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# Course: Engineering Mechanics Laboratory

Date:
Experiment # 9

Bending Test on Wooden Beam

Aim : To determine the maximum bending stress developed in the wooden beam.

Equipment : Universal Testing Machine (UTM), Vernier calliper, Scale, Test specimens (one wooden
& Tools beam).

Expt :

Set-up

(b)

(a)

(c)

Figure 9.1 (a) Universal Testing Machine, (b) Experimental set-up, and (c) The wooden
beam specimen

Figure 9.1 (a) shows the Universal Testing Machine required to perform the bending test
on wooden beam. Figure 8.1(b) shows the experimental set-up in which a wooden beam is
placed on two supports at its end. The two supports are attached to the movable grip of the
UTM which is also fixed with a scale for measuring beam deflection. The load is applied
through the fixed grip of the UTM at the midspan of the beam. The wooden beam has a
rectangular cross-section as shown in Figure 8.1(c).

Theory : For a beam loaded transversely, the internal forces developed in the beam are categorized
as:
Shear Force: It is the algebraic summation of all vertical forces to either left or right of any
assumed section along the length of the beam. Shear force at any section causes Shear
Stresses on various fibres over the cross-section of the beam (i.e. along the depth).

9.1 | P a g e

Bending Moment Diagram: It is the graphical representation of the variation of the bending moment along the length of the beam and is abbreviated as B. ∑ 𝑀𝑍 = 0) After applying the equilibrium equations. along the depth). {Refer Figure 9. (a) For Shear Force: Shear force having a downward direction to the right hand side of a section or upwards to the left of the section will be taken as positive.D. {Refer Figure 9. (b) For Bending Moment: A bending moment causing concavity upwards will be taken as positive and is called sagging B.e.F.3(a)} Consider a prismatic simply supported beam AB.3(a).2 (b)}. RA = W/2 RB = W/2 9.F) and Bending Moment (B. Similarly.M.2 | P a g e . a bending moment causing convexity upwards will be taken as negative and is called hogging B. Similarly. apply the equilibrium equations ( ∑𝐹𝑌 = 0.D. Shear Force Diagram: It is the graphical representation of the variation of shear force along the length of the beam and is abbreviated as S.2 (a) Sign Conventions for Shear Force (b) Sign Conventions for Bending Moment SFD and BMD for a simply supported beam having concentrated load at centre {Refer Figure 9. V V V M M V M M Positive or Sagging moment Negative or Hogging moment + S.M. a negative shear force will be one that has an upward direction to the right of the section or downward direction to the left of the section.M) based on deformation characteristics. Bending moment at any section causes Bending Stresses on various fibres over the cross-section of the beam (i.F (a) (b) Figure 9. we get. Sign Conventions for Shear Force (S. and subjected to concentrated load (W) at the centre.2 (a)}. with span ‘L’. Under the load ‘W’ and reactions.Course: Engineering Mechanics Laboratory Bending Moment: It is the algebraic summation of moments of all forces to either left or right of any assumed section along the length of the beam.S.M. To obtain the reactions RA and RB . the beam will deform or bend in its own plane and internal forces are developed at each c/s of the beam. as shown in Figure 9.F .

consider a section (X1 – X1) at a distance x from end ‘A’ and for portion CB. For plotting S.F.Course: Engineering Mechanics Laboratory Y W A C B X L RA =W/2 (a) RB= W/2 Y X1 W A C B X X L RA =W/2 RB= W/2 X1 (b) Y W X2 A C B X X L RA =W/2 X2 RB= W/2 (c) W/2 +ve A B -ve W/2 (d) (c) WL/4 A B (e) Figure 9.D. another section (X2 – X2) at a distance x from end ‘A’ as shown in Figure 9.F. for portion AC. beam with Section X1-X1 (c) S.M. Table 1 gives the values of Shear force and Bending moment for different portions of beam.D and B.D.S.3(b). 9. beam with Section X2-X2 (d) S.S.3 | P a g e .D (e) B. (c) respectively.3 (a) Simply supported beam having concentrated load at centre (b) S.M.

(3)+x – W(x – L/2) ……. shear force is positive and between C and B it is negative. W (b) Constant B.(1) W/2. SFD and BMD are plotted as shown in Figure 9. The BMD is therefore a triangle with maximum ordinate of + WL/4.4(c) respectively. x+ W/2. under the concentrated loading at centre. i.(1)+….e. it is clearTable : varied from O Bending moment Values that shear force is not dependent on x.(2) Portion AC + W/2+ W/2……. Therefore the SFD is a rectangle with constant ordinate W/2 but it changes sign at point C. 9.. x1is Shear force andto L. 𝑑𝑀 𝑉= =0 𝑑𝑥 Example of beam in pure bending: Consider a simply supported beam subjected to two point loads as shown in Figure 9.S beam with two point loads (b) SFD (c) BMD (d) Transverse c/s with local axes.(4)Portion CB – W – W =…….. From equations (1) and (3). The bending moment is a function of x and its values can be obtained from equations (2) and (4).(4) To draw SFD and BMD.4 (a) S... x…... Y b WW y X A B C D z z d a a a y Z a W W (d) (a) W + Zero S.…..F .4(b) and 9.(3)W/2+ W/2 x – W(x – L/2) …….4(a).. Beam with central region (BC) is in pure bending as only BM is present and SF is zero.4 | P a g e . In between A and C. which means that the shear force is zero.M Wa (c) Figure 9.(2)Portion AC Portion CB + W/2+ W/2= – W/2– W/2…….….Course: Engineering Mechanics Laboratory Table 1: Shear force and Bending moment SF (V) SFBM (M) BM ……. Pure Bending: Pure bending refers to flexure or bending of a beam under constant bending moment.

