi^ wahali ne^n othahyu ni

this wolf. Twenty he accepted for killing the wolf.

Wahalutate tsi*? wahali ne^n othahyuni.

He shot the wolf he killed the wolf.

Wolf and the Man

One time a man killed a wolf on the Oneida Reservation A month later he sold
the wolf for twenty dollars.

Told by Alex Metoxen (2-13-39)

Transcribed by Maria Hinton (11-7-77)
Lukwe Wahalutate TshukaloLA

Lu kwe wahalu tate tsi? wahalyo ne?n tshukaloL/,. Yayahk nikuti

washakoli tshukaloU. Akwe ku wahatahninu ne^n tshukaloU, tekni silu

uskah, tsi^ wahatahni nu tshukalolA.

Lu kwe Wahalu tate Tshukalo lA

Man Shot a Rabbit

Lu kwe wahalu tate tsi*> wahalyo tshuhkalol/,. Ya yahk niku ti washakolyo

A man shot is how he killed the rabbit. Six of them he killed

ne?n tshuhkalo'LA. Akweku wahatahninu tshuhkalo'lA, tekni silu uskah

of rabbits. All of them he sold of rabbits, twenty five-cents for one

tsi"? wahatahninu ne7n tshuhkalok.

that he sold it for, the rabbits.

Man Shot a Rabbit

A man shot and killed six rabbits. He sold all of them for twenty five cents

Told by Alex Metoxen, 2-13-39.

Transcribed by Maria Hinton,! 1-7-77.

Lu kwe Okhale? TshuhkaloiA

ulkah utlatste1? lukwe okhale? tshuhkaloiA lonaU lu. Othahyuni thowa lawe^

wah^ lu^, “Ikelhe'? asknut tshuhkaloiA o^wahlu,” Lukwe wah/ lu^, “yah se? ni

te'?waki'? tshuhkaloiA o^wablu.” SkAhnaksA'? tho walawe*? “nahte*? niyot sotsi^

sa^mkuhJaksAhse,” wah/lu? ne^ lukwe'?, “othahyuni l'ielhe ahoh ne?n ukyaU lo

tshuhkaloLA. SkAhnaksA waliA’lu9, ‘T kwi ne Ahiyate’y/Jito yah kati° wf nAWA'tu

te^seshakwa'kA ne^n”

Lukwe okhale*? tshuhkaloiA

Man and the Rabbit

uskah utlatste? lu kwe okhale1? tshuhkalo iA lonatA-lu. Othahyu ni thowalawe9

One time a man and a rabbit were friends. A wolf arrived

wahA-lu'?, “I kelhe? asknut tshuhkalo iA o^wahju.” Lu kwe wahAlu9

he said, “I want you to feed me rabbit meat.” The man said,

Vah se9 ni te9waki9 tshuhkalo iA o'Hvahhj.” SkAhnaksA9 tho walawe9

No, I don’t have rabbit meat.” A fox arrived there

“Nahte9 ni yot sotsi9 sa^nikuhlaks/Jhse?” WahAlu9 ne9 lu kwe,

“What is wrong because you are feeling so bad?” The man said,

“Othahyu ni i lelhe aholi ne9n ukyaU lo tshuhkalo iA.” SkAhnaksA wahAlu9

The wolf wants to kill our friend the rabbit.” Fox said,

‘ k^‘ nc‘ ^hjyate yAhto.” Yah kali'? wi nAWAtu te9seshakwakA ne‘?n othahyu nr
will Gx him.” So then we never did see him again the wolf.

Man and the Rabbit

One time a man and a rabbit were friends. A wolf came along and asked the
man if he could have some rabbit meat. The man told him he didn’t have any.
Along came a fox and asked him why he felt so bad, and the man told him the
wolf wanted to kill his friend the rabbit. The fox told him not to worry that he
would fix him. They never did see the wolf again.

Told by Marie Webster to Lewis Webster (2-16-39)

Transcribed by Maria Hinton (12-12-75)
Ohkwali Tsi9 Lotashyuti

Ne’ yaky\ tho niyaw/u ohkwa'Ii lotahsu'ti kwah tsi9 yeskAha yatuhsahAtsyakwe.

Ohkwa-li tho nuta le, ohkwa li se wi- kwah ikA tsi9 lotitsyakahse kA. Wa9hAiu9,

Ohkwa U wa9thonuhwelatu, “She ku kyahse, katsa ne- iiutahsitsyahawe tho nikA tsi yo.”

Tahalihwasla ku ne9n skAhnaksA, wa9hA'lu9, “KAh kwi nukwa Akunatuhahse tsi9 nu,

okhale9 Akunatus tsi^ nAshyeie tsi9 Asheye-na.” Na kwi wa9hohnutla'ti, tho tsi9

tkayhyuhatati nyah/zne, tahnu tyowisle nA ne-. Na kwi k/ tho /satyA, tho

yAhsanitahso-we ohnekanusne. Tho ne Athatiye'na kAtsi9 tsi’taksne. Th6 Ainakyele tsi^

wakitsyaye-na, Na kwi WAhnislatenukwe lAtahseskwe yakA9 ne9n Ohkwa li. Na kwi

n£- tho yahaty/ kA tho ne- 6iia yahanitahso-we awA-ke. Na kwah kAh nahe9

wa^thatya-ke. Na yusahohA'le skAhnaksA, wa9hAlu9, “Kyahse kwah hay/lhe9 yokste9

tsi^ ki tdksne. Na ta9hA'Iu9 skAhnaksA, “Wesatlaswiyoste ki9 wa e-so washeyena

kAtsi9, she'ku kwi kwah kah nahe tho yase shek.” Na kwi sahatyA ohkwali kwah

na he. Yusahoh/le skAhnaksA, wahA’lu, “HAntskwe, kyahse, ay/lhe9 tyowislatu kf-taks,

yah thakweni usakatotah'shi, taskyatakenha.” Na ki9 wahAlu skhnaksA, “Hao, ki wi

Akat/ti Akhehnu ksa akukwetashuha.” Na kwi wahatAti skAhnaksA, wa9thalahtate, kwah

tsi9 ni ku thatinakle eihal tho yAhalawe wa9hotiswA skAhnaksA tsi9 nihaya9taklaslotA

okhna9 lahuhtasawA wahatihya ni. Na kwi ne9n skAhnaksA tho yuhsahatakhe tsi nu

thAtahsolu ohkwa li. Na ne- e lha] luwahsaleltA, kwah tsi9 niyohsno le wahuwakA

ohkwa h okhna9 tahutahsawA wahutliyo, yah kali9 wi- tehokwe ni sotsi ahatli yo tho se

thAtahso lu owisa ku. Ne1 yakA aoliwa tyotkut ohkwa li kAnihAtahses.

Ohkwali Tsi? Lotashyuti
How the Bear Lost His Tail

Ne- yakA tho niyaw/u, ohkwali tsi'? lotashyuti kwah yesk/-ha yatuhsahAtsyakwe
This is how it happened, the bear lost his tail when he picked the last fish up.

Ohkwali tho nutale Ica, ohkwa li se w’i kwah i kA tsi? Iotisyakahse kA.
The bear came over, the bears very much like fish.

Wa?hA lu ohkwa'li wa^thonuhwelatu, “She'ku kyahse, katsa ne' nuta sitsyaha'we,

Said the bear greeting him, “Hello cousin, where did you get the fish,

tho nikA-tsi-.” , Tahalihwaslaku ne?n skhnaksA, walulu, “KAh kwi nukwa,

such good fish.” The fox answered, he said, “Over here,

Akunatus, tsi?nu okhale? Akunatus tsi? nAshye le tsi? Asheye na.”

I 11 show you and I’ll show you where and how to catch them.”

Na kwi wahohnutlati tho tsi^ tkayhuhatati nyah/'ne tahnu tyowisle m\ ne

So he followed him they went to the river, but it was frozen.

Na kwi skhnaksA w’a^thanakhu kA wahateshuyu'ni owisake.

So the fox scratched until he made a hole in the ice.

u*Na k/'tho /satyA tho yAhsanitahso we ohne'kanushne. Tho ne' Athatiyena IcAtsi*?
“So now you will sit here and stick your tail in the water. The fish will bite on

tsi^taks. Ne- ni tho nakyeie tsi? wakitsyaye na/’ LAtahseskwe yakA ne?n
your tail. That’s how I did it when I caught the fish.” He had a long tail, they say

ohkwa li. Na kwi tho yahatyA kA tho ne' otia yahanitaso'we awA'ke.
about the bear. So then he sat there and dropped his tail in the water.

Na kwah kah na he wa^thatya^ke. Na nyusahohA'Ie skhnasA, wahA'Iu, “Kyahse

Aficr a long time he got tired. So he called the fox again, he said, “Cousin,

kwah hayAlhe yoksle tsi? ki takshne” Na tahA'lu skhnaksA, “Wesatlaswiyosle? ki wah

it seems my tail is getting heavy.” The fox answered, “You arc very lucky, so

e so washeye na kAtsi9, she'ku kwi kwah kah na he tho yascshek.”

many fish you have caught, so you’d better stay for a while yet”

Na kwi sahatyA ohkwali kwah na he. YusahohA'Ie skhnaksA, wahAlu, “hantskwe,
So the bear sat down again for awhile. He called to the Fox again, he said, “ Well,

kyahse, ayAlhe'? tyowislatu ne?n kitahks, yah thakkwe'ni, taskyatakanha!”

cousin, it seems frozen my tail, I can’t seem to get loose, help me!”

Na ki wahA lu skhnaksA, “Ha o ki wi AkatAti Akhehnu ksa akukwetashu ha.”

So said the fox, “Alright, I’ll go and get all rriy friends.”

Na wahatAti skhnaksA. Ya^thalahtate tsi*> nu e'so thatinake'le e'lhal,

So the fox left. He ran to wherever there were many dogs living,

tho kwi ne' yahala-we kz. Wa^hotiswA skhnaksA ne^n e'lhal tsi? nihaya taklaslo'tA,
he got there alright. The dogs sensed the odor of the fox,

okhna tahutasawA wahatihnya'ni. Na kwi ne^n skhnaksA tho yusahata'khe tsi? nu

they started barking. So now the fox went running back

thAtasolu ohkwa li, ea ne' e lhal luwasle Ica. Kwah tsi^ niyosnole
where the bear’s tail was in the ice, and the dogs were chasing him. As soon as

wahuwakA ohkwa li okhna tahutahsawA wahutli yo. Yah kati*? tehokwe-ni sotsi^
they saw the bear they started fighting. He couldn’t very well fight back,

ahatli yo ne^n ohkwa li tho'se tAtaso lu owisaku, nA kwi tahatihAthoslu, khale?

the bear couldn’t because his tail was in the ice, so he jerked and jerked, finally

o-nA tahati hAtho tho yahanitashake tsi tyowislatu owisa ke. Ne' yakz a ohwa tyetkut
he jerked so hard his tail broke off in the ice. They say that’s why always

ohkwa'li kani hAtahses.

the bear’s tail is short.

How the Bear Lost His Tail

This is how it happened that the bear lost hrs tail. Because bears like to fish, he was
glad to sec his cousin the fox, he said, “Hello, cousin, where did you get the fish, such
good fish? The fox answered, “Over here, I’ll show you and I’ll show you where and
how to catch them. So the bear followed him and they went to the river, but the
river was frozen. The fox scratched until he made a hole in the ice, he said, “So now
you will sit here and stick your tail in the water. The fish will bite on your tail, that’s
ow I did it when 1 caught the fish.” This went on for days, the bear had a long tail
and he sat there and dropped his tail in the water. After a long time he got tired, so
he called the fox again, he said, “It seems my tail is getting heavy.” The fox
answered, “You are very lucky, so many fish you have caught, so you’d better stay for
a while yet.” So the bear sat down again and after a while again he called the fox, he
said, “WeU Cousin, it seems frozen my tail. I can’t seem to get loose, help me!” So
the fox said, “Alright, I’ll go and get all my friends.” So the fox left and ran to
wherever there were many dogs living. The dogs sensed the odor of the fox and they
started barking. So now' the fox ran back to where the, bear’s tail was in the ice with
the dogs chasing after him. As soon as they saw the bear they started fighting, he
couldn’t very well fight back with his tail stuck in the ice, but he jerked and jerked his
tail so hard that it broke off in the ice. They say that is why the bear has a short tail.

Taped by Dick Christjohn, (1978)

Transcribed by Maria Hinton, (5-2-78)

Laksa Wahatunhete. . . William House

(A Boy Child is Bora)

Akwilut Linkin . Mrs. Simon King

(Abraham Lincoln)

Ukwe9takayuskwe .... . . Abraham Smith

(Old Timers)

Tekni Teyohwenote9 . . . . Jessie Peters

(Two Hemispheres) ■■

'*.:■< . .• f.

Tehaluhyawa'ku .... . . ... . . 1 l ( • . Lucy Rose King

(He Who Aids Up The Blue Heavens)
' :
Tsi9 Ni*yot fsi9 LutL\nayAhahkwe
Wahunise On/.. Abram Archiquetle
(llo^ They Used to Pray, It’s Long Ago Now)
LatilihwAhaskwe . Abram Archiquette
(Messengers) :

AhsuhkA Tebatikalyahkwe Tax ... ...... . . Rachel Swamp

(Before They Had Paid Taxes)

Tsi9 Nu Nikahyatu Ne9n Lanukwehuwe

LaotiyantlAhslakA. Melissa Cornelius
(Where It Was Written, The Oneida Laws)

The Customs of The Oneida’s. .... Jim Antone

Lotkanunihko . . Chauncey Baird

(A Very Rich Man)
Elhuwa Kyvh Nu TsahA'newe Ne9n
LAnukwehuwe . Oscar Archiquette
(When First Here They Arrived the Oneidas)

akwilut LinkAn LaFront King

(Abraham Lincoln)
Laksa Wahatunhete

E-so yohslake onA tbo nityawAu. Yotinuhsote9 yakA9, kyatatyAha katsa ok wi- nu

Kwah ok tha9kyatyelA tho kAStotslayA laksa, okhna9 ka9i kA okstAha, wa9kA-lu9,

I se wi wesawilayA tahne’. Ne- kwi wa9yakoiahse yeya9taseha, okhna9 kwi

ka?i'kA akokstAha wa9yakonehlako. Tho ne- ni yot tsi^ yakonuhte9 tsi*>

teyenotatu9 ne9n akoyAha. Okhna9 wa9yakonakhwA9 tsi9 wa9yAlhe9 kwi

wa9yewilatsAli kAh ne9n akoyAha. Wa9tyetstoslahkwc9 atsle9 tsyoskawale9 iho

ya9yako-li. Na kwi ne- yusayAtawyahle9 okhna9 wayotkattho9 tho ale9

ne-skAtatslayA9 laksah, okhale9 tusahuwayatahkwe9 kayhuhaku yowisakalAte9 tsi9

latitsyAtahkhwa9 tho nuwa9 yahuwayatAhte. Kwah kwi ne- nok kAh

na9tutaya9wA-ne9 owisoku nyahoya tahawe9 ohnekanus. Na ki9 ale9 wi-

sayutawyahte. Tho ale9 ne1 skAlotslayA laksah. Tsi9 o'nA wayutkattho9 tsi9 tho

ale9 skAtotslayA nA kwi ne- wa9yakolA9nikuhlakatA9 ot ok kwi nahte9 kAtuhe9 tsi9

niya wAhse. Wa9i lu9, nA kwi wahuwanoluhkwe. Na kwi ne- wathuwasni tsi9

ni-yot tsi9 teyotuhutsyohu.

Laksa Wahatunhete
A Boy Child is Born

E so yohsla ke onA tho nityawAu, yotinuhsote9 yakA9

Many years ago now this happened, they lived in this house they say,

kyatatyAha katsa ok nu. Kwah ok tha9kyatye"lA tho kAStotslayA9

mother and daughter someplace. They were very surprised, there was a bundle

A Child Is Born

It is many years now since this has happened. A mother and daughter lived bv

. aVebab°vTWhere' ,!! T S^ns,ng 10 to^nd a bundle

it was a baby boy near the house, immediately the mother accused the dauehter of
havmg this baby out of wedlock. The old lady was really shocked because8 she
hought the girl was still a maiden, she became angry The old ladv nW a
.he bundle and threw i, ou, in the brushes ou.srde tearby hen sie entaed .h7
house and there was the bundle the house, and angry * she wt she picked
the bundle up again and took it to the creek nearby there was a hole o, ■
she threw i, the hole. „ d,sappeared in a flash* th™! onhlwater'^
h ™Cd, ,aWay' T,h,e old lad>’ wcnl l>ome, the bundle was there again Now she
began to have troubled thoughts, she thought there must be somelhLg to these

ISd be. ShC bC8M '°Ve “» “d «« » *" ^ and

Told by William House to Andrew Bcechtree (2-25-39)

Transcribed and Taped by Maria Hinton (12-1-82)

Akwilut Linkin

Tsi9 nu tshikaha-wi akwilut Linkin lanAtakalyas tshihotlihute tho ni-yot tsi9 lota ti

tsi9 “nikalihwaksA okhale9 atehh/lhsla tsi9 kakwatakwA ne tsi9 kanAskwatsla-ku tsi9

nihuwayela-se ne9n Atwa9kanha “ Ne' uni law/ tat kanaheha ahlunheke sa9

yoyanle tsi9 ashakokwatakwA'nike ne9n Atwa9kanha nahaya9tohtA.

Akwilut Linkin
Abraham Lincoln

Tsi9 nu tshikaha-wi akwilut Linkin lanAtakalyas tshihotlihute

At the time Abraham Lincoln as President while he held office

tho ni-yot tsi9 lota-ti tsi9 “nikalihwaksA okhale9 atehhAhsla tsi9 kakwatakwA
the way that he spoke is “that it is bad and shameful, the arrangement

ne tsi9 kanAskwatsla'ku tsi9 nihuwayela-se ne9n Atwa9kanha.”

because it was like stealing the treatment of the Indians.”

Ne- uni la w/ tat kanaheha ahlunheke sa9 yoyanle tsi9

He has said if a short time he would live, a better arrangement,

ashakokwatakwA-nike ne9n Atwa9kanha nahaya9tohtA.

he would make for the Indian tribes.

Abraham Lincoln

At the time, Abraham Lincoln was President, the office he held then. He spoke
and said, “It is a bad and shameful, how it was arranged. It was like stealing,
the way they treated the Indians.” He has said, “if he would live for sometime, it
would be a better arrangement, he would make for the Indian Tribes.

Told by Mrs. Simon King to Dennison Hill, (2-23-39)_

Transcribed by Maria Hinton, (11-29-76)

Kwah otok/i'u tsi7 tehonatAna^kelahtu ka'h'kA ukwe^takayuskwe Tsi7 niku

WAtowaru yokalau, nale^ wa^tkutihwatsilyakhu ne^n ohkwali na^kaya^totA ne- se

aoli wa kwah Icas ka^nihAnase^ lotithoske^shuha otla ahatiya^kAne kukwitehne.

Old Timers

Kwah ot/vkA u tsC tehonatAkelahtu? ka^i kA ukwe^takayuskwe, tsi? niku

For certain that they observed these old timers, that every

WAtowanA yokalau, nale? wa^lkutihwatsilya khu ne^n ohkwali na^kaya^to-tA

Christmas evening, again their cubs would be bom of the bear kind of animal

ne- se aoliwa kwah kAS ka^nihA-nase? lotithiska o n/> wahatiya^kA ne

that s why just a good size these cubs are when they come out

in the spring.

Old Timers

For certain, they observed, these old timers, that every' Christmas evening the bear
cubs would be bom. That is why they were a good size by Spring.

Told by *Shakohuhhtotha to Dennison Hill (3-5-39)

Transcribed by Maria Hinton (12-22-80)

*Shakohuhhtotha - Indian name for Abram Smith

Tekni Teyohwenote9

Okalashu k7s wi yukhikalatunihe yukyukwetashu nen wahunisekA, ne- kati^

yakA^ yotlatstu tsi9 tekni te9yohwenote9 nok uskah ok kA'hne. Ne9n ohwy/tsya9

uni ka9ikA nishune te9yotanuyanit tsi*> na9tena a9no-walko-, nA a9no-wal

wahyatlihwisane tsi9 lAhya9tekhashi lonulha9tsiwa AskAhake tsi9 on7

wa9thya9tekhashi. Na kati9 oya nusayaw/ine, kanyatalowa n7. se

wa9thotihwanhake9 on7 kwi tekni wa9lyohwenotane. On7 09sluni tho ne-

lalinakele9 tsi9 tkaketohse tyohwenole9 okkna ne9n atwa9kanha k7 tho kwi ne-


Tekni Teyohwenote9
Two Hemispheres

Okala shu k7s wi yukhikala tunihe yukyukweta-shu ne n wahunisekA, ne- kati9

Stories have been told by our people in acient times, that at

yakA9 yotlatstu tsi9 tekni te9yohwenote9 nok uskah ok IcA/hne. Ne9n ohwy7lsya9
one time the two hemispheres were combined into one. The ground

uni kaVkA nishirne te9yotanuyanit tsi9 na9tena a9nowalko-, nA a9no-wal

forming on two monster turtles, the turtles

wahyatlihwisa ne tsi9 tAhya9tekhashi lonuIha9lsiwa Ask/hake tsi9 on7

finally decided to be by themselves by moving

wa9thya9tekhashi. Na kati9 oya nusayaw/ne, kanyatalowanAse

apart from one another. This caused great bodies of w'ater

wa9thotihwanhake9 on7 kwi tekni wa9lyohwenota ne. On7 09sluni tho ne-
to encircle them, forming two hemispheres. The White people

latinakele7 tsi^ tkaketohse tyohwe,note'? okhna ne^n atwa^kanha
resided in the eastern hemisphere, and the Indians

kA'tho kwi ne- latinakeleT

hved here.

Two Hemispheres

Stories have been told by our people in ancient times, that at one time the two
hemispheres were combined into one. The ground forming on two monster turtles.
The turtles finally decided to be by themselves. By moving apart from one
another, this caused great bodies of water to encircle them, forming two
hemispheres. The While people resided in the eastern hemisphere, and the Indians
hved here.

Told by Jesse Peters to Dennison Hill

Transcribed by Maria Hinton (4-6-79)


LotikaldyA ne^n yayahk nihonuhwAtsya’ke ne laolihwa ke ne?n Tehaluhyawaku

luwayatskwe. Tho yakA? kaluhyake thA telu. uskah utlatste1? lothu-te uhka ok nahte*?

watyush/tho k/'tho uhwAtsyahke. Ehta’ke yahatkattho tho nAhke tlune se lAnu kwe

okhale? kunukwe. LonatetshAU s6 tsi^ yolyo^tatsanihte kA'tho larnese okhale? ok

thiyotukohtu latikwanA'se lanukwe. Ne kati^ ka^i k/, Teholuhyawa'ku tahahkwen/Jite tho

nu nyashakoya^tAhawe tsi? nu yah nahte? thahotiyatahwA. Kwah kAnaheko da

tahakwenAhte kwah tho wahanaklate ohwAtsyake nA kwi lukwe wahatatu ni tahnu

ukwehu’we kaya'tase wahotinyahke. Tho ne kali*? wi thohsAnayAtau ne?n Hiwahta tho

nu nahatnatum akta tsi'? tkanyatalahv’A. WahotiwilayAta ne tsyeya’tat Yohnekayeshu

washakotinatukwe. Kwah yoyantlati tsi? latinakle nA wahotilihota-se otholeke nukwa

nuta-we tahA’ne luwatiswAhse shakotinatakalya ne okhale*? Ahu'tsa^ahte? tsi^ lotinuhsotu ne

kati^ ka^i’kX Hrwahta washakohlo’h ne*?n latikwa nA se ashakotiya^taloioke akwe'ku ne?n

wisk nihonuhwAtsya ke tho ne^ onA AhatihahsA. Akwe’ku tho wahA’newe ne tsi*? o'nA

akwe-ku tho wahAnewe Hi’wahta okhale1? shakoykha Yohnekayeshu tho nutahnihuyuti

owiskla ni’yot kahuwe ya. Ahsuha ok tho yolakale le otsitAhako nXhke7 wahutkattho

takati kaluhya’ke. TuhkwenAte tho wa^tkayahwAtsayAta ne lahsi^takta ne^n Hi wahta

okhna ne*?n Yohnkayeshu kashu ne ne^n otsitAhako ya^unitskwalA tho ne onA wa'h'lu1?

o nA kwi lake^niha okhna^ nAhke'? tusulyahwAtsakwalihte'? ne^n otsitAhako okhna1?

tusaka tA e neke nyusakati kwah ok thothya^lusutahtsi^klawe^este^ tsi*? nu lyakoht/’ti

ne“?n Hi wahla lonulha. Tho ne o nA wahata li ne‘?n Hi wahta washakohlo li tsi^ nA

ya^oheMti usahahtA’tr kaluhyake nyusale wahA'lu1? swatahuhsatat tsi? nahte*? AkHu? tsi?

Akwathalhahse lotitsastAhslowanA ne^n otholeke iia kwa thatinakle^ AshakotishAiri ne*?n »

kA mkAtyohkwa ne kati? teyotuhwAtsyohu skalrwat Aswatste ne*?n wisk nitsyuhw/tsyake

Ne ok AswatsastAslayAta ne okhale'? yah nahte*^ thayeswayatawA tesatatyatakenha kati*?

uskah ok tsi? nu nA swatsistu uskah ok u ni ne AswayAta ke ne“?n kanunawA yehlotakhwa

ha yah nahte? tha^teyako^nikulhale? yah u ni te^yakotlryo. Na tsahasane tsi? 16thale

ne9n Hi wahta tho yusahatitane kahuwaku. Tho ne o n/ lonathu te kaUni-yo kata'? ok nu ~

tkaUndte tho ne o na oskan/ha uthalata te ne^n owiskla ni yot kahuwe-ya kaluhyaku

nyusahahuyu-ti tho kati? ne niyaw/u tsi? ya'Hehonatyestu ne'fri wisk nihonuhwAtsyake.

He Who Holds the Blue Heavens

LotikalayA uni ne*?n ya yahk nihonuhwAtsya'ke ne laolihwake ne'fri

They have a story too, the Six Nations it’s about the

Tehaluhyawaku luwayatskwe. Tho yakA? kaluhya ke th/Telu.

He Who Holds Up The Blue Heavens, was his name. There they say in heaven he sits.

uskah utaltste'? lothu’te uhka ok nahte? wa^tyush/tho k/Tho ohwAtsyahke.

Une time he heard some one that cried here on earth.

Ehta ke yahalkattho tho n/hke thAne-se Unu lcwe okhale1? kunukwe.

Downward he looked there surprisingly walking around men and women.

Lonatetsh/u so tsi? yolyo‘?latsanihte Ic/Tho ku nehse okhale*?

J hey were frightened because great big monsters here were around and

ok thiyotukohtu latikwa n/se lAnu kwe. Ne kali? Tehaluhyawa ku

unusually large were the men. So then. He Who Holds Up The Blue Heavens

tahahkwcnAhte tho nu nyashakoya'?l/hawe'? tsi? nu yah nahle'? Ihahotiya tawA.

came own to a place he took them where nothing would happen to them.

Kwah k/jiahe k6 ha tahakwenAhte? kwah tho wahanaklate ohwAtsyake.
It was quite some time now he came down right here then he lived on earth.

Na kwi lu kwe wahatatu m tahnu Ukwehuwe kayatase

Now then man he made himself into a man and Oneida young girl

wahotinyahke. Tho ne kati? wi thosAnayAtau ne?n Hiwahta. Tho nu

he married. It was then he received the name of rtrwahta. There he

nahatnatu m akta tsi? tkanyatalayA. WahotiwilayAta ne tyey^-tat Yohnekayeshu

built a house near the ocean. They had a child one girl, ‘Laughing Waters’

washakotinatuhkwe. Kwah yoyantlati tsi? latinakle? nA

is what they called her. Everything was going along good where they lived when

wahotiliho ta se othole ke nukwa nuta-we tahAne

they got word from the northern cold country, word came from they’re coming

luwatiswAhse ShakotinAtakalyane okhale^

someone who hated them. They were going to ravage their town and

lutsa^ahtane tsi? lotinuhsotu. Ne kati? ka?i'IcA Hi’wahta washakohlo-li ne?n

bum their houses. So then this Hiwahta he told them the

latikwanA’se ashakotiya?talo'loke akwe ku ne?n wisk nohonuhwAlsya’ke tho ne o'ua

Chiefs to get together all the five nations Then now

AhatihahsA. Akwe ku tho wahA'newe Hiwahta okhale?

they should have a meeting. All of them there arrived, Hiwahta and

shakoyAha Yohnekayeshu tho nutahnihuyuti owiskla ni yot kahuwe ya

his daughter, Laughing Waters, there they came sailing white it was their boat.

Ashuha ok tho yolakale le otsitAhako nAhke wahutkattho takati

All of a sudden, there was a noise, a bird it was he saw flying toward them

kaluhya ke. Tukwe nAle tho wa?tkawyAhAtsayAta ne lahsi?takta

from heaven. It came down there it landed wings spread out near his feet

nc>n Hi wahta okhna? ne?n Yohnekayeshu kashirne ne?n otsitAhako

this Hi wahta and this Laughing Waters on his back the big bird

ya'tyumtskwalA tho ne onA wa'^rlu'?, oela kwi Lake^niha okhna9 riAhke
she sat on then now she said, good bye father and suddenly

tusutyahwAtsakwalihte ne^n otsitAhako okhna'? tusakatA eneke nyusakati

it spread out it’s wings the big bird and flew upward flying

kwah ok tho thya^tusutahtsi^klawe^este tsi? nu tyakoht/ ti ne*?n Hrwahta

right up until it pierced through the clouds where her home was this Hrwihta

lonulha. Tho ne onA wahata ti ne?n Hrwahta washakohlo h tsi*? ha uni

his mother. Then now he spoke this Hrwahta he told them that now too,

ne ya^ohehati usahat/Wi kaluhyake nyusale wahA'lu^

is that time he should go home to heaven he must go back he said,

Swatahuhsatat tsi^ nahte1? Akrlu^ tsi^ Akwathalhahse lotitsastAslowanA

“Listen to what I’ll say when I will speak to you, they have great strength

ne?n othole ke nukwa thatinalde1? AshakotishA-m ne?n kAnikAtyohkwa ne kali'?

those cold northern country live they will defeat any small group so then

teyotuhwAtsyohu skaliwat Aswatste ne^n wisk nitsyohwAtsyate.

it should be of one mind/one purpose you will use the five nations.

Ne ok AswatsatAslayAta ne okhale1? yah nahte7 thayeswaya tawA teswatatya^takenha

The only way get strength and nothing will happen to you, help each other

kali1? uskah ok tsi^ nu swatsfstu uskahok uni ne AswayAtake ne'Tt

then one only where you will have a fire, one only too that you will have

kanu nawA yehlotakhwa yah nahte? thateyako'?mkulhale‘? yah uni

of the pipe, that you smoke with, nothing will bother you not even

te^yakotli yo. Na tsahahsane tsi^ lothale^ ne^ Hiwahta tho yusahatitane

a war.” When he finished speaking this Hrwahta then he got back

kahuwaku. Tho ne onA Ionathulc kalAni yo katsa ok nu tkalAnote tho ne

in the boat. Then now they heard beautiful music somewhere was playing then

on/ oskan/ha uthalalate ne^n owiskla niyot kahuwe ya kaluhya ke

now very slowly, it was lifted this white colored boat to the heavens


yusakahuyuti th6 kati ne niyaku tsi? ya?tehonty6stu ne?n wisk nihonuhwAtsya’ke

it went sailing that then is how they became the five nations.

He Who Holds Up the Blue Heavens

^ -HeV moS7o,r; ab0Ul lhis man Te^l«l>yawa ku his name

^ ,H 1* Up 1116 Blue Heavens ■ They say he sits in Heaven,
ne time, he heard someone crying here on earth, he looked down, there sumrisinplv
were men and women walking around down here on earth. They were frightened S }
thereto f T blg “0nsters, were and unusuafiy large men. He came down and took
^ to a place where nothmg would happen to them. It was quite some time later that
gklTwtThe0 h H? dlSg^Sed 35 a man “d he even carried an Oneida
£ v hT ??? hC.WaS gIVeD the name He built a village near the ocean
They had a child and named her ‘Laughing Waters’.

coITf!? Z £°r al0DS Very niceIy when theT had word ‘he cold northern
country, it was bad news, someone who hated them was coming to ravage their village
“Z™ ? was then, Hrwdhta told their Chiefs fo gettogetheraUthefive
. ^ . ave a mee('ng. they all came, Hiwahta and his daughter Laughing Waters
brl “ was while this was happening, lha, a big bW cle

then FatZ” i
near Hi-wZa'sT Z 3 r°‘ 0f”°'SC “ ‘‘ Came doWD ^ sPread h’s wings and landed
,’ thfD Laughlng Wa,ers went and sat on his back, she said, “Alright
pierced thThlZtZ^ a-8 b‘rd had Spread '‘'s wings and flew straight up until it
Now he lectured ZZ Z disappeared, this is where Hiwahta’s mother’s home was.
Zb' laClTd 10 ,bem- bul Crsl he ,old now it was almost time for him to
h V b‘! 7e’ lhtB1Ue Heaven’s- He said- “Lisl“ to what I have to say to you
^ 8fe f’lrCngl1' ‘bose Pe°ple from the cold northern country, they will defeat
any small group, so now you must be of one mind, you will get y7ur strength that is
vou °win ry: yOU “d 'he “*»« will get i, and you mis, have only ole ll tha,
finished h-m0ke W‘th an< "0lhj”E W'11 brother you, not even the wars.” Now thenV
fimsbed his message to them. He got back into his boat. Now then these people’ heard
wWtc' boalw'0 rnym8 somewherc, while they are listening to this music, slowly his

tt FiveZaZns b”Zd'°Ward ^ *“ — ™S ‘S “ bapp-d ‘ba‘

Told by Lucy Rose King to Ida Blackhawk (3-28-39)

Transcribed by Maria Hinton (9-18-80)

Tsi*? Ni y6t Tsi? LutlAnay/hahkwe Wahunise Oru 12

Ke yale’ aksollu yuthlonyanuhe'? tej? oiyohlu ne tsi? lutlAnyihahkwe Ishjkeksa

IkanA^alohale? nukwa. Tho walawe lalsih/islalsi tehayahsulha? nahaya’lo Ia

washakolihwanolhahse ne?n Ukwehuwe nahonuhwAtsydhtA. Kwah Ialikwe W

wahutya laU tahnu inu tsi? nu yehullAnayAtakhwa lohka Icas niwehnislake da

elhuwa yahA oewc tsi? tyutlAnayAlahkwa tahnu tsyohslal na?leka|u wahullAnayAhna

TSI’ k',S nuya'1' avvXhile'? nilc'' wahulUnayA nc kAs ne kalihwanolu wahiiinyahte

ne->n lalsih/slatsi?. Ohnak/ke ne oa 6tyalike? Meletes sa Iho walunewe, otyahke

tho nukwa sahutya'tal/..

Tsi^ Ni yot Tsi*? LutlAnayAhahkwe Wahirnise OnA

How They Used to Pray It’s Long Ago Now

, yuthlonyanuhe? tsi*? niyohtu ne tsi*?

I remember my grandmother deceased used to tell how it was that

lutlAnyahahkwe tshikeksa tkanA?alohale nukwa.

Tho wa lawe
they prayed when I was a child in Oneida Castle yet.
There he arrived

latsihAstatsi? tehayahsutha nahaya?totA.

Washakolihwandthahse ne?n Ukwehuwe
a priest, he was a Catholic.
He preached a sermon to these Oneida

Kwah latikweku wahutyatalA tahnu i nu tsi?
Just all of them joined this church but it was so far away

nu yehullAnayAtakhwa, tohka Icas niwehnisla ke ha elhuwa yaliAnewc?

where they went to church.
several it look them days when just now they would

tsi? tyutlAnayAtakhwa tahnu Isyohslat na?teka lu wahullAnayA hna. Tsi?

get to the church and only once a year that they went to churc

kvvs nuyali aw/hite'? nale? wahutUnayA. Ne kAS ne kalihwanolu
they were ripe, the strawberries again they’d go to church. It was their sacrament

wahlunyahte ne?n latsihAStatsi9. OhnaLvke ne ua otyahke? Metetes sa

for communion this Priest used. Later on some of them, the Methodist too

tho wahA'newe, otyahke^ tho nukwa wahutya talA.

came there some, over there went and joined that church.

How They Worshiped Long Ago

I remember how my grandmother used to tell how it was long ago. 1 was just a
child and we still lived in Oneida Castle in New York. She told us how they
used to pray. A Catholic Priest came to our Reservation, he preached a sermon to
the Oneidas’. They all joined his church, it was far away from where we lived, it
took several days to get to where his church was. They went only once a year
that was when strawberries became ripe. He used the strawberries as a host for
their Communion.

Later on now the Methodist Missionary came there too, now some of them joined
that church.

Told by * Abram Archiquette to Ida Blackhawk (4-11-39)

Transcribed and Taped by Maria Hinton (12-21-80)

* Abram Archiquette’s Indian name was Walu^hiyaku


Ne k/.s uskah wa’akotyeluhse okhna’ k/.s uhkal ok nafate’ wa’thalahtate

tehoh/Jehta ne tsi’ lalmakelO waKhataw/ili la te Icas “kwe-e” oksa Icas wahlittoke

nahte9 kAtuhe9 ila lonahirte.



N6 kAS uskah wa? akolyeltihse okhna? wa’thalahtate tehohAleklanc

JI used [o be one person got hurt then he would run yelling
Wa9thatawAli la te Icas “kwe'e” oksa Icas
they lived in the community.
He traveled saying too “kwe'e right away,

wahuttoke nahte9 kA'tuhe9 nA lanahahute.

they would notice what it meant when now he was on their road.


It used to be at one time they had messengers to run and cany the message For
They0wouldS°rae0De tf°^ .^Ur1, tc wouId ruD >"elling for people in the community,
y ould guess what it meant when he passed their road yelling “kwe'e”

♦ These messengers had to have a good clear voice to be heard a long distance.

Told by Abram Archiquette to Ida Blackhawk (4-11-39)

Transcribed and Taped by Maria Hinton (3-23-81)

AhsuhkA Tehatikaly&hkskwc Tax

Tsi? niyotune ahsuhkA tehatikalyahkwe tsi*? lonuhwAlsyayA khale7 tsi7

lotinaskwayA kohsatAS7 khale7 tyo7nhuskwa lut khale7 koskos khale7 kitkil. siksik.

Lotinaskwakatteni kAS kwah kAS u ni 0k7 thikunese kalhakuhu okhale7 tsi7

kahAtale ni tsi 7 nu ne7n yah tehatiyAtholha. Yah kAS nahte7 thatehoti7nuklhale7

yoyanle tsi^ niyot tsi'? lonatlihwahlAtyethu. Yukninaskwakate kas ki7 ni7i' nok

tsi; tsi7 o aA tutahsa wA yaknikalyahks katokA niku o7sluni nA tutahsawA ohna kA

wa7aknehle7. Khale7 onx oye li ekel ok ni tsyuknuhwAlsi7, n/, IsahUheye


AhsuhkA Tehatikalyahkskwe Tax

Before They Had Paid Taxes

Tsi'7 niyotuh ne ahsuhkA lahalikalyahkwe tsi*7 lonuhwAlsyayA khale7 tsi*7

The way it was before they had paid taxes on the land they had and they

lotinaskwayA tu kohsatAS okhale7 tyo7nhuskwalut okhale7 koskos khale*7 kitkit,

had animals, horses and cows and pigs and chickens,

siksik. Lotinaskwakatteni Icas kwah Icas u ni ok*7 thikune se kalhakuhu

sheep. They had many animals too and they just roam around in the woods

okhale'7 tsi7 kahAtate ni tsi'7 nu ne7n yah tehatiyAthohta. Yah Icas anhte7
and around the fields where they don’t use for planting. Just nothing

thatehotinikulhale7 yoyantle7 tsi*7 lonatlihwatAtye thu.

bothered them, it was good the way they took care of their affairs.

Yukninaskwaka le Icas ki7 ni'T Nok tsi7 tsi7 oha tutahsa wA yaknikalyahks
We had many animals, just us two. But then when now it started, we’re paying

katok/\ niku tsyohslat ’Tax” latinaTukhw'a7, o^slirni nA
a certain amount once a year. “Taxes” they called it, the white people

tsahkheye iksl/ha.
when he died, my husband.

Before They Had Paid Taxes

The way it was before they paid taxes on the land, they had many animals. They
had horses, cows, pigs, and sheep. They had many animals that roamed around in
the woods and open fields where they didn’t use for planting. Nothing bothered
them and it w'as good the way they handled their affairs. We also had many
animals, just the two of us, but then it started, paying a certain amount of money
once a year. Taxes they called it, the white people when my husband died.

Told by Mrs. Rachel Swamp to Ida Blackhawk (7-21-39)

Taped and Transcribed by Maria Hinton (3-8-75)

Tsi? nu Nikahyatu ne^n Lanukwehu we LaoliyantlAhsla ki

AsuhkA kA tho thahA'nSwe ne^n O^slu m lotiyantlAhslayAtahkwe ne*?n

Unukwehuwe. Onikola yak/? kahya ti, tbo Icas kali? wahawAnahnotu isi? ka yA-

tyohMu n/ nahte? wahaliwAhte? (si? nahte? n/.yaw/nc tokat lutliyohsle? lal uni

ubka? shotlihwale?wahtu Iho Icas yak/,? nii nahawAnahnolu tsi? ni yol (si?

Ahuwahlewahle. Tho kAS yak/? lahawe? oslalo kwa nc?n oniko la kuwanatukhwa?

tho nu nikahya tu ne^n laotiyantlAhsla.

Tsi? nu Nikahya tu ne“?n Lanukwehu-we LaotiyantlAhsla-kA

Where it Was Written, The Oneida Laws

Asuhk/i kA tho thah//newe ne^n

0?slu ni lotiyantlAhslayAtahkwe ne^n
Not yet there arrived the white people they used to have laws the

Oniko la yakA? kahya tu tho Icas kali? wahawAnahnotu
Wampum they say writes there he used then to read from there

!fl9 ka’y/', 11/1 n4hte7 wahaU wAhle? tsi'? nahte? nAyaw/'ne to kat
the one who heads (chief) what he decided just what would happen if

lutliyohsle*? tat uni uhka1? sholihwate’wahtu. Tho Icas yakA9

they are going to war or if someone had committed a crime. That was
they say
nu nahawAnahno tu
tsi'? niyot tsi1? AhuwahlewahteT Tho Icas
the place he would read
just how that he should be punished. There used to be

yalcA1? lahawe'? oslalokwa ne*?n oniko la kuwanatukhwa'?.

Tho nu nikahya tu
they say holding beads it was wampum they called it.
There was written
ne*?n laotiyantUhsla.
their laws.

Where It Was Written, The Oneida Laws

What I have to tell you refers to our laws that we had before the white people
came over here. Wampum (onikola) is where it was written and only the head
person (Chief) would read from the Wampum to them. If a man had committed a
crime, he would decide what his punishment would be if there is a w'ar, he will
tell them what would happen. In his hand he holds these beads, w'here he reads
from, this is called wampum (oniko la) where their laws are written.

Told by Miss Melissa Corneluis to Ida Blackhawk (8-23-39)

Transcribed and Taped by Maria Hinton (3-11-81)

The Customs of The Oneida’s

Tsi7 ne nihotilihotAhne ne9n LAnukwehuwe Kana9alohale9 tshithatinakele

wahatikhuni kAS wa9thutAnuhwela'tu. Tsi9 niku kukwitene nale9 ya9kahewe9 tsi9

nu nihatitsikhe9tunihe9 khale9 tsi9 nu nihatiyAthos khale9 o oa Awatahyuni

aw/lhihte9, khale9 tsi9 nu nikanAStotha, khale9 tsi9 nu nihatiyAthokwas,

Ya9teyoke tohte9 onA ohslase o9yan m twana9tukhwa9 tho uhte9 ne1 nu

nikahawin owiskla nikaya9to'tA elhal wa9kuwaya9tatsa9ahte9, tho ne-

nihotihho9tAhne ol nahte9 wa9thutAnuhwelatu. Akweku k/s wasakotikwahte9

oskannhe wahutekhum. Yah ne- tehotinaktohte9 ukweho'ku ahutkattho ot nahte9

nihatiyelha9 tsi9 wa9kuwalyo9 ne9n e-lhal.

The Customs of The Oneida’s

Tsi9 nihotilihotAhne ne9n LAnukwehu-we Tkana9alohale9 tshithatinakele

The ways of the Oneidas, Oneida Castle they still lived,

wabatikhu ni kAS wa9thutAnuhwelatu. Tsi9 niku kukwite ne nale9 yakahe we

they would have a of Thanksgiving. Every spring when it was time

tsi9 nA nihatitsi9khetu nihe9 khale9 tsi9 nihatiyAthos okhale9 o ela

for them to make maple sugar and when they start planting and now

Awatahyu ni aw/iuhte9, khale9 tsi9 ela nikanAStotha. khale9 tsi9 nA

they will start to ripen the strawberries, and now then com will ripen and now

nihatiyAthokwas. Ya9leyoke lohle9 o n/' ohsla se o9yan ni twana9tukhwa9 tho

harvest time. Most important one now is the New Year as we call it about

uhte9 nikaha win owiskla nikaya9tolA e lhal wa9kuwaya9tatsa9ate,

that time, white in color, a dog they burned the dog sacrifice,
tho niyoliholA hne ot nahte'? Tahuwanuhwela tu. Akweku Icas
was the custom to for giving thanks to our Creator. Everyone was

wahuwatikwahte7 oskanhne ahutekhuni. Yah ne1 tehotinaktohte'? ahutkattho

invited together to the feast. Not allowed were they to see

ne9n ukwehoku ot nihatiyelha tsi^ wakuwalyo ne^n e lhal.

the people how it was prepared for the sacrifice this dog.

Oneida Castle

It was the custom of the Oneida’s, while they still lived in Oneida Castle, New
York. Tsi9 TkanA^alohaJe? to give thanks in the spring when they finished making
Maple Sugar and Syrup. They gave thanks when it was planting time and when
the strawberries became ripe, when the corn became ripe and most of all when the
harvesting was done.

The biggest ceremony is when the New Year comes in, New Years or Dawn of
Light, that is when the people celebrate and give Thanks by sacrificing the burning
of the white dog. This was their custom of giving Thanks for whatever they were
thankful for, when this Ceremony takes place everyone is invited. Together they
would feast, but not everyone knew how this was prepared for the sacrifice. This
custom is no longer practiced, now we use the white basket with burning of
tobacco for sacrifice.

Told by Jim Antone to Tillie Baird (5-10-39)

Transcribed and Taped by Maria Hinton (6-6-92)

Lotkanunihko- yaky.9 wahonhane9 lukwe, wah/vlu9 lotkanunihko-, “isi9 kahAlake tho

tyoaAyote^ko’ ne' kati9 ikelhe9 ahsya9tatahn”. OnA kwi tho nyahale9 ka9ikA

laonhalseli9 teyu9kAhlahlitakhwa9 yaha'kwate9 kwah tsi*? niku tahasyvhte9 khale9

wah/Wu9 “A'tuh”, tho ne1 yusaiawe^n lotkanunihko- lothute tsi^ late, “Atuh”, oksa9

sahatA'tr. Kwah yo9kaIashA ony. tho sa'lehte9. Kwah ok o-oa ne1 latuhc, “A-tuh”

wah/vlu9, lotkanunihko-. “Nahtla- tsi^ ne- satuhe9” wah/lu9 laonha-tsli9, “A tuh kwi

luwayats laoliwa9 tsi9 kAh nuwa wakluhyaky.. Netwi tsi9 yah tehotwymalahkwA.

