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13

The Variation

In this section is reviewed the concept of the variation, introduced in Part I, §5.5.

The variation is defined as follows: consider a function u(x) , with u* (x) a second function

which is at most infinitesimally different from u(x) at every point x, Fig. 2.13.1

δu(x)

u * (x)

du

u(x) dx

Then define

The operator δ is called the variation symbol and δ u is called the variation of u(x) .

Note from the figure that a variation δu of a function u is different to a differential du . The

ordinary differentiation gives a measure of the change of a function resulting from a specified

change in the independent variable (in this case x). Also, note that the independent variable

does not participate in the variation process; the variation operator imparts an infinitesimal

change to the function u at some fixed x – formally, one can write this as δ x = 0 .

d du

(1) δu =δ (2.13.2)

dx dx

Section 2.13

Proof:

du ⎛ du ⎞ * du du * du d (u * −u) d

δ =⎜ ⎟ − = − = = (δ u(x) )

dx ⎝ dx ⎠ dx dx dx dx dx

x2 x2

x1 x1

Proof:

x2 x2 x2 x2 x2

x1 x1 x1

∫ [u * (x) − u(x)]d x = ∫ δ u(x)dx

x1 x1

Variation of a Function

where δu is a variation of u is, as in, for example, 1.15.27,

The directional derivative in this context is also denoted by δA(u, δu ) and is called the

variation of A:

d

(2.13.5)

dε ε =0

The variation of A is thus the directional derivative of A in the direction of the variation δu .

For example, consider the scalar function φ = P : E , where P and E are second order tensors.

Then

d

(2.13.6)

dε ε =0

d

(2.13.7)

dε ε =0

Section 2.13

∂φ

δφ = ⋅ δu

∂u

(2.13.8)

∂δφ ⎛ ∂φ ⎞ ⎛ ∂ 2φ ⎞ ∂ 2φ

δ 2φ = ⋅ δu = ⎜ δ ⎟ ⋅ δu = ⎜⎜ δu ⎟⎟ ⋅ δu = δu δu

∂u ⎝ ∂u ⎠ ⎝ ∂u∂u ⎠ ∂u∂u

In what follows is discussed the change (variation) in functions A(u) when the displacement

(or velocity) fields undergo a variation. These ideas are useful in formulating variational

prionciples of mechanics (see, for example, §3.8).

Shown in Fig. 2.13.2 is the current configuration frozen at some instant in time. The

displacement field is then allowed to undergo a variation δu . This change to the

displacement field evidently changes kinematic tensors, and these changes are now

investigated. Note that this variation to the displacement induces a variation to x, δx , but X

remains unchanged, δX = 0 .

reference

configuration current

configuration

u(x)

X δu

x

displacement field, note that u = x − X and Eqn. 2.2.43, F (u ) = Gradu + I . One has, from

2.13.5,

d

dε ε =0

F(u ) + εGrad(δu )

d

= (2.13.9)

dε ε =0

= Grad(δu )

Noting the first commutative property of the variation, 2.13.2, this can also be expressed as

Section 2.13

Here are some other examples, involving the inverse deformation gradient, the Green-

Lagrange strain, the inverse right Cauchy-Green strain and the spatial line element:

{▲Problem 1-3}

δF −1 = −F −1gradδu

δE = F T δεF (2.13.11)

δC −1

= −2F εF −1 −T

One also has, using the chain rule for the directional derivative, Eqn. 1.15.28, the directional

derivative for the determinant, Eqn. 1.15.32, the trace relation 1.10.10e, Eqn. 2.2.8b,

= ∂ u det F[δu ]

= ∂ F det F[∂ u F[δu ]]

= ∂ F det F[Grad(δu )]

(2.13.12)

[

= det F F −T : Grad(δu ) ]

(

= Jtr Grad(δu )F −1 )

= Jtr (grad(δu ))

= J div(δu )

The Lie-variation is defined for spatial vectors and tensors as a variation holding the

deformed basis constant. For example, analogous to 2.12.33a,

δ Lb a = δaij g i ⊗ g j (2.13.13)

The object is first pulled-back, the variation is then taken and finally a push-forward is

carried out. For example, analogous to 2.12.40,

For example, consider the Lie-variation of the Euler-Almansi strain e. First, from 2.12.24,

( )

χ −*1 (e )b = E . Then 2.13.11b gives ∂ u χ −*1 (e )b [δu ] = δE = F T δεF . From 2.12.9a,

Section 2.13

( ( ) )

δ L e(u, δu ) = χ * ∂ u χ −*1 (e )b [δu ] = χ * (F T δεF ) = δε

b b

(2.13.15)

Linearisation of a Function

undergoes an increment Δu , then, analogous to 2.13.4,

The directional derivative ∂ u A[Δu] in this context is also denoted by ΔA(u, Δu ) . The

linearization of A with respect to u is defined to be

Using exactly the same method of calculation as was used for the variations above, the

linearization of F and E, for example, are

(2.13.18)

L E(u, Δu ) = E(u ) + ∂ u E[Δu ] = E + F T ΔεF

where Δε = 1

2

((gradΔu )T

)

+ (gradΔu ) is the linearised small strain tensor ε .

(2.13.20)

δA(u + εΔu )

d

=

dε ε =0

vector u,

Section 2.13

∂δφ ∂ 2φ

Δδφ = ⋅ Δu = Δu δu (2.13.21)

∂u ∂u∂u

Consider now the virtual Green-Lagrange strain, 2.13.11b, δE = F T δεF . To carry out the

linearization of δE , it is convenient to first write it in the form

δE = F T δεF

[

= 12 F T (gradδu ) + gradδu F

T

] (2.13.22)

= 1

2

[(Gradδu) F + F Gradδu]

T T

Then

1

2

T T

]}

Gradδu [Δu] (2.13.23)

Recall that the variation δu is independent of u; this equation is being linearised with respect

to u, and δu is unaffected by the linearization (see Fig. 2.13.3 below). However, the motion,

and in particular F, are affected by the increment in u. Thus {▲Problem 4}

(

ΔδE = sym (GradΔu ) Gradδu

T

) (2.13.24)

δu

u δu

Δu

reference current

configuration configuration

As with the variational operator, one can define the linearization of a spatial tensor as

involving a pull back, followed by the directional derivative, and finally the push forward

operation. Thus

( (

Δa(u, Δu ) ≡ χ * ∂ u χ *−1 (a ) [Δu] ) ) (2.13.25)

Section 2.13

2.13.3 Problems

2

(F T

)

F − I , Eqn. 2.13.9, δF(u, δu ) = Grad(δu ) , and Eqn. 2.2.8b,

gradv = (Gradv )F −1 , to show that δE = F T δεF , where ε is the small strain tensor, Eqn.

2.2.48.

2. Use 2.13.9 to show that the variation of the inverse deformation gradient F −1 is

δF −1 = −F −1gradδu . [Hint: differente the relation F −1F = I by the product rule and then

use the relation gradv = (Gradv )F −1 for vector v.]

3. Use the definition C = F T F to show that δC −1 = −2F −1εF − T .

4. (

Use the relation symA = 12 A T + A to show that )

{ [(Gradδu) F + F Gradδu]}[Δu] = sym((GradΔu) Gradδu )

ΔδE = ∂ u 1

2

T T T

T

5. 1

2

−1 T

* u * *

= sym[(gradΔu ) ⋅ gradδu ]

T

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