Ka9i k/. lotkanunihko- wahy.iu9, ‘laky, kwi Asesayo9tAhsa”, wah/. lu9, “Akunuhsuni tho

Ahsati, akwe-ku Atkuyu- ot nahte9 tesatuhwAtyo-ni. Kwah yah nahte9 thusahsatyehle9”

okhna9 ka9ikA lotkanunihko- kAh nu nahanuto9tsla hIu. WaliA'lu9, “takA ne- nuwA lu

Ahsnuteksi ka9i"kA wa9knuto9tslahI/.”, khale9 on/. ka9ikA lukwe yehatkathos tsi9

tkanuto9tslahehle. On/ uni tho nyahale9 yahanuteksi. Wahatye‘1/ ne owiskla9

nikaya9to'tA otsi9ni wA tho takayakAhtahtsi9. Oksa9 ne- wahattoke ne9n lotkanuni.

WahA lu9, on/ kwi Asayot/ yah se te9satwAnalahkwA, kwah tho nahsatyele9 tsi9

nihotyeL/ n A tuh . Tho ne9 kati9 ne- yehohsu n laya9tata9as on/-ye.

A Very Rich Man

Lotkanunihko yakA9 wahonhane9 lu kwe. Wah/'lu9 lotkanunihko", “isi9

A very rich man, it s said, hired this man. Said the very rich man, “Over

kahAlake tho tyonAyote?ko' ne- kati? ikelhe? ahsya?tatahn”. On/
there, in the field is a very large stone so what I want you to bury it.” Now

kwi tho nyahale? ka?ik/ laonhatseli?

then, there he went, this hired man,

teyu?kAhlahlitakhwa? yahakwate? kwah tsi? niku

he used a pick to break the dirt around the stone, to dig with every stroke

tahasAhle? khale? wah/lu?, “Atuh” tho ne- yusalawe?n lotkanunihko- lothu te

he made then he’d say, “Adam”, when he got back the rich man he heard

tsi9 la le, A tuh , oksa? sahatAii'. Kwah yo?kaIasliA onA tho

him saying, “Adam”, immediately he went home. Just about dusk now, back

sa-lehte?. Kwah ok on/ ne- la tuhe, “A tuh” wah/lu?, lotkanunihko-,

there he went. Still the -same, he was saying, “Adam” said, the very rich man,

“Nahtla- tsi? ne- satuhe?” wah/-lu? laonhatsli?, “A tuh kwi luwayats laoliwa?
“Why are you saying that?” said the hired man, “Adam is his name, his fault

tsi? k/h nuwa wakluhyakA, ne twi tsi? yah tehotwAnalahkwA.” Ka?ik/

now at this time, I’m working so hard, that’s because he didn’t obey” This

lotkanunihko- wah/lu?, “TakA kwi Asesayo?t/hsa”, wah/lu?, “Akunuhsuni

very rich man said, “Don’t go back to work”, he said, “I’ll build you a house

tho Ahsati, akwe ku Atku )nj ot nahte? tesatuhwAtyo ni. Kwah yah
there you 11 live, everything I will give you that you will need. Just nothing

nahte? thusahsatyehle?”. Okhna? ka?ik/ lotkanunihko- kAh nu

at all, will you have to do . Then this very rich man in place

nahanuto?tslahlu. Wah/lu?, “TakA ne- nuwA tu Ahsnuteksi ka?ik/

set the box. He said, “Don’t you ever open this

wa?knulo?tslahlA”, khale? on/ ka?ik/ lukwe yehatkathos tsi? tkanuto?tslahehlc.

box I set here , and now this man kept looking where the box was setting

On/ uni tho nyahale? yahanuteksi. Wahatye l/ ne owiskla?

Now he even went over there and opened it. He was surprised a white

mkayaJtfrlA otsi'friiwA th6 takayakAhtdhtsi? Oksa? ne- wahattoke ne?n lotkanuni.
colored mouse there came running out. Immediately, he knew this rich man.

WahA’lu7, JOn/ kwi Asayo-tA yah se te^satWAnalahkwA, kwab tho

He said, “Now you will have to work, you didn’t obey, you did just

nahs&tyele'? tsi*? nihotye U n “A tuh”. Tho ne'? kati'? ne- yehohsu n laya'frata'^as
the same thing that he did this “Adam”. That is when he finished burying that


A Very Rich Man

A very rich man hired his man. The rich man told the hired man that there was a
very arge stone in the field and he wanted him to bury it. Now every time the hired
man would pick at the dirt around the stone he would say “Adam”. The rich man
heard him saying this and the next morning he asked him why he said this. The
hired man said Adam was his name and the reason he is working so hard at this time
was because he didn’t obey. The rich man told him not to go back to work. He
said he would build him a house, he would give him everything he needed. Then the
nch man placed a box in front of him, he said, “Don’t you ever open this box I set
here. The hired man kept looking at the box and finally he went over and opened it.
o his surprise, a little white mouse came running out. Immediately, he knew the rich
man, and he said “Now you will have to work, you didn’t obey, you did just the
same thing that he did, this “Adam”. That is when he finished burying that stone.

Told by Chauncey Baird to Tillie Baird

Transcribed by Maria Hinton (2-18-80)

Elhuwa KaIi Nu TsahAnewe Ne^n LAnukwehuwe

Elhuwa kAh nu tsahAnewe ne?n lAnukwehu we, tokatkA akrlu? oiiAyoteVka,

ya'Tekalydtake kA tho kanakele?, ne- kati? ka^rkA kuwaliyatsnih, ohkwa ll,


oskanutu, othahyuni. Atilu, kanawa’keha, otshiihkaloL^kd-, ona’lo.tko. and kib,

am' tas, lsotsyak4bwe, tsyonihlo, tawi ne, IsyokwiUhiu, tsyohso?kawkanA,

isyohJydhku, okhale’ lehontshuhkalo-l/, olshuhkalo U, okhale9 nya’telcAtsyakesAk

lotyahktu, skabslo wane9, otsistutuha, skakahlakSA, (syonu’aliyd, tsiiuhaliyo,

tsikahkwalele, awatsi, okhale? okala, okiale’ nya^iekatsiHAlshakeSAh, talu’ko,

kitkithu we, ohkwe'SA, olile, ka-ka, tehalubyakahmSlah, obakwaluhte, tsistdkeli,

kwa?k61i, skanA^taniihwe, kwald U, kalhaknha ldtkit, kawyAtesko-, tsyotakubkoy

tsiklsileie, tsyohwAstakawe, otsulalah, klHdi otsistohkwalunyuh, okhale? Isiskohko-,

okhale? tbhka’? niwatkusIakesA kanakele. Ka?watkwal, otsi^nkwalko, otsihnewalah,

okhale’ awistanih, okhale? walele, tsiknA?alasa, Isyomskwalakwalutii,

kA’nlsyahle nas, okhale? a’no wal, okhaie’ o'tsilnuwashuhasA kanakehle.

Tekayanlaktoha, olsi’nuwa ohnana’tdke kutsteb'slah, tsyo’nhotslokwi

tsyona^lsyakehle, tsinuhnehklis, kana wa, tsiks, okalyahlane, onllakok osehlu,

Olsislokahlane'7, Isistalak, okhale? slikslik, olsi’nuwahchle.

hlhuwa K/h Nu TsahA newc Nc?n LAnukwcbu we

When hirst Here, They Arrived, Oncidas

Hlhuwa kAh nu CsahAncwc nc'>n lAnukwehu we, lokalkv, akrluV

hen first here they arrived Oncidas maybe I’d say
oruyoteAa ka, ya^tekalyotake kAtho kanakele'?. Ne- kati? ka^ikA
people of the stone, there was all kinds of game living here. It was this

kuwatiyatsnih, ohkwali, oskanutu, othahyirni, Atilu, kanawa^keha,

their names were, bear, deer, wolf, raccoon, wild cal,

otshuhkalolA^ko-, ona^lcAtko-, anokih, anrtas, tsotsya kahwe, tsyomhto, tawrne,

lynx, badger, muskrat, skunk, mink, 1 beaver, otter,

tsyokwiUhtu, tsyohso^kawka'iiA, tsyohlyohku, okhale? tehontshuhkalo'lA,

grey squirrel, squirrel, gopher, and prairie dog,

otshuhkalo lA, okhale^ nya^tekAtsyake sAh; totyahktu, skalisto'wane^, otsistutuha,

rabbit, and all species of fish, trout, nothem, pickeral,

skakahlaksA, tsyonu?aliy6, tsinAhali yo, tsikahkwalede, awa tsi, okhale? okdla,

walleye, sucker, sucker, bull frog, and shiner,

okhale? nya^tekatsi^tAtshakesAh, talu^ko-, kitkithu'we, ohkwe sA, olrte,

and all spicies of birds, duck, prairie chicken, quail, pigeon,

ka ka, tehaluhyakahnelah, oha-kwaluhte, otsistokeli, kwa^koli, skanA^tanuhwe,

crow, crane, crane, owd, whipperwill, mourning dove,

kwalo lA, kalhakuha kitkit, kawyAtesko-, tsyotakuhko-, tsiktsile le,

screech owl, chicken hawk, flicker, cardinal, chicka-dee,

tsyohwAStakawe, otsulalah, klrkli, otsistohkwalunyuh, okhale'? tsiskohko1,

sea gulls, meadow lark, blue jay, redheaded woodpecker, and robin,

okhale? t6hka? niwatkfr slakes a kanakeje; kA^watkwal, otsi'frikwalko-,

and a few species of snakes lived here; rattle snake, pine snake,

otsihnewalah, okhale^ awistanih, okhale? wale le, IsiknA^ala sa,

grass snake, and copperbclly, and frog, pollywog,

tsyoniskwalakwalulu kA^ntsya^hlenas okhalc*? avo wal okhalc^

toa<^ lizard, and turtle, and,

otsi‘>nuwashuhasA kanakeh]c; lekayantakanha, olsi*?nuwa,

all species of worm were found; grub worm, bug.
ohnana?ifi-ke kutsteh'stah
tsyo?nhotst6kwi, tsyona?tsyakehte, tsinuhn6hklis
potato bugs were plentiful, ants,
spiders, bee.
kana w/, tsiks, okalyahtdne, ontla kok
butterfly, fly, mosquito, , osehtu, otsistokahtane'?, tsistalak,
woodtick, lightning bug, grasshopper,

okhale'? sh'kslik, otsi?nuwah6hte.

cricket, angleworm.

When First Here, They Arrived Oneidas

WnT f S'°nC' a”
lym, badgers, muskrats, skunks, minks beavers otters Jev’ raCm°as’ Wl,d cats'

lizards and tmles AU speci“ of wL fr°»b PoUywogs, loads,

Told by Oscar Archiquelle to Floyd Lounsbury (2-1-391

Translated by Maria Hinton (12-1-75)
6kwilut LinkAn
Abraham Lincoln

akwilut tehlohsliydks, ka?ikA wehmtahle tekni yawA'16 tsiskahle ne- kwi

Ahethweyalike. Ne* yakA? tholi?wiyo tsi? nihati lonatlihutu Atakalyasne,

Shakonulukwa yeksa?shu okhale? kutitshe-nA, Sahasko'ko yak/? koskos onawa?tstake

yonulu u. uskah utlatste? tekni yaw/vle mile nyahale? sahay/na ohwista kwa?sutehkc.

akwilut LinkAn
Abraham Lincoln

akwilut tehlohsliyaks, ka?ikA wehm tahle tekni yaw/Ie tsiskahle, ne* kwi
Abraham has a birthday, this month twelve day We will

Ahethweya lake. Ne- yakA? tholi?wi-yo tsi^ nihati lonatlihu tu

remember him always. They say he was the best natured of all them hold in office

Atakay&ne, Shakonulukwa yeksa?shu okhale? kutitshe’iiA. Sahasko’ko yak/? koskos

m Washington. He loved children and animals. He saved they say, a pig

onawa?tstake yonuluu. uskah utlatste? tekni yawA'le mile nyaha-le? sahayAna

was stuck in the mud. One time twelve miles he went to return

ohwista kwa?sutehke.
money at night.

Abraham Lincoln

Abraham Lincoln has a birthday, February 12. We will remember him always,
because they say he was the best natured of all that held office in Washington DC
He loved children and animals, they say, he saved a pig that was stuck in the mud
One lime twelve miles he w-enl to return money at night.

Told by LaFront KJng (2-13-39)

Transcribed by Maria Hinton (12-12-75)

Wa^thotyelunyuhse. Levi Elm
(He Imagined He Saw a Vision)

Shakohuhtolha yak,. wa.thotyelhnyohse (at la wahotyanUne. uskah ullage.

tulahohtAhyhati otholeke nukwa ohstakeshu, yak,, natutale, kwah ok (si. niyo le.

Khale. O'a, wa.frkalawe, n, kwi yalawe tihka. ok nahohte. lo.inuhsote., tho

kali. tsi. yehwa.ekta ke yahatnaktisake., tho kali. tsi., wahahtyeU

tayolcnoluhali, kwah unj lakahsa, kayute n, kwi wahohlets, sahalkelsko okhns.

wahatirkohte., (ho ale. ohstakeshu nyusha ,e. U ne tekmyahse teknu kwe

oh,„ishu f'kene luwa.s,s.s,ha.i ne- kaVla oka,sy/-,a knihawi ,ho yotek,hati, kwah

Ok (ho (hah^e we Shawano tkanata-y/. Ne- kali, so-,si yolonolu, kw,.,ati tho kwi

tutahatane yCkala sh, n, tahatukohte. ne ,si. o-tu kwah tutayolawe., okha.e.

.h6 0h,-,u sakyahu-h, kwah ale. ok ne- tsaka, (si. ncyo, (si. yonatsluni okhale.

ne ale. kniha-wi okotsy/ta. N, s, wahattoke tsi. ohnalashu s, tane (ehnu'kwe.

Kwah la, na.tehutlati tho niyohtuhali. Kwah ok tho k/tho Ukwehuwene


He Imagined He Saw a Vision

Abraham^Smhh th^’ wa,lho'y^Mnyuhse ,a, k, wahotyanl, ne.

ey say, imagined he saw a vision or maybe, he was witched.

uskah utlatsle? tutahohtAhyhati othole ke nukwa ,• ...

One (hne he was co„h„g home horn thfn^cold countty a.onfT^,

•hey ly, hTcame, ^Ta.nhe wa?' “T ° “

^^ - kwi
now 11 became dark, now then

yala we uhka? ok nahbhte? lotinuhsote?. Tho kali? tsi? yehwa?ektake
he arrived at someones house. There then that was in their barn,

yahatnaklisake?, Tho kati? tsi? niwashutes, wahahtye U

he looked for a place to sleep. There then during the night, to his surprise

tayokAnoluhati kwali uni takahsakayute. Na kwi wahohtetsA

was beginning to ram and also it was thundering. Now then he became frightened

sahatketsko okhns? wahatukohte?, tho ale? olistakeshu nyusale?,

he got up, then went on, there again on the tracks again he went,

wahatye fr ne tekniyahse tcknukwe oliAtushu rkene

he was surprised, two of them females in front they were walking

luwatsislsihali ne- ka?i k/ okatsy/ ta knihawi tho yotekAhali, kwah ok tho

holding a light for him this sunflower they were as it burned,' all the way

thyahymewe? Shawano tkanata y/. Ne- kati? sotsi? yokAno lu kwAta ti

amving at Shawano the town of. Well then, because it rained all day

tho kwi tutahata ne yo?kala shy1 nA tahatu kohte?, iia ne tsi? o nA kwah
there then he rested, m the evening he came on, now then that now already

tutayola-we? okhale? tho oh/,-tu sakyahtA ti, kwah ale? kwah ale? ok ne- tsa'kat
it was dark and the in front of him, they were walking, again it was the same

,f yonatsluni okhale? ne ale? knihawi okolsy/Ma. N/. sa wahaltoke

e w a t ey were dressed and now again they were sunflowers. Now too be noticed

tsi? ohnakAhsu sa tame tehnu kwe.

Kwah ok na?tehutlati
that behind him they were coming two males, two men. Just a short distance apart,

tho niyohtuhati, kwah ok tho kA'tho Ukwehuwe ne sahA newe.

it was that way, right up to here Oneida they came back.

He Imagined He Saw a Vision

Abraham Smith, they say, was scared, or maybe, he was witched. One time he was
coming omc rom the northern cold country. He was coming along the tracks until
it became dark. When he got to someone’s house, he looked for a place to sleep

id their bam. During the night, to his suprise, it started raining and thunderine He
became thghtened and go, up and started down the tracks again He w“ sumrised
when he saw two females in front of him, they were walking and caring aS for
hm to see. The Light was a sunflower burning. They walked with hfrn all thif wav
CV7'"g’, hC res,ed Wh“ 11 ‘'ark he was wing agl
he noticed the two females again, holding their sunflowers. Also behind the^wo
females were two men. They walked with him all the way to Oneida.

Told by Levi Elm to Ida Blackhawk (5-22-39)

Transcribed and Taped by Maria Hinton


WAto^wa iLA Yo^kala u . . Elizabeth Huff

(Christmas Eve)
Oyan .... Mrs. Ben Doxtator
(Happy New J
\ 1 W .y■

WAto^wanA Yo^kalau

Ne- tho niyot lutholyatakhwe lotikslAhoku^ltA tsi^ wakutl/niayA? kAS uni ne?n

lsyo^nhuskwalut. Ka^i kA WAlowanA yo^kala u tsi? nikahawi lonaklata ne^n yesos

Nc- uhte yakA? tsi'? tho nu ukwe nihotuu tsi^ tekutitasta kutitse aA ne- ka^rkA

anusihatha'? luwayatskwe katsa^oknu tshutakaha wi shako kA laotsenA^shuha

lyo^nhuskwalut lekunotso‘tu WAtowan/, yo^kalau, kwah yak/, yoto-k/t tho

yahatawyahlc9 lonehlakom tsi? ni yot wahatkattho. Kwah yakA1? lutahayakAne'? yah

tehonuhweu ashako ketsko.

WAto^wa nA Yo^kalau
Christmas Eve

Ne- tho niyot lutholyatakhwe lotikstAho'ku^kA tsi'?

It was hke they used to tell about, the elderly people (old timers) that

wakutUnayA^ k\s uni ne?n tsyo^nhuskwalut. Ka^rkA WAtowan/, yo^kalau

they used to pray also, even the cows. This Christmas night

tsi'? nikaha wi lonaklatu ne*?n ye sos. Ne- uhte yalcA*? tsi? tho nu
at this time he was bom the Christ child. That maybe they say that there

likwe nihotu u tsi^ tekutitasta kutilsenA ne1 ka^i kA anusihatha^ luwayatskwe

child he became in their place the animals it was this his name was

katsa^oknu tshutakaha wi shako kA laotsenA^shuha tyo^nhuskwalut

Someplace sometime ago that he saw them, his animals, the cows

tekunotsotu WAtowa nA yo^kalau, kwah yak/, yoto kAt tho

they were all kneeling Christmas Eve, Just they say that it happened there

yahatawyahle^ lonehlako u tsi7 ni'yot wahatkattho. Kwah yakA?

he entered, he was very curious about likes about what he saw. Just they say

tutahaya lune7 yah tehonuhweu ashakokelsko.
he came right out not wishing to disturb them.

Christmas Eve

It was like they used to tell about, the elderly people, that even the cows used to
pray at Christmas lime. One Christmas night at the time that the Christ child was
bom, maybe because the Christ child was bom in a stable that this man saw his
cows all kneeling. It happened just as he was entering and he was very curious
about what he saw, however, he came right out of the bam not wishing to disturb

Told by Elizabeth Huff to Dennison Mill (4-8-39)

Transcribed and Taped by Maria Hinton (12-19-79)

Oya n

Lutu?weskwathahkwe? Icas ne?n oya-n wehnislate- ne?n wahunise?

tshikeksa ki? wahe?. Okhna? tsi? niwakathule- lotithale? ne?n kAtho latinakle?

tsi? da ale? thoha yusakahewe? ne?n oya-n wehnisla te. Ne- Icas kati? wi nr

tshiyakwaksa?shuha yukwatLuihatu kAS ayosnoUne? yusakahewe? ka?ikA oya n

wehnisla te. So tsi? Icas wa?akwatu?weskwahte? khale? ta t takA? so'tsi?

ayolholeke? khale? sa ta t takA? tayonyu?kwatasehake tho nu tshyutakahawi.

Ne- kati? wi o-iia Akathlolr tsi? kAS niyot tsi? yukwatunhahele? tho nu


Ale? uskah wa?autatok/itane? tsi? niyole iia yAkahewe? ne?n oya n wehnisla te-

okhna? tayakwatahsawA? wayakwalahkwahslu-nr.

Wa?tyukwahhwayA-ta se? kAs tsi? ka y/■ Ayakwe? akrlu? uhte? wi

ayakwanityohkunyani?. Ne- kwi o nA tho tAyakwatawAli tsi? latinakluni ne?n

lAnukwehu we. Ne wi n o-n/ yena?tukhwa? ne?n oya n yukwatutihne. Kwah Icas

tsyok nahte? wa?ukhi-nute? teyonutakli?tslale?shuha? kanataia?oku khale?

kyentiho-ku ale? swahyo wane? tho kalati tahnu ta t kwa?nyoh thikanatalaksA ne-

kAs ne tha?tusayakwatatyAhtani tho kAs kwi yukwateswa?tuhati. Tahnu kAs

tyukwaluhkwA?tstowa nA ohaha?keshu teyukwatawAlyehati.

Kwah kwi ne yah nahte? te?yakwatto kas aluhati to niyotho le.

KJiale? wr ne?n lonalotya khu? kwah Icas uni ne tho nihotinehlakwahtu? tsi?


Ne ale'? ne7n tsi7 niyo7kalashA nz uni ne- wa7thatiwyAnha'lane7

wahutahkwahslunr ale7 wahe kwah latinahnuhati ska7slehtat wa7te'slehse7

kohsa t/s tyonati lute7 oya n lonatuti tsi7 yenakle, kwah Icas uni ne- tho

nikaluhkwA isles kwah sa tehotilihwahkwAhati.



Lutu7weskwalhahkwe7 Icas ne7n oya’n wehnisla'te'

They used to always have a good time that is on New Years day

ne9n wahunise7 tshikeksa ki7 wahe7. Okhna7 tsi7

that is long time ago when I was a youngster that would be. But then as

niwakalhu te- lotithale7 ne7n k/ tho Iatinakle7 tsi7 ny> ale7 thoha
I have heard it them talking them that were living here that now again nearly

yusakahewe7 ne7n oya n wehnisla'te. Ne- Icas kati7 wi

that time again that would be New Years day. It was always that for

ni tshiyakwaksa7shuha yukwatlAnha tu Icas ayosno L/inc7

myself when we were youngsters we were always hoping for the lime to

yusakahese7 ka7rkA oya-n wehnisla'te. So'tsi7 kAS wa7akw'atu7weskwahte7

come fast again this here New Years day. We are always having so much fun

khale7 ta t takA7 so'tsi7 ayotho leke7 khale7 sa ta t takA7

and if not to be too much on the cold side and too of not

tayonyu7kwalasehake tho nu tshyulakaha wi.

like blizzard weather at that time.

Ne' kali7 wi otla Akathlo h' tsi7 kzs ni yol tsi7 yukwatunhahele7
It would be now I will tell it that is always the way that we kept happy

tho nu tshutakaha wi.

at that time.

Ale^ uskah wa'?autatokAhtane'? tsi1? niyo le ha y/Jcahewe'?
Sometimes one week away that far away when the time will be

ne9n oya n wehnislate- okhna'? tayakwat^hsaw/^

that is New Years day and already we would start

wayakwatahkwahs 1 u m •.
we would start preparing. ,

Wa^tyukwalihwayAtase'? Icas tsi? kay/v Ayakwe*?

We would always get an argeement that ones we would go with

akrlu? uhle? wi ayakwanityohkunyani*?. Ne- kwi 0nA tho

I would say maybe for us to make small groups. So it would be now that

tAyakwataw/Ji tsi? latinakluni ne^n lAnukwehu'we.

we would travel around there among where they are living the Oneida people.

Ne wi n o ha yena'?tukhwa'? ne?n oya n yukwatutihne.

It would be now what she calls it that is New Years celebration we are on.

Kwah Icas tsyok nahte? wa'Aikhinute'? teyonutakli?tslale'?shuha'?

It was always different things they would feed us all sorts of sweets,

kanatalaVku khale*? kyentiho ku ale'? swahyo w'ane'? tho

breads of all kinds and candy of all kinds sometimes an apple that

tahnu ta t kwa^nyoh thikanatalaksA ne1 Icas
would be among them and maybe if it seems that bread is not so good it would

ne- tha^tusayakwatatyAhtani tho Icas

always be that we would just hit each other with it (throwing) then always

kwi yukwateswa^tuhati. Tahnu Icas

we would be playing along the way. And always

tyukwaluhkwA^tstowa nA ohaha^keshu teyukwatawAlyehati.

just hollering, yelling, louder than ever on the road we were traveling along.

Kwah kwi ne yah nahte*? te^yakwatto kas aluhati to niyotho le.

So it was just not a thing did we notice makes no difference how cold it is.

Kdiale? wr ne?n lonatotyakhu? kwah k/>s uni ne tho
And too it is the grown ups it was always even them too that

nibotinehlakwahtu? tsi? nihonatu?weskwatu?,

they were on the suprising side as to what fun they were having.

Ne- ale? ne?n tsi? niyo?kalashA n/ uni ne-

It was again that is towards evening now even them'

wa?thatiwyAnha la ne? wahutahkwahslunr ale? wahe kwah

they became awful busy they all got ready again you see it was

latinahnuhati ska?slehtat wa?le"slehse? kohsa’t/.s tyonali lute?

just a full load of people one rig sleigh (what crawls) drawn by horses

oya-n lonatuti tsi? yenakle, kwah Icas uni ne-

New Year they were celebrating among the community, that too was always just

tho nikaluhkwAtstes kwah sa tehotilihwahkw/vhali.

that big roaring - yelling and also just a singing as they went along.

New Years

They used to always have a good lime on New Years day, that is a long lime ago
when I was a youngster. I have heard them talking, those who lived here before, •
that New Years day came around soon. When I was a youngster, I was always
hoping for the day to come around again. We always had so much fun, that is if
it wasn’t too cold outside.

I will tell you how it was that we kept happy at that time. We would start '*■
preparing a week ahead of time. We would always get an agreement from the
ones that we would go with, mostly in small groups. We would travel around
among the Oneida people. At each house the people would feed us all sorts of
sweets, breads of all kinds and candy of all kinds and sometimes an apple. If the
bread was not too good then we would play and hit each other with it. We
would be playing all along the way, just hollering, yelling, louder than ever on the
road as we were traveling along.

We would never notice just how cold it was. Even the adults were surprised as to
what fun they were having.

Il was again towards evening that they became awful busy, getting ready again.
Just a full load of people to fit one rig sleigh that was drawn by horses. New
Year there was a lot of celebrating among the community, big roaring and yelling
and singing as they went along.

Told by Mrs. Ben Doxtator “Aliskwehtko” to Guy Elm (3-18-39)

Transcribed by Maria Hinton

How-To Stories

KanAStohale.Jonas Elm

d*iiASte7 Kukwite nc LatiyAthos ..Jonas Elm

(pom is Planted in the Spring)

I^anAStohale7 . . . . . §. Oscar Archiquette

(pom Bread)
Si:j :;;
l I; | J,
I • i ... •
\W ,fP4
1 I
* 1 \n%v:«hX<5«k;

! ' ' # 4k
& % J
j I M fll

ta/ Jf
j*w jr
j-r ..s>;X s.*':

? \it * -


LV-m; f4f§


m uV ■
«■ I il|i Mi IM

OnAhak/ial kanAStalukwA okna7 Ayethe7tsluni tho ne7 o iia tsi*7 niyole

othe tsb' Awa tu tho ne7 o-n/i kaksowa'iiA yasawake7 othdtsli tsi'7 niyo le akweku

othe-tsli Awa tu tho ne7 o nA kaksow'an/, tho yAsathe7tsluti tho ne7 o-n/,

tyohnekah'hAhse tho yAsati tAhsaw/li Ashwe7nuni tsi7 niyo le Ayohnilha tsi7

tAwathwe7nu ni. Tho ne7 onA Ahsna7tsyalA slo7pslake tyolihAse tho yAsa ti

osahe ta tAhsyesle7 akweku tho yAsa ti tho ne7 o n/, Atyolih/, uskah Akahwista eke

o nA Akahli. Tho ne7 o-ila Ahsna7talo-ko uhsatey/i tu ohnekakli7 (onatalakli) ne-

kAS ne- yahatihawe tho ne7 sheku tshihutolats uskah ok yAhahnekila

ya7tAhoye-h'hse kwA7tati yah thahatuhkalyahke.

Indian Corn Bread

OnAhaka lat kanAstalukwA okhna7 Ayethe7tslu ni, tho ne- o n/, tsi7 niyo'le
Indian corn that is shelled then grind into flour, then now until

othe-tsli Awatu tho ne" o'nA kaksowanA yAhsawake

very fine like flour it becomes then now a large pan you sift it

othe-tsli tsi7 niyo le akweku othe-tsli Awa tu, tho neon/ kaksowa nA tho
flour until all of it flour it becomes, then now a large pan then

yAsathe7tslu tf, tho ne- o nA tyohnekatalihAse tho yAsa ti

you will put the flour into then now boiling water in there you pour

tAhsaw/ li Ashwe7nu ni tsi7 niyo le Ayohnilha tsi7 tAwathwe7nu ni, tho ne- o na
and stir make patties until it’s solid and round then now

Ahsna9lsya LA sto^pslake. Tyoh'hAhse tho y/>sa ti osaheta
put your kettle on the stove. Boiling water in there you will add beans

tAhsyeste'? akwc ku tho ne- o na Atyolih/, uskah Akahwitaeke

mix together ingredients all then now it shoud boil one hour

A^ali- Tho ne- o ha Asnataloko AhsateyAtu

it should cook. Then now take your loaves out and preserve

onuhta-lake ne- k/,s ne- yahalihawe tho ne*? tshihuto lats

S0UP that s what they used to take along when they used to go hunting

uskah ok yAhahnekiia ya^tAhoye-h'hse kwA’lati

one only swallow of it he will not become tired all day

yah thahatuhkalyahke.
and won’t become hungry.

Indian Corn Bread

Indian com is shelled then ground into flour until it is very' One flour. Into a
large pan you sift this flour. Then you will put the flour into boiling water.
With the boiling water in there, you will add beans and mix together the
ingredients. Stir and make patties until it is solid and round. It should boil and
cook one hour. Then now, take your loaves out and preserve the soup. That’s
what they used to take along when they would go hunting. Only one swallow of
it and he would not become tired or hungry' all day long.

Told by Jonas Elm to Morris Swadesh (1939)

Transcribed and Taped by Maria Hinton (11-13-81)

Onzste? Kukwitene Latiy/thos

Wa^akway/tho o-nzste? kukwitene, tho ne- o n/ wa?akwa-y*ke kanznakene tho ne-

o n/ wa?akwakelu. Tho ne- o-nz wa^akwastathate on/ste? okhale? wa^akwatlznuni,

kanyo o-nz wa^kwatl/nu m, Wa^akwanzstaluko k/s tat kaye nikatsh<Hake on/ste?,

tho ne- o n/ /yenastya l/, otsistake yutakw/, ohkalaT Tho ne- on/ tho y/sa ti

kanatsyaku okhale'? on/ste*?, tho ne- o n/ ztyob'hz ta t kaye n/kahwistaekc Alyolrh/.

Tho ne- o n/ zsesna?tsyahla ko, tho ne- on/ Ahsn/stohale?, tho ne- on/ nalc^

zhsesn/slohale9, tho ne- on/ nale^ zseslihahte?, tho ne- o n/ tztyoLihz tsi? niyo le

/watak/hlo kewe. Tho ne- on/, /shnekakitslo'?, Ne- tho ne- y/hsawahlu-fi' okhale^

tyohyotsis. Tho ne- o n/ Ahslihahte'? tsi? niyo le /ka li, tho ne- on/, zsnatsya'lz

osahe ta kwah /kali. Tho ne- on/ tho y/sa li ohnekah' ke tho ne- o ny, zhsatekhu nj'


Onzste'? Kukwite ne Latiy/thos

Cora is Planted in the Spring

Wakway/tho onzste? kukwhene tho ne- on/ wa^akwayake? kanznake

e planted Cora In the spring then now we cut it In the fall

tho n£- o n/ wa^akwa kehlu-

Tho ne- o ny, wa^akwastathahte? onzste? okhale*?
then now we husked the corn. Then now we dried it the com and

wa akwatlz nu ni kanyo on/ wa^akwatl/nuni wa^akwanzstaluko k/s tat

we made corn soup and when we make the corn soup we shelled corn ust about

kaye nikalse take on/stc'? tho ne- o n/ zyena'hsyalz, otsista ke yutakw/, ohka laT
our quarts of com then now put the kettle on, use ashes taken from fire.

Th6 ne- otl/\ tho yAsa'ti kana'tsyaku okhale9 o'nASte'?, tho ne' otla AtyolihA
Then now there you mix it in the kettle with the com, then now let it boil

tat kaye n/Jcahwista'eke AtyohhA. Tho ne- otla Asehsna^tsyahla ko

for about four hours continue to let boil. Then now take the kettle off the stove

tho ne' otla AhsnAStohale'?, tho ne' otia nale'? Ahsehsnohale*? tho ne- o-ila nale
and then wash the com, now then again wash the com now then again!

Asehslihahte*? tho ne- otla tAtyoliliA tsi'? niyo’le Awata^kAlilo'kewe.

boil it again now' then let it boil again until all the ashes are washed out.

Tho ne- onA Ashnekakitslo0 tho ne- yAsa^wahluti okhale'? tyo hyolsis tho
Now then you start your soup now then you put your meat and salt in now-

ne' o'ua Ahslihahte tsi'? niyo'le Aka'll, tho ne- oila Ahsna^tsya lA osahe'ta
then boil your soup again until done, now then put your kettle of beans

kwah Akah', tho ne' otla tho yAsati ohnekakli'ke tho ne' otla
until done, now' then you will pul them into your soup, now' then eat.

My, isn’t it good?

Cora is Planted In the Spring

We planted com in the spring. Then we cut it in the fall and husked the com.
Then we dried the com and made com soup. To make com soup we would shell just
about four quarts of com. Then we put the kettle on. We would use ashes taken
from the fire. Then you mix it with the com in the kettle. Then, let it boil about
four hours. Take the kettle off the stove and wash the com. Wash the com again
and let it boil again. Let it boil again until all the ashes are washed out. Now you
start your soup. You put your meat and sail in. Boil your soup again until it is
done. Put your kettle of beans on until they are done. Put the beans into the soup,
Now eat, my isn’t it good'?

Told by Jonas Elm to Morris Swadish (1939)

Transcribed by Maria Hinton (1-24-80)


Tekatshe-take tsi9 nrku yo^kAhlahm lu oy/te9 o9k/la okhale9 kaye nikatshe take

ukwehuwehneha on/ste t/hsyeste9 tho ne- on/ Aslihahte9 tat na tewashA rainit tsi9 niyole

Awatla9wistotshi tho ne- onA AsnAStohale9 tsi*> niyo le Awata^kAhlo kewA tho ne- on/

AsnAStathahle'? tsi9 niyole9 nA thoha nukwa- a-ustathA. Tho ne- on/ Asethe9tslum

teye9wahlatitakhwa Ahsatste9 tokatkA yethe9takhwa okhale9 ahsisat Ahsatste9 kanyo- o’nA

Ahsethe9tslisane9 tho ne- onA Asa wake kalo- tsi*> niyo-le Asehselhuni ukwehuwehneha

osahe-ta tAhsyeste9 tsi^ kayA o-n/ yo h akte nikahhatu tho ne- otia- tyolih/iise ohne-kanus

tho yAsahneku-ti. Tho ne- o-n/, Asehselhu'm tho nAwa-sheke9 tsi9 niwa-se ne9n

yuteksahlahkwa atsi*? teyohyAhkala ke nA katASU-sheke9 tho ne- otla tsi9 tyolihAse

yAsahselhu-ti tatkA akilu9 Asna ta loku n/> tekni tAkahwista eke tsi9 nahe.

Com Bread

Tekatshe take tsi9 niku yo9kAhlahnrlu o-y/te9 o9kA'la okhale9 kaye nikatshetake
It takes two Quarts of hard wood ashes and four Quarts

ukwehu wehneha onASte l/hsyeste9 tho ne- on/ Aslihahte9 tat natewashA minit
of Indian com or maize mixed together and then boil it for about twenty minutes

tsi^ niyo le a walla ?wistotshi tho ne- on/ AsnAStohale9 tsi9 niyo’le Awala9kAhlo kewA tho
or until the hulls come loose and wash the com thoroughly until the ashes are

ne- on/ AsnASlathahtc9 tsi9 niyo le9 nA thoha nukwa- a-ustathA. Tho ne- onA
washed and let stand for a while to dry. Then you start to grind

Aselhc'hslu ni leye9wahlalilakhwa Ahsatstc9 tokalk/, yethe9takhwa okhale9 ahsi sat Ahsatstc9,

the Hour maybe use a meat grinder or a mortar and a pestle,
kany6- onA Ahsethe9tslisane9 tho ne- otia Asa wake kalo- tsi9 niyo le Asehselhuni.
when you are finished grinding, use sieve and sift until the flour is fine.

Ukwehuwehneha osaheta tAhsyeste9 ysi9 kayA o na yo'li akte nikalihatu

Mix the Indian beans which have been cooked separately

tho ne- o'nA tyolihAhse ohnekanus tho yAsahneku titho tho ne- onA Asehselhu ni
and boihng water has been poured into‘it. Make into loaves

tho nAwasheke9 tsi9 niwa-se ne9n yuteksahlahkwa atsi9 teyohyAhkala'ke nA katASU'sheke9

about the size of a dinner plate and about two inches thick

tho ne- o-nA tsi9 tyolihAse yASsahselhu ti, tatkA aki lu9 Asna ta- loku nA
and drop gently into this kettle of boihng water, take these loaves out

tekni tAkahwistaeke tsi9 nahe.

in about two hours.

Corn Bread

It takes two quarts of hard wood ashes and four quarts of Indian com or maize to make
Com Bread. You mix the com and ashes together and boil them for about twenty
minutes or until the hulls come loose, then wash the com thoroughly until the ashes are
washed out and then let it stand for a while to dry. Then you start to grind the flour,
maybe use a meat grinder or a motar and a pestle. When you are finished grinding, use
a sieve and sift until the flour is fine. Mix the Indian beans which have been cooked
separately and add water which has been boiling, to it. Make into loaves about the size
of a dinner plate and about two inches thick and drop gently into this kettle of boihng
water, take these loaves out in about two hours.

Told by Oscar Archiquete (2-10-39)

Transcribed by Maria Hinton (1-20-76)


Tsyani MatkA.. . , . . .Jefferson Baird

(John Denny)

Family.. Ida Baird

LahsAnow/v Okhale? LaomrnawA .... : . .. Guy Elm

(The Big Shot and the Pipe)

Wahonasku'ti LaotsenA shtiha KohsrtA

(as ; , . . . Mrs. Ben Doxtator
(Lost His Animals, Horse)
t %

Tsistokahtahne , ...i j ;.. Guy Elm

(Lightening Bugs)
'•••••• m®.;.
Lonatiylo Wa7thyatlane * ♦ * . Wesley Thomas
(His Friend He Met)

WahakwatellahnitA Skanutanuwe . . . %...... Wesley Thomas

(An Owl Scared You)

Lukwehuwe LatoTats .... Simon Webster

(Young Men Went Hunting) :: . ..

Yakonuhso ta pTakowifayA ARsa Na^tehaosliyaku . . Robert Hill

(She Lived In This House, She Had a Three Years Old Child)

Tewakwata ses Yohoka'lAte . . . . . . ..Oscar Archiquette

(Revolving Door)
fill mm
?><. $$$&

Otsihkwa.... Lafayette Webster


LahnanatayAtosko . . . .V, . . . . Oscar Archiquette

(Big Potato Planter)
La^slu ni Tehotithale Lukwehuwe.Ida Blackhawk
(White Man Talking to an Oneida)

LatAnihas . Chauncey Baird

(He Borrows) *

Lukwe Lato lats .. Chauncey Baird

(A Man Hunts) y

Lattokha Laotse'hA eThal .. . .... Chauncey Baird

(His Smart Dog)
->y% \

Lu kwe Lonolu sehe- . M.f L §.Ida Blackhawk

(This Man is Lazy)
: I 1 I:' -..
if I i 'fiiif ' fff,] ff^ffffiiffiififfiff '.
Shakokwafani La?ohwa*tsHe , . Anonymous
(Inviting the Family)
>::: . ■ ' I|;:f:;:V • .

LahkotkA , ..... . . . . Harrison Smith

lli:;iiillllll§ 1 ilMIlS?'! ■' !;?
Latikw/n/(hsc Okhale'’ La’siu nj . . ... . T. . . John Skenandore
(Chief and White Man)
/■'): .’i*. if ■
</„->' - W*
Latolatsko . J.111§I11§ ... . Guy Elm
(Great Hunter)
$5&r.* % • . .• • ... •• •:.

§4 4 m , ' Wk >4
:'A' •> i- :-%S fP|
%s i gig | >
i'... ■ ip ' m
$ ; m •I •- p| 's
Tsyani Mat La

Ne kaVkA Tsyani MatkA lowilayA tahkwe lukwe A Ut luwayatskwe. Katsa9 ok

nu tshutakahawr kaVkA A'Ut tshihaksa o9sluni latiksa^hu ha oskAnhne

lutnatayAhakwe. Lolinehlakwas kA ka9rkA o9sluni latiksashuha tsi? ka'filu A Ut

yatau te tsi9 uskah lotesto-slote9 laonu9aIolehke khale ooa wahuwali9wanutuse9

ka>ikA laksa oh nahte9 “Aoliwa tsi9 yataute ne- lotesto-slote-” WahA-lu9, “Ne- kwi

tS1? atwa?kAnha nakya^to'u”. Wahotinehlako ne o9slu-ni tsi9 thonihawrskla tsi9

niyot ne9n o9sluni.

Tsyani MatkA
John Denny

Ne kaVkA Tsyani MatkA lowilayA'tahkwe lukwe AUt luwayatskwe.

This man John Denny had a boy Aaron he was called.

Katsa9 ok nu tshutakahawr ka9i-kA AIaI tshihaksa

sometime when this Aaron was a boy

o9slu ni latiksashu ha oskAnhne lutnatayAhakwe.

white children he played with.

Lotinehlakwas kA ka9ikA o9slu- ni latiksashuha tsi9 ka9i kA A’lAt yatau te tsi9

They were wondering the white
children why Aaron always

uskah lotesto-slote9 laonu9alolehke khale on A

wore one feather on his hat, finally

wahuwali9wanu’tuse9 ka9ikA laksa oh nahte9

they asked, why he always

Aolrwa tsi9 yatau te ne- lotesto-slote- WahA'lu9, “Ne- kwi tsi9

wore a leather. He said, “Because
atwa7L\nha nakya'To'tA”. WahotinehJa'ko ne o^sluni
I am an Indian”. These white children

tsi7 thonihawiskla tsi^ niyot ne7n o7slu'ni.

wondered why he was as white as they were.

John Denny

This man, John Denny, had a boy named Aaron. When Aaron was a boy he
played with white children. The white children wondered why Aaron always wore
a one feather on his had. Finally, they asked him and he said, “because I am an
Indian. These white children wondered why he was as white as they were.

Told by Jefferson Baird to Dennison Hill (3-20-39)

Transcribed by Maria Hinton (3-12-75)

I-yatleha, wa-tlu9nateha-osliyaku, sala-we la-otslunyakwah yotlatsyukwA', lona9khw/u

wahisokwawishu kati9 wi tsi9 ni-yole wa9thash/-tu. W^h/lu9 laksa, “yah ne-


kohsat/s tekA. Takhnimus yuthnAsotalhosta nA kwi kohsa-t/s tsi9 ita kya9totA-ne,

tho ne- o-nA Ahsahu-tu tsi9 niku Asksokwawishu kwah kanyo kohsa-t/s.”


I yatleha, wa"tlu9nateha-osliyaku, sala-we la-otslunyakwah yotlatsyukwA-,

My grandson, who is nine years, came home his clothes were tom,

Iona9khw/u wahisokwawishu kati9 wi tsi9 ni-yole wa9thash/-tu. Wa9h/lu9

he was mad so I whipped him until he cried. He said,

^a^csa> “yah ne' kohsa-t/s tekA. Takhnimus yuthnAsotalhosta nA kwi

the child did, I am a horse not. Buy me a harness then

kohsa-t/s tsi9 nA kya9totA-ne, tho ne- o n/ Ahsahu-tu tsi9 niku Asksokwawishu

a horse I will look like, then now you can all you want whip me

kwah kanyo kohsa-t/s”

just like a horse.”


My little grandson, who is nine years old, came home with torn clothes. He was
angry, so I took a switch and whipped him until he cried. He said “I am not a
horse! Buy me a harness then I will look like a horse and then you’ can whip me

Told by Mrs. Ida Baird to LaFront King

Transcribed by Maria Hinton (3-31-78)
LahsAnowA okhale*? LaonunawA

Wahu nise’ lahAnowa mi washakotkittho Atwa?kanha lolilole kanunihwA. Yah

nuwA tu lehotkattho lihka ayakohlhlake ne?n kanunahw*.. Ne- kali? wi- isi? 0n/.

yusalawe? Isi? thohtAli ok™ wahluni „e?„ kanunahwA. Tsi? „a sahakhWAtane Iho

nukwa yusahatawyahle? akilu? ne?n tkanuhsowan/ke. Na kwi wahalatyu?kwala?ase

laonu nawA iho oe? ooa lahatahsawA wahahlotA a?e myoyu kwahJes. Kwah yalcA? tho

nu nikahaw." iu tahatke?lolA nc?n loya la nunha? wahalye lk kwah nyoh

waboinsya Ju ne? ne?n LahsAnowam, ko. Na ki ok kwi sahakehlc’

yatuhsahanatsyahkwe? ohnekanus iho nyusahatakhc? tho thutahohnekuti Isi? nil

myoyu kwalote? sotsi? lahatuneke nc?n IahSAnowanA'ko Isi? wahuwahnekoslawe?

IcynlkalAhiukhwatsiake yakA? U-telu? ne- kali? wi watwathyanyakhu tsi? Utelu okhna?


LahsAnowA okhale*? LaonirnawA

Big Shot and His Pipe

Wahn-mse? lahAnowa nA washakolkattho Atwa?k4nha lolilo le kanunahwA.

Long ago, this big shot saw these Indians, they were smoking a pipe.

tebMkiUbo 0bka ayakohlolake ne?n kanunahwA. Ne- kali? wi- tsi?

He had never seen a person smoke a pipe. “ So then when he

omi yusa lawe? tsi? thohtAli okna wahlu ni ne?n kanunahwA.

Tsi'? nA
hnally amved again at his home then he made a pipe. When now

sahakhwA-tane tho nukwa yusahalawyahle'? aki lu*? ne*?n IkanuhsowanA'ke.

he finished eating, in there he went I’d say
the living room (lit the big room)

Na kwi wahatatyu9kwata9ase laonu'nawA tho ne9 om\ tahatahsawA wahahlo’tA a9e
Now then, with tobacco he filled his pipe, then he started to smoke a lot

niyoyukwahles. Kwah yakA9 tho nu nikahawr nA

of smoking went on it was foil of smoke. Just they say then he looked in, his

tahatke9to tA ne9n loya ta- nunha9 wahatye-L\ kwah nyoh wahotitsya-lume9

assistant or butler, he was surprised, it looked like they have

ne9n LahsAnowanA’ko. Na ki ok kwi sahakehte9 yatuhsahana-tsyahkwe9 ohnekanus tho

afire this “Big Shot . Immediately he went back and picked up a pail of water and

nyusahatakhe9 tho thutahohnckuti tsi9 nu niyoyirkwalote9 so-tsi9 tahatumeke

ran back then he just threw where it was smoking because he was so surprised

ne9n lahsAnowanA'ko tsi9 wahuwahnekoslawe9 teyutkalAhlukhwatslake

this the Big Shot that they would throw water on him on the rocking chair

yakA9 lA’telu9 ne- kati9 wi watwathyanya-khu tsi9 Lvtelu

they say, he was sitting the runners broke on the rocking chair while he was

okhna9 yahasha'tane.
sitting there and he fell backwards.

Big Shot and His Pipe

Long ago, this big shot saw these Indians smoking a pipe. He had never seen anyone
smoke a pipe before, so when he got home he decided he would make himself a pipe
He filled his pipe with tobacco and he started to smoke. A lot of smoke was coming
out of his pipe. His assistant or butler looked in the room and saw nothing but
smoke coming from his chair so he went and got a pail full of water and threw it on
him. The Big Shot was so surprised that someone would throw water on him. Then
the runners broke on his chair and he fell over backwards.

Told by Guy Elm (2-23-39)

Transcribed by Maria Hinton (9-13-79)
Wahonaskuti LaotsenA KohsatAS

uskah Otlatste? lukwe Yohaneskowanky luwayatskwe wahonasku-,,'- laolse-n/ kohsat/s.

H>o (sulakahawi kwah k* ne ok Uukunehse? laotis.enyshOha kalhowany-se. n,0

kwi nu nikutekhunyatha?. Kwah ok thya?teyotna(yestu ne?n Iatinakele? sy

Iaolitsenyshuha. Shakotilislaaai kAS kali? wi nc?n Iaolitsenyshuha. Kwah lonuhte?tsihu

15,9 "ikaWAn6 l/" m lwm laolsc “ Awatlislakale-lasted. Ony kwi (ho nyyyosnola.i?

Ashohnuksa. Yaulalok/htu astehtsi?, ony kwi ilelhe? (ahatawylyehse okhna? wahahtyti

washakoya?lisakha laotsen/, kwah kys yaky? ka? ok niyo le nyaha le okhale?

sahatahuhsalate? ne kA tho ki nu tyolistakalhe?. Tho kwi is,? ok nishu khale? on/ (ho

yalhohahu ko tho kali? lothahitakhe? (ho wa?thyatiane? takosihahk/ okhna? kwi

washokoli?wanu lu se? Yohaneskowanky wahylu? “washheyatkatbo ky akitsen/

kohsat/s?” Tahnu tetyuhuhtakwekune, wa?Hu? yaky,? ne “katsa? nukwa nyyh/tene?”

wahoswa lA yaky,? ne kwah ne?n Yohaneskowanky okhale? yaky? wi sah/lu?, “kale se

yah kA tesheyatkaltho akitsheay kohsat/s”. Saya?i lu? yaky? nu?uwa “otse- solsi?

yotetsat OH yyukhi ky.” on/ ki ok yaky? Iotukdhtu ne?n Yohaneskowanky kwah ok ky

nukwa- thya‘?thatkatkwilo'?okhune.

Wahonasku ti LaotsenA Kohsa Ias

Lost His Horses

uskah ullatste?
lu kwe YohaneskowankA luwayatskwe wahonasku ti- laotsenA
One time,
his man Yohaneskowank/ was his name, lost his animals

kohsat/s. Tho nu tsutakahawr kwdh kAS ne ok thikundhse? laotisenAshuha
horses. In those times they used to just graze around their animals

kalhowan/se. Tho kwi nu nikutekhunya tbaT Kwah ok thya?teyotnatyestu

in the deep forest. There is where they ate. Just them were mixed together

ne?n latinikele? sa IaotitsenAshuha. Shakotilistdni kAS kati? wi ne?n

the neighbors too with their animals. They had a bell on so then they’d know

IaotitsenAshuha. Kwah lonuhte?tsihu tsi? nikawAnotA,

t£‘t laulha laotsenA
their own animals. He was familiar with the sound of a bell
if it was his animals

Awatlistakaleiasle?. On/ kwi tho nyAyosnolati? Ashohnuksa

bell ringing. Now then quickly, he would hurry over there and get him

Yautatok/htu astehlsi?, on/ kwi ilelhc? tahatawAlyehse okhna? wahahlA'li

Sunday morning, now then he wanted to go for a ride then he left

washakoya?tisakha laotse'n/, kwih Icas yakA? ka? ok niyo le nyahale okhale?

to look for his his animal, just every', it’s said, little ways he went and

sahatahuhsatale? ne Ica tho ki nu tyolistakalhe?. Tho kwi isi? ok nishu khale?

he would hsten again is that over there that bell ringing. So as time went by and

on/ tho yathohahu ko- tho kali?

lothahitakhe? tho wa?thyatlane?
now he ran into this road, there then as he walked along the road there he met

Takosihahk/ okhna? kwi washokoli?wanutuse? YohaneskowankA wahAlu?

1 axosihahkA so then he asked her this YohaneskowankA, he said,

‘Svasheyatkatho kA akitse n/ kohsat/s”. Tahnu tetyuhuhtakweku ne, wa?ilu?

Have you seen my animals the horses?” And she was hard of hearing, she said,

^ “ nUlaV" nyAh/tene?” WahoswalA yakA? ne kwah ne?n

they say. Which way shall we go?” He was offended, they say, really angry

YohaneskowankA okhalc? yakA? wi sah/ lu?,

“kale se yah Ica tesheyatkatlho
Yohancskowank/ and they say that again he said, “I’m saying, haven’t you seen

akjlshc-nA Itohsa-IAS?" Saya’Hu? yak/,’ nu?dwa “else sA-tsi? yotctsat

my animals the horses? She said again they say, this time "Oh dear, it's so frightening
16 t Ayukhi ky,.”
OnJ, ki ok yak/,’ lotukdhtu ne’n Yohaneskowank/, kwah
someone may see us.” Immediately, they say, he went on this jus(

ok kA nukwa- thya^thatkatkwilo^okhir
no direction, he went away blinking his eyes.

Lost His Horse

One lime this man by the name of YohaneskowanW u;* u _

they used to let their animals graze around in the forest Thai ° ?°Se times
all of the neighbors animals ate their too His animals had a be I" m ^ ? a°d

thw mdch^M^theiT This ^ % ^d ^ W°Uld 0^°^

•» i.r« hi. “.i: ™: “ *•

horses?” She said again “Oh deaf ir's so'fiirtlf8'’ haVC° ‘ y°U ““ my 3111111215 thc
Immediately, they say he wen. on his way in jus. any direction, bhnking his eyes.

Told by Mrs. Ben Doxtator to Guy Elm (2-17-39)

Transcribed and Taped by Maria Hinton (10-13-80)


Wahu mse yakA'? lu’kwe sahohlAtyuhatih tahnu tetyokales tho uni Ashatukohte? tsi*>

yeya^tatali tahnu wi thohtluhni. Kanatd ke yehedeskwe^tho kati?

tutahuwan/JiIonkwani otsitsi on/, tutahaht/Wr o ya lonat/,lo tutahoya9tita‘?aste'?

okhale^ kwi onA ki7 sahatitahko1? tusabyatekhahsi . Kwah kati'? tbo nu nj' shJe9 tsi?

yeya'fratali on/, yahatkattho wahatyel/', kwa^nyo tho takatsisto ta ne okhale?

walelhe? kwah ki sa a^nyoh washakolcA- ne^n atyaniuhs]a lashu ne taka lane

yowisto wahotetshA on/i kyok wi1 ne' tutahamtskwakwe? wabateko kwah tsi?

na'hehokat utAna^kelahte yusahatkattho on/, saha akta katsistutine. Kwah kA?

niyo lc yusahalakhe wahatyeL\- n/, nAhke ohA’tu nukwa tutakatsistotahne. On/

kwi yah teshonuhte^ kalsa^ nukwa usahatekwahte. Kwah kati? tsyok nukwa

nyeshotakhenu okhale? ona skaydtat otsistoka'frane la^nyuke wa?otskwanAtake

okhna9 kwi ne- tho yahatya'huti wahayena- wahatye lA ne otsistoka^tana? ne-


Lightening Bugs

Wahum'se yakA9 lukwe sahohlAtyuhatih tahnu tetyo kales tho uni

Long ago they say, a man was on his way home and it was dark there also

Ashatukohte9 tsi9 yeya9tatali tahnu wi thohtluhni. Kanalake

he will have to pass the cemelary and you know he was afraid. Green Bay

yeheleskwe7 tho kati^ tutahuwanAhlonkwain otsitsi oha tutahaht/ti'
he had been there then he had been given treats of beer then he came home

o ya lonatA’lo tutahoya^tita^aste^ okhale*? kwi on/i ki^ sahatitahko^

another friend gave him a ride back and then finally he got off

tusahyatekhahsi. Kwah kati^ tho nu nishle'? tsi*? yeya'hatali

they each went their own way. Just then there as he ^walked by the cemetary

on/ yahatkattho wahatye'Lv kwa^nyo tho takatsislo ta ne okhale?

now he looked over there he noticed just like there a light came on and

wa lelhe1? kwah ki sa a^nyoh washakokA' ne^n atyanluhsla lashu ne takalane

he thought, golly it too seems that he saw the ghosts on his back,

yowisto wahotetsfiA oha kyok wi' ne- tutahanitskwakwe7 wahate ko

he felt a chill he became frightened now then immediately he jumped up and ran

kwah Isi'? na'hehokat utAna^kedahte yusahatkattho o^ saha akta katsistutine.

just as fast as he could he looked back now very close the light w'as.

Kwah Ica9 niyo le yusahatakhe wahatye'l/’- ha nAhke oh/.‘tu nukwa

It was some distance he ran he noticed that now in front of him

tutakatsistotahne. OnA kwi yah teshonuhte7 katsa^ nukwa

now was the light. Now then he didn’t know what direction

usahate kwahte. Kwah kati^ tsyok nukwa nyeshotakhe nu

to run to escape from these lights. Just then in all directions he was running

okhale'? onA skaya lal otsistoka'hane la^nyu ke wa^otskwanA take okhna'?

and now one of them lightening bugs on his nose landed then

kwi ne' tho yahatya'huti wahayena' wahatye lA'ne olsistoka'hana'? ne'

of course there he grabbed it and caught it, he was surprised, a lightening bug is

what has been frightening him.
Lightening Bug

A long time ago, a man was on him way home from Green Bay where he had
£“ *L7h ,rea,S °flhbeer- ««' a ride home with a ffiend and as soon as .hey
f liohTrr,^^ ih,elr fparale ways' As he walked by ‘be cemetary he noticed
light come on and he thought he was seeing ghosts He became friohten^ a

started run, but he could see the Ughts in Ifry

on his nose and he grabbed it and was suprised to find out that it was a
lightening bug that had frightened him.

Told by Guy Elm (9-21-39)

Transcribed and Taped by Maria Hinton (12-2-80)

LonatAlo Wa^thyatlane

Wa'^thyatlane'? TekaluhkwihkA okhale'? TsyohkA wahAlu? yakA7 Tsyohk/',, “Shekoli,

lahu tsi. Tho ne^ o n/, waholi^wamrtuhse ahohni nu kanheksatXhsa lotya?tahwitu

ne^n TekaluhkwihkA wahAlu'? yakA'? “Ne kwah ok ta?tetyatatu, yutkuhsolokta

Ateskii. Ne yakA? alya ne wah/iu tsi*? lota^klahkwAnine yoshuweni kali*? yak/,?

wi lakuksne ne?n Tsyohk/,.


LonatAlo Wa?thyatlane
His Friend He Met

Wa?thyatlane? TekaluhkwihkA okhale? TsyohkA, walt/Mu? yak/,? Tsyohk/',, “Shekoli

They met was his name and Joe, he said this Joe, “hello

lahu-tsi. Tho ne’ on/i waholi?wamrtuhse ahohnrnu kanhehsatAhsa

mgger. Then he now asked him to buy from him silk

lotya?tahwitu ne?n TekaluhkwihkA. WahA'lu? yak/,'? “Ne kwah ok

shirt he was wearing this Tekalukwihk/',. He said, they say, “We’ll just

tha?tetsyatatu, yutkuhsolokta Atesku.” Ne, yakA? alya ne wah/,lu

trade, a mask you wi]] give me ” Thatj they say ig wfay hg ^

tsi*? IotaklakwAmhne
yoshuweni kati? wi lakuksne ne?n TsyohkA.
that he had had small
pox, he had pock marks then, on his face this Joe.

His Friend He Met

TekaluhkwihkA and Joe, said this Joe to the other man “Shekoli
Lahu Is I which means “Hello Nigger (now they say Black)”. Then now he asked
im iT he could buy his pretty silk shirt he was wearing this Tekaluhkwihk/.. He
said, they say, “what about only a trade for a mask, you will give me.” The
reason he said that was that Joe at one time had had small pox, so he had scars
on his lace.

Told by Wesley Thomas to Ida Blackhawk, (4-12-39)

Transcribed and Taped by fVj^-ia Hinton (3-23-81)
WahakwatelsahnitA Skanu9tanuwe9

TekatawAlyehakwe wi nr tshikenikAhtluha nA kati9 wahunise tyo9kaIau nA

swakahtAtyuhali. Wa9katye'lA tho wa9thohA'lehte skanu'Ttanu'we9 ohahakta okhna9

kwi ni tutakanitskwakwe wa9katcko inu nya9ktakhe nA oskanAha sakahtAti okhale9

nXhke tho tusahohA'Ielite9. Na ki ok ale9 wi sakate ko kwah tsi9 twakahtAti akta

nale9oskanAha sakahlA'ti okhale9 tusashohA'lehte tho nahatWAnayehle9 tsi9 ni'yol

ayesteliste. Ne kali9 tsi9 onA wakhehloli aknulha wa9Hu9, “Ne wi ne

skanu9tanu we9 wahyanutolyahte.”

WahakwatelsahnitA Skanu9lanuwe9
A Homed Owl Scared You

TekatawAlyehahkwe wi' ni' tshikenikAhtluha Na kati9 wahu nise

I used to travel that I did when I was young. Now then it was quite

tyo9kala-u nA swakahtAtyuhaU, wa9katye'lA tho wa9thohA'lehte skamAanuwe9

late at night that I’m going home, to my surprise there he screamed, homed owl

ohahikta okhna9 kwi ni tutakanitskwakwe wakateko i nu nyaktakhe nA

near the road then of course I jumped and took off, quite aways I ran

oskanAha sakahtAti okhale9 nAhke tho tusahohA'Iehte9. Na ki ok ale9 wi

when slower I walked now again there he hooted again. Immediately again

sakate ko kwah akta twakahtAti nale9 oskanAha sakahtA'ti okhale9

I took off, very close to my home again, slower I walked again

tusahohA lehte9 tho nahatWAnayehle9 tsi9 ni'yol ayesteliste. Ne kati9

he screamed, he changed his voice as though someone is laughing. So then
tsi^ O'DA wa^khehlob aknulh&, wa'h'iu'?, “Ne wi ne skanu'hantrwe'?
when now I told her my mother, she said, “That’s what you call homed owl

had a little fun with you”.

A Homed Owl Scared You .

I used to travel around quite a bit, when I was a young man. This time it was
quite late at night when I was going home. All of a sudden close by me, there
was a loud screeching, it was near the road, so I jumped and ran. I had gone
some distance when I started to walk and again he was there screeching.
Immediately again I took off, when I was getting near my house, I started to go
again at a slower pace, he was there again, this time he had changed his way to
like someone was laughing. Now then I was home, I told my mother about it and
she said, “That homed owl was just having a little joke on you”.

Told by Wesley Thomas to Ida Blackhawk (4-12-39)

Transcribed and Taped by Maria Hinton (3-23-81)

Lukwehu we Latoiats

uskah utlatste lanikAtluha9 wahatoiatha9 kalha ku tsi9 kati9 wi nyahaie9

lanuhtunyuhe9 nahte9 uhte ahaLi okhale9 to ubte niku ya9tAhawenase ne9n

* i

laolyo9ta, khale9 o'n/ wahatkatho tho kalyo9tayA skAhnaksA lanulotslahele9 onA

ka9i kA lukwe tho nyahoteyA'tuti9 Iahawi ne9n Iaohule9 iielhe9 ahalu'tat ne9n

skAhnaksA. Kwah ok otia lanuhtunyuhe9 nahte9 uhle'? Alatste ne9n ohwista khale9

o ila tho waha y/ ne9n Iaohule9. She ku lanulunyuhe9 nahte9 Alalste'nc tsi9 ni ku

ya^lAhawe na hse ne9n skAhnaksA laonehwa okhale9 oda wah/iu9 “khele9 kwi

tyoslehtakathne Akatita9 O ila ne- wahotelshA ne9n sk/imaksA kwah nok Ica

na9tutaya9WA-ne wahateko.

Lukwehu we Latoiats
Young Man Went Hunting

uskah utlatste lanikAtluha9 wahatoiatha9 kalha'ku tsi9 kati9 wi nyahaie9

One time a young man went hunting in the woods, as he wras going along

lanuhtunyuhe9 nahte9 uhte ahali okhale9 to uhte ni ku ya9tAhawenase

he was thinking, what should he kill and about how much he would get

ne9n laolyo9ta, khale9 onA wahatkatho tho kalyo9tayA skAhnaksA lanulotsldhele9

for his hide and now he saw there lay a body, a fox all curled up.

o nA ka9i kA lu kwe tho nyahotey/ tuti9 Iahawi ne9n Iaohule9. Iielhe9

Now this man there he went cautiously carrying it his gun. He wanted

ahalu tal ne9n skAhnaksA. Kwah ok o nA lanuhtunyuhe9 nahte9 uhte9 Alatste

to shoot the fox. He is still thinking what he will do with

ne?n ohwisla khale9 o'na tho wahay/ ne9n laohule9. Sheku lanutunyu’he9 nahte9
the money and now there he put down his gun. He’s still thinking what

Alatste ne tsi9 niku ya9lAhawenahse ne9n skAhnaksA laone hwa. okhale9 oela
he will use, how much he will gel for the fox’s lude. Finally, now

wahklu9 “khele9 kwi tyoslehtakathne Akatita9” OnA ne- wahotelsliA ne9n

he said, “I guess in the train i’ll ride”. Now he got scared the

skAhnaksA kwah nok kA na9tutaya9WAne wahateko.

fox and in a flash he was gone.

Young Man Went Hunting

One time a young man went hunting in the woods. While he was going he was
thinking what he should kill and about how much he would get for his hide.
Now he saw a fox lying there all curled up, so he went over there by him
cautiously. He was carrying his gun, he wants to shoot the fox, he is still
thinking about what to do with the money. How much he will get for the fox’s
hide. Finally, he said, “I guess I’ll ride the train”. Now the fox was scared and
in a flash he was gone.

Told by Simon Webster to Tillie Baird

Transcribed by Maria Hinton (44-12-79)
Yakonuhsdta YakowilayA AhsA Na7tehaosli'yaku

Wahunise7 yakA7 yakonuhsota yakA7 kwi yakowilayA ahsA na7tehoasliyaku onA

wahanuhwetha7 washakoli7wanutuse lonulha, wa7h/'lu7 laksa, “Katsa ny/diA-we,

yotekha on/ AwahswA7” yah kiw le7yakokweni ahuwahlo'h okhale7 sah/'lu7,

“katsa nyAhA'we onA tak6s Awanitskluti”, yah ki ale7 wi' te7yakokweni


Yakonuhso ta Yakowi layA AhsA Na7tehaosliyaku

She lived in this House, She had a three year old child

Wahuni'se7 yakA7 yakonuhso ta yakA7 kwi yakowila yA

Long ago, they say she lived in this house. It’s said, too, she had a child,

£hsA na7tehoash yaku o nA wahanuhwetha7 washakoli7wanutu'se lonulha,

three years of age. When he went to bed he asked her his mother,

wa7h/lu7 laksa, “Katsa nyAhA'we, yotekha o'ilZ Awa'hswA7”

he said, this child, “where does it go, the fire when it bums itself out7”

yah kwi te7yakokwe-ni ahuwahlo'h okhale7 sah/'lu7, “katsa nyAhA'we o n/

she wasn’t able to tell him, and again he said, ‘'where does it go when

tako's Awanitsklu ti”, yah ki ale7 wi' te7yakokwe ni ahuwahlo'h.

cats spit?”, again then she wasn’t able to tell him.

She lived in this House, She had a three year old child

Long ago, they say she lived in this house. It’s said, too, she had a child, three
years of age. When he went to bed, he asked his mother, “where does the fire go
when it bums itself ouL She wasn’t able to tell him, and again he asked “where
docs it go when cats spit7” Again, she wasn’t ablt to tell him.

Told by Robert Hill to Tillic Baird (1939)

Transcribed and Taped by Maria Hinton (7-31-60)
Tewakwatas6s YohokiiAte
Revolving Door

Yah te’yu-nise? wa?lhotuhAtsy6hse kanattike yahtHe? „e tsi1? ol ok nihte’

tholi way/, yolihowanw Tho lsi7 lelyutya’toJehtakhwa? iukwe kali'?

wahokwahte"? ahowAnakala-tate. Nfr kali? tsi7 0-nA iho yaha „ewe tkake-.ohse

nukwa nu tahne. O n/ kwt wahahAle latwAnakalatals yahalawyahte’ (ahnii ne?n

lewahkwata ses tail yonhoka'Ute. Tsi7 o dA kanusku nukwa ya’tha-ta-ne’

okhna? tsi? ynsahatkallho wahalye U ha' urn ne- tahatawyahle tsi? yonhokalate?

ne7n lewahkwaiases wahatye l/ ne’n lonatA'hS tho nr wahaya’talatye’ tsi’

lewahkwatasfe aisle ne- nukwa ya’tusahatdne tsi’ kay/ rlelhe’ kaniisku

nukwa yahalawyahte’ Ne- kali’ whsi’ ya’ka.o-kAne yah ne nuwA-.u

tauhkwalasehseke’ 1st’ yonhoka Ule. ne aolrwa wahono lu yahalawyahte.

Tesakata ses YonhokaDte

Revolving Door

Yah teyu nise

wa’lhotuhutsyohse Kanat4'ke yahile netsi’ «yok nahte’
Not too long ago
he wanted Green Bay to go because different things

thoIrwayA. yolihowanA
tho Isi? tetyutatya^tolehtakhwa?. Lukwe kali?
he had to do. Important business
there at the court house. Man then

wahokwahtc? ahowAnakala tats,

Ne katr> tho yaha newe tkake tohse nukwa
he invited to interpret for him.
So then there they arrived eastside from

entrance N™ ilT' lalWAnakala lals yahalawyahte lahnu ne’n

entrance. Now then he went first the interpreter he entered and i, was

tewahkwatases tsi? yonhokdlAte. Tsi7 o'iu kanusku nukw£ ya^tha ta ne7
revolving the door. Then now on the inside he stood

okhna9 tsi1? yusahatkattho wahatyelA ne- tho tahat£wy'ahtc tsi? yonhokalAte

then as he looked back he was suprised there he entered by the door

ne?n tewahkwatases wahatyei/ ne?n lonatA'lo tho ne- wahaya'^talatye'?

that goes around he was suprised that his friend confined going along

tsi'? tewahkwata ses atste? nukwa ya^tusahatane tsi? ka y/- rlelhe?

as it turned around outside is where he was standing again the one that wanted

kanusku nukwa yahataw7ahteT Ne- kati^ wi tsi? ya^katokAne yah ne-

inside to enter. So then they finally found oul,

n^WA-tu tehotkatthu laukwataseshseke tsi^ yonhokalAte. Ne- aoliwa

never had he seen to be going around a door. That’s the reason

wahono lu yahatahwyahte.
he couldn’t enter through that revolving door.

Revolving Door

Not too long ago, this man wanted to go to Green Bay on some very' important
business. It was at the court bouse he had to go, so he invited this friend to go
along and interpret for him.

They entered on the east side of the building, where there was a revolving door,
the interpreter went in first and he looked back, his friend was coming but as the
door went around, he continued on back outside. He was the one who had the
business to take care of. Well, it was finally found out that he had never seen a
revolving door before.

Told by Oscar Archiquette to Floyd Lounsbury, (2-1-39)

Transcribed and Taped by Maria Hinton, (4-4-78)

Ya'heholiwakhe ka’i-kX labiu m' kwah akweku AhalPwanutu nohahohte9 halin

yah nahte9 teVaslak Ahali’wanu tu, wahlPwanutu ka9jk/ otsihkwa9 nahte9 ne,n

ukwehuwehneha9 kuwa-yits ‘'butlon”. VWkiW o(sihkwa9, 0khale9 wah/,u,

nahle9 kali? ne kaVk/ kuwa-yits wa9kilu9 otsihkwa. Nahte9 ne ka?i k/ ne9n

otsihkwa’, ka’iloi ycy/thos nahohlc’, wa’kilu’ 0tsihkwa9 oni n/,9 „e- ok nek/t’

yo’nhihtole’ otsihkwa’ wa’kna ttihkwe’ okhale’ wahalnatsakalatite’ wahaknaiithsc

lasnii ke tsi’ iohtsyakwe’nuni wahAlu’ nahle’ ne- ka’iioi wa’ldlu’ otsihkwa’

okhna^ kwa^nyo yah tehonuhweu.


Ya^teholiwakhe kaVk/ Ia?slirni kwah akwe-ku Ahali^wanu tu

He was a joker
this white man just about everything he would ask

ne9n nahbht^ hatin yah nahte? te^wastak Ahali^wanu-tu Id*?,

all kinds of foolish even if it makes no sense he will ask.

Wahali’wanuiu ka’ik/ otsihkwa nahte9 ne9n ukwehuwehneha’ kuwa-yits

He asked about this button what (hen in Oneida do you call it,

wa^krlu?, “otsihkwa”, wah/lu?, Nahte^ kali'? ne- ka^ik/ kuwa yats?”

I said, “button”, he said, “What then is this called?”

wa^ki lu9, “otsihkwa”, okhale? wah/rlu?,

Nahte? ne- ka?i'k_A ne?n otsihkwa,
I said, “button”, again he said,
“What is this the button,

ka?i-Lk yey/thos nahohle?” Wa?kilu?, “otsihkwa ” Oni ru? ne-

hjS pIanl,ne kjnd ” I said, “button.” Also that is

oknc9 ihi kA yo?nhahlote?, “otsihkwa,” wa?knatuhkwc okhale?

how about that with roots, “otsihkwa,” I called it again

wahtiiAtsakalat&te7 wahaknaluhse lasnu ke tsi7

he raised his arm he showed me his hand that

lotsyakwe7nunI wahAlu7, “Nahte7 ne' ka7iL\,”

his hand was doubled into a fist, he said, “What is this,”

wa7krlu7 “otsihkwa,” okhna7 kwa7nyo yah tehonuhwe u,

I said, otsihkwa, then it semed that he w'as displeased about it.


This white man was a joker with just about everything. He would ask all kinds
of foolish questions even if it made no sense. He asked about this button. He
asked “What do you call it in Oneida?” I said “button”. He said “Then what is
this called?” I said “button” again. He said “What is this the button, this planting
kind7 I said “otsihkwa.” Also, “That is how about that with roots7” “Otsihkwa”, I
called it again. He raised his hand and showed me that it was doubled into a fist.
He said What is this? I said “otsihkwa”. Then it seemed that he was
displeased about it.

Told by Lafayette Webster to Morris Swadesh (1939)

Transcribed and Taped by Maria Hinton (4-4-76)


Lukwehuwe wahaiuke9 uhka9 ok nahohte9 kwah rk/ lahAtawy/hu ohnana ta

waieLhe9 kati9 wi Atwatye'Uhte9 tahyatatkA Aholi9wamrtirse9 to nrku Ayelhoioke9

ne?n ohnana ta9 ne9n kwah tkaye'li yah kati9 wi te9yaunisheu okna9 wa9thyatatkA

nA ki9 ok wrwaholi9wanuiu-se9, wah/iu9, ‘io nrku Ayelhoioke9 ne9n ohnana ta9

ne9n kwah tkaye'li” WaliAlu9, ne9n lay/thosko “ne- yoyanle9 kwah ne9 tho tsi9


Big Potato Planter

Lukwehu we waha luke9 uhka9 ok nahohte9 kwah rkA lahAtawy/hu

An Oneida man he heard someone very good planter

ohnana ta waielhe9 kati9 wr Atwatye'Uhte9 tahyatatkA

potato he thought so for the first time they are going to meet

Aholi9wanu’tu-se9 to niku Ayelhoioke9 ne9n ohnanala9 ne9n

he will ask him how many they will cover the potatoes the

kwah tkaye h yah kati9 wf te9yaunisheu okna9 wa9thyatatkA

right away so it wasn’t long before they met.

Na ki9 ok wr waholi9wanutuse9, wah/iu9 ,Lto nrku Ayelhoioke9

So now right away he asked him, he said “How many do you cover

ne9n ohnana ta ne9n kwah tkayeii?” WahAiu9 ne9n lay/thosko

of potatoes is really right?” He said, the big planter,

“ne- yoyanle9 kwah ne9 tho tsi9 ok.”

“It is good the way it’s so.”

Big Potato Planter

An Oneida man heard about someone who was a very good potato planter. The
first time he was going to meet him he thought he would ask him how many
potatoes to cover would be the right way. So it wasn’t long before they met.
Right away he asked him “How' many potatoes to cover would be the right w'ay.
The big planter said, “It is good the way it is so”

Told by Oscar Archiquette to Floyd Lounsbury

Transcribed by Maria Hinton (2-10-76)

La^sluni Tehotithale Lukwehuwe

uskah utlatste labiu m tehotithale lukwehu we, tho He? lukwe. WahvHu? la?slunf

sattokas Ica tsi? kwah la^nikuhlaksA tsi? nihaya^to u thi lcX Ihle, wah/iu?

lukwehu we, yah ni tehiyAteh la?nikuhlaksA.

La^slu’ru Tehotithale Lukweh we

White man talking to an Oneida.

uskah utlatste'? La?slum tehotithele lukwehuwe tho Me1?

One time W'Tiite man was talking to an Oneida he walked by

lukwe. WahA'lu'? la^slu ni sattokas kA tsi? kwah la^nikuhlaksA tsi*?

a man. He said the white man, “have you noticed, like the devil that

mhaya^to tA thi k/ ihle. WaliAlu? lukwehu we, yah ni tehiyAteh

he looks like that one walking?” he said, the Oneida’ man, “I don’t know

the devil”.

White Man Talking to an Oneida

lmf * whlle man was taUd"g >0 M Oneida, he walked by a man. The white

by. He said,
He SaidVethy0nn°Ted’ ''ke “I‘hedon’t
the Oneida man d6Vilknow
,ba‘ the
l00ks kke lhat is

Told by Ida Blackhawk, (2-1-39)

1 ranscribed by Maria Hinton, (2-20-80)

Lu kwe laweskwamhe’ ahataniha tehanuhsane 1(a, o’walu’ okhalc'' ohttAna ta

wahataAni. Okhna7 sbayatat lukwe wa7hA lu7," ne kali7 Ica yah nuwAtu

thusakatkattho. Okhna7 wa7hA |u7” yah ki7 wahe7 ne tsj7 jkelhe7 aa kekc.”

Khale7 akweku luwatsanihse7 ne7n tehanuhsanekhani.

He Borrows

Lukwe lauweskwanihe*? ahataniha tehanuhsanekA, o^wa-lu^ okhale?

A man just loved to borrow from his neighbors, meat and

ohnAna ta wahatAni. Okhna? shaya tat lu kwe wahA'lu*?

uc Kan' ka yan nuwA tu
potatoes he borrowed. Then one man said,
Does that then mean, never
Okhna*? wa?hy, lu, “yah ki1? wahe*? ne'tsi*? rkelhe? se aa keke ”
will I see it?”
en he said, “I guess not, because I want then to eat it.”

Khale1? o m akwe ku luwatsa nihse'? ne*?n

Finally now all afraid of him were his neighbors.

He Borrows

A man just loved to borrow all the time. He would borrow meat and potatoes
One time a man asked him if be would ever see the food again and the man

aTa7d of UmSaymS ^ D°‘’ beCa“SC 1 Wil1 ea‘ il ” nei«hbors *here all

Told by Chauncy Baird, 2-11-39

Transcribed and Taped by Maria Hinton, 3-18-96.

Lu kwc Lato lals

Lukwe wahatolatha. Anitas wahaya?tolA. Lu'kwe yah tehotokA

lohula yA. O ela tsi^ wahalutate

Lukwe Latolats

uskah utlatste? lu’kwe wahatolatha. Ani tas wahaya^tolA

One time a man went hunting. A skunk he found.

Lukwe yah tehotokA tsi? lohula1

yA. O'nA tsi*? wahalu'tate?,
A man didn’t realize that he had a gun. Now that he sprayed Him

tetsyalu wahyalu’tate.
both of them shot at once.

A Man Hunts

?.e ““ Went hunting came across a skunk. The man didn’t realize
he skunk had a gun also and they shot at each other at the same time.

Told by Chauncey Baird to Tillie Baird, 2.-11-39.

Transcribed by Maria Hinton, 3-19-96.

Lattokha LaotsenA e'lhal

uskah utlatse? lukwe tehalAhsalhaA laotsem elhal, wahAlu*?, wakhulahlako ne^n uskah

watnAy£ta?as ne- Id ok Ahatolate? oskanu tu. Kany6 ne- wa?khulahlak6 ne?n es6 Ica?

nikanAha-sa wateta^as, ne- ki ok wahatolate? ohkwe-s/ ta t oni otsi?tA-su. uskah utlatste?

waielhe'? ahoyelu laotshenA. Ne- nuwa wahahlako yetsyakwatha kanak&hle.

WahyahtA-ti wahatyelA yah kanike laotshe-nA. Na sahahkete? wa^thanuhsata-se tho

yahoya^to hdie^ otsi'diuwaheta lato lats. Na a?e niyotstenyes shakoya^lolAU, okna?

shayatat lu kwe wahAbi?, ‘T SAha*? akitshe nA kanaskwiyo. uskah utlatste*? wa^otsyalune

tsi*? yukwanuhsote? , wahA'Iu'i’, “tho latekhwakwas akwatslunyahkwa ke, okna^

wa^akwatketsko wa^kwaya-kAne*?, uskah yeksa wa^akotatAhle. Ne’kati'? e'lhal

yusahatayahte^ seshakoya^tAhawi. Sahaya-kAne^ okhna^ sheku yusahatawyahte*?

otsisto ku tsi? sahaya kA-ne? ne' nuwa sahawl “insurance” tsi'? sahaya-kAne.”

Lattokha LaotsenA E lhal

His Smart Dog

uskah utlatse? lu kwe tehalAhsalhaA laotse-nA e lhal, wahA lu*?,

One time a man was praising his pet dog, he said,

‘Vakhulahla ko ne?n uskah watnAyata^as ne1 ki ok Ahatolate*?

I took my gun down only one shell gun he would only hunt

oskanu lu. Kanyo ne- wa^khulahla ko nc^n e so Ica^ nikanAha sa wateta^as

^ecr- ^ I lake the gun that uses more of small bullets

ne- ki ok wahalolatc'? ohkwes/ tai oni otsi^tA su.” uskah utlatste? walelhe?
they use for hunting partridge or maybe birds.” One time he thought

ahoyc lu laotshenA, ne- nuwa wahahla ko yetsyakwatha kana kahje.

he would fool his dog, this lime he took down his fishing pole.
WahyahtA'ti wahatyeLs yah kanike laotshe'nA. Na sahahkete7
So they left to their surprise no where was his dog. So he went back,

wa7thanuhsatase tho yahoya^to Une7 otsi7nuwahe'ta lato lats.

he went around the house and found him angle worms hunting (digging).

Na a7e niyotstenyes shakoya7tolAU, Okna7 shaya tat lukwe

Now there was a pile of angle worms he had found. Then one of the men

wahA'lu7, “r sAha7 akitshe'nA kanaskwiyo, uskah utlatste7 wa7otsya‘lune tsi7

said, “You have said my pet is the best dog, one time there was a fire

yukwanuhsote7,” wahTlu7, “tho latekhwakwas akwatslunyahkwa'ke, okna7 wa7akwatketsko

in our house,” he said, ‘there he was biting on my clothes, and so we got up

wa7kwaya’kAne7, uskah yeksa wa7akotatAhJe, ne'kati7 e'lhal yusahatayahle7

and went outside, one girl was left behind, so the dog went back inside

seshakoya7tAha-wi, sahaya'kAne7 okhna7 she'ku yusahatawyahte7

and carried her out, he went back outside so again he went back inside

otsisto'ku tsi7 sahaya'kA'ne7 ne‘ nuwa saha-wi “insurance”

under the fire that he went back outside this time he carried the “insurance"

tsi7 sahaya'kA ne.”

as he came out.”

His Smart Dog

One time a man was praising his pet dog. He said, “If I took my gun down that shot
only one shell he would only hunt deer. If I take my small gun down that shoots only
small bullets he would only hunt for partridges and small game”. One time he thought
he would try to fool his dog. He took out his fishing pole and to his surprise he found
his dog digging for angle worms. One of the men said his dog was the best dog. He
said that one lime there was a fire in his house and the dog was biting on his clothes to
gel up and get out of the house. There was a girl left in the house and the dog went
back inside and rescued her, he then went back inside and carried out the insurance

Told by Chaunccy Baird to Morris Swadesh (2-11-39

Transcribed by Maria Hinton (2-1-76)
Lukwd Lonolu'sehe'

uskah utlatste9, ukwehuwene, lukwe lonoluse ahoyotA. Wah/jii lu th6 latinakeie

ethwaya9tath ka9ikA so'tsi9 lonolu'sehe*?. Tho ne- o n/ wahatinutotsluni tho

wahuwaya9titane. Shayatat waho't/hle9 ne- aoliwa, wa9h/lu9, onASte9 waki

ahinuhte*? ahatekhum. Tahati9 yakA9 wa9h/1u, “tho o na, tho yahatkattho

wa9h/lu9, kanAStalukwA kati9kA. Wa9hAiulu: yahtA9 i'se ne- AsnAStaluko.

laswanuteksla lA, tsyukohtak takwaya9tatahn.

Lukwe Lonolusehe'
This Man was Lazy

uskah utlatste9, Ukwehuwe ne lukwe lonolu sehe9 hoyo tA. Wa9h/,ni lu9
One time, in Oneida this man was lazy to work. They said

tho latinakeie ethwaya9tatah ka9ik/, so'tsi9 lonolirsehe9, tho ne9 o n/,

that lived around there, let’s bury him. because he is so lazy, it was then

wahatinutotslu ni tho wahuwaya9titane9. Shaya'tat waho tAhle

they made a coffin and put him in it. One of them felt so soriy

ne- aoli'wa wa9hAlu9 “onASte waki Ahi nute9 ahatekhuni.” Tahatih yakA9 wa9h/ lu
he said have com, I will give him to eat.” He sat up, they say he said

“KanAStalukwA kati9 Ica?” Wa9hAnrlu9, “yahtA9, ise ne- AsnAStalu ko.” Wah/ lu9,
Well, is it shelled9 They said, “No, you have to shell it yourself.” He said,

“to kati9, taswanuteksla lA tsyukohtak takwaya9tatahn.”

No, never mind, put the lid on and bury me.”

This Man was Lazy

One time, in Oneida, there was a lazy man who didn’t like to work. The people who
lived around there said “he is too lazy.” So they made a coffin (or box) and put him in
it. One of the men felt sorry for him and he said, “I have com, I will give it to him to
eat.” The lazy man sat up and looked, he said, “Well, is it shelled?” They said, “No,
you have to shell it yourself” He said, “No, never mind, put the lid on and bury me.”

Told by Ida Blackhawk (2-10-39)

Transcribed by Maria Hinton (2-4-77)

Shakokwatani La^ohwatsi’le.
Inviting the Family

Lukwe yakA9 shakokwahtuhati la^ohwatsrle. Kanatake yak/^ wahA'nehte?

Yah/newe kwi nA ne- Okhna? lone wa^kvlu?

Hatskwe, lokst/ A okhale^ P ale*? k/vh yatAtninuwayAhte'?

WahA-lu? tokah ta t mrwa S okhale? M nukwa ti na nu^uh

Shakokwatani La^ohwatsi’le.
Inviting the Family

Lirkwe yak*1? shakokwahtuhati laohwa'tsrle? Kanatake yakA?

A man, they say, was inviting along his family, Green Bay they say.

wahA nehte. Yah/newe*? kwi iu, ne- okhna? kwi- lome wa^k/Wu?
they were going. They arrived there then, then his Wife said,

Hatskweh, lokstA, A okhale*? P kXh ya'^tAtninirwayAhte'?

“How about it, husband, shall we trade at A okhale*? P again?”

WaliA-lu^ to kah ta t nu-wa S okhale? M nukwati na nu^uh.

He said, “I don’t know, maybe at S okhale? M this time”.

P.S. S okhale? M is a brand of tobacco..

Anonymous told to Stadler King (2-10-39)

Transcribed by Maria Hinton

Wahu nise yak/,9 tshihluahe9 lahkotka, Ukwehuwe ne, ya^9 she 1™ l^uni he

onukwa^t, ne kati9 wi ya’leyoke'Jto takwe ne9th6 n6' tho nu tshikahawr tsi9

ni'y6l lsi9 Unumhe9 onukwa9t, ne kati9 wi ya9teyoke9to-t4hkwe ne9 ,ho kA-ye

yak/9 ne9 lahs^as Csyok mkayenou tehayestha. Laksa, yakA9, lothu te IotithaIe9

lu te lahkotke U ye, wahalPwanu-tu yak/.9, lawAheyn n6. lahkot_ wal61he, ^

k^, n6- Ionunya-tha ne? lahkotkA.


Wahu nise? yakA? tshihlunhe?

LahkotkA, Ukwehuwe ne, yakA?
Long ago, they say, while he stilll
was alive LahkotkA, in Oneida, they say

sheku lAnunrhe? onu?kwaht

ne- kati? wi ya?teyoke?to-tahkwe.
still they were making medicine.
so this one was outstanding medicine.

Ne?tho ne, tho nu tshikahawr,

tsi? niyot tsi? Lmum he? onukwa?t
It was at that time
the way it was they made their medicine,
yakA? ne- lahsa?as tsyok nikayenotA tehayestha
ointment Laksa, yakA?,
they say, he makes many kinds of ointment, he
mixes. A boy, they say,
lothu t6 lotithale?
ltrt6 LahkotkA k/\ye, wahali?wanutu yakA?,
heard them talking,
saying LahkotkA ointment, he asked, they say’

« t Te La^°h^kMlheJ ^ ** he Di
uia ne die Lahkot, he thought ointments • made of this.
was I-Ucfitlc*.

Told by Harrison Smith (2-19-39)

Transcribed by Maria Hinton (2-14-76)

LatikwA-nAhse Okhale? La?slu ni

uskah y4kA? utlatste? tehniydhse tehnisAnowa-nA washakotinato-lA'ne

ne?n lAnukwehuwe tho uhte thuwanatAnyehtu lanatakalyasne yahuwahawe? kati? wi

shaya tat lukwehuwe ne wahutkA^sena tsi? latinakele1? nen lanukwehu'we tho kati? wi tsi?

tehonatawAlyehati wa‘?thatiwihsAheye'? ua kati*? wi wahutey/tu wahutolishA. Ne kati^ wi

tsi^nihotiliho^tA-lme tho nu tsutakahawi wahatihlotunyu^kAS ne kali? wi tsi? nA ostuha?

tahahlo-tA" nen lukwehuwe th6 ne on/ la?sluni taho yu nen laonu-n&hwA tsi? nA

wahaye-na- nen kanunawA nen la?sluni- wahatahko laotkAhanyaks okna? wahalakewe? tsi?

nu- nihonhu-tahkwe*? nen lukwehu-we ne- kati? wi tsi? n/sahayema nen laonu nahwA kwah

thona?thayake? nen laonleha tsi? niyoie nihonhutakwe?n la?sluni i si yaho'ti.

LatikwA-nAhse Okhale? La?sluni

Chief and White Man

uskah yakA? utlatste? tehniyahse tehnisAnowa nA washakotinato'lA-ne

One they say time two chiefs and big shots came to this town

ne*?n lAnukwehuwe. Tho uhte thuwanatAnyehtu lanatakalyasne.

where the Oneida’s lived. They must have been sent from Washington.

Yahuwah^we? kati? wi shaya tat lukwehu we ne wahutkA?sena

They took back with them one of the Oneidas to go and see how

tsC latinakele? nen lanukwehuwe. Tho kati? wi tsi^ tehonatawAlyehati

the they lived the Oneidas. As they were for some time traveling, they

wa?thaliwihsAhcye?, ha kati? wi wahutey/lu wahulolisliA.

became very tired, so they fixed a place for them to rest.

Ne kali? wi tsi?niholiIiho?lAhne tho nu tsutakaha wi wahalihlotunyu9ky,s.

The custom those days was for them to smoke a pipe together.

Ne kati^ wl tsi? nX ostuha7 tahahlo't/ nen lukwehu we tho ne o ha la^sluni

The Oneida man drew a few puffs from the pipe then he passed the pipe to the

taho yu nen laonunahwA tsi? n/ wahaye na- nen kanunawA nen la^sLX'nr
white man, the white man took out his handkerchief from his

wahatahko laotkAhanyaks okna9 wahala'kew’e'? tsi^ nu' nihonhu’tahkwe'? nen

pocket and wiped the stem the Indian had his mouth on,

lukwehuwe ne’ kati7 wi tsi? nXsahaye'na nen laonumahwA kwah thona^thaya'ke^

and as he handed the pipe back to the owner. The Oneida man broke

nen laonleha tsi7 niyo' le nihonhu’takwe^n la^slu’ni i si yaho’ti.

the stem of the pipe, which the white man had had in his mouth and threw it away.

Chief and White Man

They say that at one time two chiefs and big shots came to this town where the Oneida’s
lived. They must have been sent from Washington, D.C. They took back with them one
of the Oneida’s, to see how the Oneida’s lived. They were traveling for some time when
they became very tired, so they fixed a place for them to rest. The custom in those days
for them to smoke a pipe together. The Oneida man drew' a few puffs and passed the
pipe onto the white man, the white man took out his handkerchief and wiped the stem the
Indian had put to his mouth. When the Indian got the pipe back he broke the stem from
the pipe where the white man had put his mouth on and threw it away.

As told by John Skenandore

Transcribed by Maria Hinton (2-14-76)

Wahunise tsi? nu tshikahawi' k/Ji nu tshahA'newe Ukwehu we ne“? tho ne^

kanakele7 ohkwali okhale7 oskanutu. Tho ne^ kati^ wi shayatat wahatoldtha^

, ■

oskanutu. Tho kati^ tsi^ lahsle'? tho wa'hhyatlane ne*?n ohkwa li okhna? laotse ru

61hal tho wahyatlj-yo ne^n ohkwali. Okhna? lawelune ahoya^takenha,

tahashaloshahte'? wahate^nyAt/ ahoashA ne^n ohkwali. Tahoshalakhwahte*? isi

ya'hyoya’^ake. Tsilehkwa? aholyok, kwah yakA? ok tho tshitkahulayA tethotehkwA.

Ne‘ kati^ wi nA tshusalawe'?, sahathloyani tsi? nahoyatawA. Wa^k/Tu'? lone'

“Nahte'? tsi'? yah te^salu^ta tu.” Wah/Tu7, “Yah kwi nekA ni te^kato lats.

Oskanutu wi ni tsi*> wakatol&thu.”

Great Hunter

Wahunise tsi9 nu tshikahawi kAh nu tsahAnewe Ukwehuwe

Long time ago, about the time here they arrived the Oneidas

ne^ tho ne kanakle^ ohkwa li okhale'? oskanu tu^ tho ne'? kati^ wi
at that time were plentiful bears and deer, it was at that time

shaya tat wahatol£tha? oskanu'tu, tho kati? tsi*> ldhsle'? tho

one man went hunting for deer, then as he was chasing her there

wa^thyatlane1? ne^n ohkwa li okhna*? IaotsenA e lhal tho wa^hyath yo

he met the bear when his pet dog there had a fight with

ne^n ohkwa li. Okhna'? lawelu ne ahoya^takenha tahashalotshahte*?

the bear. And he wanted to help him he pulled out his knife

wahatc^nyA t/ ahoashA ne'^n ohkwa li. Taho^shalakhwahte^

he tried to knife the bear. She grabbed the knife from him
rsi ya?thoya?ake tsilehkwa? aholyok, kwah yak/**?, ok
a distance she threw the knife, she almost killed him, it’s said then

tho tshitkahu'layA tethotehkwA. Ne- kati? wi n/, tshu sa lawe

and there he left his gun and ran. So then when he got home

sahathloydni tsi? nahoyatawA', wa?kA'lu lon6’, “Nahte? tsi? yah

he told about what happened to him, said his wife “What for you didn’t

te?salu ta tju? WahA’lu? “Yah kwi nekA ni te?katolats oskanu tu

shoot her? He said, “That isn’t what I went hunting for deer

wi ni tsi? wakatolathu.”
is what I went hunting for.”

Great Hunter

A long time ago, about the time when the Oneidas first arrived here, there were
plenty bears and deer. It was at that time that an old man went hunting for deer.
While he was chasing after a deer he met up with a bear and his pet dog had a
fight with the bear. He wanted to help his dog so he pulled out a knife and tried
to knife the bear, but the bear grabbed the knife away from him and threw it at
him and almost killed him. Then and there he threw down his gun and ran.
When he got home he told his wife what happened to him. His wife asked him
Why didn’t you shoot her?” and he said, “That isn’t what I went hunting for, it
was deer I was hunting for.”

Told by Guy Elm (2-13 39)

Transcribed and Taped by Maria Hinton (11-7-77)


Lu kwe KAtsi9 Waha tu . Fillmore Cooper

(Man Became Fish)

Yolu9kwakelha .. .. Alex Metoxen

(The Water Lily (Easter Lily)
Lukwe Kjslsi9 Wahatu

Lu kwe Tsiwaka luwayats wa9thatteni ahsAiu k/tsi9 okhale9 ukwe waha tu.

Wahunise9 tho nitya9w/-u ne9n New York State, tsi9 tkana9alohale9 nu ne- kati9 wr

ne?n th6 ™ tshutakahawi- lutolathese rnu nyehy/nehse. Tho kati wi- laya?talatyehse

ne^n Tsiwa ka, yayahk niwashA mile nyehA’ne-se tahnu yAhutsya9lotuni oha tho

yAlU nehwe, Wahatislathathe ne9n o9walu tsi9 niyo-le n/. tAthuthle^nu ni ru ki ale9

wi ta hutA-ti e-so o9wa lu Awatu tAthatrhawe lotihle9nakeht/itane Icas yakA9 wi-

Tahnu ka9rk/ lu kwe ya9teholrwahke tsi9 ok nahte9 kwah nyok lhihotnutolya9tu

kahle9 teshakona9kela-m ne9n tehutkwa atwa9kanha9ke khale9 laoyukwa tho

ya9thl6-yahke otsistake ne- kati9 wahuwahlolr tsi9 yah te9yoyanJe tsi9

mhayelha Yolihowa-nA kAtuhe nA tho ni-yot tsi9 nu Ahutlihwat/tyehte. Loti-y/ kati9

tsi9nu mhuloh'sh^-takhwa kayhuhakta. Ne- kati9 wi nA ki9 ale9 tho nu nishA ne

okhna9 kwi wahutoh'shA wahatihlotuni latikalatunyhe9 okhna9 Tsiwa-ka kayhuhdkta

tho yaha-ti nA ki ne- wahatatyu9kwata9ahse laonunawA okhna9 tho yaho-sh/Jise

kayhuha lqi. Yah tho te9yohnotes, kwah kA a9nyo ayesko nA kwi sahakona tho ne-

wahonuwil6hte. Okhna9 kwi ne9n lutAio9shuha tho yatehatikinle katsa nu

nusahatke9to tA yah ki9 karn'ke, kwah ki tho uhtu ne9n lukwe. Na kwi ne

wahuwaya9ti sake9 kayhuhaktu ti wah/vnelhe9 tho uhte thoyshoketohte khale9 kwi ne

o n/, wahu9nikulyahke9, otia kwi tho tahutukohte. Kwah kwi tsyohslat tsi9 nahe9 nA

ki ale9 wi tho latihle9notuli wahutolatha nA akti9 ale9 wi yo9kalashA nA tho nu

mhA-ne. Okhna9 kati9 wi wathatita ne o ela ki ale9 wi wahutoh'shA okhna9 kwi tsi9

o'oa wahatikhwA'tane. Ne sahuwathloli ka7iL\ lankAhtlu Tsiwaka okhna7 ne'tho

sahatke7totA da kwi tusahatithalirni ne1 kati7 washakohlo'li tsi7 niya7wau ne- tsi7

lotya7tahtuu k/rtho. WahA'Iu7 thikA tshukwahAshse kanunawA yukwe teyokwA ne

kali7 sakyAnahawe tho yahakewe tsi7 nu nikutinakle7 yotinuhso'tu tsyok nu. Nr

kali7 yukninyaku skayatat ahsAnA u kwe okhale7 kAtsi khale7 ne7n laoulha tho ki uni

ne nihayelu to lA. WahA'lu7 takA nuw/ tu uskah ne Ayetshi7na'tuk tsi7 nahte7 yukyats

okhale7 washakohlo'li tsi7 ne' kw-i yeskA'ha tsi7 tAshu'tatkA,

Lu kwc KAtsi7 Waha tu

Man became a Fish

Lukwe Tsiwra ka luwa yats wa7thatte'ni ahsAnA kAtsi7 okhale7

This man, Tsiwa'ka was his name, he bacame half fish and

ahsAnA u'kwe waha tu. Wahu nise7 tho nitya7WA U ne7n New York State,
half man he became. Long ago that this happened in New York State.

Tsi7 tkana7alohale7 nu ne- kati7 wr ne7n tho nu tshutaka'wi' lutolathese

In Oneida Castle there, then just about then is the time they used to go hunting.

I'nu Icas nyehA'ne se, tho kati7 wr laya7talatyehse ne7n Tsiwa ka.
Quite a long distance they used to go there, then among them was Tsiwa ka.

Ya'yahk niwashA mile nyehA'ne'se tahnu yahutsya7lotu ni nA Tho

Sixty winters mile, they used to go and they would pitch their tents. When

yAhA newe, wahalistathahte7 ne7n o7wa lu tsi7 niyo le

they arrived there, they dried the meat or until

nA tAthuthle7nu m, nA ki7ale7 w'i tahutA ti

when they make up their bundles (pack), so now then again they will leave

e so o7wa lu Awa tu tAtha'ti'hawe lotihle7nakehtAane Icas

alot of meat they will be able to carry along with their packs on their back.
YaU wi tahnu ka?rk/ lukwe ya?tehoh'wahke tsi? ok nahte? kwah nyok
Used to be said also this man was quite a joker, for any little thing and

thihotnulolya?tu khale? tashakona?kelania tehutkwa atwa?kanha?ke

joked and ridiculed and mocking them who are dancing the Indian way

khale? laoyu kwa tho ta?thlo-yahke otsista ke ne- kati? wahuwahloli'tsi?

and his tobacco he threw into the fire, so then they told him that

yah te?yoyanIe tsi? nihayelha. Yolihowam kAtuhe n/ tho ni-yot tsi?

it is not good the way, he was doing. It has great meaning, when that kind

Ahutlihwat/tyehte. Loti7/ kali1? tsi? nu nihutoh'shAlakhwa

of ceremony takes place. They have a place then where they will rest

kayhuhdkta n/ kati? w( n/ ale? tho nu nishA'ne okhna? kwi wahutolishA

near the nver. So now then there again, they were going through, so now they rested

wahatihlotuni latikalatunyu he? sa okhna? Tsiwaka kayhuhakta tho

they smoked their pipes and told stories too, and Tsiwa ka went near the

yahatf Na ki? ne- wahatatyu?kwata?ahse laonuna'WA okhna kwi tho

river and sat. So now he filled his pipe and all of a

yaho shAhse ne?n kayhuha ku yah tho te?yohno,tes kwah a?nyo? a yesko,
sudden he dropped it in the river, it wasn’t that deep that anyone would drown,

nA kwi sahakona tho ne1 wahonuwi lehte?. Okhna? kwi ne?n lutA lo?shu
so then he went down after it, there he disappeared. All this while his friends

tho yatehatika nle katsa nu nusahoke to te yah ki? kam'ke,

were watching about where he would come up, but he was no where.

Kwah ki? tho uhtu ne?n lukwe, nA kwi ne- wahuwaya?ti sake? kayhuhaktu ti
It was the last we saw of the man, so then they looked for him near the river

wahA nelhe? tho uhte tho yAsho ketohte khale? kwi on/ wahu?nikulya ke?
they thought over there he might come up, and finally they gave up.

On/ kwi tho tahutukohte. Kwah kwi tyoslat tsi? nahe?, n/ ki? ale? tho
Then they came on ahead. Just about a year since that time now then again there
latihle7notuti wahutolatha, ha kati9 ale7 wi yokalasliA ila tho
they were again with their packs going hunting, it was again toward evening when

nu nih/ne. Okhna7 kali7 wi wa7thatitane. On/ ki7 ale7

they are going through there again. And so then they stopped. Now then they

wi wahutohshA okhna7 kwi tsi7 on/ wahalikhwA'tane, ne-' sahuwathloTi ka7ik/

rested for awhile and after they finished eating, they talked about this

lanik/tlu Tsiwaka, okhna7 ne' tho saha(ke7tol/ n/ kwi tusahatithalum

young man Tsiwaka then there he appeared amongst them, now then they talked,

ne- kati7 washakohloii tsi7 niya7w/u ne' tho ne7 lotya7taht/'u k/'tho. Wah/lu7
he told them, how it all happened when he disappeared from here. He said,

‘Ihi'k/ tshukwash/shes kanumawA yu'kwe te7yokwA, ne kati7 saky/maha'we

“When I dropped my pipe a woman picked it up, so then I followed her,

tho yahakewe tsi7 nu nikulinakle7 yotinusho'tu tsyok nu.

I got there where they lived, they lived in houses here and there.

Ne- kati7 yukmnya7ku. Skaya.tat ash/aLA u'kwe okhale7 k/tsi7 okhale7

So then we were married. One of them half human and fish and

ne7n laoulha tho ki7uni ne- nihayelu7to tA.” Wah/'lu, “TalcA nuw/‘tu uskah ne-
himself he was also built like that.” He said, “Don’t ever once you

Ayetshi7na tuk tsi7 nahte7 yukyats”, okhale7 washakohlo h tsi7 ne1 kwri yesk/ ha
give a name, what my name is”, and he also told them, this was the last

he will see them.

Man Became a Fish

This story is about Tsiwa'ka, who became half fish and half human. This happened
while they still lived back in New York State at Oneida Castle.
In Oneida Castle, New York State, these men about once a year used to go hunting,
and it was some distance they had to go, like sixty miles, when they arrived there
they would pitch their tents. The meal that they got from hunting they would dry'.

Then when they are ready to come home they will make packs to carry on their
back. There was this young man Tsiwaka amongst them. He was quite a joker, for
any little thing, he joked about it and ridiculed and mocked them that were dancing
the Indian dances. He threw his tobacco into the fire. The older men warned him
that he was doing wrong. So now they rested, they smoked their pipes and told
stones. Tsiwa ka went near the river bank and sat, he filled his pipe with tobacco but
he dropped his pipe in the river. Now it wasn’t that deep that a person would
drown, but he went down. His friends looked for him, finally they gave up and
went home on their long journey back about sixty miles. It was about a year now
they are going through this place again, they rested and they were talking about him
when he appeared to them. He told them what happened to him that time. He said,
“A woman picked up his pipe and he followed her, she was half fish and half
human. Where ^she lived there were others like her. They had homes down there.
He married her. So now he told them, not ever to mention his name again to any
one and he also told them this would be the last time he would see them.

Told by Fillmore Cooper to Guy Elm (2-27-39)

Transcribed by Maria Hinton (2-15-80)

uskah yotlalstu? wahohslAlaksA alwakanha Is,? nahle? wahattkatlho, kwal, Hu

tsi? yeyala-seha. YahuwaWAnala ne tahnu? wa?ilu? yotiStokwalu nulake

wakatkSlkallho ne?n ohywAtsyake, ne- i kelhe lu-(ho akanaklate?, yah lekelhe?

tho no yot Isi? alnmhe ke mi? n, yol ne?n ulcwe, Nok mi? ta t oya?

nakya?lotAhake askya?,olA„e Is,? yunutahluni, kanyo onA Askya?(isake.”

Tsi? on/ wa?haye alwa kanha Isi? ThuwakwanA yaha-le? okhna? wahohlo ]j

mi? nahle? wahohslAldkSA. -Kaye nihali yAsheya?,ahawe mi? kay/ lulSAnayA

atwa?k4nha.” Ne- kwi wa?h/lu? ThuwakwanA, 'lahnu” Ahsako,iya?,isake ne?n

yeya?tahseha”. oksa kwi ,ho ya?h/„e mi? lyohulahlem, ne- Iho ki? yAhsakoliya?

loU-ne, ne ne Iho lya?kolnnhlA lu, mi? o qa wabuttkallho mi? niyeya?lase

shayd-ta, Ianik/hlluha, wa?h/lu?, -ne- ki? sa mi? nihsya?,ase teyo,uhu,syo?u

ne- Iho ni-yol mi? ahsuheeke mi? niyol owiskla? nikalsiyhtA lu'lho mi?

yonulahlu ni”. yahtA? wa?ya i lu?, "AkA lu ni ,a I yah uhka? Ihayuknatahlenase,

yah ki? thakaihuta-te? kAtho aknakleke” okhna? o ya lanikAhtlu ha wa?hAlu?

leyotiihumyo u tho niyot isi? ahsunheke Isi? niyot olsilsya uwe kalhalakekha, ne-

Iho kwi ne - Ahsala,WAni-yoke”; tayehwaslako yeksa, nok Isi? la tna Aynkhlesle

tsi? lalakhe nuli lyonekliya?ktu, yah kyuni ne ho nu Ishyakanaklale? mHsi?

onAhala Iho yohl/ lu m,? yonuhalekelsko, saha eneke mi? Iwanalde, okhna? o ya

Ihosakalihwa-lane, -yah nahle? thaesaya?taaawA” nok mi? yah nAWA li,

kathya?akyele latisnuke kani?hAnahsa latiksashuha wa?ilu?. “tho yusase tsi?

lesnakle okhna? Akuhnutlati. AkatateshAlyehsese om kwi tahyatahsawA tsi*>

wa?thyatawAlyehsa ka?ikA yeya?tahseha ohnak* kwi tayehti, kok nahe?

tho yahanewe tsi? tkanyatalayA akta tsi? tkanatayA. Tsi? onA wa?tye*tA, emeke

lsi9 nu nikahneki yo ehtake ya?yutkattho, okhna? kwi wa?tyakohA‘lehte? “Ica kwi

nu nAkatohshA. KA'tho Awatu Akheya?tloIoke kahuweya yohukwaklanehse okhale?

Akhya?tkattho Iatiksahuha lonatnatayA. OnA ehtake ya?yeti, kwah ne- tho

ohnekanusne owiskJa akotslunyakwa nyayetskotane, o da uni akotslunyakwa tho

wayolanAtake yeya?lane Lsi^ otsi?tsyashuha onlahte? tsi? ni-yot oniahtashuha ne?n

otsi?tsyake, kwah yeya?taakweku uteLhoioke nok yenutsi?ne Ayutkattho ne- kwi

o ela AkAhake tsi? ka?ikA yeya?ta-seha tsi? nu yotsistokwalu niyakawenu, ne1

kwityotyeUhtu yolu?kwayAtau.

The Water Lily

uskah yotlatstu? wahohslAtaksA ka?rkA atwakanha tsi? nahle? wahattkattho, kwah

One time he had a dream, this Indian, that what he saw just

i kA tsi? yeyataseha. YahuwawAnala ne tahnu? wa?ilu? tsi?

a very young and beautiful maiden. She spoke to him and she said that

Yotistokwa lu nu’take wakalkatkattho ne?n ohywAtsya-ke, ne- i’kelhe kA'tho

“(he stars are the way I came, I saw the earth that I want here

akanakla tc?. Yah tekelhe? tho no yot tsi? akunheke tsi? ni'yot ne?n ukwe, nok
to live, I don’t want that way to live just like the humans, but

tsi? la l o ya? nakya?tot/hake askya?tolA ne tsi? yunutahlu ni, kanyo otia

then if another form I should lake, you will find me, among the hills, if when
Askya ti sake. Tsi^ o aA wa^hayc ne9n atwa kanha Lsi*>
you will look for me.” When he awoke, (he Indian boy lo

le? hW1°M0v 1519 nahle9 “Kaye nihati

g efs ihen he told him just what his dream was, “Four of them

;»«; £ sr T,r;”„ „a ta„iM s?1"

wrsr zr£ssr*?-ff~zL..
s t^rix'str• Ti es-s r-
tho tyadkotnutu tu, ,si9 onA wahuttkallho tsi9 niyeyalta se
as there she was waiting, now that they saw that it was the young maiden

onfnfl IaniUhlluha’ 'va’W-lu?, “Ne- ki9 sa tsj9 nihsya?t4se

them young men said, “Well 1 must say, you are so pretty

ymi°should0,<i ‘f°k 1519 ah*uh“-|“ W niyot owiskla7 nikatsiydtA kAtho

you should hke that you should hve hke while flowers here

oTth"^”' “lo ” r^‘U9’ - yah uhkai

, she said, I will get lonesome if no one

wrvbfmf ’3aSe' ^ f Ihakalhu,a■'e, ‘“ ‘I’® aknakleke ” Okhna9 o ya

. no, it s not possible here for me to hve." Then another

'““ha "a’hA;'u'? •Teyotuhu^yo u tho ni yot tail ahsunheke tsi9 ni-yot

young man, he said, “It should be like that, you should hve hke thaf

rea!'floaweTina.healakdldia' 7
'h° M ”e' ^atatwAniyoke.” laye-Iihwaslaku
flower in the praines, then there that you will be free.” She answered

fhkTcirl “Rm ih15'7 ‘3'7 ,AyukUlesle tsi9 latitakhe nuti tyonekliya?ktu

Ihis girl, But then maybe they’ll nin over us, as they are running fhe buffaloes

yah kyuni ne ho nu tshyakanaklat^ nc-,si, omJiala tho yohl/ lu tsi9

not there there would f i;u„ u • ^ u
, because vines there are hanging along

yonuhaleketsko, saha 6neke tsi1? twanakle,” okhna*? oya tho sakalihwaiane,
high cliffs up above the our village,” then another of them replied,

“Yah nahte'? thaesaya^tawA.” “Nok tsi7, yah nAWAlu kathya7akyele latisnu'ke

“Nothing will happen to you.” “But then, never again will I touch fingers

• kani^lunahsa latiksashuha,” wa7ilu7, “tho yusase tsi7 tesnakle okhna7

little children,” she said, “go back to your village then

Akuhnutlati. katateshAlyehsese OnA kwi7, tahyatahsawA tsi7

I will follow you, I will find myself a place.” Now then, they started out

wa^lhyatawAlyehsa ka7ikA yeya7lahscha ohnakA kwi tayehti, kok nahe7 tho

on their travels, this young maiden behind them she flew, it wasn’t long

tsi7 yahanewe Lsi7 tkanyatala yA akta tsi7 tkanata yA. tsi7 onA wa^tye tA,
that they arrived at the lake near the village, as now she flew

e-neke tsi7 nu nikahneki yo ehtake ya7yutkaltho, okhna7 kwi

up to where the water was clear, down she looked, now then

wa7tyakohA-lehte7, “Ka kwi nu AkatolishA. kA'tho kwi Awa tu Akheya7tloloke

she gave a cry, “Here then I will rest here then I will be able to watch

kahuwe'ya yohukwaklanehse okhale7 Akhya7tkattho latiksahuha lonatnata-yA.” O'nA

boats gliding around and watch children playing.” Now'

ehta ke ya7yeli, kwah ne- tho ohnekanusne owiskla akotslunyakwa nyayetsko'tane,

down she flew right into the water white her white clothes, she landed

O'nA uni akotslunyakwa tho wayolanAtake yeya7tane tsi7niyot

now too, her clothing became closed tightly about her body like

olsi7lsyashuha onlahte7 tsi*? ni yot onlahtashuha ne7n otsi7tsyake, kwah

flow'er leaves, just like leaves on the flower, just

yeya7laakwc ku utelho loke nok yenulsi7ne Ayulkattho ne1 kwi on/ AkAhake
all over her body was covered except her head, you could see, then now' it will be

t^7 ka'ri kA ycya7taseha tsi17 nu yotsistokwalu nitya7kawcnu, ne- kwi

that this young maiden where from the shining stars she came from that then

tyotyeUhtu yolu?kwakelha yukwayAtau
first time a water lily, we had.

The Water Lily

One iime this Indian man had a dream. He saw a very, beautiful young maiden
he spoke o him and said that she came from the stars. She saw the earth and
wanted to hve here but not hke the humans. She wanted to take a^her foiT so
you c°u|d find her in the hills if you looked for her. When the young man

One of m0nV^S r a t ^ ‘° ““ B'g Chiefs wd lold them about his dream

and bl f^t T'f r “u °f ‘hCm y°U Wi" lake along' the ones lhal “£ young
and beautiful, and look for the young maiden” Right away they found her in the*
big hills. It was there that she was waiting. One of the young men said ‘‘Well
JT y°,U a"j S0, pre“y’ you shou,d live Uke ‘be white Dowers here on the’
hill. She said, No, I will get lonesome if no one will visit me, no, it's not
possible for me to hve here.’ Another young man said, ‘‘It should be hke the real
“T- “ l 'C praines’. /here you will be free.” She answered that maybe the
buffalo would be running all over the Dowers and not hke vines hanging on the

V08u ”CbBut atherC bhe VUia^M All0ther y0UDg man repUed' ''Nothing will happen to
She' i *h“ spc said‘ Never a£ain will I touch the fingers of little children ”
She said Go back to your village then I will follow you, I will Dnd myself a
PT* . ,hN°W 'a™’ ‘hey S‘aned 0U< 00 their travels' This y°UDSmaiden Dew
behind them and it wasn’t long when they arrived at the lake near their village
"u, m “P. t0.,Yhere lhe Waler was clear‘ down she looked and she gave a cry
;]L he" I.W|1,1, rest’ 1 W1" be able to watch boats gliding around and watch the
hildren playing. Now she Dew right down into the water, her white clothes
became closed tightly about her body, hke Dower leaves on the Dower all over
who 11 ’T C0,v,ered,except her haad Yon could see that this young maiden
who came from the shinning stars became our first water lily.

Told by Alex Metoxen, 3-13-39.

Translated by Maria Hinton, 11-30-87
Typed and taped by Maria, 4-10-90.


Lonah .Lomis King

(Man and Wife)

Se^niku lalak .Andrew Beechtree

(Be Careful)

Wahu mse yakA9 lonah tehuwasnyehe9 IokstAha. Ne kati9 wi wahotino-luse9 tsi9

tehuwasnyehe9 nA kwi wahuwahloli- tsi9 nok awatu akte9 nu nA slehksake tsi9


tahuwasni, nok tsi9 yAhahawe9 laokAha9shuha. Na kwi ne- wahatA’ti, waho-nikulhA

laokAhaya hohak. Ne kati9 wi luway/ha9 wahuwanhane9 yahako, okhna9

yusahohnutlane9 ulahoyu. OnA kati9 wi eneke yehalatese9. Na tho yahoke-tohte9

ne?n lo9niha, waliA'lu9, “Nahte9ne nihsatyelha9” Wali/Wu9, “ahsAnA tckyaks ka9ik/

okAha uskah se ne wa9kuyAhase9 nA AsakstAhahne.” Tho ne- ona, kwah oksa9,

sahohnuksa ne9n lokst/ha9 okhale9 wahotey/tu isi*> yohawihtu. Ne- kati9 wr

ayukwalihuni tsi9 yethinolukhwake9 ne9n lotikstAho ku okhale9 AthiyateyAtu.

Man and Wife

Wahu-nise yakA9 lonah tehuwasnyehe9 lokstXha. Ne kati9 wi

Long ago, it’s said, a couple took care of an old man. Now then

wahotino-luse9 tsi9 tehuwasnyehe9 nA kwi wahuwahlo h'- tsi9 nok awa tu

they had enough of taking care of him so they told him that he will have to

akte9 nu nA slehksake tsi9 tahuwasni, nok tsi9 yAhahawe9

elsewhere to find that someone else to care for him, but that he must take

laokAha9shuha. Na kwi ne- wahatAti, wahonikulhA laokAhaya'hohak.

his quilts along. So then now he left, he forgot his quilts to take along.

Ne kali9 wi luway/ha9 wahuwanhane9 yaha ko, okhna9 yusahohnutlane9

So then their son they hired to go get his quilts then go and catch up

ulahoyu. OnA kali’ wi e neke yehala'tese'?, nA tho yahoketohte'’ ne'fri
to him. Now then upstairs he was walking around, when he came up there his

lo?niha, wab/iu1?, “Nahte^ne nihsatyelha’” WahA'lu'?, “AhsAnA tekyaks ka^i k/.

his father, he said, “What are you doing1’” He said, “In half I’m cutting this

ok^ha uskah se ne wa^kuyAha’se? nA AsakstAhahne.” Tho ne' on/,

quilt one part too I’m saving for you when you get old.” And right now,

kwah oksa'’, sahohnuksa ne^n lokst/ha1’ okhale'? wahoteyA tu isi'’

immediately, he went after the old man and took good care of him from

yohawihtu. Ne' kati’’ w'i- ayukwalihuni tsi’

that time on. So then this should be a lesson to us that

yethinolukhwake^ ne^n lotikst/iio ku okhale'’ AthiyateyA'tu.

we should love and respect the elderly and make them comfortable.

Man and Wife

Long ago this couple took care of this old man, finally I guess it was getting
tiresome to them, so they asked him to find another place where someone would
take care of him, but he must take his quilts along. Well he forgot to take his
quilts, so they asked their son to go upstairs and get them and catch up to him
with the quilts. He was upstairs so long his father went up there, he said, “What
are you doing'?” he said, (the son) “I’m cutting this in half and I’m saving half for
you when you get old.” The father went immediately and brought him back to
their house and from that time on, he took good care of him. This should be a
lesson to us to love and respect the elderly and comfort them.

Told by Lomis King to Guy Elm (2-13-39)

Transcribed by Maria Hinton (9-13-79)
Taped by Maria Hinton (10-31-80)


Oya tshitsyohsele wa7akwanAyotshi isi7ibAns laotuwAtsyahke. Shaya'tat kati7tho

tahohsitanu'lyahke. Tho kati7wi yakwakznyate7 teyukwathahle. Shaya'tat wah/lu7

ne se ok ne'tsi7 nihonolu sehe utahalahsituneke ne' aolfwa, wahonuiyahke.

Be Careful

Oya tshitsyohsele wa7akwanAyotshi isi7ibAns laotuwAtsyahke.

Last winter we pulled out a stone over there on IbAsn land.

Shaya'tat kati7tho tahohsitanu'lyahke. Tho kati7wi yakwakznyate7

One of the men there hurt his foot. We were standing around

teyukwathahle. Shaya'tat wahA'lu7 ne se ok ne'tsi7 nihonolusehc.

talking to each other. One of the men said, “This is because, he is so lazy,

utahalahsitu neke ne- aoli wa, wahonu iyahke,

he should pull his foot away, that’s why he got hurt.”

Be Careful

Last winter we pulled out a stone over there on IbAsn land. One of the men there
hurt his foot. We were standing around talking to each other when one of the
men said “This is because, he is so lazy, he should pull his foot away, that’s why
he got hurt.”

As told by Andrew Beechtree (2-8-39

Transcribed by Maria Hinton (2-5-77)
Lanakalislehse . Thomas Baird
(He is Dragging a Pole)

Tsi9 Nryohtune Tsi9 Yakonyaks .Katie Cornelius

(The Way They Used to Get Married)

KanyalotuhkA Tsyaho9nyake9.Jefferson Baird

(Thomas John Gets Married)

Lanik Washakokwa9tani Tsi9kayA .Sophie Hill

(A Young Man Gave a Party)
•K y».y. - . W'V y.\

«p*: ■ • W,

Onuta ke.Jim Antone

(New York)

Olihwakayu Tsi9 NiyolibotA’hne Yakonyaks . . Andrew Beechtree


Tsi9 nihotihho9tAhne ne- ohhwakayu. Kwab Icas tsi9 ok niyot tsi9

latihhwahmiats tsi^ Ayakonyake9. Lanakab' slehse kati^ wr ne- ka9rkX kuwayats.

Tsi? ka-yX lanahkwrsaks ne- kanakale9 Aha9sleshu. Tsi9 ka-ya

yu kwe tho Atkalatane ne- ki9 o-nA /-ne tsi9 tkayhuhatati tho

ya^tAhninakalshluw/u Tho kati? nyAshakonAtshine tAhniyayahke, ta t

tAhniyayahke9 ne1 kwi ne" lo ne Awatu. Ta t AthniyatAne9 nA kwi" ne

sheku Ashanakab sele.

He is dragging a Pole

Tsi? nihotibho9tXhne ne- ohhwakayu. Kwah kXs tsi9 ok ni yot

How their customs were in the olden days. There used different ways

tsi^ latibhwahru lats tsi9 Ayakonyake9. Lanakab'slehse kati9 wi‘ ne

that they confirmed a marriage. He drags a pole, then is what

ka9i-kA kuwa yats. Tsi9 ka-yX lanahkwi saks ne- kanakale9

this was called. The one who is looking for a wife a pole

Aha9sleshu Tsi9 ka'y/ yu’kwe tho Atkala'ta ne ne- ki9 o nA

he will drag. The one woman that steps on it that one now

A’ne9 tsi9 tkayhuhatat. Tho ya9tAhninakalshluwA.

she will go with him to the river. There they will put a pole across the river

Tho kati9 nyAshakonAtshine tAhniya yahke ta t tAhniya yahke.

So then he will take her by the hand, they will cross the river, if they cross it

ne- kwi ne9 lo-ne Awatu. Ta t XthniyatAne nX kwi ne- sheku

it will his wife become. If they fall then it will be still,

Ashanakali sele.
another pole he will have to drag.

He is Dragging a Pole.

How their customs were in the olden days. There were different ways to
confirm a marriage, one was, the man who wanted to gel married would drag
a pole and the one woman who steps on the pole will go to the river with him.
They would go to the river (creek) he will take her by the hand and if they cross
over to the other side, then she will become his wife, if they fall, then he will
have to drag a pole again.

Told by Thomas Baird to Andrew Beechtree (2-19-39)

Transcribed and Maria Hinton (2-4-91)
Tsi^ Niyohtune Tsi? Yakonyaks

Akukalatuhse tsi^ niyot tsi? yakonyaku aknulhk/ tsi? niyot tsi'? yakonyakskwe. Na thoha

tsyatak niyohslashA ok ya-yahk yeswakathloli. Yeks£ tsa?akohlAtane tehnitsydlu

wa^thuiheye kuwayXha okhna1? ohsotha wa*?kuway6tyake. Wisk ok yawAle teyakaohsliya-ku

IsautatenyaktA. Kwah ok thaulye-1/ ohsotha wa^elstotslayena atslunyahkwa. Tho

na^ulsanuni aknulha, wayAlhe*? onA kali*? wi Ayutya'hahsluni. Ne?n tho ne na?akonehlako

lsi9 on/ yahu we yautatok/htu wagin'? ohsotha “Sosana satahkwasluni akweku ne Ahsatste^

ka^i k/ kantstolslahele? atslunyahkwa”. Kwah kwi ne- tsi? niyosnoie wa^ulsluni okhna'?

wautahkwahsb'sa hne. Tho ne- onA wa'Tlu?, akokst/ha, “tyatlAnayAna” kwi ona kwi

wakyahtA ti yahaknewe1? onuhsatokAtike. Tho ne tha^utyel/ tho Hate lanik/htluha okhale?

luway/ha ne tutye lAhte^ wahuwak/ lanik/htluha, on/ uni wa'hjtathloli tsi? ne on/

Ahotinyake, wa'hyush/tho ka'hk/ yeya tase, wa'h'lu?, “akhsot onA se Akeksatiyhhake.

Ikelhe? ni autsi'ten, yah se tekelhe? aukenyake”. Wa'h'lu'? ohsotha?, “n/ kwi yah

thya?etniyele? kwatle?, tho ne onA nitesenu tsi? niyakonyaks u kwe. Luway/ha okhale? r

teyukwalihwayAta se nA uni akwe-ku kakwatakwA. KaIi rtwehse k/-tho kanuhsku

onuhsatokAhti ke yetsiyatlAnayAnrhne okhale? AwatA?nyotake. Akwe ku kakwatakwA, wahs

katl? onA oskanhe tsyahtAti lanikAhtlu ha.” “akhsot, yah se nitekelhe? ayukninyake thik/

lanikAhtehlu. Ikelhe? se ni utsitene? nA Asesaht/ti”, okhna? ohsotha kwah nok

tayakoswa tA ok urn wa?ilu?, “yah, se thutsilen on/ se nise Ahsanyake”. OnA kali? wi

oskanhe wahyahtA ti ne?n lanik/htlu wa?etsi?totati ne?n aknulha. Tho ne tyakonyaku ne?n

tho ne nu, tho ne ni yot tsi? yakonyakskwe. Ne?n lotikst/ha tAholilihwayA-tase. Nok tsi?

lanikAhtlelu wahathloli Icas uhka*? washakonuwene. Ne kwi yeya'tase*? yako t/t sheku ok

oda wa^utathnuwene oiia ki'? ne lotikwAnada'? Ahatikwata ko. Tho kwi ka^i kA ni yot tsi^

yakonyaku aknulhakA. OnA kali? waUalokt/,

Tsi^ Nryohtume Tsi? Yakonyaks

The Way They Used To Get Married

Akuka latuhse tsi? nryol tsi'? yakonyaku aknulhkA tsi? niyot tsi^
I will tell you a story about how that she got married my mother the way that

yakonyakskwe. Na thoha tsyalak niyohslashA ok ya'yahk

they used to get married. It’s almost a seventy years and six

yeswakathloU. Yeksa tsa^akoht/tane tehnitsyalu

ago, that I’m talking about. A small girl became an orphan, both of them

wa'Hhuiheye kuwayvvha okhna? ohsotha wa^kuwayotyake. Wisk ok yawA'le

they died her parents then her grandmother brought her up.~ Only fifteen

teyakaohsliya'ku tsautatenyakt/,.
years old she was when arrangements were made for her marriage.

Kwah ok thautyeU ohsotha wa^etstotslaye na alslunyahkwa. Tho na^utsamrni

Such a suprise her grandma received a package of clothing. She was so happy

aknulha, wa yAlhe^ onA kati^ wi Ayutya?tahslu ni. Ne^n tho ne

my mother, she thought now then she will dress up. But then

na^akonehla'ko tsi*? onA yahu we yautatokAhtu wa'h'lu'? ohsotha “Sosana

was very suprised when that time came, Sunday. Said her Grandma “Susan,

satahkwaslu ni akwe ku ne Ahsatste*? ka^ilcA kantstotslahele?

get yourself ready all of what you will wear that bundle

alslunyahkwa . Kwah kwi ne" tsi*? niyosno le wa^utsluni okhna'?

of clothes . It was just in a big hurry that she got dressed and

wautahkwahslisahne. Tho ne1 oila wa’Hu?, akokst/ha, “tyalLunayAna”
she was ready. Then now she said, the grandmother “Let’s go to church?”

kwi on/ kwi wakyahtA ti yahaknewe*? onuhsatokAti ke. Tho ne tha^utyel/

now then so they left they arrived at the church. There she had her suprise

tho rlate lanik/htluha okhale'? luway/ha ne tutyel/hte? wahuwak/

there he stood, the young man and his parents, that’s the first time she saw

lanikAhtluha, on/ uni wa^utathlo h tsi? ne on/ Ahotinyake.

thjs young man, now too they told her that that now they are to be married.

wa?tyushAtho ka'rik/ yeyalase, wa*W, “akhsot on/', se Akeksatiyohake.

She cried this young girl, she said, “Grandmother, now I will be a good girl,

i'kelhe'? ni autsiten, yah se tekelhe'? aukenyake”. Wa^ailu'?

I want me to go with you, I really don’t want to get married.” She said

ohsotha'?, “nA kwi yah thya^etniyele? kwatle*?, tho ne on/

the grandmother, “Now we can’t help it granddaughter, that now

nitesenu tsi^ niyakonyaks u kwe. Luway/ha okhale'? v

you are of an age they gel married people. His parents and I

teyukwalihwayAta se nA uni akwcku kakwatakwA. KAh

have made the agreement now too all the arrangements are made. Now'

itwehse k/tho kanuhsku onuhsatokAhti'ke yetsiyatUnayAm hne okhale*?

we are all here inside of the church they are going to marry you and

AwatA?nyo-tdke, akwe ku kakwatakwA, wahs kali*? on/ oskanhe?

here will be wedding feastivities, all is arranged, go on then now together

tsyahtA ti anik/htlu ha.” “akhsot, yah se nitekelhe? ayukninyke

you will walk with the young man.” “Grandmother, I really don’t want to many

thi k/ lanik/htehlu. Ikelhe? se ni utsi'lene? n/. Asesaht/fi”, okhna?

that handsome man. I want for me go along when you go home.” and

ohsotha kwah nok layakoswa tA ok uni wa^aMu?, “yah, se

her grandmother really became annoyed now too she said, “No, you

thutsiten on/ se nise Ahsanyakc” OnA kati9 wi oskanhe
will not go along with me now you are getting married.” Now then together

wahyahtA ti ne9n lanik/htlu wa9etsi9totati ne9n aknulha. Tho ne

they walked the young man crying along the way, this mother of mine. That’s

tyakonyaku ne9n tho ne nu, tho ne ni yot tsi*> yakonyakskwe. Ne9n lotikst/ha
when she got married that’s the place, that is how they were married When the parents

tAhotihhwayA tasc. Nok tsi9 lanik/htlelu wahathlo h Icas uhka9

would make the agreement. But the young man would tell them to who

washakonuwenc. Ne kwi yeyatase9 yako t/t sheku ok onA

he took a hking. Well then pity the young girl all of a sudden,

wa9utathnuwene onA ki9 ne lotikwAnata9 Ahalikwatako.

someone takes a hking to her, now then they the parents will make the arrangements.

Tho kwi kari k/ ni-yot tsi9 yakonyaku aknulhak/. OnA kati9 w-a9kal6ktA.
This then is how that she was married, my mother. Now then I finish my story.

The Way They Used to Get Married

I will tell you a story about how they used to get married. It’s about seventy-six years
ago, my mother was married that way. My mother was left an orphan, both of her parents
died at the same time and she was left to five with her grandmother. She was only fifteen
years when there was a bundle of clothes left to her grandmothers. She was happy now
she thought she would get to dress up. She didn’t know that the custom was to buy
clothes for the young girl that was about to get married. One Sunday her grandmother told
her to get ready for church and to wear the clothes in the bundle. When they arrived at
the church, she was really surprised to see this young man standing there with his parents.
Now they told her that he was to be her husband and this was the day she will be married
to him. This young girl cried and told her grandmother, “I don’t want to get married, I
will be good . The Grandmother said “You will have to go with him, arrangements have
already been made, we can’t help it, now go and walk with him.” She did, but she cried
all the way. She also told her she was of an age to be getting married. So that is how
my mother was married. But from then on there wasn’t too many marriages like that.
Except on a few rare occasions when a young man will tell his folks about which young
girl he took a hking to. Well this is the end of my story.

Told by Mrs. Katie Cornelius to Ida Blackhawk (3-17-39)

Transcribed and Taped by Maria Hinton (11-13-80)

KanyalotuhkA Tsya hoAnya ke^

Katsa? 6k nu tshutakahawi ka^i-kA ukwehuwe kwah katokA na'hehaosliyaku

lu love okhna1? AhotilihwayolA ne“?n luwayAha oh nayawA’ne ahyosnol/rne

ahuwany&ktA. Ne wi ka*?ikA luway/ha Ahnehsake katsa1? nu thotiya'hasetslayA.

Ne- ka^i-kA lotikstAhokuha akwe-ku wahatikwataku tsi*? niyot tsi*? ahuwatinyaktA

ne- uni yotka te yah nuwAlu tha'hethonatatkA tsi*? kayX Ahoti nyake. otyahke yaka

kwah kXs lonatets/u onA yakahewe ahuwatinyaktA. KanyalotuhkA tsahuwanyaktA

tahutathawite tsi*? nahte*? teklAsa-lA kwah tsi"? ok nahte*? wahotiyAtane tsi*> ok uhka

latihawi wahuwati yu. AtyAhke-ne wahutekhu-nr yakA kaye tshiyohwistae onA

wahattoke tsi*? teyawAhalhe? lutskwe-naku. Yo^kalashneha sahatikhwA-tane o’nA se*?

te^shatkwenye-se tsi*? niyolakaleni tsi*> teyawAhalhe*? tat wi nuwa lotetsh/iu o-ela

tehnitakele*? onA tho nika'hs&hste tsi^ teyaw/Uhalhe? o n/, se*? kwah


KanyalotuhkA Tsyaho'?nyake'?
Thomas John Gets Married

Raisa*? 6k nu tshutakaha wf ka^ikA ukwehu-we kwah katokA

Some time ago when this Oneida got to be a

nahehaosliyaku lu kwe okhna*? Ahotilihwayo’tA ne“?n luway/ha

certain age his parents decided they would start making arrangements for him to

oh nayawA-ne ahyosnolAne ahuwanyakU. Ne wi ka'hkA luwaykha Ahnehsake

get married quickly. So his parents would look for a family
katsa7 nu thotiya7tasetslayAto tho nityakawenu ayakonyake.
who had a young daughter of marriageable age.

Ne- ka7ikA lotikstAhokuha akweku wahatikwataku tsi7 niyot tsi7 ahuwatinyaktA

Tins old couple made all the plans with the young girls’ parents

ne1 uni yotka te yah nuwAtu tha7tethonatatL\ tsi7 kayA

and most often the young couple to be married had never seen each other

Ahoti nyake. otyahke yakA kwah kXs lonatets/u

before. Sometimes this couple to be married are nervous and

0‘nA yakahe-we ahuwatinyaktA. KanyalotuhkA tsahuwanyaktA. Tahutatha'wile tsi7

afraid when the time comes. Thomas John was married. His parents

nahte7 teklAsalA kwah tsi7 ok nahte7 wahotiyA'tame

did their best to give him a good wedding. The people gave them

tsi7 ok uhka latiha-wi wahuwatiyu. AtyAhkene wahutekhunr yakA kaye

all kinds of presents. Their dinner was, they say, at four

tshiyohwistae o-nA wahattoke tsi7 teyaw'/ihalhe7 lutskwcnaku.

o’clock. Then he noticed that was making noise in his chest.

Yo7kalashneha sahatikhwA’tane o'n/» se7 te7shatkwenye'se tsi7 niyolakaleni

He just couldn’t stand it any longer how loud it was

tsi7 teyawAhalhe7 tat wi nuwa lotetshAU o-nA tehnita'kele7

thumping, maybe he was scared. Even after they were laying down

onA tho nika7tsahste tsi7 leyaw/Jialhe7 otla se7 kwah teyonaktakalA'luhe.

it was a terrific thumping, it was so strong that even the bed was shaking.

Thomas John Gels Married

Sometime ago, when the Oneida’s got to a certain age, their parents would start to
make arrangements for marriage. Their parents would look for a family with a
daughter of marriageable age. This old couple made all the plans with the young
girls’ parents and most often the young couple to be married and never seen each
other before. Sometimes the couples are very nervous. Thomas John got married
in this manner. His parents did their best to give him a good wedding and they
got all kinds of presents. Their dinner was at four o’clock and it was then that he
noticed a noise in his chest. Even after they went to bed his chest was
so loud that it was shaking the bed. He was that scared.

Told by Jefferson Baird to Dennison Hill (3-23-39)

Transcribed by Maria Hinton (11-22-76)
1-19 *
Lanilutluha Washakokwa?tani Tsi^kayA

uskah ullaLste yak/ ka’ikA lawk/tluha ne lanutunyu he ahonyake. Washakokwa?tani

tei’kayA lotiya'hasetslayA JaotihwatsWaku. Na labaka hewe ahhne we shakokwatani, (ho

wahAHe-we yakuhewS'Xha tsi? nu tyulaya?talchwa. Akweku tsyeyaHat yeyaHaseha

wa’tyekwe ne’n yakuhuwatha kanu nyayehnot kalo (si? niyole wayiityA. Wahalkailho

Ianik/tlu yakaweskwanibe ayuteyAtuni washako nuwe, nekwi washakoya’tala ko


Lanik Washakokwa?tani Tsi^kayA

Young Man Invited People, Those With Young Daughters

uskah utldtste
yakA ka^i kA lanik tluha ne lanutunyu he ahonya ke.
One time
they say this young man was thinking about getting married.

Washakokwa'hani tsilkay/, loliyaHasetslayA laotihwatsilaku.

e gave a party and invited all those who had young daughters in their family.

Na tshakahewe ahAne we
shakokwatani, tho wahAne we yakuhewa^tba tsi'? nu
When it was about time for the
guests to begin arriving he placed a broom across the

tyutaya?t£khwa. Akweku tsyeya?tat yeya^taseha

threshold. When the guests came in, they all stepped over the broom. One of tl

wa^tyekwe ne?n yakuhuwdtha kanu nyayehnot kalo tsi? niyole w^yA^6^’

picked up the broon and put it in the comer before she sat down.Y

Wahatkattho lamk/tlu yakaweskwamhe ayuteyAtuni washako nuwc

e young man saw that she liked to fix and tidy up a home. He liked her,’

nc washakoya^tala ko wahotin nyake.

and it was she that he married.

Young Man Invited People, Those With Young Daughters

Once upon a time, a young man was thinking about getting married. He gave a party and
invited all those who had young daughters. When it was about time for the guests to
begin arriving, he place a broom across the threshold. When the guests came in, they all
stepped over the broom. One of the girls, however, picked up the broom and put it in
the comer before she sat down. The young man saw that she liked to fix and tidy up a
home. He liked her, and it was she that he married.

Told by Mrs. Sophie Hill to Ida Blackhawk

Transcribed by Maria Hinton (4-12-78)

TS'’' niho,iliho,u'ni lAnukwehu-w6 onutake tshithatinakele? ne- Us nOa lotikslA ha

wa^thutate^nikuklha 1a on/ wahA-nek? lotlnyak shako,iyotolo), kanyo ytrkwe iwelhe?

ayonyake? ne kin onulha, yena laU (ho Ayeha-wlhte’ tsi? nu thotinuhsote1? luway/lia ne’n

lu'kwe tat thotPnikuhli-yri alslunyahkwat Us tayntk/ late ne Akalihwahniktet tsP ony kP

wahotinya kc. Yah nuWAtu iatsihUstats, teshakotUnay/'m, nok tsP olihw.-yo- ,sp

lolilihwaloUncP la, Ashoya9,u„'- oksa9 Us sakowAhnuksa ne tsa kat lu kwe tho ne

tASyatekkahsi tsP myole katsa ok kay/- Aya’yiheye tydtkul sUmPko tsP

tehonatatesnyeu •.

Onuta ke
New York

Hnw ?hh°tllih0(7lA ^ De?D Unukwebl)'w^ Onuta-ke tshithatinakele?

How they customs were when the Oneidas in New York stS lived

Twou^ nfR !°tikst/ ha wa^thutate^nikulha-I/ on/ wah/rnele? Iotmvak

e t e old folks that would make the plans, when they wanted to get married

ttt^^’i^a6 ^ °nuM ^yeni-talA

- girl wants to get married, her mother will go visiting.

s™ sinita,rA "fh,u
the parents of kw'tai
this man, if they are satisfied

atslunyahkwat Us layutU late ne- Akalihwahnilatet n .

clothing usually lhc mother wi.l bring to make deCrute arrangements that Z,
•hey w,ll ge, mamed. Never did a mmjs[cr perfomi JQe_y
a J3'1 nUW/,1(i lalsiWs'at5hi teshakotlAnayA-ni nok |Sp

olihwi y6 tsi7 lotilihwatok/ ne'7 tat Ashoya^tutr oksa7 Icas
for sure that their marriage was for keeps if she leaves him, right away

sakuwAhnu ksa ne tsa kat lu kwe th6 ne tAsyatekkahsi tsi'? niyoie

t ey will go after her it s the same with men. When they separate it won’t be until

katsa ok kay/- Aya^yiheye. tyotkut skAn/v^ko tehonatatesnye u.

one of them dies.
Always well with them, how they took care of each other.

New York

This is how the customs were in New York

when the Oneidas’ still lived there. It would
be the old folks that would make the plans for marriage for their children. If a girl
wanted to get married, her mother would go visiting. She would bring to their house the
parents of this man, if the mother liked the way they were dressed, the mother will make
definite arrangements. Never did a minister perform the ceremony, but their marriage was
for keeps. If she would leave her husband, they would go after her and bring her back,
the same for the man. When they separate, it won’t be until one of them dies. They
would always take care of each other.

Told by Jim Antone to Tillie Baird (5-8-39)

Transcribed by Maria Hinton (4-11-79)
Olihwakayu Tsi'? NiyolihotA-hne Yakonyaks

Lukwe, ukah lana^kwi-saks Ahanakalihsle. Tsi^ kay/\ yukwe tho Atakalatane ne-

kwi Ane- tsi'? tkahuhatati. Ta hni nakalaslA tsi^ kahuhatati okhna AteshakoiiAtsa

hniyayake. Tat/i hniya^yake nA kwi onm lo ne awatu. Tat Athniya^tAne kwi

sheku Ashanakalisle.

Olihwaka yu Tsi*? NiyolihotA-hnc Yakonyaks

Lukwe, ukah lana^kwrsaks Ahanakalihsle.

A man who is looking for a wife will drag a pole.

Tsi? kay/ yukwe tho Atakala tane ne- kwi Ane- tsi? tkahuatati.
A woman who steps on the pole will go to the creek with him.

Ta hm nakalaslA tsi^ kahuhatati okhna AteshakonAtsa tA hniyayake.

They will put the pole across the creek and he will take her hand and lead her
across the pole.

Tat/ hniya'tyake nA kwi ona/ lo ne awa tu.

If they get across safely, she will become his wife.

Tat Athniya^tA ne nA kwi she ku Ashanakalisle.

If they fall off, he will have to drag the pole until he is successful.

As told by Andrew Beechtree

Transcribed by Maria Hinton (4-7-78)
Onuhkwa'h .Sophie Hill

Ne7n tat Ayoti aotenya7kwatha tyo7nhuskwaiut ne- ka7ikA ala’sek Aye7nikuhete

okhna7 o7nhuhsa yah te7yoli ne tho ya7tAyuwAlihe. Tho ne7 o'ela kahsaku

yAyetane7 kwah tsi7 niku Awatu tAkuwaskalawe kwah uni a7e kahsa ku nAyakoti

okhale7 tat Akawistoske nA AwatwiiayA ne ka7ikA otosehli okwiie tAyeyakhu

tohka nikstotslake tyolihu\hse yAyako ti tat skatsyAhtkwatslat tsi7 niku.


Ne7n tat Ayo ti aotenya7kwatha tyo7nhuskwalut ne- ka7rk/\. ala sek

If in case she would lose her cud a cow take this elderberry'

Aye^nikuhete okhna7 o7nhuhsa yah te7yoh ne tho ya7tAyuwAlihe. Tho

scraped from the bark then an egg a raw egg in it stir real well. Then

ne7 on/ kahsa ku yAyetane7 kwah tsi7 niku Awa tu tAkuwaskalawe kwah uni
now in her mouth you put it just as wide as you can open her mouth or even

a7e kahsa ku nAyakoti okhale7 tat Akawistoske nA Awatwiiay/

as far back in her mouth you place it and even if she gets a chill giving birth,

ne ka7ik>\ otosehli okwiie tAyeya-khu tohka nikAtsotslake

so this overgrown red willow whip break into several bundles

tyolihAhse yAyako ti tat skatsyAhtkwatslat tsi7 niku.

boiling water pour over it about one water pail full is the amount.


If in case a cow should lose her cud, take this elderberry scraped from the bark,
with an egg stirred real well in it. You place this in her mouth, open it as wide
as you can and place it as far back as you can. Even if she gets a chill giving
birth, take this overgrown red willow whip and get several bundles, pouring boiling
water over it. It takes about one water pail full. Open her mouth and get it as
far back as possible.

Told by Mrs. Sophie Hill to Ida Blackhawk

Transcribed and Taped by Maria Hinton (11-17-80)
T ehunuhsanekhanyukwe
J| V * •*** \* 4 Phoebe Hill
in till isiyi
LaksotkA Lashat . mmmm
(William Hill)

#: mm

$PS8* ills
Tehun uhs an ekh anyukwe1

e so lotilihwahsulye^takhwe lAnukwehuwe ohsAnahuwe IotihsAnayA-tukwe

ukwe'hakayuskwe ne- nuwah ka^i k/ tehunuhsanekhanyukwe ka'rik/ tehotskala-WA,


onahsakAldt, tehohAiehte.


e-so lotilihwahsulye^takhwe lAnukwehu we ohsAnahu-we lotihsAnayA-tukwe

A lot of laughs, they had these Oneidas, real Oneida Indian names they had

ukwe^taka>TJskwe ne- nuwah ka^i kA tehunuhsanekhanyukwe ka^i kA

these old timers now again these people were neighbors this

tehotskala wa, onahsakA'ldt, teholulehte.

his mouth is open “goose” he’s yelling


A lot of laughs they had these Oneidas. They had real Oneida names, these old
timers. One time their neighbors heard him yelling “goose”.

Told by Yakowin (Phoebe Hill) to Dennison Hill (3-14-39)

Transcribed and Taped by Maria Hinton (11-18-76)
LaksotkX L£shat

DJyaW/U Tehothw/kalul, k*,i9 wahA,akkaae9

wahooo'lu' usahakdtsko. T16 wahuwaya9.olAne9 Iosha.i'u kwah ok „d-

wahuwaaa-tuhkwe lasha.. hskah dUaWe? ko li- las U lho wilawe9

shakohwistawrne9 „e *7 ka y/- washakohsAnalako- las okha,e9

elhuwa. ukwe .ho la *7 washakohsAnahU, Ne- ka.]9 ka^i ia ko la

wah/ lu7 U.ke7 ^i.wakwa.a k6' ukwahya.hhselR Ne- ka.i9 «7 ca k/ tho

“W> °mhkWalk6' ^WAnakalata, wah/-lu7, *a ki9 wa i,d kali,

lyolyeUhtu salhlo-U nahte9 luwati-ydts sheyoku da ki9 wd ka9ikA ^

nahaydhlev lasnuke wahA-lu9nd- kwi ka^kX Tsyanikohkohh-, okha.e9 Wah .es

Okhale, TewaVsIake. Okhna9 wahX,u9 onuhkwa,ko- yah kwi ne nd-.e-kAh nese9

nih,e9 .uwahydu o^.un^. WahX-.u9 ne se9 m- yakhine9.ukl.wa

ukwehu-we luwaU yiu, IXlskwa., shonuhses, Uikh, an6 kih, kas.o9khan. yu.,

kAhnhkwA, shana kdhia, shohahes, belis.el, UyokwiU-.u. a.Hu a.ndkahla,

lamkWA9.ahu u.9, lihkot, shakoshalut, sdkwayak, TehanyAtakd yu, lo.ohshA, i kwilut,

h.6tha, IewaUhikko9oks, alihwrsdks, takahuwXsehle. Atelyatha, lewa9A-n6l,

kanuhsases, kAnlah.ahehJe., .ehua.syo Ia, .ehawyayX-, ashalahkwa,

skawclowdhne, .ehawya9.1,uh, kaUikhe^ni, kakwislA., sa.X, uilohs, uikayah,

walcyah, onuhkwa^lko-.

LaksotkA Lashat
Grandfather Got His Name, Lashat

Tsi? niyaw/u laksotk/ lohsAnayAt^u, Lashat, tehofhwAkalut,

How it happened my grandfather got his name Lashat, he had snow shoes on,

ne- kali? wahAtaklane7 wahonolu usahatketsko- tho wahuwaya7tolAne7

that is how he fell he wasn’t able to get up that is how they found him

loshata u, kwah ok ne- wahuwanatuhkwe Lashat.

lying on his back, so then they just called him Lashat.

uskah utlatste kolakAS k/'tbo wa'lawe7 shakohwistawTne7

One time the agent would here arrive to give them their annuity,

ne' kali'? tsi7 kay/' yako7WAta'u washakohs/vnalako

and so the ones that have died he would take their names off the Indian roll

Icas okhale7 elhuha7 ukwe yakotuu tho Ica ki7 washakosAnahlA.

and those just bom (person became) there also he would enter their names.

Ne kati7 ka7ik/ ko la- wahA'lu7 “T/tke7 Atsi7tw'akwata ko ukwahyatuhseli7.”

So then this agent he said, “I’ll be back we’ll rearrange our Indian roll.”

Ne- kati7 tsi7 ha saiawe7, laknulha Onuhkwahtko', latWAnakala'tats, wahA'lu7,

So then after he returned, my uncle, Big Medicine, the interpreter, said,

‘‘Na ki7 wa i'se kati7 tyotyelAhtu sathlo h nahle7 luwati yats sheyo'ku,”
Alright then, you’ll be first tell what are the names of your children,”

nA ki7 wa ka7i'kA lu kwe kA nahayehle7 lasnu ke, wahA'lu7, “Ne- ka7i'kA,

alright then this man like this he went on his hand he said, “It’s like this,

Tsyamkohkoho' okhale7 Wah' tes, Tewa7slake. Okhna7 wah/ lu7, Onuhkwatko',

Tsyanikohkoho' and Wali tes, Tewa7slake. And then he said, “Big Medicine,

yah kwi ne ne le kAh ne se7 tsi7 nahte7 luwati yats

no not that way. It’s the one what are the names they are called

o>sIuni7kchji. Wah/ lu7, “Ne se7 yakhina7lukhwa ukwehu wc luwati'yats:

in Imglish. He said, “That is what we call them in Oneida are their names:
Lotolish/i. Alihwisciks.
Ashldhkwa. Anoki.
Tahutsy6L\. .Comehus Baird
Kaslo^khwa^khwani yul
Tehawyay/... . .Tom Baird
Tehawya-ti'lu. L/tskwat.
Tsi?kukwales. .Tysan Christjohn
TehanyAtakayu.. .David Christjohn Shakoshalut.
TewaVndt. ....Fillmore Cooper
Shanakala. ....Peter Denny Tsik&yah.
Lamkwa'^tahutsi'L.Cornelius Doxtator Tsilbhs.Lucy
Onu^kwahtko-. ...Cornelius Hill
Sakwayat. ...David Hill Waleya7.Marion
Sakwayak. ...Jake Hill
Kanuhses. ....Luscious Hill Told by Chauncey Baird lo
Katsi7khe7tu nihe7..Phoebe Hill Morris Swadesh (2-11-39)
Atnakala. ...Aaron House
Transcribed by Maria Hinton
Kanlaht£hele... ...David Jordan (1-6-80)
Skawelo’wanA. ...Martin King
Taped by Maria Hinton (1-11-87)
Be'listle.....William Minor
Atiiu. ....Cobis Peters
TekahuwA’sehle... ....Henry Powless
Tsyanikitkit. ...Johnnie Reed
KawislAt. ...Ruth Reed
Atelyatha. ...William Schuyler
Shonuhses. ...Elijah Skenandore
Shakohuht6tha.... ..Abraham Smith
Tewatsihko^oks.... ...(His Wife)Smith

j*r.. - a HISTORY
Yukya9lahseC. . Dennison Hill
(My Cous|a) .

Otsi'?ndw^o . . Depnison Hill

(Big *&) ( \ Mffli
>: '
.. 1 *
LashJohA etjiial . . . Abraham Smith
(A Gourageous Dog)
/; v
Cassil Wata'^ashrnihe • • • !i. • ♦ ♦ < 4 assie Denny

YokltftJha9 Kahwista^ekta . . .k . ..Lucy Rose King

low clock) v 3f
fig : S J .
Jubilee Singers . . . ....- Albert Webster
mMI . ; ’
Tehalukwe^ayaicu Okhale'> Lo;ne- . . 4, / . V Sarah Summers
(Broken Spine andxHis Wife) - 5 ^
*l ft \
OkstAha Wahakhlolyahyu jTsi9 Nihoya'-HawAU /j
Tshihaksa . . . fj J.j:..L ..... . \ .1.1. . Anonymous
(Old Man Told ^Tiat Tiappened When He Was a Child)

She ku Shaya dt LotatATu . . . ./{ . . . . . . . Oscar Archiquette

(There is Still^ne /

Yukya^lase tho yahinusolA'ne tewashA ahs/ tshiskaie kani^wehnites watlu yaw/le

tewAnya we ok ahsA niwashA watlu niyohslashetas tahnu o^sluni lonyaku tho kati^

wa^kheya^lol/'ne aknulha teyuknuhwelatukwa? watlu niwashA ok uskah

teyakaosliya'ku kwah ne' lonulha ka^ikA yukya^la-se e'so wa^tyakni'thalu'ni tsi?

na he tho waknatahlen/ ne- SAwa'^ukhlo'li tsi^ ne' e'so yako^nikuhlo'lihe'? tsi^

lonathny6te ka^ikA kawAnayenas tyokute yak/ kaL\note.

My Cousin

Yukya^la'hse tho yahinuhsol//ne tewashA ahsA tshiska ie kani^'wehnites

My cousin, there I found him at his house twenty-third day of February

watlu yaw/le tew Any a'we ok ahsA niwashA niyohslashe'tas

nineteen hundred and thirty the number of the year.

Tahnu o^slu ni lonya ku tho kali? ya^kheya^tol/ne

And to a white woman he was married to and so, there I found them

aknulha teyuknukwelatu khwa^ wa tlu niwashA ok uskah teyakaosliya'ku

my mother, as I will greet her. Ninety and one was her age.

Kwah ne- lonulha ka^i kA yukyalase'? e'so wa^tya^knithalu ni

She was his mother, this cousin of mine. A lot of talking we did

tsi9 na he tho waknatahleha we ne' sa wa^ukhlo li tsi? ne'

while I visited her. She also told me that

c so yako9nikuhlo lihe > tsi lonathnyotc^ ka'h'kA kawAnayenas

very much amused and enjoyed that there was standing there, a radio.

Tyokut yak/, kaLvnote.
Always there was music.

My Cousin

On February 23, 1993, I found my cousin at his house.', He was married to a

white woman. I also found my mother, as I will greet her. She is ninety-one
years in age. She was his mother, this cousin of mine. We did a lot of talking
while I visited her and she told me that she was very amused and enjoyed the
radio. There was always music.

Told by Dennison Hill (2-25-1939)

Transcribed by Maria Hinton (11-1-1976)


TehyatAhnutela yakA? okhale? luwa^niha. Katsa^ ok nu nihati^tlAtakwe. Katsa'? ok

nu tshAtakaha wi. Tahnu ka^ikA kanusote tho nu nihawAheyu (luwakstA k/\)

yotlalstu yakA? yanusanuha? ka^ikA tehyat/Jhnutdla yah wi oh

nahohle^tehyanuhtunyuhe? wa'^okalawe'? kwah ok oshu^kala ke thahyanitskalA so tsi^

tekA^tukhwale. Tho kali*? tsi? yowelotau wahatna^skuni. Yats! Kwah ka? ok na

he^ ychnjta kele^ okhna^ tayolakalele^ e neke kwah tho tsi7 niyot yolakalhe? tsi*?

niyot uhka ok e neke utayA,sheke?akohsi?t6sku akAhake*? okhale? ona tuhkwenAte?

ka^ikA yola kalhe^ yolisttakhwa^slotau. Tho yeyola kalhe'? nA eneke yusayola^kalhe?

Tahnu lekahsuhtote tsi? kalistakwa-tslote; Yah kwi oh nahte*? thyakuwakA Tekni

wa^twahkete? onA lahatketsko tsi? kay/v ka^nihJa okhna? thoya^thatane tsi?

yonhoka Ute. Tsi1? tekahsuhtote. Oksa^ wahlotalihsi tsi1? watA^nhalhos, tahnu lo yA

ka^ikA oliwase^ wattsistot. Kwah tho tsi^nahe tehotiiA-layA? on/ tutayohsitakalele?

tho u we ehla ke okhna^ tahanhotu'kwahte^ okhna^ wahatsisto'tA on/

wa^tyohsi^takalele^ tho wahyatlryo- Tahatketskwahte'? shaya tat wahoya^takenha'?

lahyalAhnu tehele. Wahnilyo? kati? wi- ka^ik/ otsi^nowAhko. OhnAnata^ne- tho

tkaya lolc tsi^ yeyolislakhwa^sloku ne1 ne lakalenyeskwe^ ne^n.

Big Rat

TehyatAhnutela yakA*> okhale? luwa^niha, katsa‘> ok nu nihati^tlAlakwe

Two brothers, they say, and their father, where ever they had lived
katsa'? ok nu tshAtakahawi. Tahnu ka9ikA kamisote tho nu
sometime ago. And at this house

nihawAhe yu (luwakst/, k/>) yotlatstu yakA9 yanusanuha9

their father had died. One time, they say, they were

ka9ikA tehyalAhnutela yah wi oh nahohte9tehyanuhtunyuhe9

keeping house, these two brothers, weren’t thinking of anything special

wa9okalawe9 kwah ok oshu9kalake thahyanitskaLA sotsi9 tekA9tukhwale.

At night they just threw on a blanket, because it was so hot.

Tho kati9 tsi9 yowelotau wahalna9skuni. Yats!

So there in the breeze they made themselves comfortable. Gosh,

kwah ka9 ok na he9 yehnita'kele9 okhna9

it was just a short time that they lay there, when

tayola kalele9 eneke kwah tho tsi9 niyol yolakalhe9

there was a noise coming downstairs the noise was like

tsi9 niyol uhka ok e neke utayAsheke9akohsi9tosku akAhake9 okhale9 onA

it was like some one upstairs was walking without shoes on like, and now

tuhkwe nAte9 ka9ikA yola'kalhe9 yohsttakhwa9slotau. Tho yeyola'kalhe9

The noise was coming down to the bottom of the stairs. Making a lot of noise

nz e-neke yusayola9kalhe9 Tahnu tekahsuhtote tsi9

now, the noise was upstairs again, and there was a wall at the

kalistakwa tslote; Yah kwi oh nahte9 thyakuwa kA Tekni wa9twahkete9 onA

bottom of the; Well, there was nothing they could see, it came down twice

lahatketsko tsi9 kay/- ka9nihla okhna9 thoya9tha-ta ne

he got up, the smaller one he stood there

tsi ^ yonhoka IaIc tsi9 tekahsuhtote. Oksa9 wahlotalihsi tsi9 watA9nhalhos,

in the doorway near the wall. And right away unfastened the lock.

tahnu lo yA ka9ik/ oli wasc9 wattsistol. Kwah tho lsi9nahc

and he had the new style (electricity) lights. It was quite some lime

tehotiLAiayA? onA tutayohsitakalele? lh6 uwe ehtake okhna?
that he waited, then he heard the sound of feet again it came downstairs and then

tahanhotu kwahte^ okhna'? wahatsistotA oua

he opened the door quickly and lit the lights

wa?tyohsi‘>takalele‘? tho wahyatli yo.

now there was scratching and scrambling and they started fighting.

Tahatketskwahte? shayd tat wahoya^takenha? tahyatAhnu teheje.

The other one jumped up quickly and helped his brother.

Wahmlyo'? kati^ wr ka'fikA otsi^nowAhko. OhnAna ta^ne' tho tkaya lote

So they killed this big rat. There was a bag of potatoes standing

tsi7 yeyolistakhwa^sloku ne- ne lakalenyeskwe? ne^n.

under the stair way, and that was what he was hauling away the rat.

Big Rat

It happened in the same house that two brothers had lived with their father for
many years and where there father had died. One time, they say they were
keeping house and they weren’t thinking of anything special. One night, because
it was so hot, they just had a fight blanket covering them to make them
comfortable, when they heard a big noise coming downstairs. It sounded like
someone with shoes on was coming down the stairs and then going back up the
stairs again. The smaller brother got up and stood by the doorway near the wall.
Right away he unfastened the lock and turned on the fights. He waited for quite a
while and then he heard the sound of feet again as it came downstairs, he flung
open the door and then there was scratching and scrambling as they were fighting.
His brother jumped up quickly to help his brother. They discovered what they had
kil cd was a big rat. There was a bag of potatoes standing under the stairway and
hat was what the big rat was‘hauling away.

Told and written by Dennison Hill (3-29-39)

Transcribed by Maria Hinton (5-8-77)
LashlohA Elhal

Kwah e-so lahslo hA e lhal onA Ahakweni /JhayanAhawishu ohkwali otyalike

ne' eIha,> oksa Awatsi?lAhte? kanyo Awattoke katsanu niyotukohtu

ohkwa li. Ne1 wi ne- wakatsanihke ne?n autoiate.

LashlohA E lhal

'y e so Iahslo hA elhal oila Ahakweni AhayanAhawishu

It has to be, a very courageous dog when he’s able to track down

ne^n ohkwa li Otyalike ale'? ne- e lhal kwah oksa AwatshitAhte? kanyo
the bear. Some again the dog right away will whine if

Awattoke? katsa1? nu myotuhkohtu ohkwali. Na wi- Akalsa nke

he senses where it has gone through, this bear. Now then it will become afraid

ne- auto-late?
to hunt.

A Courageous Dog

Most dogs will not track a bear. They will whine as soon as it senses a bear
And most dogs will not hunt anymore, after an experience of tracking a bear So
it is only a very courageous dog that will track a bear.

Told by Shakohuhtotha* to Dennison Hill (5-5-39)

Transcribed and Taped by Maria Hinton (12-22-80)

*Shakohuhtotha -english name was Abraham Smith.

Cassie Wata?aslunihe

Kanyo qua uhka ok wa?yayiheye? tho Icas yakA? wa?tukwatase tsi? nu niya?tat

ahsA nA watlatsle?, tho ne- onA, AtsyuhtAti, Akweku kAS wahutatliwanu tu se

usayutatlihwa?mkulliAse. Ne1 onA ashenute? katAhninuhahkwe. IkslAha kA ne-

lakya?takenhaskwe. IktAha kA ne- lakya?takenhaskwe ne- lalutyahskwe.. Ne- o n/.

wa^tyakninuwayA-ta na kAS Kanatake, ne? atAna-tsli. Okhale? skayatat yu kwe

wa?oksa?layAtane ohahake. AhsA yawA’le nihati kheyotih, lahnu yah nAWAtu te

waknuhwaktaniheTNe yakA? wa?thlolihe? tsi*? ka?ikA lotikstAha saha ne-

lotiya?tahniIuse tsi? ni-yot ka?ikA kanithotiyAhsa k/Ji nikaha wi.

Cassie Wata?aslunihe

Kanyo- uhka ok wa?yayiheye? tho kAS yakA? Wa?tyuhkwatase

When some one ^es there then, they say, they would go around

tsij nu yeyatate? ahsA nA watlatste? tho ne- kwi o’nA AtsyuhtA ti

where she is buried, three more limes then it’s time now to go home

Akwe-ku kAS wahutatliwanu tu se usayutatUhwanikulhAhse. Ne- onA

all of them always asked each others for their forgiveness. Now it was

ashenute? katAhninuhahkwe IkstAhkA ne- lakya?takenhaskwe Ne-kAs

the basket, I used to sell. My late husband he used to help me, it was

lalutyahkskwe. Ne- q ua Wa?tyakninuwayAtana Kanata ke

he used to cut the logs. Now it was the two of us went bartering to Green Bay

ne^n atAna tsh. Okhale? skaya tat Yu kwe wll la?oksa?tayA ta ne? Ohaha ke
tor lood. And the other person, a female, she had a baby on the road.

AhsA yawA-le nihati kheyotih, tahnu yah nuwA lu tewaknuhwaktanihe?

Three teen(13) of them that 1 raised and also never was I sick.
nc yakA^ wathlolihe'? tsi'? ka'rikA lotikstAha sa ne- lotiyaAtahniluse
They say what it’s telling, about these old people they were hardy men

tsi*? ni'yot kani^thotiyA'sa kAh nikahawi.

just the way young people around this time.

Cassie Denny

When someone dies, they say, they would go around where she is buried three
times and they would ask each other for forgiveness before they went home.
1 used to sell baskets, my late husband would help me. He used to cut the logs.
We used to go to Green Bay and barter for food. One person had a baby on the
road. Thirteen children I had and I never got sick. They say that the old people
then were hardy men. Just the way young people around this time.

Told by Cassie Denny, 3/22/39.

Translated by Maria Hinton, 6/26/81.
Taped by Maria Hinton, 7/09/81.
Yokst/iha? Kahwista^ekla

Wahunise9 ona tshi? ka y/' ka^ikA kahwista^ekta. Tho ne Sayraon tsi?

tkaketohse nukwa tshyeheiehse'? Iko nu yehoyo^tatyeskwe ne?n nyuyak stet. Ne-


kati'? nA tsusa lawe'? kAtho tsi^ ninakele*? ne^n luwayyUna. Ne tho ne kati^ kwah

elhuwa'? lonatnuhsisu tekalutatu okhna^ kwi ne^n luway/ha Saymon kwah tsyok

nahohte^ washakohninunyuhse'? tsi? myutsta ne?n kanusku. Tho ne kati'? thohnrnu1

ne^n kahwista^ekta. Kwah uhte'? olihwi yo tsi*? wisk niyohsla'shA teyaohsliya ku.

Kwah uni1? ok onA tsi*? niyoyanle? tsi^ kahwista eks okhale'? kwah tkayeli tsi1?

katakhe. Wakatsle'? kati? thilcA kahwista^ekta.

YokstAha? Kahwista^ekta
The Old Clock

Wahu nise7 on/ tshi'? kay/1 ka^i kA kahwista^ekta. Tho ne Saymon

Long ago now has been in existence this clock. When Simon

tsi*? tkake tohse nukwa1 tshyehe lehse7 tho nu yehoyo^tatyeskwe

where the sun rises in the east, there he used to work here and there

ne?n nyuyak stet. Ne1 kali nA tsusalawe? kX'tho tsi^ ninakele1? ne^n
in New York Stale. Well then when he came back here where they lived his

luway/ha. Ne tho ne kati^ kwah elhuwa? lonatnuhsisu tekalu tatu,

parents. It was then it was just recently, had built a house made of logs,

okhna'? kwi ne^n luway/lha Saymon kwah tsyok nahohle1? washakohninunyuhse^ tsi^
so then his parents Simon just about everything he bought for them that

niyulsta ne^n kanusku. Tho ne kati'? thohni'nu1 ne^n kahwisla^ekta. Kwah uhte^
it used for the house. It was then that he bought the clock. Just about
olihwiyo tsi*? wisk niyohslasbLA teyaohsliyaku. Kwab uni^ ok onA tsi'? niyoyanle?
for sure it’s fifty years of age. It’s even the same and as good

tsi? kahwista eks okhale? kwah tkayeli tsi"? katakhe. Wakatstc1? kati^ thikA
that it ticks yet and just perfect the time it keeps. It’s sturdy then, that


The Old Clock

Long ago now this clock has been in existence. Simon worked in the East here
and there in New York Stale. When he decided to come back home where his
parents lived. He finally had a log house built and he bought everything for them
that they could use in the house. He also bought a clock. The clock is about
fifty years old now and is as good as when he first bought it. It’s sturdy, that

Told by Mrs. Lucy Rose King

Transcribed by Maria Hinton (10-13-80)
Jubilee Singers

Wisk yawA-16 tsa?tewakohsliyjkku tsa?kataya?tana? ne?n Hampton Institute

kuwayats yutatlihunyAnrtha? Virginia nu. Latihuhtsi? sa lonatyohkwanA tho

lutaya?tha okhale? tsyok nutwa?kanhatslotA tsyok nu nithonenu. uskah

te?wa?nyawelu ok yayahk niwahsA niya?kwati kunukwe okhale? lAnukwe ne?n

atwa?kanha? ok ne?n latihu tsi^ watlu? tewA?nyawelu tsi? nihati. Akte? nu

na?teyakwAtelu nok tsi? uskAnhe? tsi'? yukhilihunyAnihe?. Teklu? yawA le ok

wa tlu9 niwahshA teklu? niyohslashetas tho nu tshyekehse. Ne- kati^ tsi? ni yot

ls‘9 twakatahsa wA ne?n takliwahkwe? tho nu tyukhilihunyAni. Oyashu ne

tsa?akwaya?to-tA wahutewyAtehte? uni ne’ tahatiliwahkwe. Miss Cliflen kuwa yats

tsi9 ka-y/' yakolihunyAnihahkwe? ne?n kalA-na. Tho kati? nu tyotahsawA wa’

kanityohku ni- ne? tahatilihwakhwa? lAnukwe kaye niha ti. Ne kati? ka?ikA

Akhena?tuni tho iatiya?talahkwe? Albert Webster, ne- Tom Elm, Salomon Atsikwet

okhale? Chanci Takstete. Kwah kati? i kA tsi? yukwala?nhau okhna? Ukwehuwe'ne

tsusaya?kwawe, okhna? wi- teyakwahhwakhwa Icas kati? ki? wah. khale kati? onA

uskah utlatste? yautatokAhtu yo?kalasneha sayakwayakAne? onuhsatokAhtrke. Tho

kati? wa?tyakwatlaslu? ne?n akityohkwa? okhna? wi1 wa?tyakwalihwahkwanib

tohka? nikaU nake. Kwah nc Ica ok nahe? a?e na?tekanAla? lonatahuhsate.

So tsi? kalAni yohse. Kwah kati? tsyok nu nyahA ne ne?n akitsvohkwa. Okhna?

kwi kwah ok o ya sakamtsyohkuni tehatilihwakhwa. Ne- nuwa ka?i kA

shuwatiya?tsu, Albert Webster, Charles Webster, Mashel Deni okhale Ben

Wheelock. Ikwi ne' on/ sakhelihune tahnu tsi*^ ni yot tsi7 tehatilihwakhwa,

Albert Webster, bass, Mashel Deni, 1st tenor, Charles Webster, 2nd tenor, okhale

Ben Wilak, baritone. TeyohslashA tsi7 nahe7 o n/ oskannhe tsya7tayakwalihwakhwa.

Kwah uni tsi7 ni wa ne7n Wisconsin akweku mtyukwehtu. Teyakwat broadcast by


le tiyo swatye l/i ne7n station WHBY tsi7 niyawAU tsi7 yohsAnayAtau ne7n

yukwAtyohkwa. Ne7n ohna7k/ke sakanityohkwisane7, wa7hAniIu7, “nahte7 kati7

o n/ Atwana luhkwe7 ne7n yukwAtyohkwa. Uhka7 ok nahte7 wa7h/lu7, “yats ot

kati7 ni yot Jubilee Singers ki7wah,” tho kati7 niyaw/u tsi7 yukwasAnayAtau.”

Shcku nuwa k/Ji nikaha wi.

Jubilee Singers

Wisk yawA'le tsa7tewakohsliya ku tsa7kataya7ta na7 ne7n Hampton Institute

Fifteen years old, was the age I was, when I went to school at Hampton Institute

kuwa yats yutatlihunyAnrtha7 Virginia nu. Latihu'tsi7 sa lonatyohkwa nA tho

it was called, this school Virginia State. Black people too there were many that

lutaya7tha okhale7 tsyok nutwa7kanha7tslo,tA tsyok nu nithonenu.

went to school there and all kinds of different Indians just everywhere they

uskah te7wa7nyawelu ok ya yahk niwahsA niya7kwa ti kunu-kwe okhale7

One hundred and sixty there were of us women and

lAnu kwe ne7n atwa7kanha7 ok ne7n latihu'tsi7 wa tlu7

men of the different tribes of Indians, but the Blacks nine

tcwA7nyawelu tsi7 niha ti. Akte7 nu na7teyakw/'telu nok tsi7 osk/nhe7 tsi7
hundred of them there were. Separate buildings we lived but then together that

yukhilihunyAnihc7. Teklu7 yawA'le ok wa tlu7 niwahshA teklu7 tshiyohslashe tas tho

we were in classes. Eighteen and ninety eight was the year over

nu tshyekehse. Ne- kati*? tsi^ niyot tsi? twakatahsawA ne^n taklihwakhwake? tho
there, I was. So then the way that I started to be singing, it was

nu tyukhilihunyA ni. Oyashu ne tsa^ akwaya^totA wahutewyA'tehte1? uni ne-

there they taught me. Others too, were of the same tribe, they practiced too to

tahatihwahkwe. Miss Cliflen kuwayats tsi? kayA yakolihunyAnihahkwe? ne^n

sinS- Miss Cliflen was her name, the one th^t used to teach the

kalA-na. Tho kati'? nu tyotahsawA wa^kanityohku ni- ne*?n

songs. There then was when they started. I got a group together that

tehatilihwakhwa9 lAnukwe kaye nihati. Ne kali*? ka'rikA Akhena'riuni tho

would be singers, men four of them. So then these names I will call that

latiya'rialahkwe Albert Webster, ne- Tom Elm, Salomon Atsikwet okhale?

were members of; Albert Webster also Tom Elm, Soloman Archiquette and

Chanci Takstete. Kwah kati^ Hca tsi^ yukwala^nhau okhna^ Ukwehuwe ne

Chauncey Doxtator. So then we were really experienced so when Oneida Village

tsusaya^kwawe, okhna? wr teyakwalihwakhwa Icas ki^ wah okhale? onA

we arrived, already, you might say, we were singers usually and now

uskah utlatste9 yautatokAhtu yo^kalasneha sayakwayakAne'? onuhsatokAhtrke Tho

one time on Sunday evening we were leaving the church. There

kati'i’ wa^tyakwatlaslu1? ne^n akityohkwa'? okhna'^ wi- wa^tyakwalihwahkwanih

then we met several people from our old group, then so we sang songs

tohka'? nikaLA nake. Kwah ne- Ica ok nahe? okhna1? a?e na'riekanAla?
a few songs. I was just a short time, when a big crowd stood

lonatahuhsate so tsi^ kalAnjyobse. Kwah kati^ tsyok

around listening because their songs w'ere so beautiful. So then other

nu nyah/v ne ne^n akitsyohkwa. Okhna1? kwi kwah o-ya sakanitsyohku m

places they went, our group. So now then just another group, I got together

tehatilihwakhwa. Ne1 nuwa ka*rikA shuwati yatsu, Albert Webster, Charles

of singers. So this time, their names were, Albert Webster, Charlie

Webster, Mashel Deni okhale Ben Wheelock. Ikwi ne- o n/- sakhelihune
Webster, Marshall Denny and Ben Wheelock. I then now taught them myself

tahnu tsC nhyot tsi? tehatilihwakhwa, Albert Webster, bass, Mashel Deni,
and the way that they sang, Albert Webster, bass, Marshall Denny,

1st tenor, Charles Webster, 2nd tenor, okhale Ben Wilak, baritone. TeyohslasltA
1st tenor, Charles Webster, 2nd tenor, and Ben Wheelock, baritone. Twenty years

IsC nahe? o ila oskannhe^ tsya^teya^kwalihwakhwa. Kwah uni tsi^ ni wa nc‘?n

it is that we arc together, that is singing. And it was all over the

Wisconsin akwe ku nityukwehtu. Teyakwat broadcast sa nc^n

the stale of Wisconsin that we had traveled to. We used to broadcast too by

lc tiyo swatye lA ne'hi stetsyan WHBY. Tsi? niyaw/ u tsi'? yohsAnayAta u ne^n
radio sometimes on station WHBY. Just how that it received it’s name

yukwAtyohkwa. Ne‘?n ohna^kA’ke sakanityokwisane^, wa^h/mihC, “nahte'? kali?

our group. The last group that I got together, they said, “What then

o nA Atwana tuhkwe? ne?n yukwAtyohkwa. Uhka1? ok nahte? wa^h/vhC, “yats

now we call our group.” spoke up, “gosh,

ot kati9 ni yot Jubilee Singers ki wah. ’ ltlho kali'? wi niya w/u tsi^
what then maybe Jubilee Singers it will be.” “That then is how we

yukwasAnayAtau.” Sheku nuwa kvvh nikaha'wi.

got the name and kept it. It is still that name these days.

Jubilee Singers

I was fifteen years old when I went to school at Hampton Institute in Virginia.
There were all kinds of different Indians and Black people also. There were one
hundred and sixty Indian men and women and nine hundred Black. We were in
separate buildings than the Blacks but we were in class together. 1898 was the

II was here that I started to sing. Miss Cliflen was the teacher and she taught
many others. Wc got a group together of four men, they were; Albert Webster,
Tom him, Solomon Archiquelle and Chauncey Doxtator. By the time we got back

10the Oneida ullage we were really expenenced. One time on Sunday evening
we were leaving the church and we met several people from our old group, so
en we sang songs and before long a big crowd stood around listening because
our songs were so beautiful. So then we started going to other places. I got
W°h T gZUP j?nS^£erS l0gether and tbeir naraes werei Albert Webster, Charlie
H aih hMu/Sk enny “d Ben Whec,ock 1 then taught them myself to sing
™ 9 ** Webster sang bass, Marshall Denny sang 1st tenor, Charlie Webster §
sang 2nd tenor and Ben WTieelock sang baritone. ,

Twenty years we sang together and we traveled all over Wisconsin. We used to
broadcast too by radio, sometimes on station WHBY. Our group received it’s

tece days° We dCC,ded 10 ca,‘ 0Ur se,ves lhe Jubi,“ it i- still that name

Told by Albert Webster to Guy Elm (7-24-39)

Transcribed by Maria Hinton (11-16-79)
Corrected by Maria Hinton (10-5-90)

Tehalukwe7nyaku Okhale7 Lo ne

Wahunise on/ lakhsotk/ Tehalukwe7nyaku kahle7 lo-ne7k/ tshutahyanaklako- ne7

tkana7alohale7 kAh nukwa- nutane Ukwehuwene netsi7 yah ne tenelehe7 07slu'ni

ahya tu. YakowiiayA yeksa ne7n lo'ne\ Tiks/nne tahyatitahko7 on/ kwi

wahahle7nunr tashakoya7tahawe7 shakoy/ha, ehta7keshu kwah ok tsi7 niyole-

kalhakushu nutahnihle7notati kwah nok washakoti7lholoke7 yeksa sotsi7 kulinakele7

okalyahtane, kalhakuhko kanawakushu tsi7 tehonatawAlyehati khale7 on/ tho wa newe

Tehawya7tilu tsi*? nu nihonuhsote7. Kukwite ne kwi tshikahawi on/ tshihotiyAthohslu7

tahnu tsyotilyou lotiyAthohslu7. On/ kwi ka7i-k/ lakhsotha tahatahsawA7, kwah ok

tha7thalutalihte7 wahatnuhsuni' kwah ok ohosela7 waha'kalu7 ne' ne' wahawhanhaste7

tsi7 yonhoka'L\te; ka7ik/ lo ne- kwah kAS teyush/thos yah te7yakauweskwaniu.

Nya7tekalyo'take ne kanakele7 khale7 ohkwe's/ sa kutinaklehkwe khale7 nya7tek/tsyake

sa. Khale7 on/ tekni wa7hotinaskwayA'tane teyona kales on/ kwi wahate7slehtirnr ne'

kAS ne' akwe-ku tsa7tehutsta tho latinakele7. Khale7 ne on/ wahanha7tslisakha7

Kanatake kahuwaku wahoyo t/ khale7 ne on/ tho niku wahohwistayAtane on/ ne

kohsat/s wahatathini nuse on/ tahatahsawA7 wathAtuni ne- kAS ne' eso shakoya7takenhA

lehunuhsanekhani netsi7 wahtkwatako nu7 ne.

Tehalukwe7nyaku Okhale7 Lo ne
Broken Spine and His Wife

Wahu nise on/ lakhsotk/ Tehalukwe7nya ku kahle7 lo ne7k/

Long ago when my grandfather Tehalukwe7nya ku and his wife
tshutahyanakla ko ne9n tkana9alohale9 kAh nukwa' nutane Ukwehuwe ne netsi9
when they moved here from Oneida Castle this way they came to Oneida because

yah ne tenelehe9 09shrni ahyatu. YakowilayA yeksa ne9n lo ne:,

they didn’t want like white people to become. She had a child, his wife.

TiksAnne tahyatitahko9. OnA kwi wahahle9nu'ni' tashakoya9tahawe9 shakoyA'ha,

DePere is where they got off. Now then he bundled'her up and carred her, his child.

ehta9keshu kwah ok tsi9 niyole' kalhakushu nutahnihle9notati kwah nok

walking all the way through the woods with their bundles they just

washakoti9lholoke9 yeksa so tsi9 kutinakele9 okalyahtane kalhakuhko

covered her up this small child because so plentiful were mosquitoes in the forest

kanawakushu tsi9 tehonatawAlyehati khale9 onA tho wa newe Tehawya9ti lu

swamps that they were travelling in and finally there they arrived at Daniel Bread

tsi9 nu nihonuhsote9 Kukwite ne kwi tshikaha wi. OnA

where his house is. In the spring was the time of year. Now

tshihotiyAthoslu tahnu tsyotilyo u lotiyAthohslu9 OnA kwi

they had already done their planting but the frost had killed their plants. Now then

ka9i kA lakhsotha tahatahsawA9 kwah ok tha9thaluta lihte9 wahatnuhsu'nr

this grandfather started, he just split the logs hurriedly he built his house.

kwah ok ohosele9 waha kalAhte9 ne- ne' wahahwanhaste9 tsi9 yonoka lAlite9
Just only bassswood he stripped it that’s what he tied the door with.

Ka9i'kA lo'ne' kwah Icas teyushAthos yah te9yakauweskwani u. Nya9tekalyo take

This wife just used to cry she was so unhappy there. All kinds of wild game

ne kana kele9 khale9 ohkwe'sA sa kutinaklehkwe9 khale9 nya9tekAtsyake sA. Khale9

were plentiful and partridges too were plentiful and all kinds of fish too. And

onA tekni wa9lhonaskwayA tane9 tyotna kales onA kwi wahate9slehtu ni

finally two animals he got oxen now then he made himself a sleigh

ne' kAS ne' akwe ku tsa9tehutsta tho latinakele9 khale9 ne onA

they used to all use it together, he shares, with the neighbors and he finally

wahanha9slisakha9. Kanatake wahoyot/ khale9 ne ona tho niku
went looking for a job. Green Bay he worked and Anally that much

wahohwistay/ita ne onA ne kohsatAS wakatathni'nuse9 onA tahatahsawA9 wahathAtunf

money he had now then horse he bought for himself now he started to clear land

ne- Icas ne- e so shakoya9takenhA tehanuhsanekhani netsi9 wahatkwata ko- nu ne-

it was that a lot he helped his neighbors because he became well off, that he did

Tehalukwe9nya ku Okhale9 On ne-

Broken Spine and His Wife

It’s a long time now since my grandfather (now deceased) and his wife came to Oneida,
Wisconsin from Oneida New York, Oneida Castle. They came here because they didn’t'
want to change their ways to a white man’s way of living and his laws. His wife had a
small girl child. They got off at DePere, they had come by boat. They walked when they
left the boat. There were still large forests and mostly swamps yet at that time and they
had to go through all that to gel to Daniel Bread’s house to where they were going. They
bundled up their baby and covered her face because there were so many mosquitos and
wild game was plentiful too. Finally, they came to his house. This was in the spring of
the year, people around there had already planted, but they were killed by frost.

Now my grandfather started right in to build them a house, he took logs and split them
hurriedly, he used basswood and he stripped the bark and used that for ties to a door. His
wife was very unhappy here, she used to cry. There were all kinds of game and
partridges and fish were plentiful. Finally, he was able to get two animals, they were
oxen. Now he made a sleigh, he shared this with his neighbors. Now he was ready to
go job hunting. He went to Green Bay, where he worked on the boats where he was
hired. Then he was able to buy a horse, he cleared the land for planting. He helped his
neighbors a lot because he became well off, that he did.

Told by Sarah Summers to Tillie Baird (3-21-39)

Transcribed by Maria Hinton (5-4-79)
Taped by Maria Hinton (7-21-80)
Lokst/ha Wahakhlolyinyu tsi? Nihoya?tawAU Tshihaksa T-52

LokstAha wahakhloly&nyu tsi*? nihoyaWu tshihaksd tekrn yak*? yaWA-I6

tsa’tehaohshyd-ku oklma kaS tshihayatakwas tO> nu tholhayA-,4hkwe9 lo9njhk/

^ Waia‘iyA'14)10 °kh“? 1UWa’“^ * latyatahninu-ndh^ kana.dke ^

OCA kaVk/ lanikAhtluha9 ionulyaks tsi9 kwah yah „ahte9 kwenis thutaho-yu khale9

oia isya-lik yawA'le tartebaosfiyd-ku on/ wa9ihya.Iihwaklu Io9nihk/ nd- lsi9

wahoIi9wanu*tu'se ostuha utahoyu- tsi9 »-M on/ wahayA-tak09. wahonakhWA l09nihkA,

wahA-lu9, “tat yah thasnuhwdseke? tej? niydt ts«9 tekusnyed Sandhte9 ^9 nu

myonhokd-lAte.” e-sd wahanuhtunyu ka?i-kA lanikAhlluha nd- tsi9 yah se9 wi-

tehohwistayA nd- Se9 wi tshikal wahotdkwahte9 n loy/ha, ts,9 Wah/-lU9 sanuh[e, M

myonhokd-lAte. Astdhtsi9 nale9 SahatiyAtak6na9. Kwah yah kay09tAhsla9

.e9shotu9Seni-u uskah yawA'le niyohwis,4-e on/ kanuhsdkta nyuS4Ie9 washakohio h'-

Ionulha tsi9 onA nd- akte9 nyAh/-le9 wahuwalhalhahse9 kwi on/ nd- wa9Hu9

satateniku Ialak ki wahe”. otholdke nu kwati nyaha le9 teyohsla'ke thd ye-heldhse9,

ahoyo t/ kalha ku. LatiyAlikwas kas nd- thonu tsutakaha wi- khale9 on/ sdiawe’

Shohw,s.aka9,d,i, washakohwistu? Ionulha khale9 l09niha at, tsi9 ,eskyatyd/'se9

Iole?kwjihtij ne?n loy/ha.

This OMMznT M aKhrak^^,yiliyU tSi? Nih°ya7tawAU Tshihaksa'

n Told Me What Happened to Him When He was a Child

Lokst/ha wahakhlolyanyu tsi? nihoya?taw/u

This old man told me tshihaksa'.
what happened to him when he was a child.
Tekm, yak/,?, yaw/le
tsa?tehaohsliy&ku okhna k/s tshihay/tdkwas tsi? nu
Two, it’s said, and ten
years old (12 years old) already he was cutting wood at his

tholhay/tihkwe?. Lo?nihk/ kwa?tdti k/s

yak/? wahatiy/ t4ko
p ace in the woods. He and his father all day used
to it’s said they would cut wood
okhna? luwa?nihkz n£-
laty/tahninu n6hse? kana tike khale? on/ ka^ik/
and then their father would
go and sell the wood to Gre&i Bay and finally this

lamkzhtluha? lonulyaks tsi? kwah yah nahte? kwenis fj,,,, h '

young man was feeling hurt ,ha. jus, no, even a few cents wouM fafgive him

kJ,ale9 o„/ tsyatak yaWAle tsa?tehaosliyaku on/ wa?thyatlihwakhA

ina y sevenleen years of age, he was, when they had a disagreemenl

lo?nihk/ ne- tsi?

waholi?wanutuSe ostuha utahoyw tsi? ni k0 onJl
with his father.
because he asked a hide for him to give for all that

wahayAlako?. wahon/khwa Io?nihkA wah/ln?

wood he had cut. He got vety angry, his father’ did, he said,’

‘•Tit yah lhasnuhwi-seke? tsi? niydt tsi? tekusnyetr sanuh,e9 „;•>

you don t hke the way that i'm taking care of you, you know where

they0dto°Hs^te'” Af,W^rhr.“nyU ka,ikA »* tsi? yah se? wr

A lot of thinking this young man did because you see he

did^tTalTmoney If w^’th" ^^‘"’ahte? n loy/ha, tsi? wah/lu?

nave money. It was the same as krckmg out his son, when he said,

aoor is . tr9 ■Mie?
ln the morning again ^«-?.
they went after wood.

Kwah yah kayo?tzhsla? te?shotu?senru

uskah yaw/ le niyohwistae on/
If wasn’t like working for him anymore.
Eleven o’clock it was

kanuhsakta nyusa le? washakohlo

lonulha tsi? on/ ne- akte?
back to the house he went he told
his mother that now he somewhere else
ny/h/le?. Wahuwathalhahse?
kwi on/ ne- wa?i lu? “satatenikulalak ki wahe/’
he was going. She talked to him,
she finally said, “Take care of yourself then.”

Othold'ke nu kwati nyaMleT
Teyohsla ke th6 ye-hetehse*?, wahoyol/
To the north was the direction he took.
Two years that he stayed there, he worked

s ,r«- sr*
Washakohwislui IonulhtS khale? lolniha ati tsi?
with a lot of money.
He gave money lo his mother and' his father even though

teskyatyeLvse? lote^kwihtu ne^n loyAha

it was like he had kicked his son out.

This Old Man Told Me What Happened lo Him When

He was a Child

This old man told me what happened to him when he was * rhiM t i
he was when he was already cutting wood for Ws father -A. ,1 " yeats old
then his father would go and sell the „°Y, Y f h„ ^ would cut wood and

the door is ” A lot of think-mo ^ m care °f y°u> y°u know where

monev In thp . 1g ^* y°Ung maa because he didn’t have any
rymL HeZZ?VT,°’ hhey Wem after W00d' but 11 did“’1 ** die same
someplace else Sh^ ° Y m°IhCr “d lold her that he was going t0 8°
omeplace else. She talked lo htm and (hen lold him “Take care ofyourselflhen”

camehhomehwi'thToetToTioner0rkded the W°0dS’ CUlling wood' After a whiIe be

was like he had kicked his son out. ^ “ '° US m°lher a”d father’ even lhouSh ■'

Told Anonymously to Tillie Baird

Transcribed by Maria Hinton (4-12-79)
Sheku Shayatat LotatA'lu.

She ku shaya tat yukwatat/iu k/'tho tsi^ yakwanakele. uhka ok nahahte*? ahsA mayl

tsa^tewahsA nA nithlehse ehta?keshu latlAnayAhnese onuhsatokAhtfke kwah tsiA


ni ku yautatokAhtu astehtsi? tsya'tak niyohwista^e. Ka^i'kA nuwa lokst/ha teklu?

niwashA na^tehaosliyaku.

Sheku Shaya tat LotatA'lu

There is Still One Left

She ku shayalal yukwaUulu lu tho IsP yakwanakele. uhka ok nahohle?

There is still one male we have left here on our reservation. Someone who

ahsA mayl tsa?tewahsA'na nithlehse ehta^keshu latlAnayAhne se onuhsatokAhtf ke

three miles and a half he comes always
walking to pray at the church

kwah tsi? ni ku yautatokAhtu astehtsi? tsya'tak niyohwista^e. Ka^i kA

almost every Sunday morning at seven o’clock. This

nuwa lokstAha teklu niwashA na?tehaosiiyahku.

very old man is eighty years of age.

There is Still One Man Left

We still have one man left on our reservation who still walks three miles every

Sunday to the church to pray. He must get up very' early because he attends

mass at seven o’clock. This man is eighty years old.

Told by Oscar Archiquette to Floyd Lounsbury (2-1-39)

Transcribed by Maria Hinton (12-12-1975)
Taped by Maria Hinton on (1-3-81)

Civil War Story . Thomas Elm

Yakwatsikhe^tuni.. Martin Williams

(Making Maple Syrup)

Ukwehuwe Okhale? KayotA'sla .Rachel Swamp

(Oneida’s At Work)

09slu ni Laothe tsehsli.Anonymous

(White Man’s Flour) v. ^

L6na./• .». . ? . Louis Hill

(Husband and Wife)

LalihwAhawise Tsi‘> Latinakle? Ukwehu'we % |

(Canying Messages Where They Live, the Oneidas)

NikAlsyanakU ne
naklAne . .;.• , . ...... . . Jessie Peters
(Fish Story)

LutlutA9awitha ....... ... . Abrahms Archiquette

(Driving Logs)

KavAna Ta ts . Mark Powless

(Governor Dodge)

Crime Story Elizabeth Huff

Yu kwe Yo?teha ne.Mrs. George Haas

(A Woman Was Immoral)

LutlAnotha . . Chauncey Baird

(Oneida Band)
Lu9tsi nA^ahlohalha . . . Hannah Cornelius
(Seventh Day Adventist)

OnuhsatkAhti Ka liste.Cornelius Wheelock

(Church Bell)

Ku^alu nihe .Josephine Webster

(Lace Work)

AkokstAha Otsto'khwi Yu'yaks.Tom Elm

(An Old Woman Picking Blueberries)

YanikyA Onulha Jonas Elm

| ' :
(Jane’s Mother I sgg
» »;

KawelowanA A.
Jonas Elm
(Big Wind)

Shayi/tat Yak/,'? TiksAnne Yahthwatsilihewe . . Andrew Beechtrec

if Man It’s Said DePcrc Took His Ft - '
m (■' \ ' *

. V- ' :
Tehutshihkwa eks Tewa'Vlatu 4 V . , . Guy Elm
(Playing Ball LaCrosse) mm
Civil War Story

Tshitwatli-yohne ya wet uhte? wr tho nu tshikahawi yayahk niwashA ok uskah

tsututahsawA tsi*? niyoie yayahk niwashA wisk tsutliyohslA-tane. Tho nahe tho latyehse

thi kA atumyote? tsi^ nu nihAnehse

OnAyote?aka tsi? cnA tok/ske teyotAnuhyanrtu

lonatliyo tho kAS latyehse? ka?rkv\

Atunyote? Ne- onA tsutliyohslAta-ne, oskatshuha ok

thishotesloslote? Ne wr ne?n tehuwawiskwa?tha tsi? nahe watliyo. Na kwr ni yah

tewakanuhte? uhka nahte? te?thuwaya?laha? nok tsi? MatisAn kanatakta, tho ki? na nu, tho

ithlate-ko-. Kalo tsi? niyoie wahotilihotase tsi? lulAtyu ne yatAhutlane? wahutliyohsla

okhna*? tho latyehse, tho emeke shakohlolihe tsi? onA watlryo. Kwah Icas yakA? ok

thahutye lA oyukwalaku tho tahoke-tohte?. Kwah kAS yakA? wene tsi? e-so,

lotestoelotakwA. Tho niyot tsi? luthlollhe? tsi? ka ya tho yehonatliyohne.

Civil War Story

Tshitwatli-yohne yawet fihte? wf.

When they were fighting, some time ago, supposingly it could have been

tho nu tshikaha wi ya ydhk niwashA ok uskah tsututahsawA tsi^ niyo ie

it was at that time, six teens and one when it started, lasted until

ya yahk mwashA wisk tsutliyohslAtane. Tho nahe tho

six teens and five when it ended. During that time there

latyehse thi kA atunyole? tsi? nu nihAnehse OnAyote?aka tsi? o nA

e flew around that eagle wherever they were these Oneida’s. Then now

lokAskc teyounuhyanrlu lonatliyo tho lots

when it was really getting difficult and hard going during the light he

latyehse7 ka7ik/ atunyote7. Ne- o n/ tsutliyohslAtane,
used to fly over them this eagle. When now the war has ended,

oskatshuha ok thishotestoslole7 Ne wi‘ ne7n tehuwawiskwa'Hha tsi7

it was just a few feathers left on him. This was caused by the misses he

nahe watli yo. Na kwr ni yah tewakanuhte7 uhka nahte7

received during the war. As for me, I don’t know whoever

te7thuwaya7taha7 nok tsi7 MatisAn kana takta, tho ki7 na nu, tho
brought him back but Madison, near the town, there now the place

ithlaleko-. Kalo tsi7 niyo le waholiliho tase tsi7 lutAlyune

he stands so big. Before they even had word or news that they are leaving

yatAhutlane7 wahutliyohsla okhna7 tho latyehse, tho eneke

where they will meet those going to war already he was flying above and around them.

shakohlolihe tsi7 o na watlryo. Kwah Icas yakA7 ok

He warned them that already they were fighting. It used to they say

thahutye’lA oyukwala ku tho tahoketohte7. Kwah Icas

they would notice suddenly out of the smokey mist he suddenly appeared. It was

yakA7 we ne tsi*? e-so, lotestoelotakwA. Tho ni yot tsi7 luthlolihe7 tsi7 ka ya

they say, it showed that a lot of feathers he had lost. That’s how that they tell it the ones

tho yehonatli yohne.

there had fought.

Civil War Story

When they were fighting some time ago, it could have been around 1601 that it started
and lasted until 1605. During that time, there was an eagle that flew around wherever
there was an Oneida. When the fighting became really difficult, this eagle flew over
them. Before they even had word or news that they were leaving for the war he would
fly over them. He would warn them if there was danger near, they say he would
suddenly appear in a mist of smoke. When the war ended, the eagle had only a few
feathers left on him because of all of the near misses on him. Someone brought the eagle
back to a place near Madison, he stands there so big.

Told by Thomas Elm to Andrew Beechtree (3-15-39)

R.ccopied and Taped by Maria Hinton (4/29/88)
Y akwatsikhe^tuni

Yah te’yunlse, lukwe wahakenhane’ wa’aknitsi’khe’tuni'. Sodsi’ kali’ wr

yothole- yah te’lyohnekahlru khale’ o-ua wa’kayanlaste’. Kwah ne- kwA’tati’

okhale’ kwahsirtati’ wa’aknilsikhe’tunr. Tho ni nrku ukehsestayA'tane’ kwah

wa’twakwatase tsydhslat. Kwah ki’ skani tsyat yetsyA’takhwa’ kahnekana'nu

tsa'hekkatshe'hi'hA sakakwe'nr wahkaiote ohses.

Making Maple Syrup

Yah tc^yunrse, lukwe wahakenhane?

wa'?aknitsi‘?khetu'nr Sotsi*? kati? wr
Not too long ago, a man hired me
to make maple syrup. Because then it

yolho ie- yahle’tyohne kahlfu, kahle’ o da wa’kayanlaste’

was too cold, the sap didn't flow like it should and finally it was nice outside.

Kwah kwA’tati okhale’ kwahsutali’ wa’aknitsikhe’lu 'ni, tho ni ni'ku

It was all day and all night we made maple syrup, All I got

ukhsestyA'tane? kwah
wa'hwakwata-se tsyohslat Kwah VP skanaisyat
of syrup was
just enough to last a whole year. Just only one pailful

yetsyA^takhwa*? kahnekana nu tsa^tekasheftfliA Askakwe-ni' wahkaiote'?

water pail was full of sap only one pint it will make of the sap made into


Making Maple Syrup

Not too long ago, a man hired me to make maple syrup. Because it was too c
then, the sap didn 1 flow like it should and finally it was nice outside. It was
day and night that we made maple syrup. All I got of the syrup was just enough
to last a whole year. Just only one water pail full was full of sap. Only one pint
of syrup will be made from the sap.

Told by Martin Williams to Tillie Baird, (5-4-30)

Transcribed and Taped by Maria Hinton, (4-6-79)
Ukwehuwe Okhale? LaotiyotA'sla

Kwah nya'Heku wahotiyotA kAh nu tsahAnewe Ukwehu we. Otyahke*?

wahutyAtahninu okhale? ka Wte? wahutAhninu okhale? kanehushuha wahutAhninu,


otyahke'? Kanahike yahutsyo'^AhslolAne'? latinAStalukdnehse?. Kahuwaku ka'rikA

mtku ne se^ onAste1? tahnu ne- laonatkalayaksla? onAste^. Yotitshe'?nutslayA'? yakA?

kunukwe. Ne- Ica yakA? tAtakuthle-nahkwe tsi*? Halite? atAnatsli wa?thutA-tsahne.

Ukwehu we Okhale? KayotAsla

Oneidas and Work

Kwah nya?teku wahotiytA kAh nu tsah//newe Ukwehu we. Otyahke?

Just all kinds of work did, here when they arrived, the Oneidas. Some

wahutyAtahni nu okhale? kalute? wahutAhnrnu okhale? kanehushuha

sold wood and logs they sold and hides.

otyahke? uni'? Kanatake yahutsyo?tAhsIo-lAne? latinAstalukonehse?.

Some of them in Green Bay they found work where they went to shell com

Kahu waku ka'ri'kA nitkunehse? on/ste? tahnu ne- laonatkalayaksla? onASte?

In the boats they came in com also that was their pay com

yotitshe?nutslayA? yakA? kunukwe. Ne- kA yakA?

they had baskets, they say, the women. It was that they say,

tAtakuthle nahkwe tsi? nahte? atAnatsli?

they earned their bundles on their back what groceries and staples

they needed and had received for pay.

Oneida’s and Work

When the Oneida’s first arrived here from Oneida Castle, New York. They were
ambitious people, they did all kinds of work to make a living, such as cutting
wood and selling it, they sold logs, they hunted and sold the hide and some even
found work in Green Bay, they shelled com which came on the boats and this was
part of their pay. The women had baskets, they filled this with their groceries and
other staples they needed, this they bought with their pay which was part of the
com they had shelled. They always carried whatever load they had on their backs.

Told by Rachel Swamp to Dennison Hill (12-17-39)

Transcribed by Maria Iiinton (1-9-78)
Taped by Maria Hinton (11-6-80)

O^sluni Laothetsehsli

Yotlatstu yaJu*? tho niwakAlehkwe o?sluni?keha othetsehsli (ho nu tshikahawi'

kanyo wahotiyA'tane kanatalok, skakwe^talaslat ok Icas wahuwatinute-

latiksa^shuha. Kwah k^s uhte“? tho nahutshanum tho nu tshikahawi laksa tsi?

ni yot k/h nikahawi laksa wayat ahuwanute.

09sluni Laothetsehsli
White Man’s Flour

Yotlatstu yakA? tho mwakA'lehkwe o^sluni? othe tsehsli tho nu

One time, it’s said, it was so scarce, this white man’s flour. At that

tshikaha wi-, kanyo wahotiyA ta ne o^sluni^keha kana-talok, skakwe?tala slat ok Icas

tune’ lf they get white man’s bread, one slice is all

wahuwati-nute- latilcsa?shuha. Kwah Icas uhte? tho nahutshanu m tho nu

they would give the children. They would be as happy, in those

tshikaha wi laksa tsi'? niyot kAh nikaha wi laksa wa yat ahuwanute*?,

days to a child like giving these days a child a piece of pie.

White Man’s Flour

One time, it’s said, that white man’s flour was scarce. At that time, if they
couldn’t gel white man’s flour they would only be able to give the children one
slice ol bread. In those days, they would be as happy to get that slice of bread
and these days being happy with a slice of pie.

Anonymous to Dennison Hill (2-23-39)

Transcribed by Maria Hinton (10-4-76)


uskah ullatsle’ Iona yahkA? katsa? ok nu niholinuhsolahkwe, ahSA

niho.iwilayA.akwe, Thok niyoh.u ne ka?McX lahs.nakc .si? yah te leskwe kaU wese

yai“? 'aUlM shakon“"hi shakoyo?kuha. c so lo.i,Ahla„ ka?ikA lu.atyo?kuha, tyoOoi.

n6 lanuh.unuhe? .si? yah teho.a?kalHe. Waha.A?n,kuhlisane? Ashakonahalya khu

lehniyahsc shakoyo kuha, wa?uleko tyekwanA ycksa TayowislatyekA? ka?ikA .ho

niholyc lA. Altsatuhkwahku yeholya?.Atu. Tho yehuwaya?li.ahkWA tsabuwayena.

Onuso?kwa?kA lone?k/ ka?ikA Tayowislalye?kA wahuwahnya?SAnhake ka?k lu .si?

wahalhlewahle? tsi? saha.Uhwald wahlc, LAnukwehu we tho ni'yol tsi?

wa?thaliya?.6iehle? ne- un. tho niholyanUhsIolA Isi? AShako.ihnya?Sanhake? uhka

nahte? Atyutlihwatewate tho nu tshikahawr

Husband and Wife

Onetime315*6*7 !u°a yahkA? ^atsa? ok nu nihotinuhsotahkwe,

his man and wife, they say somewhere, they used to live,

tteecHMm^r^ ?°k 111 yohtu - . ka7i k/ lahsina ke tsi? yah

ey had. There was something wrong with his leg that he

didn’t^Talk far ™?' • yakA? lauM shakoni:|nha shakoyo^kuha. e so

didn t walk for a long time. It’s said, he took care of his children. lot of

hards hi ds he^haH n& lanuhtunuhe? tsi? yah tehota?kalitc

P ’ W1 us chjldren always he kept thinking that he wasn’t healthy.|l1^*shako™haIyakhu lehniyahse shakoyokuha Wa^ute ko

He made up lus mind he would kill two of his children? She ran away,
tyekwaru y6ksa TayowislatyeltA9 ka9ikA tho nihoty6'lA. AttsatAhkwaku
the oldest girl TayowislatyeltA9 is the one who did this. In the cellar

yehotya9t/\tu. Tho yehuwaya9titahkwA tsahuwayd na.

he threw himself. There, they took him out of when he was apprehended

Onuso9kwa9kA lone^kA karikA Tayowislatye^kX Wahuwahnya9SAnh4ke

was his wife this Tayowislatye9kA. Tftey hanged him

ka^i kA tsi9 wahathle'wahte9 tsi9 sahatlihwatewahte LAnukwehu’we th6

this was his punishment for the wrong he had done. These Oneidas’ this

ni yot tsi9 wa9thatiya9tolehte9 ne- uni tho nihotyanlAhslo lA tsi9

is how that they judged him also, this was their law, that

Ashakotihnya9sanhake9 uhka nahte9 Atyutlihwate-wate tho nu tshikaha-wr

they would hang anyone who did wrong those days.

Husband And Wife

One time they say, this man and wife and their three children lived somewhere.
There was something wrong with his leg and he didn’t walk for a long time. He
took care of his children, but with a lot of hardships. He kept thinking that he
wasn t healthy. He decided he would kill two of his children, but the oldest one
ran away. TayowislatyeltA9 is the one who did this. He hid in the cellar and
they apprehended him there. Onuso9kwa9kA was his wife’s name. For his
punishment he was hung. That is how the Oneida’s judged him, as that was the
Oneida law.

Told by Louis Hill (3-8-39)

Transcribed by Maria Hinton (11-8-76)

LalihwAhawise Tsi? Latinakle1? Ukwehuwe

Tsi? nu tshikahawi inushu tehutlum tsi^latinakle ukwehuwe. Kanyo uskah

wa^ahiheye tsi? lotikw/iahlc ukah ok nahohte wahuwaya^tala'ko wahalihw/Jiawe.

Ne- wi ne- ka'rikA lukwe t/Jhalahtate kato'kA na?tekalu wa?thohA-lehte. Lonanuhte

ka^rkA lonukwehuwe. Ot ok niyawAU onale? lonathute uhka ok tho ni-yot tsi?

tehohAlehtahmc. Ne- kwi Ahuwali^wanutuse, oh nahohte lolihwayAtati. Ne- uni

isi7 ka y/- lahatiyo ne tho ni yo lotlihute lalihwAhawise tsi^ latinakle*? ukwehu we.

LalihwAhawise Tsi? Latinakle? Ukwehu we

Carring Messages Where they live, the Oneidas

Tsi? nu tshikaha wi inushu lehutluni tsi^latinakle ukwehu we. Kanyo uskah

At that time far apart they were living these Oneidas. If one

wa^ahiheye tsi*? lotikwA lahle ukah ok nahohte wahuwaya?talako

died in their neighborhood someone they will select

wahalihwAhawe. Ne- wi ne- ka^i kA lu kwe tAhalahtate

someone to carry the message. It will be the man that will run

kato kA na^teka lu wa^thohAlehte. Lonanuhte ka'rikA lonukwehuwe.

every so often he’ll give a cry. They know these Oneidas.

Ot ok niyawAU onale? lonathu te uhka ok tho ni yot tsi^ tehohAlehtahne.

Something happened, again he hears someone the way that he gives the cry.

Ne' kwi Ahuwali^wanu tu se, oh nahohte lolihwayAtati.

They will ask him what message he’s carrying.

Ne uni tsi^ ka y/ lahati yo ne tho ni-yo lotlihute lalihwAhawise

an the one who s voice and clear, he has that kind job of carring messages

tsi^ latinakle9 ukwehuwe.
where they live, the Oneidas.

Carring Messages Where they Live, the Oneidas

At that time, the Oneidas lived far apart. If one of them died in their
neighborhood they would select someone to carry the message. It will be this man
that will run every so often and give a cry. He knows these Oneidas so when
something happens you will hear someone give the cry. They will ask him whal
the message is he’s carrying and his voice is clear. He has that kind of job of
carrying messages where they live, the Oneidas.

Told by Louis Hill to Dennison Hill (3-14-39)

Transcribed and Taped by Maria Hinton (11-08-76)
NikAtsy anaklA' ne

Yotka te wa*?kanuhtunyuk6 ka^ikA wakukwitehsluni tsi'? ky\s nikAtsyanaklA skwe

wahunihsa'? nu tsutakahawi. Tahnu yah kwi te*?yakwayAtelrhne uhka*? ayukhinAstatse tsi1?


yakwatsyakwas. Kwah te^honatAnakelahtu lotikstAhokuAkA tsi*? nikahawi nale1?

tkAtsyanakle'? tho thatitsyakwathakwe'? tho nu tsutakahawi. Kwah nA hutatr to tis

okhale*? tekal/ tut khalc'? tshiklA^tanyak tho nu nikaha wi nale*? tokAske tkAtsyanakle1?

EraesnehkA wi' nu nihatitsyakwathahkwe'? tho nu tshikaha wi lotiwyAnatsahnitune

ayetsya*?ko ka^i k/ yukhisothoku^kA Kwah ok thiyoka’te shakotiha wi se Iaotinahkwashuha.

Kwah kAS kwahsutati tho tyonanitsyute atsyakta ne“?n kunu kwe. Kwah uni kAS tsi*? ok

ne- niyonatekatani ne win otyahke*? ne yotihiiekakitslu ni ka^i kA tsyoniha li yo onutsi1?

kato kA natekalu nale*? sahutekhu ni. ale1? kAS yah oksa thutahatihnawAnhalane'? kA tho tsi*?

niyole tayolhA‘?uhatye'? ok yah kwi thahuttuhkalyahke'? yah uni thahatiwistoske*? alu^hati

kwa^hsutati*? latitsyakwas. Yotka te'? tho na^kAtsyanaklAne, kwah ok thyehsakotiyenas

nihotsahmtha'? kanAtkala ke yehonatyes. Astehtsi*? nA kwi Aseshakotiya^tanyu'tu

laotisenAshuha otyahke'? se*? wi lolislehse tsi'? Ialitsyak6hese ne1 shakohawr tsiY ka yA yah

tehonaskway/tu okhna^ne1 kwi aw/ ke lAhutawyAlye Ahatitsya ko ne- tAhati^kahahsr tsi?

ni ku Ahatsya li. Kwah ok thiyotkate? tAhutsuhtik tsi*? ni ku wahotitsya^VAhta ne. Ale'?

sa sahonatakloko tsi'? latitsyakwas ok yah lei? ne- thakalihuni usahutAhtyu ku tsi? niyoie

kwah A te Awa tu nA nuwa ne- ok AyukwAtsya?slu'ni ne?n AtwanAStkwahte? tsi'?

tWAtsyakwas Tahnu1? uni ne- tho tkanya tu tsi'? yukwateyhuhatati yah te'we ne kanhka

usakAtsyanakl/i ne tsi*? nu kwah niyakwatsyathakwe wahu nihsa nu\

Nik^tsy anaklA • ne
Fish Story

Yotka te wa^kanuhtunyuko ka'rikA wakukwitehsluni tsi^ kAS

Quite often, I think about these spring days, it used

nikAtsyanakLvne wahunihsa^nu tsutakahawi tahnu yah kwi

to be fish were so plentiful long ago in those days and it was

te^yakwayAteh' hne uhka'? ayukhinustatse tsi? yakwAtsyakwas. Kwah

unheard of someone to forbid us about our fishing. They

tehonatAna?kelahtu, lotikstAhoku kA tsi*? nikaha wi nale'? tkAtsyanakle^ tsi'?

always have an idea, the old timers, about the time again it is fishing time

thatitsyakwathakwe'? tho nu tsutakaha wi. Kwah nA huta tf to tis

at their old fishing place at that time. Just then, they will start croaking

okhale'? tekaL\ tut khale1? tshiklA^tanyak. Tho nu nikaha’wi nale^ tokXske

and spring trout and frogs. At that time again, really

tkAtsyanakle? EmesnehkA wi nu mhatitsyakwathahkwe'? tho nu

plentiful fish where Amos’s place is, where their old fishing place was at that

tshikaha wi lotiwyAnatsahnitu ne ayetsya^ko ka?rkA

time. They were very ambitious about fishing, these

yukhisothoku ?Ica Kwah ok thiyotkate'? shakotiha wi se Iaotinahkwa^shu.

our deceased grandparents. It was quite often they brought along their spouses.

Kwah Icas kwahsutati tho tyonanitsyute? atsyakta ne^n kunu kwe.

It was all night there they fried fish near the river bank the women.

Kwah uni Icas tsi^ok nu niyonateka^tam ne wi n otyahke*? ne-

It even was here and there they had a fire agoing, you see some of them had

yotihnekakli'frslu ni karikA tsyonAhali yo onutsi*? kato kA na'riekalu nale^

had a pot of soup on these sucker heads. Every so often again

sahutekhu ni ale'? kAs yah oksa‘? IhutakatihnawAnhalane'? kAtho tsi‘?

they would eat again, sometimes not right away would they get busy here not /**•

niyole tayolhA?uhatye? ok yah kwi thahutuhkalyahke? yah u ni thahatiwistoske?
until towards morning they don’t even get hungiy they didn’t get hungry

alu?hati kwa?hsutati? latitsyakwas. Yotkate? tho na?,

even if all night they have been fishing. Quite often the fish would get so plentiful,

kwah ok thyehsakotiyenas kwah tsi^ nihotitsanitha. KanA?tkalake

with their hands, they grabbed the fish as fast as they cbuld. On the river bank

yehonatyehse. Astehtsi? nA kwi Aseshakotiya'ftanyu-tu otyahke? se

they tossed the fish. In the morning now then they will hitch up, some of them

wi loti?sIehse? tsi? latitsyakonehse? ne- Ashakohawe- tsi? ka yA

are riding as they went fishing, he will bring them those who

yah tehonaskway/tu okhna? ne- kwi ne- aw/ ke tAhutawA'li katsa?nu nAhatitsyako.
didn t have animals. Then they will in the water inspect just where they would fish.

Ne- tAhati^kahahsi- tsi? niku Ahatitsya lih. Kwah ok thiyotkale?

They will divide of all the fish they caught. It was quite often

tAhutsuhti k tsi? ni ku wahotitsya?yAhta-ne. Ale? sa tho

they will have a wagonfull, is how much fish they got. And too again,

sahonata?klo-ko tsi? latitsyakwas ok yah ki? ne- thakalihu ni

they would have snow as they are fishing, but that wasn’t the reason

usahutAhtyu ku tsi? niyo le kwah A te Awa'tu. oa nuwa? ne ok

for them to go home, not until it’s daylight becomes. Now again then

AyukwAtsyaslu ni ne?n AtWAtnAskwahte? tsi? AtwAtysyahko. Tahnu? u-ni ne- tho

only we’ll have fish is by sneaking around to get some fish. And even then there

tkanya tu tsi? yukwatehyuhatati yah te we ne kanhke usakAtsyanakKne?

is a dam built above our own river there’s no hope when fish will be plentiful again

tsi? nu kwah niyakwAtsyakwathakwc? wahu nise?nu\

where just where we used to fish a long time ago.

Fish Story

Quite often, I think about these spring days when the fish were so plentiful. Long ago
it was unheard of someone to forbid you to fish. Every year at the same time when
they hear the frogs croaking the spring trout are here, the old timers head for their old
fishing place by Amos’s place. These old timers were very ambitious about their fishing
and would take their spouses along with them. They would fish all night and the
women would fry the fish on the river bank. Here and there, there would be fires going
and maybe a pot ol sucker head soup cooking. Through the night they could eat if they
wanted to. Quite often the fish would be so plentiful that they could grab them with
their hands and then toss them on the riverbank. In the morning they would bring a
wagon and after inspecting the fish would divide the fish they caught. Now and again,
we try to fish by sneaking around, but there is a dam built above our own river so there
is little hope when there will be fish again at the spot where we used to fish long time

Told by J. Peters to Dennison Hill (5-9-39)

Transcribed and Taped by Maria Hinton (10-1-93)

Wahunise9 ki9 uhte9 wi- yusakathloLr tsi9 niyot tsi*^ lutlutA9awithahkwe kukwi9tene

nu nikaha-wi- ila ale9 tahutahsawA9 latinha9tslisaks ka9ik/ ne LAnukwe ahotiyo9t/hsa9

kaluteVku kayhuhakushu9 nyashakotinatolihatihne. TeyqtAnu-yanit kAS uni9 ne-tsi9

ni-yot tsi9 lotiyo9tatine9 kayhuhakushu, tho nu tsutakaha-wr tsi9 nu yeswakathlolr tho

ni yot tsi9 tekutawAlyehahkwe ka9ik/ kalute9oku tho kati9 uni9 nr wa9katatenhane9

yotlatsu9. Tahnu9 yah akwah thautu- kwah ok thikawAniyo tsi9 nu nikaha wi'-

asatk/hlahte9 tsi. satatenhau tsi9 ki9 niyole- akwcku kalute9oku tho yakunewc9 tsi9

tetkashu9kalolAsl6 Askas nu- Kawhistowan/ tAhsat/'tsane9 tat ya9tAhsoktA. July Icas

kwi nu o n/ ale9 wahatihsane9 ne9n lutlutA9awitha. Wa9akwatu9weskwahte9 Icas kanyo

o na ya9akwawe9 ne9n askas kuwayats KanatayA9ko- Tho kati9 ka9rk/ ni yot tsi9

wa9katu‘k6hte9 yotlatstu9 April nu niwehni9tatati wakahtA'ti- kwah ya9k6ktA9 July uskah

thiskale9 wa9akwahsane. Tho wi- ne nu tkaliwayA ne9n kakhwa9 kwah tsi9 ok

nahohte9shuha tho yotstenyote9ko. Kwah ok thikawAnryo katsa9 nu nikaha-wi’ tsi9

niwAhmsles Awa'tu ki9 Ahsatekhu m. Tho kati9 niku kwatle9 nuwa9 wakka lavA..

Driving Logs

Wahunise9 ki9 uhte9 wi- yusakathloli tsi9 ni yot tsi9 lutlA9awitahkwe

Long ago, I guess I’ll talk about the way it was that drive logs, they used to.

kukwi9te ne nu tshikahawi- nA ale9 tahutahsawA9 latinha9tslisaks ka9i k/ ne

in the spring, about about that time again they started looking for help these here

lAnu kwe ahotiyo9t/hsa kalute9oku kayhuhakushu9 nyashakonatolihatye9hne.

men to go to work on the logs in the rivers to drive the logs.
TeyotAnu yanit Icas uni ne'tsi? niyot tsi? lotiyo^tdti ne?n kayhuhakushu. Tho
It was a sight to see usually the way they were working along the river. There

nu tshikah&'wi tsi? nu yeswakathlolr tho ni yot tsi? tekutWAlyehahkwe ka?ikA

at that time is what I’m recalling the say that they used to travel these

kalule9oku, tho kali? uni nr wakatatenhane? yotlatsuT Tahnu? yah akwah thautu
logs, all kinds, there then I hired out too, one time. And not hardly can you

kwah ok thikawA'niyo tsi? nu nikaha-wr ahsatkAlakte? tsi? satatenhau tsi? ki?

just any old time of the season to quit that you have hired out to only

niyo le- akweku kalute?oku yaku newe tsi? tetkahsu?kalosko- Askas nu-
unl^ all the logs have arrived to this big lumber mill. Oshkosh is

kahwistowanA tAhsalAtsane? tat Awa tu yatAhsoklA. July kAS

where the big money you will earn if you are able to finish your agreement. July

kwi nu o nA ale? wahatisane? ne?n lutlutA?awitha. Wa?akwalu?weskwahte? Icas

then is usually the month they finish the log rolling. We have a good time, used

kanyo onA ya?akwawe? ne?n Askas kuwa'yats kanatayA?ko‘ Tho kati? ka?ikA
to when we arrived to Oshkosh the name of this big town. That then was

ni yot tsi? watkatukohte? yollatstu?. April nu niwehnitatati nA wakahtAtr.

it was what I went through one time. April it was during that month I left.

Kwah yakoktA July uskah thsiskale? wa?akwasane? Tho wr nu tkaliwayA ne?

Well I finished, July first of the month, we finished. There is the word of

kakhwa kwah tsi? ok nahte^shuha tho yotstenyote’ko. Kwah ok tbikawAniyo

food just about every kind of food was spread there. Just about anytime

nu nikahawr tsi? niwAhnisIes Awatu ki? Awatu ki? Ahsatekhu m. Tho kali? nrku
or whenever time of the day you are able to you will be able to eat. Now then is all,

Kwatle? nuwa wakkalayA.

grandchild this time, stories I have.

Driving Logs

I guess I will talk about the way it was long ago, when they used to drive logs in the
spring. About that time again, they started looking for help to work on the logs in the
river I hired on at this time. It was a sight to see the way the men where working on
the river. What I m recalling is the way the logs traveled until they reached the big
[limber mill. When you hired on you had lo stay the whole season, usually July is the
month all the logs arrived at the lumber mill. Oshkosh is where the big money is if
you are able to finish your agreement. We had a good time when we arrived in
Oshkosh, this big town. They had a big spread of food there, just about anytime of the
day you are able to eat there. Now then, grandchild, that is all the stories I have.

Told by Abrahms Archiquette lo Guy Elm (4-11-39)

Transcribed and Taped by Maria Hinton (3-10-80)
Recopicd by Maria Hinton (8-3-88)

K6vAna T6ts

uskah utlalslc'' KivAna Ti ls newi (yotyeUhtu KavAna lotiyAtau yukwastet

Wisconsin. Ni- kali') shakoya?tal6 lu ka’i Ica Wmnibegos, SAk An Faks okhale?

MinamAiiis nutwa?kanha?tslotA. Ne- aolihwA-ke ne?n tahatit/ste? tsi?

shakotinatakalyas owiskla nihatiya?to-tA okhale? tsi? shakotinu?uhlilkwas tahnu

lonulhase kAS laotilrwa? otia ale? tho nahotiyatawA. Washakothalhahse? kati?

wahe? tahnu kwah lota?shalaniyute okhale? washakoya?taIakohatu lutWAnakalatats

Ahoti?mkuhlayA-ta-ne? kati? nahte? wahAhluni? okhale? IaulhasA Ahoto'kAhse?

ndhte? ne- mhoti?nikuhl6-tA ne aolihwa-ke. Na kati? lothale? tahnu kwah kAS

lota?shal6tshi teho?shaiatemhu? tsi? ua shakohlewate kanyo Athatilihwa-leke. Kwah

kAS kati? kA? ok na?teka-lu okhale? sashakoli?wanu-tu se nahte? nuwa sahAnrlu?

ne?n atwa?kanha? khale? kati? o*n/kwa?ny6k thahotinoluse? tsi? nikawAno-tA

lothalahkwA ne? KdvAna Tats wa?tha t/ste? kati? tsi? lothale? okhale? tsi?

teho?shalatemhu?. Wa?hA-lu? waholi?wanu-tu'se? shaya-tat tsi? ka yA

latwAnakala-tats, nahte? nuwa sahAlu? thi-kA atwa?kanha. Wa?hAlu? ne?n

latWAnakala tdts, Wa?hA in'lu?, “ki ota- ne?n thi kA KavAna Ta ts”, etshlo-li thilcA

i"late?, isi? on/ yeha y/ Ia6shale? okhale? latwa nik o nA.

KAvAna T£ts
Governor Dodge

uskah utlatsle? KavAna Ta ts ne- wi tyotyel/htu KavAna lotiyAtau

One time Governor Dodge, K was the Grst time a governor, they had
yukwastet Wisconsin. Ne- kati9 shakoya9talolu ka^i lcA Winnebegos, S/Jc An
in our state, Wisconsin. So then he gathered together the Winnebagos, Sak and

Faks okhale9 MinamAnis nutwa9kanha9tsIotA. Ne- aolihwake ne9n

Fox and Menominees, were the kind of Indians. Was the subject for

tahati'tASte9 tsi9 shakotinatakalyas owiskla9 nihatiya9totA

them to stop that they were ravaging their villages the white people

okhale? tsi9 shakotinu9uhlahlakwas tahnu lonulhase kAS laotiliwa9 o'nA ale9 tho
and that they were scalping them usually they were at fault whenever that

naholiya tawA. Washakothalhahse9 kati9 wahe9 tahnu kwah lota9shalaniyutc

happened to them. He lectured to them then too he was wearing a sword

okhale9 washakoya9talakohatu lutwAnakala'tals Ahoti9nikuhlayAta ne9 kati9

and he chose several interpreters so they will understand, then

nahte9 wahA hluni9 okhale9 laulha sA Ahoto kAhse9 nahte9 ne-

whatever he says and he also would find out what they

nihoti9nikuhl6-tA ne aolihwa-ke. Na kati9 lothale9 tahnu kwah kAS

were thinking about the subject. Now then he was speaking and he just

Iota9shalotshi teho9shalateni9 tsi9 nA shako9hlewa te ta t she ku

held his sword out and swinging that he would punish them severely if they still

Athatilihwa leke. Kwih kAS kA9 na9teka‘lu okhale9 sashakoh9wanu tu se

kept this up. Just about every little while and he’d ask them again

nahte9 nuwa sahA nilu9 ne9n atwa9kanha9 khale9 kati9 o nA kwa9anyoh

what this time they said those Indians and then soon, it seemed

thahotinolu se tsi9 nikawAno tA lothalahkwA ne9 KavAna Ta ts

they were getting tired of the language he was using, the Governor Dodge

wa9tha tAste9 lothale9 okhale9 tsi9 le9hoshalatem hu9. Wa9hA lu9

stopped this talking and that he was waving his sword, He said

waholi9wanu lu se9 shaya tat latwAnakala tats, “nahte9 nuwa

he asked one of them, that were interpreters, “What this time.

sahA mlu? thi'ltA atwa?kdnlia”.
Wa?hA-lu? ne?n lawAnakalatats, “Wa?hA-mlu?,
did they say those Indians.”
He said this interpreter, ‘They said,
ne?n ^ KaVADa Ti >s. etshlolr thi-kA Hate9 tsi9 isi9 0nA veha vX
on that Governor Dodge, tell Mm that one standing away now, he should

lad-shale? okhale? latwa mk oda.

put his knife (sword) and to shut-up now

Governor Dodge

WiLebmano!hSa£ikrSlngdOVpem0r °‘TiSCOnsin' Dodge gathered together the

winnebagos Sak and Fox and Menommees. The subject was for them to ston
ravagtng and scalping the white people’s villages. He lectured to them and ah the
h WtannS aeSW°rd He Ch0sc several interpreters so they would
understand whatever he sard, and he would find out what the IndLrs were thinking

wLinVh Jed'r ,r°W ‘T " he WaS Speakin8. sword‘out and*18

didn’f cf g gp and teIling to them that he would punish them severely if they
chdnt stop. Every little while he would stop and as the interpreters what the y

nt~d,o ^shho3 t!Vhe Indl“S g0‘ Ured °f "‘he

shut up ” Vem0r Dodge' te" Um 10 Pt" aw»y Ws sword and

Told by Mark Powless to Guy Elm (5-28-39)

Transcribed and Taped by Maria Hinton (5-7-80)

Crime Story

SwatyeL/i Icas wa^twat/ nuke ne9n solsi9 ya9teyakoliwahke. Tsyatak niyohslashA onA

tsi7 na^e thotlihwate9wahtu ne9n “Yakwekkowan” kAh ne' win “Tyoslehtakat” kA lolyo u

tsi^ niyawA u ka9ikA “Yakwek” tho nu tshikaha wi, akiiu9, <lyah uhte9 teskananu ne9n

laonikuhla, netsi9 the tA tshitkA yutkAhunihe9 yakA9 ne9n kvne ahtsatuhkwaku

yahakwenAhte9, ne tsi9 o ela tatahalahthA onikwAhtala9 ni'yot atkahanyaks sahawi, tho

nuta le tsi9 ye tlu ne9n lo ne, kAh uhte9 niwatekhwahla9sla. Tsi9 yakota9nikhuslahele9 tho

yalcA*? wahanohkwa 1a ka9ikA9 nA wahakatshi ohwista yakA9 tho kahwenuni. Tho yakA9

wahathwistashete kwah akweku, akte9 na9thayA ne9n skahwistatsu, kayelishu silu,

teknishu9silu oyelishu kwenis khale9 okweni9tashuha, kwah yakA9 nok Iuwatlolu tsi9 nA

wahahsane9, ya uahk yakA9 kwenis, tho tahala ko, wa^hA lu?, koh ahtya9tawil

Ahsatathm nuhse. Tho kati9 nu na9wenene9 tsi9 yah se9 thyeskaye'li okhale9 tsi9 nA

tsahanuhwetha, tho yakA9 waha yA laohule9 laya9takta. Ne- uhte9 oskanhe9 lati tlu

ka9i Tyoslehta^katkA tahnu9 yakA9 ne nahte9 ne9n yateholihwa9ke-hne ne9

“Tyoslehta kat” ne- kati9 tsi'? o-nA wa9olhAne9. Laulha yakA9 ka9ikA “Tyoslehta kat”

ahstehtsi9 okhna9 wahtketsko wahateka9tanyu ne9n yutnuhsataliha9takhwa Ne- kati9 tsi9

o nA waho tekse- okhna9 yakA9 yahonatu ne9n Yakwek. Wa9hAlu9, yakA9 hao satketsko

1' nuwa9 tho yusakalat. Tahahulotsyahle9 ne9n Yakwek. Tsi9 ka y/

thoteholsaktuhalyehse9 layAluthos tho wathohna9tsoya9akke waholu tale. Kwah kwi- ne-

ok tho wa9otslenyo ta ne ne9n “Tyoslehta9katkA okhna9 tahatketskwahle9 ne9n Ya kwek

wahateko. Na kwi wahuwaya9li' sake9 khale9 o nA wahotitokAhse9 IcaIi yakA9 nu

kanuhsote9 tekalutatu kalhaku tho yehotahsehtu9. Ne- kwi o nA, uhka kati^ nahte9, tho

nyAhAie AhatatwAhtehte9 Ne- tsi9 yehohulahawihtu9 tsahatketsko. khale9 om utets/JiIi

shayatat wa9hAlu9,” I kwi tho y/Jh/rke, yukya9tAlu9 thikA9 Yakwek”, yah uhte9 ikeUhe9

thahakwalutate. Na kwi wahunityokirni tho wahAnehte9 tsi9 tetkalutatu. Ne- kati9 om

ka^i Ica Sakwayak wahathukalyahke9 tho yAhA’le Athoya9tinikA-we tsi9 nu thotahsehtu,

wa9h/lu9, yakA9 tsi9 nA tho ahnukwe tsyaha newe tsi^ tkanuhsote. K/tho kwi nu

nAswatahehetanyu, kanyo o n/ yAkatawyahte9 tho ne- o n/ yASwahlAti tsi9 ni ku Awa tu

yASwatlanA’takte^ nok tsi9 takA9 AhetswakA. kanyo Awa-tu yAkye na ne9n laohule9,

tAtwakehuhuhti, atste9 Atkalu tate tho ne- o’nA ya9tASwalahtate9 Ahskwaya9lakenha kanyo

tAwatuhwAtsyohwe. Tho kali‘s wi na9yawAne9 tsi*? nu u-tu yahatawyahte9

yahothalhahase9 wahohlo li tsi9 yolhalatste9 ne9n tahatukohte kanyo Ahathu-tate9 usa ne

tho yAhA-ne? tsi9 nu na9tehuwaya9tolehtane, wahatlnrtate9 kati9 ne9n Yakwek nA kwi

taho yu ne9n laohule9 okhna9 atste, nukwa yahalu-tate9 nA ki9ok wi ne-

yahatinhohokahte9 yuhsahuwashaline9 Kanata ke nukwa yahuwanho tu. Nok tsi9 sheku

ne tshihati hawe lonulha laotiyanlAsla yah kati9 te9yotuu ne9n o9slu-ni utahuwa wike

katsalste9 tsi9 Ahathlewahte9 ne- ka9ikA ne" latikwa'nAse lutna9tukhwa tho nu

tsutskaha wi nA tehuwaya9to!ehtane ne" uni yotkwe ni ne9n wahuwahya9hsanhake tsi9

wahuwali. Kwah wakatkattho nA tsutahusAhte tsi9 nu natewaskwAhtu tho yahuwAskwalA

tho ne- o nA wahonaktolane ne9n thok nahte9 ahAlu9 kalo tsi9 niyoie AlwasAne, nA uni

te9yolshi9tokwA tekukshAthos luwAtAlhe9 wahakwc ni wa9hA'lu9 “takA9 tAtsyashA tho wa’

tkatA nke nok sni ^niku lalak, “takA she ku tho nAtsyawAhnc tho nikawA'nake”, nA kwi

tahu SAle lsi,? lAtskahcle. Wa9lwatkalhalenihu tsi9 wahoya9tA'lunc9 tahnu9 tsi9 nA

tshya9twatotate tkake'tohse nukwa nahatyelahte9 kwah ok uni ok tho thuwaya9tatA.

Crime Story

Swatye U kAS wa9twat/nuke ne9n sotsi9 ya9teyakolrwahke. Tsyatak

Sometimes accidents happen when too much joking around. Seventy

niyohsIashA o qa tsi9 nahe thotlihwate9wahtu ne9n “Yakwekkowan”

years (winters) now it’s been he committed a crime this “Big Jake,”

ne- win “Tyoslehtakat” lolyo u tsi9 niyawA U ka9ikA “Yakwek”.

that is “Train” (deceased) he killed was how it happened this “Jacob”.

Tho nu tshikaha-wi, aki’lu9, yah uhte9 teskana nu ne9n laonikuhla, netsi9

In those days I would say, that maybe he was short that of his mind because

the tA tshitkA yutkAhunIhe9 yakA9 ne9n lcne ahtsatuhkwaku

yesterday before she was quilting, they say, his wife, when in the cellar

yahakwenAhte9, ne'tsi9 on/v tatahalahthA onikwAhtala9 ni yot atkahanyaks

he went when now he came back up, a red like handkerchief

saha wi, tho nuta le tsi9 ye tlu ne9n lo'ne, kAh uhte9 niwatekhwahla9sla.
he earned, then he came where she sat, his wife, I guess just a small table

tsi*? yakota9nikhuslahele9 tho yakA9 wahanohkwalA ka9ikA9 nA

where she had her sewing there, they say, he set a bundle, this then

wahaka tshi ohwista yakA9 tho kahwenuni. Tho yakA9

he unwrapped money, they say, there was wrapped. There, they say,

wahathwistashete kwah akweku akte9, na9thayA ne9n skahwistatsu,

he counted the money, it was all separately, he put the dollar bills,

kayeli shu silu, teknishu9sllu oyeli shu kwenis khale9 ne9n okweni9tashuha,
half dollar, twenty-five cents, ten cent pieces and even the pennies,

kwah yakA9 nok luwatlo lu tsi9 otia wahahsane9, ya ualik yakA9 kwenis,
they say that she just watched, now then he finished, six they say, cents

tho tahala ko, wa9hAlu9, koh ahtya9tawit /Jhsatathni'nuhse. Tho
from there he took, he said, here a dress you will buy for yourself. Then

kati9 nu na9wenene9 tsi9 yah se9 thyeskayeli okhale9 tsi9 onA

at this time, it became clear that not right was he and when now

wahanuhwetha, tho yakA9 waha-yA laohule9 laya9takta. Ne- uhte9

he went to bed, there they say, he laid his gun near his, side. That I think

oskanhe9 latitlu ka9i kA9 “Tyoslehta9katkA,” tahnu9 yakA9, ne nahte9 ne9n

together they lived this man named “Fast Train”, also, they say, that kind that

yatehohhwa9ke hne ne9 “Tyoslehtakat” Ne- kati9 tsi9

kind of person always joking around “Train” (fast running vehicle). So then when

o-nA wa9olhAne9, laulha yakA9 ka9ikA “Tyo9lehta kat” ahstehtsi9 okhna9

now that it s morning, he they say, this man “Train” in the morning already,

wahtketsko wahateka9tanyu ne9n yutnuhsataliha9takhwa Ne- kati9 tsi9 onA

he was up making fires in the heaters of the house. So then that now

waho-tekse- okhna9 yakA yahona-tu ne9n Yakwek. Wa9hA lu9,

his fire was going good then they say, he called to this Jake. He said,

“Yalu hao satketsko rnuwa9 thoyuhsaka lat ” Tahahulotsy&hte9 ne9n Yakwek, tho
Come on, get up now I there lie down.” He pulled out a gun, this Jake, that

thotehotsaktuhatyehse9 layAtuthos tho

was lying there, he was bending over putting the wood in the stove

wathohna9tsoya9akke waholu tate, kwah kwi- ne- ok tho wa9otstenyo-ta ne

he aimed his gun at his rear end he shot him, right then and there, he fell in a heap

ne9n “Tyoslehta9kalkA” okhna9 tahatketskwahte9 ne9n Ya'kwek wahateko. Na kwi

man named “Fast Train” then he jumped up fast this Jake escaped. Finally

wahuwaya9lf sake? khale9 otia wahotitokAhse9 kAh yakA nu kanuhsote9

they looked for him and soon they found out where he was, it was there was a house,

tckalu tatu kalha ku tho yehotahsehtu9. Ne- kwi o nA, uhka kati9 nahte9 tho
built of logs in the woods where he was hiding. Well now, then who then will to go

nyAh/ le AhatatwAhtehte?, ne- tsi? yehohulahawihtu7 tsahatketsko. Khale? o ila
there volunteer, because he carried his gun, when he ran. Finally now

utetsAhli shayatat wa^bAlu?, “I kwi tho yAhA'ke, yukya^tAlu? thik^7

they found someone one male said, “I then there will go, we are friends this

Yakwek, yah uhte*? I kelhe^ thahakwalutate . Na kwi wahunityokuni tho

Jake, I don’t think he would shoot me.” Now then they gathered together

wahAnehte? tsi? tetkalutatu. Ne- kati? onA ka'rikA “Sakwayak” wahathukalyahke? tho
they went to this log house. So then now this “Aaron Hill” volunteered there

yAhA le Athoya^tinikA we tsi? nu thotahsehtu, wa^hAlu? yakA?, “Tsi? nA

he will go, he will bring him out the place he is hiding, he said they say, “Now when

tho ahnukwe tsyahanewe kanyo o ha yakatawyahte?. kAtho kwi nu naeswatahsehtanyu

these people arrived there, when now I’ll enter there, here then is where you will hide,

kanyo onA yAkatawyahte? tho ne- onA yASwahtA ti, kwah tsi*? ni ku Awa tu
after now I have entered then now you will go ahead, just as much as possible

yASwatlaiiA-tikte? nok tsi*? takA AhetswakA, kanyo Awatu yAkye na ne?n laohule?,
get very close but then don’t let him see you, if possible I will grab his gun,

tAtwakehuhuhti, atste^ Atkalu tate tho ne- o'da ya^tASwalahtate1?

I will open the door outside, I will shoot then now you will all come running

Ahskwaya^takenha kanyo tAwatuhwAtsyohwe.” Tho kati'? wi na'^yawAne'? tsi*? nu

to help me if I need you. That then is how it happened there.

u tu yahatawyahte? yahothalhahase? wahohlo li tsi? yolhalatste? ne^n tahatukohte

He was able to enter, he talked to him he told him that there was he had a chance

kanyo Ahathulale? usa ne tho yAhAne? tsi? nu

if he would consent to go with him, they will go to the place,

na'ftehuwaya'ftolehtane, wahathu tate? kali*? ne^n Yakwek nA kwi taho yu ne?n laohule?
where he will be judged, he consented then now Jake gave his gun to him

okhna? atstc, nukwa yahalutale'? nA ki^ok wi ne- yahatinhoho kahle^.

and then outside direction he shot at quickly then they entered the place.
yuhsahuwashaline‘? Kanatake nukwa yahuwanho-tu. Nok tsi? sheku ne-
They led him Green Bay was the place he was put in jail. But then still they

tshihatihawe lonulha laotiyanlAsIa yah kati^ te^yotuu ne?n o^sluni,

had their own laws not then were they able, the white people,

utahuwawike katsatste? tsi? Ahathle-wahte*? ne- ka?ikA ne- latikwanAse lutna?tukhwa tho
to give him a severe punishment. It was these, chiefs they are called at

nu tsutskaha-wi ila tehuwaya^tolehtane ne- uni yotkwe ni ne?n wahuwahya^hsanhake tsi?

that time when he will be judged, also they decided that they would hang him, was

wahuwali. Kwah wakatkattho nA tsutahusAhte tsi? nu natewaskwAhtu tho

they killed him I did see them when they dropped there.

yahuwAskwa lA tho ne- onA wahonaktotane ne?n thok nahte? ahAiu? kalo tsi? niyo le
they set him now then he had a chance to something to say before

AtwasA-ne, ha uni te'tyotshi'hokwA tekukshAthos

it drops, now too there were many tears being shed, they were crying,

luwAtAlhe? wahakwe ni wa^hAlu? “TakA? tAtsyashA'tho wa? tkatA-nke

1 feeling sorry for him, he was able to say “Don’t cry, I made the mistake

nok sni^niku lalak, takA she-ku tho nAtsyawAhne tho nikawA-nake”. Na kwi
just be careful, don’t again let it happen this is all I have to say”. Now then

tahu SAte tsi^ lAtskahele wa^twatkalhatenihu tsi? wahoya^tA'tune^ tahnu^ tsi1? ila
they dropped where he sat, revolving around where his body hung and then when

tshya'hwatotate tkake tohse nukwa nahatyelahte? kwah ok uni ok tho thywaya^tatA.

it stopped rotating to the east the direction it faced, right then and there he was buried.

Crime Story

Sometimes accidents happen when there is too much joking around. Seventy years ago a
crime was committed. Big Jake killed Train because of too much joking. They also say
that Big Jake may have been short of mind, because one lime he went to the cellar and
brought out a handkerchief full of money. He counted it all out and then gave his wife
six cents to buy a dress. When he went to bed that night he laid a gun by his side. I
think they lived together this “Fast Train and Big Jake and his wife. Anyway, they say

that Fast Train was the kind of person that was always joking around Sn
they say that Fast Tram was up early making Ores in the heaters aroundth hou^r^’
When the fire was going good he called to Big Jake and told him to gel „n R t ,
sat up and pulled out his gun and as Fast Train bent over to put more wood in the ^
heater Big Jake aimed his gun and shot him in the rear end. Fast Train fell i u
Big Jake jumped up and ran as fast as he could. Finally they found him "Y
.Che wood. Because he onrred a gun they needld a vo/unTeeCo g' , J T'
out. Aaron Hill stepped forward and said “I will go we are friend 8i a , , bnng

would shoo, me.” Aaron .old .he people when .hey artved ,hereto. he“ ‘
and they should hide, he would try to talk Big Jake into luming himself in °UBur°her
wanted the people to get very close jus. in case he needed them Zon was X
' ^
enter and talk to Big Jake. He told him that if he would consent to go w^.h Um h
may have a chance with the judge. B.g Jake consented and gave Aaron the em A
led him to Green Bay and was put into jail. However Oneida shll had ,n 8 ,They

Told by Elizabeth Huff to John A.Skenandore (5/11/39)
Transcribed and Taped by Maria Hinton, (1978)
Yukwe Yo^teha ne

Yu'kwe yak^ yo’teha ne wa9akolihwalho tekniyd-taseha tsi9 yo^tcha okna’

wa9kuwaye-na Jin, Wheelock kati9 yak,9 wi- Wah6nhane9 nd tAhahhwaskenhase9

ne-tsi9 Tewa^s/tha ne ya9,ehauk6h. ne9n enike-tyohte9 yutatkhunyAnltha ok ne9D

kmya'lase Yakwck Hill yakA9 ne- wahuw4nhane9 nene tAshakolihwaskenhahse9

lahnu9 kwah yakA9 ne-, yah skanu wal tehayAtek. Yah uni uawa Iu nok uni

kanuhsu, ya9tahoIata9uhake lsi9 yutatkhunyAnltha. Talmu? Tetwa9SAtha nu

lelyutatya9tolehl4khwa9 ya9tAhuwatiya9t6IehIe khale9 kwi o ua ya9kahe we ba kwi

wa91kuwaliya9,0-lehle9. Jim wheelock kati9 yala9 wi-nya wa9thakhwaskenhahsc9

ne9n ytrkwd tsi9 tO'lcAske th6 ni-yol tsi9 nah!e9 yakokhwalhos, tho ne- o da ne-

nuwi yah te9hahyamhslayA.d k Yakwek Hill n* nuwS tusashakokhwaskenhahse9

ne9n tekniya9,ahse9. Wa9hA lu9, kanyo Asnatalnnl khe k ahsX nikanhuhsake tho

YASa ti ta t nskah tho kalatye9 y09nhuhSatkA ne- ki9 uni ne- yAkahetkAhte9 ne9„

teka9nhuhsa ke «9 ka-y/ ne9n yah te9yo,kX. Ne- kati9 „6- nakwa ne- tsa ka,

ka9i-kA yukwe a9„lha y09teha ne- ka.i9 l welhe9 ne- sa ka9ikX tekniya9,ahse,

AyakohetkAhte9. Ne- yakX wahatlihwatkwe m' tsi9 kayX yah te9hahyatuhsIayA.ek.

Yu'kwe Yo^teha ne
A Woman Was Immoral

Yujove yakA9 y09ieha ne wa’akolihwaiho tekniyitaseha Isi9

A woman, they say, was immoral, she accused these two" young ladres that

yoti9t£ha okna9 wa9kuway£na. Jim Wheelock kali? yakA9
they were immoral, so then, they had her arrested. Jim Wheelock then, they say,

wi- wahbnhane9 ne1 tAhalihwask6nhase9 netsi9 Tewa9s/tha ne

that she hired him that he would defend her because at Appleton was

ya9tehaukoht ne9n eniketyohte9 yutathhuny/outha

where he had graduated the highest level of learning Laurence College of Appleton

ok ne9n kmyalase Yakwek Hill yakA9 ne1 wahuwanhane9 ne'ne

but then the young ladies Yakwek Hill they say, was who they hired that

tAshakolihwaskenhahse9 tahnu9 kwah yakA9 ne-, yah skanuwat tehayAteli. Yah

he would defend them, so they say it was, not one letter could he read. Not

uni nAw/tu nok uni kanuhsu, ya9laholata9uhake tsi9 yutatlihunyAnitha. Tahnu9

even ever not even inside, had he stepped in the school house. Then

Tetwa^s/tha nu tetyutatya9tolehtakhwa9 ya9lAhuwatiya9tolehte- khale9 kwi ora

Appleton is the place, where they judged, where the trial will be and finally

ya9kahe -we nA kwi wa9tkuwatiya9tolehte9 Jim Wheelock

it was time now they would have the trial for them to be judged. Jim Wheelock

kati*? yakA9 winya wa9thalihwaskenhahse9 ne9n yu kwe tsi9 to kAske tho ni yot
then they say, was first to defend the woman that for sure it was so

tsi9 nahte9 yakohhwalhos. Tho ne- ora ne‘ nuwa

of what she accused them of. Then now it was his turn,

yah te9hahyatuhslayAte-li Yakwek Hill ne- nuwa tusashakolihwaskenhahse9 ne9n

who had not schooling Yakwek Hill then he was next to defend them the

telauya9tahse9. Wa9hA’lu9, “Kanyo Asnatalu m khe k ahs/ nikanhuhsa’ke tho yAsa

two young ladies. He said, “If you make a cake three eggs you will

ti ta t uskah tho kalatye9 yo9nhuhsatkA ne- ki9 uni ne- yAkahetk/hte9 ne9n
use if one included is rotten it will also spoil the

teka9nhuhsa ke tsi9 ka y/ nc9n yah te9yotkA. Ne1 kati9 ne- nakwa ne' tsa kat
other two eggs that which is not rotten. So that is about the same
ka’i k/ yu kwe aiulha yo'hcha n6- kali’ iwelhe? ne- s/. ka?ik/
this woman herself is immoral so then she wants them too these

tekniyaltihse, Ayakohelk/hteV’ Ni- yak/ wahatlihwatkwi ni tsi? ka v/

two young girls, she would ruin them ” They say, he won the case the one

yah te^hahyatuhsIayAteli.
who didn’t know about books,

A Woman Was Immoral

A woman, they say was immoral, she accused lhese two young ladies lhai thev

ha7h!3Th ! hUlt!hdy h!rd hCa feSled- She hired Jim Wheelock because she
fad V It ,he ^ graduated torn Lawrence College of Appleton. The young
ladies hired Yakwek Hill, they say that not one letter could he read, he had never
X Trl a SCh°°L 7116 tnal was held in Appleton. Jim Wheelock was the
rsl to defend the woman. Then now it was Yakwek’s turn next to defend the
two young ladies. He said, “If you make a cake with three eggs, you will use if
one included ,s rotten it will also spoil the other two eggs that which is not rotten.

ton thl , SaT’ W°mm herSelfis immoral- 50 «*=■> she wa»*s them
o::ir;i-,yro8wgab:’u,shbeoowksould raiD ,hem”Tbey say-hc won ** «*

Told by Mrs. George Haas to Oscar Archiquette (8-22-39)

Recopied and Taped by Maria Hinton (4-88)


Ukwehoku akotsybhkwa*? lutlAnotha ne- tyokstAha lutlAnbtha sheku uni'?

kAtyohkwayA kAh nikahawr ne- ok so tsi^ tehonattukou kwak tyok nu

nihatinakele1? tsi1? kanatay/ tu. Kwah ok akte thakukohte*? n akrlu*? nA uhte*? teklu

niyohslashA tshilcAtyokwayA ne*?n lutlAnotha. Oneida National Band

luwatina^tukliwa? ne- yakA'? tsi"? Ukweho ku Iaotilyohkwa tsi‘? thonatya'? talakoha tu

o ya- sahunityohkuni American Band ne- wahutatnatukwe*? khale'? tho

sahutatya^tala ko- o ya- sahunityohku ni Union Band na*> sahutatna-tukwe khale'?

sheku o ya- kAtyohkwayAtahkwe'? ohkwalihaka ne- lutatna^tuhkhwakwe.

Ukweho ku akotyohkwa e-so tyukwaya^takenhau otstAla1? UkwanuhsatokAhti'? Kwah

tsi9 wahatikhu-ni ne kwi tho lonatlA note^ n Ukweho ku akotyohkwa'? Kwah

Icas uni'? okskA’nA tsi1? shakonatlA^nota ni. Sheku teyakniyahse*? yukya*?tatAlu

tsa^teyukyatya-talu nok tsi'? Jonas onA ne- yawA'Ie*? niyohsla-ke akte'? nyehawenu

o-nA uhte'? ni kaye niyohslashA wisk tsi'? nahe1? onA tho tshikya^tale. khale*? sheku

shaytat Tu wis luway&ts American Band ne- laya^talahkwe tsi*? o nA

wa'?thotityohkwalihse‘? ne- thone teshukwatya^tala ni ne- kati'? tyuknikstAha ne^n

yakwatlA notha'? kAh nikaha wi- Sheku Icas utu wa‘?akwatya‘?taloioke'? swatye U

nale"? wa'?ukwatsya'?bslo-tane'? o nA tsi'? kAtyohkwayA ne^n ukweho ku akotyohkwa.

O nA kA-tho wa newe*? telinu kwe- Taskalo lA" nahniya^to tA Shanh6skwa“?

okhale'? Shako^swAlotha? luwatiyats ne- yakA'? eso shakotilihunyAni lAnukwehu we

yotsistohkwa lu- tsi*? AhutlAnothakc'? e so Icas yukwatsya^bslayA^taskwe'? wahu nise

kwah tsyok nu tetyukhinMu tsi*? tkanatayAtu a le'? tohka nutjinale? wa?akwahtAti.

Tsyotkut kAS yukwatsya?bslohte? nale? teyutk/myehse khale? (si*7 niyelutotha?

ostuha tyotokte tewashA nikahwist^ ke yukwatkalya?kAmhahkwe? tsyukwetat tho

nutshikahawr yah tetyukwatsya?bslayAtase sotsi? latiksashuha? luwatilihunyAmhe?

ahutUnothake kAh nikahawr eso IutlAnotha ne?n Oneida National Band kwah tsi?

nakaUnodA utahuwatiyu Ahatikweniki AhutL\no-tA.

Oneida Band

Ukweho ku akotsyohkwa? IutlAnotha ne- tyokstXha IutlAnotha

The People s group of musicians is the oldest of musicians

sheku uni? kAtyohkwayA kAh nikahawr ne- ok so’tsi? tehonattukou

still are a group at this time, but then because they have scattered so

kwah tyok nu nihatinakele? tsi? kanatay/ tu. Kwah ok akte thakukohte? n akflu?
just about everywhere in nearby towns. I’d give a near guess and I’d say

nA uhte? teklu niyohsIashA tshikAtyokwayA ne?n IutlAnotha.

about eighty years that this group have been in existence of musicians.

Oneida National Band luwatina?tukhwa? ne- yakA? tsi? Ukweho ku laotityohkwa

Oneida National Band as they are called, they say that The People in their group

tho lonatya?talakohatu. Oya- sahunityohkum American Band ne-

have withdrawn. Another group was formed American Band they

wahutatna tukwe? khale? tho sahutatya?talak6\ O ya-

called themselves and then they withdrew their membership. Another

sahunityohku ni Union Band na? wahutatna tukwe khale? sheku o ya-

group they formed Union Band they called themselves and still another

kAtyohkwayA tahkwe? ohkwa lihaka ne' lutayna?tuhkhwakwe. Ukweho ku

group there was The Bears they used to call themselves. The People’s

akotyohkwa eso tyukwaya*?takenhau otst/la9 ukwanuhsatokAhli9 Kwah tsi9 niku
group the most has helped the stone our church. Just about every

wahatikhu ni ne kwi tho lonatlAnote9 n Ukweho ku akotyohkwa'?

time they had a feast it would be them playing and the People group,

kwah Icas uni'? okskAn/ tsi9 shakonatU^nota ni.

Sheku teyakniyahse9
they used to for nothing that they played for them. Still two of us

yukya9tat/lu tsa9teyukyatyata lu
nok tsi'? Jonas o’nA ne- yaw/ie
are left that joined from a former group but then Jonas now it’s umpteen

niyohsla ke aide*? nyehawenu otla uhte*?

ni kaye niyohslashA wisk tsi*? nahe9
years elsewhere he has gone as for
me forty years and live that long

tho tshikya9tale, khale*? sheku shayatat Tuwis luwa yats

there I ve been a member, and there’s still one man, Thomas was his name.

American Band ne- laya9talahkwe tsi9 onA wa9thotityohkwa lihse thone-

encan Band he used to belong but since their group broke up that ‘s when

ne- teshukwatya9tala-ni, ne- kati*? tyuknikstAha ne9n yakwatlA-nothahkw'e

he joined up with us, so then we are the oldest of those that used to play.

KAh mkaha wr sheku Icas u tu wa9akwatya9tal6 1oke9 swatye L/ nale9

At this time still we are able to get together, some times when

wa9ukwatsya9bslotane9 o-nA tsi9 kAtyohkwayA ne9n Ukweho ku akotyokwa. O nA

we get a job
now with this group of the People group. Now

k/ tho wa newe tehniyahse tehnu kwe-

Taskalo 1a" nahmya9t6 tA Shanhoskwa9
here arrived these two men Tuscaroras was their Nation, Shanhoskwa9

?re? S*u\°\™At0thul ,uwati-yits ne‘ yakA*? eso shakotihhunyAni

and Shako9swAtotha9 was their name they it’s said, a lot they taught

lAnukwehu we yotsistokwa lu tsi9 AhutlAnothake e so Icas

the Oneidas there were notes for them to read, many times

yukwatsya9bslayA taskwe‘? Wahu mse9 kwah (syok nu tetyukliinliau

we used to get jobs. Long ago it was just here and there we were hired

lsi? tkanatayA tu ale7 tohka nu ta nale7 wa^akwahtAti. Tsyotkut kAS
around towns nearby again several days when we’d be gone. Always there

yukwatsya^bslohte^ nale^ teyutk/myehse? khale7 tsi*? niyedutothaT Ostuha tyotokte?

was a job for us, when the fairs open and the fourth of July. A little less than

tewashA nikawbistake yukwatkalya‘>kAnihakwe^ tsyukwe tat. Tho nir tsutahkaha wi

twenty dollars we were paid for each person. From that time on

yah te^tysukwatsya^bslayA'tase so-tsi? latiksashuha luwalilihunyAmhe?

not anymore did we gel jobs because the young people were taught

ahutlAnothake kAh nikaha wi e so lutlAnotha ne?n Oneida National Band

to be musicians at this time alot of playing they do of Oneida National Band

kwali tsi*? nakalAnotA utahuwati yu Ahalikwe ni ki AhutlAnolA.

just about any kind of music you give them they are able to play.

Oneida Band

The people’s group of musicians is the oldest of musicians, and at this time they
are still going, but because people have scattered so, they have moved to different
towns and some are far away. I’m guessing when I say that group is about eighty
years old this Oneida Band. Then some of them withdrew to form another band,
it was called the American Band or they called themselves. Again, some withdrew
after a time. This time they called themselves the Union Band, this went on,
again some were not happy with the group so they formed the Bear group, this
group of people helped the church the most. They helped the church at their
feasts to make money for the church and they always played for nothing. There
are still two of us left in this group, but Jonas who has moved else where for
many years. But I guess I’ve been in this band for forty years and five and
Thomas has been in the American band, he joined our group so we are the oldest
in the group now. Two men came from another tribe, they were from the
Tuscaroras. Shanhoskwa and Shako^swAtatha was their name and they taught us a
lot even to read notes. We were able to get jobs at Fairs and doings at the
church for the Fourth of July. We were paid about twenty dollars a piece where
ever we played and that was quite a bit of money. But by now the young people
are learning to play and they are doing more of the playing with the Oneida
National Band and they could play just any kind of music that you would ask
them to play.

Told by Chaunccy Baird to Tillie Baird

Transcribed and Taped by Maria Minton (3-30-79)

OnA uhte9 kaye niyohslahA tsi9 nahe9 onA, tehniyahse Kolakowanhaka

Matthew Hill okhale9 Da'wet Hill luwatiy&ts. KAtho wanewe tsi^ wakwanakele9

inelhe9 ahyanityohkuni ayakwattsi9na9ahlohalhake eL\ ok lonatl/vnayAtatyehse tsi*?

yukwanuhsotu kalile9 yakA9 onA wr ne- on/i wahutya9taluni Ukwehoku. Kwah

Icas a9nyo lutelyAtunihe9 tsi9 niyole9 nale9 YawAtatok/ditu nale9 tok/ske

wahotiyo tA. Ne1 yakA9 aoliwa shonatya9talakwAhatu. Tsi9 yah teholiy/ kalsa9nu

nashakotiya9tatane, on/ uhka9 wa9yaiheye Lonatnuhsunihne tsi9 nu na9tehutlatsla,

kwah ne- ka* ok nahe9 okhna9 wahotitsyaiu ne'?. Sheku uhte9 tohka nihati

lonatat/lu, Nok tsi9 Kanatake ne- yehutLvnayAtakhwa, Kanyo on/ tho tsyata le

ne9n yutsinaalohalha. Tsyok nahte9 yah thuhsaye ke ne" ka9ik/, kwah

wa9huwnatsyawA‘lats, yah thuhsah/nekke koskos o9walu okhale9 yukya9tyohakA

tho laya9talahkwe Kwah twakehtahkwA tsi9 lotuhkalyaku tsi9 law/Jheyu.

Lutsi • nA9 ahi ohaha

Seventh-Day Adventist

O nA uhte9 kaye niyohslashA tsi9 nahe9 o n/, tehniyahse Kolakohwanha ka,

Now it s about forty years about that long ago, two of them from Canada

Matthew Hill okhale9 Ta wet Hill luwati yats. K/tho wanewe

Matthew Hill and David Hill were their names. Here they arrived,

wa9thyataw/‘li tsi9 yakwanakele, rnelhe9 ahyanityohku ni

they traveled around here where they wanted to get a group together
ayakwattsina^ahlohalhake cIa ok lonatL/vnayAtatyehse tsi? yukwanuhsotu
to join their church here and there, they prayed at our different homes.

kahle'? yakA? wi- ne- o-ny\ wahutya'ftaluni Ukwehoku, Kwah kAS a^nyo
and they say, finally they joined these Oneidas. It was or it seemed

lutelyAtu-nihe? tsi? niyo le YawAtatokAhtu nale? tok/ske wahotiyotA

they were forcing them it was until Sunday that they really would work.

Ne yakA aoliwa shonatya'ftalakwAhahtu tsi? yah

They say the reason they withdrew their membership from the church, they

lehoti yA katsa^nu nashakotiya^tatane o tla uhka wa'^yaihcye.

didn t have a place to bury whenever someone died.

Lonatnuhsunrhnc tsi? nu natehutlatstakwe. Kwah kwi ne- kok nahe^

They had built a church where they used to meet. Just for a short time only

okhna? wahotitsyadune? She-ku uhte? tohka nihati lonatatAlu?, nok tsi?

already they had a fire. Still I guess a few of them were left, but then

Kanatake ne- yehutUnayAtakhwa, Kanyo onA tho tsyatale ne“?

Green Bay they went to pray, when now you are a member of

lutsina^ahlohalha. Tsyok nahte^ yah thuhsayeke ne-, ka^i kA kwah

Seventh-Day Adventist. Many things not allowed to eat, this is what

wa^huwanatsyaw/lats yah thuhsahA nekke koskos oAvahlu, yah uni

they were forbidden, not allowed to eat pork meat, not allowed

thuhsahatihneki la ti- okhale? kapi. Yukya^tyoha kA tho laya^talakwe?

to drink tea and coffee. My brother-in-law was a member.

Kwah twakehtahkwA tsi^ lotuhkalya ku tsi? lawAhe yu.

Truly, I believe that starvation was the cause of his death.

Seventh Day Adventist

It is almost forty years ago, since those two men came from Canada to our
Community. Their names were Matthew and David Hill, they traveled around here
in our Community. They were of the Seventh-Day Adventist faith, what they
wanted to do was get a group together and find a place for their prayer meetings.
At first they went from house to house to pray, finally they had enough in their

group lo build a place to worship (church). They always managed to find work
for them on Sundays, but the Oneidas did not believe in working on Sundays, it
was their day of rest. The Oneidas were very unhappy about this. They finally
withdrew their membership from the Church. The Church was destroyed by fire
not long after that.

The Seventh-Day Adventist were very strict about many things, this included
certain foods that they were not allowed to eat. They could not eat fresh pork nor
were they allowed to drink tea or coffee. There were many restrictions in their

Hannah Cornelius who told tliis story is sure her brother-in-law died from
starvation, you see, he belonged to this church.

This story is told by Hannah Cornelius to Tillie Baird (1939)

Transcribed and Taped by Maria Hinton (12-19-79)

Onuhsatk/hti Ka listc

TSI? "iyaW/'U ,si? loIilis‘ay/. lau Methodist onuhsatokAht,? latsi9hAstats|9 yak,.t

yashakohawet ashA nihali Unukwehu we wa9,hulaWAlye9 Ionalhhwahnotatyehse9

tsyaktatye khale tayokahweha9 ukwehuwehneha9 ne- tei9 lonatUhwalmotatyehse.

Okhna kaiustani yute9 shakowAnakala tats. Wahatihwistaloloke lots nikii

yahutlihwahno'tli. Khale9 0Da tho tuku wahotihwis.ayA-.ane oca waha.thrhnu

onuhsatokAhti’ kalistatsi9 ne- yakA’ e so thonali ka9jkA khekel, luwali yats

kanu no' yahA'newe7 ,ho nu yahatihninu- ka,i|u onuhsa(okjM, kalis,alsi, ^

lewA7nyawelu7 wahatikaiyahke. OnA tohka ni yohslake Sotsi9 y^ „,holathu9

uttata ko- ka’i kA kalistatsi? yah kali tho le9skaWAn, yo kAh nikaha wi.

OnuhsatkXhti Ka liste
Church Bell

JSi9 *“yaWAU tsi? lotilistayA tau Methodist onuhsatokAhti?, latsi^hAStatsi?

How they happened to get the bell Methodist
church, the minister

yakA? yashakohawe? ashA nihati LAnukwehuwe

tt s said would lake three men who were Oneidas
would travel around
lonatlihwahnotatyehse? tsyaktatye khale tayokahweha? ukwehuwehneha?
tsyaktatye khale tayokahweha? in Oneida language

they1 would l0na“"0la‘yeh-. Okhna kanAS.ani yu,e9 shakoWAnakalatats.

Then kaiiAStani yule*? would interpret for them

Wahalihwistaloioke k/s niku yahutlihwahnotu. Khale^ on/ iho
They would take up a collection for the preaching they did. And finally there

niku wahotihwistayA lane o'nA wahatihni nu onuhsatokAhti‘> kalistatsi9 ne' yakA^

was enough money now they bought a church bell it’s said

eso thonati ka^ikA khekel, luwatiy^ts kanuno-

the most donations were given by these Quakers, as they were called. Kanu no

yahA-newc? tho nu yahatihninu- ka^i kA onuhsatok/hti? kalistatsiT Wisk

when they arrived there they bought this church bell. Five

tewA^nyawelu9 wahatikalyahke. O n/ lohka ni yohsla ke sotsi'? yakA^

hundred dollars they paid for it. Now it’s several years ago because it’s said

utholathu'? uttata ko- ka^i'k/ kalistatsi7 yah kati tho te^skawAni yo kAh
it was so cold it cracked this bell no more is the sound so clear these


Church Bell

How the Methodist church got their bell, it’s said by the minister, that it would
take three men who were Oneidas, to travel around preaching. In Oneida language
they would preach. They would have someone interpret for them and then they
would take up a collection. Finally, there was enough money to buy a church
bell. The most to give donations were the Quakers. When they arrived there they
bought this church bell. Five hundred dollars they paid for it. Now it’s several
years old because it’s said it was so cold, it cracked this bell. The bell isn’t so
clear these days.

Told by Cornelius Wheelock to Tillie Baird

Transcribed by Maria Hinton (12-03-79)

Ku^alunihc T-53

Kan^naUe ne t&h.’ yaw, 14 ,ewA9ny4we,u7 ok t6k]u, lshiyohs]ashe.l4s

kaVk' ““ Syb" KaDU n6' lkaIl4k,e,• Ne?” akuta^alu'nj' ka7i-kX Kanukwehuwe

kaVkX *cmi?whahSole7 wa7kulsl,Ilsle wa7yakoti,ihu oi ne7n Kunukwehu-wc, *,

n.yo-,6 wa't,u yaw,,, <eWA?„yawe,„7 ok w,„u, lshiyohsIashe.t4s _

ka , kX kuliwhahsote7 sols,7 c so yotiyo’uhslayX nc?n onuhsatokXhti-ke. N, kali?

ka^i kA Miss Carter wa?iyo(AwXlyohse7 ayukwallihwahtXli? kXh nu, „6- kali? ka?ikX

Ikanu-n6 .kAlyohkwa yX <akuwa(Xnyehle7 Miss Hemingway kX-.ho Ukwehuwene Aka(s,U-

ayUkhiUh« wa?ukwaIihO*ni kw, n, ka?i-kX cut work

kha,e? bobbin pi,low laces. N, kali? kaVkX lynkhbhunyAni ayula^alu ni- *7 nu

yekalawyi thahkwe. N, ka(i7 wa7,yakmy,n, wa,ukniyo.u. ^ ^ cu, work

kha,e7 o-nx ukU7Wanu-,uSe7 aka,bhu-(X. Wa7karund kehne7 w„,u7 yaw„,

lewA?nyawelu7 ok w4tlu7 tshiyohslashe-las akte7 nik atwa7kanba7 thatinakle7, the nu

yiisakuwatXnyehle? ka?i-kX Miss Hemingway ,h6 sa nO ya7yakobh0ni7 aku,a7a,u-ni- ,bo

-7 ka,i7 ukbbn-iX- akbeyalbXwa^ k^unfc Takbeyti kAS nib,e7 akuti?^. T,1

na ya yahk nikn,iya?lasbA Isi? nikn-li wa7kbeya-,bawaW Akwc ku kAS ne-

lyukhiya w,he7 ls,7 n,walelsla7 ayakwala7a,u ni kbale7 (si „„ niyoliyA kalo kX ales

Kanu no ,ho kAS n, nu ya7ka,Xnyeh,c7 ,s„ nrM yukw4hsu kwah ^

wa7(ya u(a(okXhlahnc. A,c7 kAS uskab ok nC7n ahsA ,cWA?„yawc,„ ,si? niyoka ,a uskab

ya?ka(Xnyeh(c. Va?kX„cwc7 Uskab ,cWA?„y4wc,u? ,si, nik,,; kula,alunihahkwc

yonala7a|uni kunukwehn w, n, sX ka?i kX yu,nak,o,„k(akbwa7 yukw4l,su7 kbald e s.i

yukwihsu’ ka’i k/ atekwahlakbwa’tslatok/hli’ wala’alahlikhwa’ (h6 kali’ nay/

wa’kheyatstelistahsc’ ka’ik/ kula’alunihe’ tsi’ niyo Id wilin’ yawAld- lewA’nyaweln

ok tewishA ydyahk Ishiyohslashctis o n/ wa’lkulyahke’ ka’ik/ Kanuno-

tyot.tydhkwayA o n/ kwi wa’tyukwitya’kse’ kAh nij niyakwanikle’ tsj’

yakwata’alunihahkwe. Shekn kati’ ni kata’alunihe’ kAh nikahawi- nok tsi’ ya’,ekyi-ti

■ai’ swakahtAtydtu, yah ndhle’ te’lynkya’takdnhA kAtyohkwa. Shekn waki’ ka’ik/

ka y/ wahu'nj'se’ o n/’ khale’ ase- kuUnhahse’ kwah kas kAh

na’.kewyAhalane’ WAlowanuslakta akwe ku a’aksine’, tsi’ nikn wa’ukenhahne. Ne ok

kAS yotuu tdhka’ niknti- kula’talunihe. Nile’ wa’olinaktolihne. Ne- 1<as eso

lyakyn-nihe’ ka’ik/ yn(ekhwahlakhwa’lslol6kla’ khale’ atkAhanyaks wallikhwa’ khale’

nya’tekayalake’ Icas s/ yakyunyinyuhe.

Lace Work

InTpat" "“ei’gtC" °V“UJ ^

8 hundred and eight was the year, they send us

ka^rk/i Miss Sybil Carter Kanuno-

tkanikle?, ne^n akuta^alunr ka^ikA
this Miss Sybil Carter, Green Bay
was where she lived, to make lace these

Onc“daWwomcn' !hcsc ^ kuli,wh4hsole? wa’kulsle'liste wa’yakotilihuni ne’n

’ nuns look charge and taught the
Kunukwchuwc. Tsi 9
Oneida women. niyo le watlu yawAld- tcWA’nyawelu’ ok wa tlu’ tshiyohslashe las
nineteen hundred and nine was the year

o ha lsakutk/ lahtc9 karrkA kuliwhahsolc?

so tsi^ e so yoliyo^tAhsla-yX ue^n
when they quit these nuns
because a lot of work they had at

onuhsatok/lhti kc NC kati7 ka'h k/ Miss Carter

tile Church wa hyolAw/tyohse? ayukwatlihwahlAti7
And so this Miss Carter was anxious to get things started
“‘r zxJTZr* s 22*3
.. " S-‘ "• ,:“£‘ strETV2Str,i
s;r 2“», ;s - as sz a *r &
had of making lace was fromthTsTool t ^5 gone
to to Ihf Wa’tyal®i>’e'n4'
10. bo then we worked together
watukniyotA- Aklihiini k,?i.k, , ,, ,
we worked for me for me to teach her <«s cu work “ d r“ ukUWtfr,*
wonc and finally she asked mP
akatlihu t/. Wo9, , , ,
•o take over responsibilities. I, ^ ZIT^ Z
nine stnl wheHJ“ .hem”'

thiS ^“orsre’^Xtm^e'te. 'hw^’thef

uklihu La akheyath&wane? ku?aln*n'h
She gave me authority to take complete charge of thesete makers.

ndhte? akuti?nikhu T'

what material th^ needed. AbluT ZZZ ^ niku“'
y ol them there were
wa^kheya-lhdwahrie. Akwe Jaj Wc nA- . i u-
' ** Charge of. AI1 of „

and where office"'!" “rk fwtre”"

tsi? ni ku yukwahsu Kwah ,-9 . . M .

lire amount wc have finished. Just about cZy tto"’ l™TyT°'°ihli‘hnS' So"’ ^

uskah ok nc?n ahsA tcwA?nvawe!n tdo i ,- ,

one or else three hundred js J^oka'la USkah ya?kaUnych(c. Ya^kahewe?
“ wha. „ cost once to ship. There was a time

one hundred ^ (here were'' kula?a,un‘hahkwo cso yonata^alunj

mcrL were making ace a Ini nr
t a lot of things they made ol lace-
n£- sX ka?ikX yulnaktoloktdkhwa? yukw&hsu? khale? e s6
these Oneida women
also these bedspreads we finished and many

yukwdhsu’ ka?ik/ atekwahlakhwa’lsIatokAhti'' wata’alahlikhwa? ih6 kali1? nav/

we finished .hese altar cloths, |ace covers. That was how long

wa?kheyatstelistahse? ka?i kX kuta?alumhe? tsi? niyold- wdtlu? yawA‘16-

I look care of things
for the women who made lace. It was until nineteen

tew^nydwdu ok tew&hA yi'yahk tshiyohslashe’tSs onX wa?tkutyahke? ka?ikX

hundred and twenty six was the year when they went broke this

tyotityohkwayA onX kwi wa?tyukwatya?kse? kAh nu
in New York
group now then we were out of luck out here.

niyakwanakle? tsi? yakwa(a?alunihahkwe

She-ku kali? ni kata?alu-mhe? kAh
those that hved here, those of us who made lace.
Still yet I made lace at

ItoTlimT huk lsi7 ,3fa,te|Cy4'U ‘Si’ swakah^lyi'iu, yah n&le? te?tsyukyaTakenliA

this fime, but now I'm alone doing this business. No help am I getting

kAtyohkwa. She*ku wdki? ka?ikX tsi? ka-

y/ wahunfse? onX tshikutunhahse? khale?
from the group. I still have this the one
a long time ago customers and

a-se- kAtunhahse? kwah kXs kAh na?tkewyAha la ne? WAtowanuslakta

new customers. It’s quite a busy and rushed time near the Christmans holiday

akwe-ku a?aksane? tsi? niku wa?ukenhahne.

Ne- ok Icas yotu-u
everything to finish, how many things i’ve been hired to do.
It would have to be

tdhkat niku ti lcutaVtalu nihe nale? watotinakto tahne.

Ne- kAS eso tyakyu nihe?
several of them are making lace whenever they have time.
It was a lot we made of

kaVkX yutekhwahIakhwa?tslolokta? khale? atkAh^nyaks watlakhwa? khale?

these table clothes and handkerchief covers and

nya?tekaya lake kAS sX yakyunyanyuhe.

all kinds of bags too we were making.

Lacc Work

In the ['all
oMXOX Ihcy scrn us Oneida women In Miss Sybil Carters in New York to
make lacc.
Ibese Oneida women were taught by nuns uni,I 1909. These nuns quit

teaching then because of so much work they had to do in the church. Miss Carter was
anxious to get things started here, so they looked for someone else to teach us Oneida
woman. The New York group found Miss Hemingway to help teach us to make lace.
She taught us to make cut work and bobbin pillow laces. But the knowledge I had of
making lace came from the school I had gone to previously. I worked with this Miss
Hemingway and taught her how to make cut work and she eventually asked me to take
over her responsibilities. It was in the fall of 1909, that they sent her to teach other
Indians, so I took over complete charge of these lace makers. There were about sixty of
them that I took charge of. They gave us whatever material we needed and the finished
work was sent to a special office in New York about every two weeks. Sometimes it
would cost up to 300.00 dollars to ship.

There was at one time, one hundred women making lace. These Oneida women also
made alter cloths, lace covers and bed spreads. We made lace until about 1926 when the
New York office went broke. Now then, we were out of luck, those that lived here and
made the lace. Still yet I made lace at this time, but I am alone doing this business. I
am not getting any help from the group. I still have the same customers and it gets quite
busy around the Christmas holidays. How many things I’ve been hired to do. We made
a lot of tablecloths and handkerchief covers and all kinds of bags too.

Told by Josephine Webster to Tillie Baird

Transcribed by Maria Hinton (1-25-80)
AkokslAha Otstokhwi Yuyaks

uskah utlatste9 akokstAha tsi9 yu'yaks otstokhwi9. laksa inehse yusahuwatAnyehte9.

Na kwi ne9n akokstAha wa9yuyako, tho ne- kwi wa9yutya9tahtu otsto'khwi9 tsi9

yu yaks akokstAha. Washakotiya9lrsake9 tsi9 nu niyiryakswe9 ne9n akokstAha.

Washakotiya9tatstale ne9n akokstAha. Na kwi tsi9 nu nikahawi latnakalyaks hoops

yakunyatha teye9nahkwanhasta ne- ka9i kA latnakalyaks ne luwa yats Kahyvhso lu

(Simon King) ne- washakoya9to lA ne9 yakawAheyu ne9n akokstAha. Na kwi

sahathlolya na tsi9 tho tyeta'kele9 kallia ku yakawAheyu. Na kwi sahatiko na ne9n


->■ AkokstAha Otsto khwi Yu yaks

An Old Woman Picking Blueberries

uskah utlatste9 akokstAha tsi9 yu yaks otsto khwi, laksa i nehse

One time an old lady as she picked blueberries, a boy was with her

yusahuwatAnyehte9. Na kwi ne9n akokstAha wa9yuyako, tho ne- kwi

she send him back. So now then old lady picked berries, it was then

wa9yu tya9tahtu otsto khwi9 tsi9 yu yaks ne9n akokstAha. Na kwi

she got lost blueberries while picking the old lady. Now then

washakotiya ti sake9 tsi9 nu niyu yakskwe9 ne9n akokstAha.

they looked for her where she had been picking berries the old lady.

Washakotiya9latstale9 ne9n akokstAha. Na kwi tsi9 nu nikaha wi

She was no where to be found the old lady. So now when it was that time

latnakalyaks hoops yakunya tha teye9nahkwanhasta.

_ was cutting poles for making hoops they used to be wrapped around barrels.

Tho tsi9 latnakalyaks ne luwa yats KaliASo lu (Simon King) ne

There as he cut the poles, his name was Simon King he

washakoya7toi/ ne^ yakawAheyu ne^n akokstAha. Nu kwf
was the one who found her dead the old lady. Now then

sahathlolyana tsi? tho tyetakele^ kalha ku yakawAheyu. Na kwi

he went back to tell that there she lay in the woods, she was dead. Now then

sahatiko na ne^n akokstAha.

they went after her remains of the old lady.

An Old Woman Picking Blueberries

One time an old lady was picking blueberries. She had a boy with her but she
sent him back. While she was picking blueberries she became lost. They looked
for her where she had been picking the berries, but she was no where to be found.
Now it was time for Simon King to be cutting the poles they used for making
hoops to be wrapped around barrels. As he cut the poles he found her dead.
Now then he went back to tell that she lay in the woods, and they went after her

Told by Tom Elm to Alex Metoxen (3-6-39)

Transcribed and Taped by Maria Hinton (11-17-80)

YanikyA Onulha
Jane’s Mother

YanikyA onulha washakotinhane1? ayutlAnayA, nA kwi ua ne' tayutahsawA, tsi,?

niyoie tuhsayetane1? tsi1? wahutLAnayA, okhna1? wa^utkahsawA, tsi1? okhna1?

utkAlahte1? tsi1? yowelutu, elhuwa9 o'nA washakonatla^nAtaktA. NA kwi ne- skAiu

utu O^sluni okhale1? atwa^kanha. WahAne we kAtho yah Halite1? tehotiay^tawAu.

YanikyA Onulha
Jane’s Mother

YanikyA onulha washakotinhane*? ayutlA nayA nA kwi ne- tayutahsawA

Jane’s mother they asked her to pray so then she started

kwah tsi1? niyo ie tuhsaye tane1? wahutlA'nayA wa^hutkattho1? okhna1? utkAlahte1?

it was just until she stood up they prayed she saw that it had stopped

tsi1? yowelutu elhuwa onA wahsakonatla^nAtaktA nA kwi okskAnA

that wind blowing just now they became friendly now then peacefully,

u tu O^sluni okhale1? atwa^kanha, wahAnewe yah nahte1? tehotiya'frawau.

they became whites and Indians they arrived, nothing happened to them.

Jane’s Mother

They asked Jane’s mother to pray. So then she started to pray. It was just until
she stood up they prayed. She saw that the wind stopped blowing. It was then
the whites and the Indians became friendly and peaceful. They arrived and
nothing happened to them.

Told by Jonas Elm to Morris Swadesh - 1938

Transcribed by Maria Hinton (1-27-76)


Ne? lh6 ne'' tSU,ahji nc akohwa' "<=9 ,ho ne’ wa’.ho.iwelahkwe’ kanya.alahke.

Tahnu o’sluni .ho yeya .it kahuwaku okhale’ yaniky, onulha. Ka’ikA ukwehu we

yah tha’IeshakonatohwAtsyoni ne’n o’sluni. KawdowrnX wa’lhuUane’ «, lallhuymih

okhna’ ne’n o’sluni lonalU ndyA ol nayawAne (ahu(uk6hte’ kwah nok tuhkwislune

is.’ yowelu-lu .ho ne’ on/ yanikya onulha washakotinhane’ ayullanayA, nukwi n/ ne-

tayutahsawA Isi’ niyo le lousaye tane’ lsi’ wahu.U nayA okna’ wa’ulkatho’ okna’

utkA lahle’ tsi’ yowelu-.u. Elhuha’ o n/’nAtakU nukwi ne- skanA’ko

u tu o’slu ni kahle’ alwa’kanha walu newe’ k/tho yah nahle’ lehotiya’.awfiu-

Big Wind

Ne? th6 ne?

tsutahA ne akohwa- tsile? ne? tho n6?
About that lime
they were coming over here her family at that time

kanyatalahke. Tahnu o?slum tho yeya tit kahu- waku,
there was a hurricane
on the lake. There was a white woman with them in the boat,

okhale? yamkyA onulha.

Ka?i kA ukwehu-we yah tha?teshakonatohwAtsyom
and Janes’ mother.
These Indians didn’t especially want

Jwah nok tuhkwislune tsi? y0welu tu
r:;.“ «
tho ne? o'ha yanikyA onulha
ut it began to blow harder the wind did.
And then Janes’ mother was along
washakotinhane? ayullaniyA nukwinA ne- tayutahsawA tsi? niyoie tousaye' tane?
they hired her to pray then she began to pray and until she stood up.

Tsi? wahutiA-nayA okna? wa?utkatho? okna? utk/-14hte? tsi? yowelu tu. Elhuha? onA
Then they prayed and then saw already it stopped blowing. Just now

washakonatla^nAtaktA nukwi ne- skAnA^ko utu o^slum kahle? atwa?kanha

they stayed close by her now everything went well between the whites and Indians.

WahAnewe? kAtho yah nahte*? tehotiya^taw/u-

Tliey arrived here and nothing happened to them.

Big Wind

Aboul the time her family was coming over here, there was a big hurricane on the lake.
There was a white woman with them in the boat and Jane’s mother. These didn’t
especially want this women with them. This hurricane was getting stronger and the white
people were praying that they would come through it safely, but it began to blow harder.
a« T* ,JaDe S mother t0 Pray for them when she stood up the wind quit blowing
After that they stayed by her and the Indians and Whites became close. They arrived here

Told by Jonas Elm to Morris Swadesh (1938)

Transcribed by Maria Hinton (1-27-76)

Shayatat yakA? TiksAnne Yahathwatsilihcwe.

Shaya tat yakA? Tiks/ome yahathwatsilihewe. Tsi? kati? wi- nahe tho Lvnehse ostuha

takahslu-ni kati*? wr na?tutahonatAtyuhati? tho sahonya?tathA. Ne- kati? tsi? yahAnewe


ne?n yesky^a yuthnekahnrnuhe? tho wahA'lu?, “kwah nok nyAkahkete? k/ tho okhna?

yahanhohokahte. Kwah kati? Ica nahe? nA wahutyelA atste tutahuwaya?tuti.

Tusaha tane? ostuha wahatakAhlokewe tho ne? o nA waliAlu?, “hatskwe! Yah k/\

thatetwaky akA • u

Shaya tat YakA? TiksAnne Yahthwatsilihewe

One Man It’s Said DePere Took His Family

Shaya-tat yakA? TiksAnne yahathwatsilihewe. Tsi? kati? nahe tho lA’nehse ostuha
One man it’s said DePere brought his family. So then while there they stayed a little

takahslu m, kati? wr na?tutahonahtAtyu hati? tho sahonya?tathA

mebriated he became then as they were on their way home again, he became thirsty

Ne- kati? tsi? yahA newe ne?n yesk/Jia yuthnekahni nu tho wahA'lu?
So then as they arrived to the last place, they sell liquor (tavern) then he said’

Kwah nok nyAkakehte? kA'tho,” okhna? yahanho hokahte. Kwah kati?

Just a short time I’ll be here,” already, he made a dash for the door. It was

kA nahe nA wahutye lA atste tutahuwaya?tu ti. Tusahatane? ostuha

some time now, they were suprised outside they threw him. He stood up a little

wahatakAhlokewe tho ne- o na wahA'lu?, “Hatskwe

bit brushing the dirt off himself it was then he said, “Well by golly,

yah Ica thatetwakyakAU.”

didn’t I tell you I’d be right out.”

The Man Who Took His Family To DePere

One time this man took his family to DePere, while in town, he became inebriated
while on their way home, when they came to the last tavern, he asked them to wait
it would be only a short time and he would be out, they waited and it was some
time when he came flying out the door, he brushed himself off and said, “Well by
golly, didn’t I tell you that I’d be right out.

Told by Andrew Bcechtree, (2-15-39)

Taped and Transcribed by Maria Hinton (5-15-79)
Tehutsi?kwaeks Tewa?a latu

Wahu mse? tehutsi^kwaeks kas ne?n tewaVlatu kAh nu ne9n lAnukwehirwe. Tho

ne‘ tehatiyAhe'? tsi? ok nahte?shuha Ahatiyena-, tsi? kayA- Ahutkwe-ni. Ne- kAs

kA na^tehatiyelha? ne?n, kAh nukwa latinakele? Talu kowanha ka. okhna? tsi? kayA'

AtyAnukwa thatinakele? Kanatakuhaka ne- luwatina'Hukhwa'?, kanyo naie

tehutshikwa^eke. Lonukwe’tayA^ kAs yakA? shakonukwa^tslahos kanyo Icas kalo

tei? niyoie AthutashsawA? Kwah kAs, yakA?, kwah lotahsehtu isi? niyoie ne?n

onuhkwa'hko- ha lotna^kwa-tu kwah tsi? niku yotuu kwah kAs yakA? tsi^ok

na^tethoya^to-tAU tho thatakhehse oskawaku ot naya wAne ahutkwe-ni laotyohkwa?

okhale1? takA? ahotinulyahk laotyohkwa.

Shayatat tho laya tale teyotanuyanit tsi“? lakwa nA. ne- kati? wr tsi*>

shakonuhkwa^tslalhos ne- nawa tho sahoke-tohte? ne*?n lakwanAhko

usahonuhkwaVtslalho. wa^hA’lu? ne?n onuhkwa^tko, “ottsye na?tehonhuskala na?kA

kwa^nyAh tsi^ ni yot yakirkwe. okhale? uskah utlatste? kayhuhakta tsi? tehotiyA

wahotya^toyaake? shaya-tat, isi yakA?, na?kayhuhati ya^kana^kA tslakwAhtalane?

ne*?n tehatitshikwa^ekskweko-

Tehulsi^kwaeks Tewa^a latu

Playing Ball Lacrosse

Wahu-mse? tehutsi^kwaeks kAs ne^n tewaVIatu kAh nu ne?n

Long ago they played ball used to this game of lacrosse here was


lAnukwehu we. Tho ne- tehatiyAhe'?, ne?n tsi'i’ ok nahte^shuha Ahatiyena

Oneida men. At that time, they played for all kinds of things they will get,

tsi? kay/’ Ahutkwe ni. Ne1 k/s kA na^tehaliyelha7 ne?n, kAh nukwati latinakele'?
whichever side would win. They used to take turns those at this end lived

Talukowanhaka. okhna? tsi7 kay./' AtyAnukwa thatinakele*? Kanatakuha ka ne-

Episcopahans and the ones west of here lived', the Methodist as

luwatina^tukhwa*?, kanyo na le tehutshikwa^eke. Lonukwe'tayA? k/s

they were called, when again they play ball. One of their members used to,

yakA?, shakonukwa^tslahohs kanyo kAS kalo tsi^ niyole

they say, would give a rub-down of medicine when it was just shortly before

AthutashsawA7. Kwah k/s, yakA*?, lotahsehtu isi? niyo le

they would start. It used to be, they say, he was hiding a short distance away,

ne?n onuhkwa^tko' nA lotna^kwa tu kwah tsi? niku yo tu u kwah k/s

this medicine man during his false face, try as hard as he could used to be,

yakA*? tsi? ok na^tethaya^totA tho thatakhehse

they say, with different images that back there he was running around

oska waku ot naya wAne ahutkwe'm laotyohkwa? okhale*?

in the brushes, waiting for the outcome for them to win, his group and

takA^ ahotinuiahke laotvohkwa.

not to get hurt his group.

Shayatat tho layatale? teyotanu yanit tsi? lakwa- nA. ne‘ kati^ wr tsi1?
One man there was of the group was huge in size, so then while

shakonuhkwa^tslalhohs ne- nuwa tho sahohketohte*? ne9n

he’s rubbing them down with medicine this time again, he appeared the

lakwanAhko usahonuhkwa^lslalho. Wa^hA'lu^ ne^n onuhkwa^tko,

huge man returned to get a medicine rub-down. Said the medicine man,

“oltsyc na^tehonhuskala na^kA kwah hanyo tsi'? ni yot yaku kwc.” Okhalc*?
“Oh dear, look at the big hips just, it seems that’s like a woman.” and

uskah utlatste^ kayhuhdkta tsi? tehotiy/ th6 wahotya‘?toya'?ake‘?
one time near the river while they were gaming he gave him a body slam,

shay a'tat, yak/.*?, isi? na^kayhuhati ya^kana^kAtslakwAhtalane? ne^n

one of the, they say, across the river he went sprawling this

great ball player.

Told by Guy Elm to Oscar Archiquette (2-17-39)

Transcribed and Taped by Maria Hinton (10-19-76)

Dehaluhyawaku .. . William House

(The Iroquois God)

TwakehtakwA Tsi? Awatu TAtsyetha lA Ne?n

YakawAheyu.Mitchell Elm
(I Believe You Can Communicate With Dead People)

The Lord’s Prayer .. Oscar Archiquette

Dehaluhyawa ku

Kwah kAh nahe tsi^ nA laksa tshi hototya?ku, nA akweku tashakohAie ukwehoku

oskanhe, wa?hAlu?, “Kwah ukyukwetayA a?e nakanyataiati- ne' uni ni akli wa

akatkAse, I- kati? onA wakahtA ti.” Na ki? wahahtAti, tho nukwa yahale tsi^

tkaketose, nA tho tshya?halatane ohnekanuhsne, ukwehoku wa?hAni lu?, ‘lakA? tho

yAhAhse ta t Ahses ko nc.” Wa?hAlu?, “TakA? tASwatelyAthalA yah se nahte?

thaukya?tawA. OnA ki'? ohneka ke tshya?haie kwah tsi? lohtAtyuhali?, ohwislanoiu

otsiste tho nahe? tho yotsisluti laya?tene okhale? laya?taktuti tsi? niyo-Ie

ya?honuwrlehte?. Kwah tho nahe? nale? wahu nise kwi tsi? nahe ha sala we tsi?

nu laohwatsiie nihAnehse, washakonatuhahse lasnuke okhale? yahatsyatu lahsj' ke

we ne tsi?nu nihowrlale, kaluwale watstu nA thsihaya?tihale ne?n kaya?hsa ke.

Wa?hA lu?, Swatkattho nahte? ukweho ku, tho thatinakle, niyukyela se

tehutsi?tayAhne e so kalo tsi? niyole Awa tu AshAne we nok tsi? Ise, kwah IIca tsi?

weskwate?yAtu. Kwah thok niku watli?wanutha ne?n I se ne?n a?eskwehya?la ke

kwah ni ku tsi? tyohslate. Tho kali? wi ni yot tsi? shakwayeyahyahlakhwake

yolihowanA niyotye lA kwi tsi? watnatukhwa WAtowanA (teyotsistanuyanit) ta t uni

tayoihAuhati nakatsistotA kAS u we ua kohslake ne kanhke kAS nyakahe we ka?ikA

wehnislate, latiksashuha kwah kAS nuhtahAnete akwe ku yakonuhso tu kwah yah

thyayenhohaya ake yeksa nyAyulawyahte? yu te “Oyan, O’yan” ne?n owa m kAtuhe?

Oyan. Ukweho ku ne?n tho latinakeie Ahuwanate yAtu Ahuwatinahktiyoste? (ta t

nu wa otsistakta) okhale? Ahuwati?khwanule okhale? Ahuwatinahkti yoste? kwah ta t

IsU niyot satwiIalakwA, tho niholiliholAhn£^e?n Tehaluhyawa ku kAtho tshi lchse.

Delhaluhyawa ku
Iroquois God

Katsa? ok nu tshikaha wi ka?ikA laksa lotunhehtu oya^tsi ko lototya^ku lotya^tishu

khale*? o'ni yahsakohAle ukwehoku oskanhe?, wa^h/lu^ “sheku yukyukwetayA

skanya7talati ne- sa laldihwa wi akheya?tkAsena?, onA kali? ni wakahtA'ti, tho

nukwati nyahale? tsi? tkakelohse'?. Tsi*? q-ra awA'ke ya^halatane? okhna?

wa^thotihA lehte lute?, ‘laky;, takA, lulahatati late?, “laky. tAhskwanikuhalA, “yah

se nahle? tha?ukya?tawA,” Na kwi ne- ohnekanuhne yahale?. tsi? nahe? aw/ ke

Me tho yolsistalali tho teya?yoyA laya?tene khale? laya?- takweku, kwah tsi?

rnyo le yahonuwilehte?. tohka nula-ko tyohtu kohtu iia tho sala-we tsi? nu

mha?ukwetayAtu wahsakonahtuhahase? lasnu ke okhale? yahatsyatu lahsrke, tho

kwj lowilale?, tsi? nu nikanuwalothukwe tsi*? nahe tekayahsutake luwanuwalotakwe,

wa?hA’lu?, “nayukyeldhse thi ky\ tho nukwati thatinakle? eso tAthutatlihwastA

ka?rkA kalo? tsi? niyo le yyvhshAnewe tsi? nu yah sheku that uhsahotinikulyahke

I si akahawihle, nok tsi? ise skwanolukhwa ne1 kwi aoli wa swakweku

Akwali?wanu tuse a?eskwehyalane kwah tsi? ni ku tyohslat, ne- wi aoliwa tho

ni yot tsi? a?etwehyalake? tsi? thok nahte? niya w/ u tayolhAuhati hoyan kanyo

otla yakahewe laliksashuha Icas tahatinuhsasehte? yah uni thyahatinhohaya?ake

kwah ok thyAhuhtawyahle? ka?ikA laliksashuha okhna? tAhotihA'lehte, “Hoyan,

Hoyan? , oklina? tsi? kay/ tho latinakle ne' tho Ahati yA otsislakta tahnu?

Ahsakolinuhte?, Ahseya?teyAtu. Kwah tsi? niyot ta t satwilalakwA. Ne- tho kwi

niyotuhne. KaIi nu tshileskwe Dehaluhyawa ku.


Kwah kAh nahe tsi? nA laksa Ishi hototya?ku, ru akweku tashakoh/’Ie

It was sometime after the boy had grown into manhood, when he called all the

ukwehoku oskanhe, wa?h/iu?, “Kwah ukyukwetayA a?e nakanyatalatr ne-

people together, he said, “We also have people across the ocean it

uni m aldi wa akatkAse, l kati? oha wakaht/vti.” Na ki? wahaht/ ti. Tho
is also my duty to see, I shall go now.” So he left. He

nukwa yahale tsD tkaketo se, nA tho tshya?halalane ohnekanuhsne, ukwehoku

went toward the east, when he stepped on the water, the people

wa?hAmlu?, “takA? tho yAh/Jise ta t Ahseskone.” Wa?hA‘lu?, “TakA?

cried, “Don’t go any farther or you’ll drown.” He said, “Don’t

tASwatelyAtha lA yah se nahte? thaukya?tawA.” On/ ki? ohneka ke tshya?hale

worry, nothing will happen to me.” So he walked on the water

kwah tsi? lohtAtyuhati?, ohwistano lu otsiste tho nahe*? tho yotsistuti laya^te ne
as he walked, a golden light seemed to shine on his body

okhale? laya?taktuti tsi? niyole ya?honuwiiehte?. Kwah tho nahe? nale?

and about him until he was out of sight. Time passed and

wahu mse kwi tsi? nahe nA sala we tsi? nu laohwatsi le nih/nehse,

quite a while later he came back to where his relatives were,

washakonatuhahse Iasnuke okhale? yahatsyatu lahsi ke we ne tsi?nu nihowi lale

he showed them his hands and pointed to his feet, on them were scars of

kalu wale watstu nA thsihaya?tiha le ne?n kaya?hsa ke. Wa?h/lu?, “Swatkattho

the nails used when he was nailed to the cross. He said, “Look what

nahte? ukweho ku, tho thatinakle niyukyela se, tehutsi?tay/hne e-so kalo tsi?
the people, who live over there did to me, they will plead much before

rnyo le Awa tu AshAnewe nok tsi? i se, kwah i kA tsi? weskwate?y/tu. Kwah thok
they return but you, you were very good to me. So all

ni ku watlDwanu lha nc?n rse ne?n a?eskwehya?la ke kwah ni ku tsi? tyohslate.

that will be asked of you is to remember me once a year.
Tho kati9 wi m yot tsi^ shakwayeyahyahlakhwake yolihowa nA myolyelA kwi tsD
So this is how it is coraraeraled the great event is

watnatukhwa WAtowanA (teyotsislanuyanit) ta t uni tayolhAuhali nakatsisto lA

called WAto wanA (Great Light) or the Dawn of Light. Light

kAS u we nA kohslakene. Kanhke Icas nyakahe we ka^i kA wehnislate,

arrived in the winter time. When this time arrives this day,

latiksashuha kwah Icas nuhtaliA'nele akweku yakonuhso tu kwah yah

the children will go from house to house without

thyayenhohaya ake yeksa nyAyulawyahte? yu te “Oyan, O’yan” ne?n owA na

knocking the child will walk in citing “Happy New Year” the word

kAtuhe? “Oyan. Ukweho’ku ne‘?n tho latinakele Ahuwanate yAtu

meaning “Dawn of Light”. The people living in the place will place them

Ahuwatinahkti-yoste? (ta t nu wa otsislakta) okhale? Ahuwati^khwanutc okhafe?

a good place (as by the fire) and give them food and

Ahuwatinahkti yoste^ kwah ta t tsi? niyot satwilalakwA. Tho nihotibhot/ hne

other comforts just as if you had adopted them. That was what was done

ne^n Tehaluhyawa ku (The Iroquois God) U tho tshi lehse.

when Tehaluhytawa ku (The Iroquois God) was here.

The Iroquois God

It was sometime after this boy, who was bom differently had grown into manhood.
When he called the people together, he said, “We also have relatives across the
ocean, it is also my duty to see, I shall go now and see them.” So he left. He
went toward the east, when he stepped on the water, the people cried. “Don’t go
any father or you’ll drown”, he said, “Don’t worry, nothing will happen to me”.
So he walked on the water, as he waled a golden light seemed to shine on his
body and about him until he was out of sight. Time passed and quite a while
later when he came back to where his relatives were. He showed them his hand
and pointed to his feet, and on them were scars of the nails used when he was
nailed to the cross, he said “Look what the people over there did to me.” They
will plead much before they can return to the place where they will have no
worries, but you, you were very good to me, so all that I ask of you is to
remember me once a year. So this is how it is commemorated, the event is called
Ato wanA , (Great Light or Dawn of Light) New years arrives in the winter
2b 7
l,rae, ^hen the lime arrives, the children will go from house to house knocking
on door, the child will walk in crying, “oyan, oyan” meaning “Happy New
Year (a child) word for the Dawn of Light, ’’Happy New Year”. The people
living in the place will place them in a good place (as by the fire) and give them
food and other comforts, just as if you had adopted them. That was done when
Dehaluhya ku (Iroquois God) was here.

Told by William House to Andrew Beechtree (8-25-39)

Transcribed and Taped by Maria Hinton (7-24-79)
This story is from English
TwakehtakwA Tsi? Awa tu TAtsyetha lA Ne?n YakawAheyu 1-72

Tekkahkwe'ku wi ni iia uni wi wahunise tsa9tekkahkwek<i nA lewashA kayc

myohsla kc tsP nahe Iho uni n4he tshiwakulhatsiwa 6 (yes otholeke kalha ku

leknakiehkwe9 thohka noyohslake. Yah wi ni te9,wakehtahkWA lsi9

niswaiUnayAtaksio lA „e ka,i9 tiskah titlatste iho wiknewe tekmyahse kya^siu ni

wa^ukwaiUhwahnotae wa9knt"lu9 Awa tu lASwathaU ne9n lonAheyu. Ne ka,i9 nA

IshitsyonahlA'ti ua wakelhe9 layakwalhalA „e9„ yuky/ha tetsyalu lonAheyu ua kwi

wa9kanuhiunyu-ko isj9 nahe iho kheyanuhtunyukwas. Na n/hke wa*yakwa.h.-U

akweku anuhtunyuhsla Ayutste. Ne (ho ne kali9 wi twakehtahlwA tsi9 Awa lu

.Atayeiha U ne9n yakawAheyu. Tho kati9 ndhe tsahteyakwathaha, Yah kati9 w,

le9Wakulhatsiwa okha!e9 lawAniyo teyakrhthaha uni da ne akwe'ku shake9nikulhA se

ls.9 ruwakatyela ni ia akii9 wakatatewyatau akiheye kwah ok thikanyo kanhke

Akatuhkohte wakelha-Je wehnislateni tutahakhA-le.

TwakebtalcwA Tsi? Awatu TAtsyethalA Ne^n YakawAheyu

I Believe That You Can Communicate With Dead People

IT™t^d’W(rm'liamltU'nl,Se • 'ftekkahkw^ ia lewaahA kaye

a long time that I have been blind now twenty four

myohsla ke te,9 nahe9 tho uni nahe9 tshiwakulhatsiwa a ,yes otholeke

hat long that also is long how I’ve been alone, even in the cold

northern woods s'^ n,>'ohs,a'kS- Yah ™ “ te9,wakehtahkwA

ra wooas i used to live several years. I don’t believe in

the WnTShThatyou
do so men
o, so then one
one^' UmT'*
time t^0 Wik?™e
there tekniyihsC
arrived two of them
kya'^sluni wa^ukwatlihwahndthase wa^kniiu^ Awatu tASwathal/ ne^n
white women, they preached to me they said you can communicate with

lonAheyu. Ne kati? nA tshitsyonahtAti nA wakelhe? tayakwatha'L\ ne?n

the dead. So then when they had gone home now I thought I’d talk to them my

yuky/ha tetsyaiu lonAheyu nA kwi wa^kanuhtunyu ko tsi? nahe? tho

parents both of them are deceased, now then I concentrated and while there

kheyanuhtunyirkwas. Na n/hke wa^tyakwatha U akweku

I’m thinking about them, all of a sudden we are talking, all of this

anuhtunyuhsla a yutste. Ne tho ne kali? wi twakehtahkwA tsi? Awa tu

was power of thinking they will use. It was then that I did believe that you can

lAtyelha l/ ne?n yakawAheyu. Tho kati^ nahe*? tsa'fteyakwathalha.

communicate with dead people. That then is how long I’ve been talking to them.

Yah kati'? wi o ela teswakulhalsuwa okhale? lawAni yo teyaknithalha

Now then I’m not you see now alone anymore and the good Lord we talk

uni nA ne akwe ku onX shake^nikulhA'se tsi? niwakatyela-ni, nA kati*?

too now then all now he has forgiven for all my transgressions, now then

wakatawyAtau akiheye. Kwah ok thikanyo kanke akatuhkohte wakelha le

I am prepared to die. Just about any time to pass on I’m expecting

tsi^ wehnislateni tutahakliA le.

that any day for him to call me.

I Believe That You Can Communicate With Dead People

I have been blind for twenty four years and that is also how long I have been alone.
Even in the cold northern woods I used to live for several years. 1 don’t believe in
the kind of faith that you do, so then one time there arrived two while women. They
preached to me and said you can communicate with the dead. After they had gone
home I thought I’d talk to my deceased parents. Now then I concentrated and all the
while I m thinking of them, all of a suddan we are talking. All of this was power of
thinking. It was then I did believe that you could communicate with dead people.
Since then I have been talking to them and I am not alone anymore, I am even
talking to the good Lord and he has forgiven me for all my transgressions. Now then

prepared to die, just about any day now I’m expecting for him to call

Told by Mitchell Elm to Ida Blackhawk

Transcribed and Taped by Maria Hinton (9-18-80)
The Lord’s Prayer

TakwayA ha kaluhyake tehsitelu'?


AyesawAnalakhwake ohwyAtsyake tsi? niyot kalhya-ke'

Takwanuht ukwa natalok, yatewehnislake

Nok sasani-kulhA nyate ya?ku yakhi^nikuhlaksatu

Ts,? m-yot “’i tyukwanikolhAhse nikuhlaksatha ukwe

Akte Asha wite ne?n wahetkA

I se sawA'na ke lasela

KJo like nyAhA we katsatsAsela

Ne- tho nA yawA’ne. AwAt.

The Lord’s Prayer

TakwayA’ha kaluhya ke tehsitelu?

Our father, who art in heaven

hallowed by thy name.

AyesawAnalakhwa ke ohwyAtsya ke tsi? ni yot kal hya ke

Thy longdon come on Earth As it is in heaven

Takwanuht ukwa nata lok, yatewehnisla ke

Give us this day our daily bread

Nok sasani kulhA nya te ya?ku yakhi^nikuhlaksa tu

And forgive us our trespasses

TsG ni yot nii tyukwanikulliAhse nikuhlaksatha u kwe

And forgive those who trespass against us.
Akte Asha wite ne?n wahetkA
And lead us not into temptation.

I se sawA na ke lasela
But deliver us from evil

Klo like nyAhA we katsatSAsela

For thine is the Kingdom and the power.

Ne’ tho nA yawA'ne. Awat.

and the glory for ever and ever, Amen

As Told by Oscar Archiquette

Transcribed by Maria Hinton


Awelu^usketsla . Chauncey Baird


Y akotla^swahtu. Susie Baird


Onelu7uske AkuwatinAhalya7khu hake Ida Blackhawk

(They Killed the Witches)

Tsl9 “ niyo le niwakanuhte? awelu?usketsla ne- aoliwa yotlihwatuu tsi? yah nAWA’tu

tehonatho'li ne?n lotikstAho’kuha kwah ne- tsakat ne?n ukwehuwehneha? onu?kwathu'we

e so nya^tekwnu^kwatslake. Yah nr teyukwanuhte? nahte? kanu^kwatslryo kAh

mkahawi. Ne- ok uni Awa tu Ayutewelu?usketsKrnr kanyo yakukwe^taksA. Wahu nise

yak^9 tehniyahse wahya^tolatha? kalhaku nyahane, kwah kA niyole nyehonenu tho

wahnitsliA li oska-waku tho watey/tu otkii tho kutiya^tiha lu tho tka^uwayA tho

yewatsahuhe? onikwXhsa, shaya tat wa^hAlu? onukwa^t yakA? onikwahsa. ta t uhka ok

AhyaswAhsekc^, ta-t uni yana^kumhe'?. Ahsya^lunislu ni okhna? onukwis tho yAsati

onikwAhsa ke okhna? Ahsesoku ka?ikA onukwis, kwah ise Ahsanuhtu katsa?nu

na^tAhsawe^este^ kaya^tunihsla’ke tho ki nu nAhetskalewahte*? ne- tsi^ kayA

yatakwaswAhse kanyo Askwe ni Ahetshlo'li tsi? olihwiyo tsi? laulha-se*? lawelu^uske, yah

thahakwe-ni ot nahte*? nahya yele ne-tsi? r tho niwakya?tawA-u teya^kyatahnutlahkwe

luwayeiuhkwe ka'bkA otkuhsolu. uskah utlatste?, kwah yah thya?yehewe

na^tehotunhukali. Tsi^ nA wa'^okalawe'? tho ne- kati*^ oha takhulahlakwahte ka^ni

kahules tho wakehte tsi'? nu thonuhsote ka'h'kA lukwe tsi? ka yA tho nihoyelha tho

yahaka we, wa^ki lu? "watetniheye'? oha ka'h'kA tat yah thusahsatey/tu tsi'?

nihetshyelase? teyakyatAhnuteleV Kwah kwi ne- loya'hutawetu tho i late*> tho se wi¬

ne wa9khu late'?, wa^hA’lu^, ‘hho kwi yAhA'ke tho kwi ne- wa lawe tsi^ yukwanuhsote*?,

kwah ne- kok nahe okhna? tho teshotawAli olhok kwi nahte? naha yele n otkuhsolu? tsi ?

tho niyosno le sahatkclsko? ne* ok Isi? ne ki?ne- yeholyo u oriA ne- lhsiyo?nisk6-u uhka
ok wahsakohloli ka7rkA lukwe- wa7Hu7, “wahatlihwatkattho thrkA TehahnetolAs”

wahatlutahninuna kati7 Kanatake tho wa7thyatlane ka7ikA lu kwe- taka7slahawihte

wakelu ne ahilo^ok tho ne- kati7 ne- tethotathlewahtu, yah nuw/'tu wahetkA



Tsi? ni niyoic niwakanuhte7 awclu7usketsla ne- aoliwa yotlihwatuu tsi7 yah

As far back as I know witchcraft, that’s why it has vanished because

nAw/ tu tehonatho li ne7n lotikstAho kuha kwah ne- tsa kat ne7n
they never told about it these elderly people. It was the same as

ukwehuwehneha7 onu7kwathuwe eso nya7lekwnu7kwatslake. Yah ni-

Oneida medicine. A lot kinds of medicine. Not us

teyukwanuhte7 nahte7 kanu7kwatsliyo kAh nikahawi, ne- ok uni Awa tu

we don’t know what is good medicine these times, only they

Ayutewelu^usketslu ni- kanyo yakukwe7taksA. Wahu-mse

would be able to practice witchcraft if they are an evil person. Long ago

yakA7 tehmyahse wahya7tolatha7 kalhaku nyahane, kwah kA niyo le

they say, two of them they went hunting in the woods, they went, it was some

nyehone-nu tho wahnitshA li oska waku tho watey/*tu otku tho kutiya7tiha lu tho
distance there they found in the brushes it was fixed, snakes were hanging from,

tka7uw&yA tho yewatsahuhe7 onikwAhsa, shaya tat wa7hA'lu7 “onukwa7t

there was a bowl in there was dripping blood, one of them said, “medicine

yakA7 onikwahsa. ta t uhka ok AhyaswAhseke7, ta t uni yana7kumhe7.

they say, blood if someone he hates you, if also making you angry.

Ahsya7tunislu ni oklina? onukwis tho yAsali onikwAhsa ke okhna7 Ahseso ku

You make a doll then some hair in there throw in the blood then take it out

ka^i kA onukwis, kwah ise Ahsanuhtu katsa?nu na?tAhwawe?este?
this hair, just you can control where wherever you want to stick it

kaya?tunihslake tho kinu nAhetskalewahte?. Ne- tsi? kayA

on the doll that’s where you will really hurt them. The one

yatakwaswAhse kanyo Askweni Ahetshlo'li tsi? ohhwi-yo tsi? laulhase?

has ill feehng toward you, if you can tell him that for - that it is him

lawelu?uske, yah lhahakweni ot nahte? nahya-yele ne'tsi? 1

that’s a witch, he cannot do anything about hurting because it

tho mwakya'^taawA U teya?kyatahnutlahkwe luwayeTuhkwe ka?ikA

happened to me, my brother (who is deceased) was often tricked by

otkuhso lu. uskah utlatste?, kwah yah thya?yehewe na?tehotunhukali. Tsi?

the false face. One time, just not imagine how bad he was suffering. And

nA wa?okalawe? tho ne- kati*? onA takhulahlakwahte ka?ni kahules

when it became dark it was then now I quickly grabbed the gun, it was a revolver,

tho wakehte tsi? nu thonuhsote ka?rkA lukwe tsi? kayA tho nihoyelha
I went where his house was this man the one that was doing that to him

tho yahaka-we, wa?kiluA “watetniheye? oiia ka?rkA tat yah thusahsateyA'tu tsi?
there I arnved, I said, “we are going to die now this if you don’t take care of

nihetshyela-se? teyakyatAhmrtele?.” Kwah kwi ne- loya?tutawe‘tu tho Hate?

what you have done to my brother.” Just then he was trembling as he stood there,

tho se wi- ne- wa?khu late?, wa?hA lu?, “tho kwi yAhA ke tho
you see, I was holding a gun toward him, he said, “there, then I will go there,

kwi ne- wa lawe tsi? yukwanuhsote?, kwah ne- kok nahe okhna? tho teshotaw/li
then he did amve at our house, in just a short time already he was traveling,

othok kwi nahte? naha yele n' otkuhso lu? tsi? tho
it was something that he did the false face, because it

niyosno le sahatketsko? ne- ok tsi? ne ki?ne- yeholyou, o ua

was very sudden that he was able to get up again. But then he died from that alter., now

ne- thsiyo9niskou uhka ok wahsakohloli ka9ikj\ lu kwe , wa9rlu9, ‘Svahatlihwatkattho
it was too late someone he told this man, she said, “he’s going to get it

thrkA Tehahneto Las” wahatlutahninuna kati9 Kana ta ke tho wa9thyatlane ka9i U

that Split the Pines” he went to sell logs then at Green Bay they met this

lirkwe- taka9slahawihte wakelune ahilo9ok tho ne' kati9 ne- tethotathlewahtu, yah
man I grabbed an axe I wanted to chop him it was then that he repented, not

nuw/, tu wahetkA te9shakwatlAnlia tA ni.

ever evil did he wish on me again.


As far back as I know, there was witchcraft. It has vanished because they never told
about it these elderly people. It was the same as with Oneida medicine. A lot of
medicines we don’t know. A lot of medicines at this time we would be able to use
except they would be able to practice witchcraft if they were an evil person.

Long ago, they say two of them went hunting in the woods, they went some distance
when they found in the brushes, snakes hanging on a fixed stick and blood was dripping
from them into a bowl. One of them said that the blood was medicine, if someone
hated you and it makes you angry you make a doll. You would take some hair and put
it into the blood, then take it out and put it on the doll, you could control wherever you
want to stick it on the doll, that’s where it would really hurt them and they can’t do
anything about hurting because it happened to my brother (who is deceased). He was
often tricked by the false face. One time, you could not imagine how bad he was
suffering and when it became dark I grabbed a gun and went to the man’s house that
was doing this to my brother. I said, “we are going to die now if you don’t take care
of what you have done to my brother”. He was trembling as he stood there, you see, I
was holding a gun toward him, he said, “there, then, I will go there”, and he did arrive
at our house in just a short time. He did something with the false face because it was
very suddenly that my brother was able to get up again, but then he died from that after,
now it was too late. Someone told this man, she said, “He’s going to get it that Split
the Pines , he went to sell logs at Green Bay this man when I met him, I grabbed an
axe, I wanted to chop him up, but he repented and said that not ever did he want to do
evil on anyone again.

Told by Chauncey Baird to Tillie Baird (2-3-39)

Transcribed and Taped by Maria Hinton

E so yohslake o n/ uknuhwaklA ka9ik/ yakotla9swahtu kuwayats, onA tekni

lsa?tewakwilayA, ne yakA9 n ohkwa li wakatla9swahtu. Kwah ik/ tsi9


wa^tkatunhukah' kwah kAS a9nyo tsi9 wakanuhte9 yah se uhte9 te9wakrtas

ohkwa-h kAS tho nu takirne tsi9 wakanaktayA9 okhna9 kAS yakA9 wa9twakhA'Iehte9

khale9 kAS on/ tsyok nu yeskitakele9 tsi9 kanaktahkehlu. Kwah kAS kwa9sutati

ohkwa h teyuke9nikulhale9 khale9 on/ wa9krlu9, “oshu9kalake da Aka-late.”

khale9 on/ e neke ya9klathA9 tho ki takutilathA ne9n ohkwa-h kanakto'ku

yahutawyahte. kwah kAS yah thakkwenr ausakatolyanlu tho niyoie yahu we. kwah

Icas tsi9 wakanuhte9 Ica se9 uhte9 nutukyele ne9n ohkwali tho niyoie-

nakatAhalu nf- khale9 on/ kwah yah nahte9 thausakkwenr ausukyo’t/. tho

wa lawe9 lokst/ha, wah/iu9 uyotla9swahtu kwi thi kA”, on/

wa9tyukwahhwayA ta se9 tsi9 Ayakwakhunr ya9kahewe9, kwi nA ne- tho

wahA newe9 latihawinu ti9 nahte9 ayakwatekhunr. tho wahunitskwahlakhwa9tslo t/

ahsAnA tsi9 nikanuhsa tho wahatiksa lA ne9n onA khwi sa. wa9tyakwanunyahkwe9

tho ni yot tsi9 wa9akwatolyanlA tsi9 ni-yot ohkwa h-. wa9akwateldurnr sa- ahsA

niwahsu take kwah tayakwakutahkwe9 wa9akwatekhunr khale9

wa9tyakwanunyahkwe9 on/ oh/ tu wa9kahawihte9 yah nuwA tu sheku

tha9letsyuke9nikulhale9 ne9n ohkwa Ii.


Eso yohslake onA uknuhwaktA ka9i-k/\ yakotla9swahtu kuwa yats.

Many years it’s been since I became sick this witchcraft they called it,

onA tekni tsa'ftewakwi'layA, ne- yak*9 n ohkwali wakatla9swahtu. Kwah ik/ tsi^
now two children 1 had, it’s said this bear had witched me. Just terrible that

wa9tkatunhukali- kwah Icas a9nyo tsi9 wakanuhte9 yah se uhte9 te9wakitas

I suffered, it seemed like I knew that I’m not sleeping,

ohkwa li kAS tho nu takune tsi9 wakanaktayA9 okhna9 Icas yakA9

these bears kept there by coming to my bed. Then it was said,

wa9lwakhA'lehte9 khale9 kAS onA tsyok nu yeskita-kele9 tsi9

I would be screaming and finally here and there I would be laying where

kanaklahkehlu. Kwah Icas kwa9sutati ohkwali teyuke9nikulhale9 khale9 oela

the beds were. Just about all night bears would be bothering me and finally

wa9krlu9, “oshu9kalake ela Akalate.” khale9 on a e-neke ya9klathA9 tho ki

I said, “on the floor now I will lay,” and finally upstairs I climbed, they too

takutilathA ne9n ohkwa li kanakto ku yahutawyahte. kwah Icas yah

climbed after me those bears under the bed they went. It seems that I

thakkwe'nr ausakatolyanlu tho niyo le yahu we. Kwah Icas tsi9

wasn’t able to move about, it was to that point. It seems that

wakanuhte9 Ica sc9 uhte9 nutukyele ne9n ohkwa h tho niyo le-
as I felt that they knew might be touching me the bears that’s how

nakatAhalu ni- khale9 oiia kwah yah nahte9 thausakkwe ni- ausukyo tA. tho
serious it was and finally not a thing was I able to work. When

wa lawe9 lokst/ha, wahA lu9 “yotla9swahtu kwi thi kA”, onA

he arrived this old man, he said “she is witched that person”, now

wa9tyukwalihwayA-ta se9 tsi9 Ayakwakhumi- ya9kahewe9, kwi nA ne-

we made an agreement that we’d have a feast when the time came, then

tho waliA newe? latihawinuti9 nahte0 ayakwalekhunr. tho
they all came bringing what we could eat. They

wahunitskwahlakhwa^lslo lA ahsA„A tsi? nikanuhsa tho wahaliksa 1a ne?D oda

PU 3 Ch31r 11 the middle of the room there they set a dish of this

khwi sa. wa^tyakwanunyahkwe'? tho ni yot tsi? wa‘>akwatoIyanlA tsi? ni v6t

parched com too. We danced then like that we moved about just like

ohkwalr. wa^akwatekhuni- sa- ahsA niwahsutake kwah tayakwaku-tahkwe?

a bear. We ate also for three nights we just keep it up

wa^akwalekhunr khale7 wa'hyakwanunyahkwe? onA ohAtu wa7kahawihte7 yah

eating and
we danced now after that time on never

nuwA tu sheku tha^tetsyuke^nikulhale? ne?n ohkwali.

again did they bother me the bears.


Many years it has been since I became sick with this witchcraft they called it. I
3 tw? chlldren- is said that this bear had witched me. Just terrible that I
suffered, it seems Lke I knew that I wasn’t sleeping. These bears kept coming to
my bed. They said I would be screaming and tossing about. Just about all night
hese bears would be bothering me and finally I said, “On the floor, now I will
ay. And finally upstairs I climbed, the bears climbed after me and went under
.,e( y dr . 11 sef-ms that I wasn’t able to move about, it was that bad. It seems
hat felt the bears might be touching me. It was really serious and finally not a
ung s was; able to do. This old man arrived and he said “she is witched, that
person. We made an agreement that we would have a feast. When the time
came they all came bringing what we would eat. They put a chair in the middle
o the room and they set a dish of parched com too. We danced then like that
we moved about just like a bear. We ate also for three nights. We just kept ii
up eating and we danced. Now after that time on never again did the bears
bother me.

Told by Susie Baird to Tillic Baird

Transcribed by Maria Hinton (1-22-80)

Onelu^uske /JaiwatinAhalya?khuhake

Wahu iu'se on/ ukwehoku wa..ho.ilihwayA-.ase. akuwa.imthalyakhu akweku

onelu.uske, washako.iya..alo loke o.iksuhokuha kunukwe. Tho ne- on/

washako.ili.wanu-.use. o. nah.e. yonanuh.e. ne.n awelu.hske-.sla wa..ku.a,uhse

kay/ ne- na.eya.,oh.a. Saha. Id ok waskakotihhwalhu. Wahanilu.

akweku nv, kwi lahulasaw* washakolinrJialyhhku. Wa’k/lu. lu kwe

•hi k/ ,"la.e ne- 6-so .honuh.e. awelu.uske .sla. Wah/lu. ne.n lukwc aulha sc

tyolutu. Oksa? on* taswa’SAt. Na kwi wa^kuwdiih.

Onelu^uske AkuwatinAhaIya7khuhake
They Killed the Witches

>he A ry^t'Them'altogether ™ n6'

women. Then now

wnat r- witchcraft,
they know about awei“,fi“

wa^tkutatuhse . , ,
-hey blamed each o,her whi^ *£ “*

washakolilihwaUiu. Wahani lu. akalyo hake v . . - .

accused .hem. They said we,„ have ,0 „„ ,hcm “ ^ Jahu.asawe

ZgtfT* * ,C Sa'd'
y™ rkA
* *« .bonuhtc.
,hal s ending he’s very knowledgeable
awelu^usketsla . Wah/iu^, ne?n lu'kwe, “aulhase tyohAtu”.
about medicine”. He said, the man, “she is the leader.”

Oksa*? otla taswa sAt. Na kwi wa^kuwalih.

Immediately drop it. So then they killed her.

♦skaya tat yukwe wa'ftkalihotalhu.

She contested the charges.

They Killed the Witches

Long ago, these people all agreed that they would kill the witches. They gathered
them all together, these old women. They asked them what they knew about
witchcraft and they blamed each other. They still accused them and decided they
would kill them all and so started killing them. A man that was very
knowledgeable about medicine picked out the leader and they killed her.

Told by Ida Blackhawk (2-11-39)

Transcribed by Maria Hinton (2-20-79)