6(b). Therefore. it is compressive on top and tensile on the bottom.Thus the axial bending strain (ε) varies linearly throughout the cross section from zero at neutral axis to maximum at either top or bottom {Refer Figure 9. R Neutral axis y M M B z z y d y C Neutral surface y Surface at distance ‘y’ from b neutral surface (a) (b) Figure 9. 9.5 (b)} Considering beam with central region (BC) in pure bending{Refer Figure 9. σbc .6(e)}. Neutral axis will always pass through the centre of the area or centroid.5 | P a g e . In this case.6 (e) } Neutral Axis (N.6(d)}.e. σbt are normal to the c/s and developed because of bending and hence called as bending compression and bending tension stresses {Refer Figure 9. {Refer Figure 9. The surface described by such layers that do not extend or contract is called the neutral surface. the bending moment M can be replaced by applying equal couples at its ends{Refer Figure 8.5(a).{Refer Figure 9.A): The intersection of neutral surface with c/s of beam is called neutral axis which divides the compression zone and the tension zone on the beam i.6(a)} .5 (a) and Figure 9. Layers on one side of the neutral surface extend and on the other contract. the axial bending stress (σ) varies throughout the cross-section and tends to be a maximum at either the top or bottom and is zero at the neutral axis. Similarly. upper half (d/2) is under compression and lower half is under tension. The upper layers above neutral surface gets compressed and lower layer below neutral surface gets streched. the axial stress is zero on the neutral surface and increases linearly as one move away from the neutral surface.5(a)Enlarged view of Portion BC (b) Transverse c/s showing neutral axis Relevant Terms Neutral Surface: In the process of bending there are longitudinal layers that do not extend or contract.Course: Engineering Mechanics Laboratory Under loading condition. Portion BC bends into an arc of circle as shown in Figure 9. This surface (plane) passes through the centroid of the cross-section.

4(d) Izz = bd3/12 .Course: Engineering Mechanics Laboratory M M B C (a) b εbc σbc =E εbc C C . Plane cross . As shown in the beam cross-section in Figure 9. y -.Modulus of elasticity of material R --Radius of Curvature{Refer Figure 9.6 | P a g e . 6.5 (a)} 9. The material of the beam is homogeneous and obeys Hooke’s law. M -.Bending moment at any section along the beam length.6 (a) Pure bending (b) Moment replaced by equal and opposite forces (c) Transverse c/s (d) Bending strain diagram (e) Bending stress diagram Equation for Pure bending or Flexure Equation Assumptions for pure bending: 1.sections remains plane before and after bending. The geometry of the overall member is such that bending not buckling is the primary cause of failure. Modulus of elasticity ‘E' is same in tension and compression. Izz -.Moment of inertia of the beam about z-z axis For rectangular c/s of beam of width ‘b’ and depth ‘d’ as shown in Figure 8.5(b).Bending stress at any depth y from the neutral axis of the beam.Extreme fibre distance from neutral axis E -. 2. 3.(5) 𝐼𝑧𝑧 𝑦 𝑅 where. and has a constant cross-section. Beam is initially straight. the bending stress at any fibre on the cross-section of beam can be obtained by 𝑀 𝜎 𝐸 = = …………. 5. - d T T + + εbt σbt =Eεbt (b) (c) (d) (e) Figure 9. 𝜎 -.

ii) Apply the load in steps exactly at the centre through UTM at the midspan of the beam and note the corresponding beam deflection from the main scale on the UTM.Course: Engineering Mechanics Laboratory Note: Theoretically Equation (5) is valid for pure bending case only. is called as Modulus of Rupture (RB).7 | P a g e . iii) Continue the procedure till failure of the beam. RB= Modulus of Rupture in bending Substituting the above parameters in equation (5).3(a). breadth (b) and depth (d) of the beam. Izz = bd3/12 . we get 𝑊 𝐿𝑢 /4 𝑅𝐵 = 𝑑/ 2 𝑏𝑑 3 /12 3 𝑊 𝐿𝑢 ∴ 𝑅𝐵 = 2 𝑏𝑑 2 Procedure : i) Measure all the dimensions of the beam namely length (L). Let load at failure be Wu . After continuously increasing the load W. a stage will reach when the beam fails. Again consider case of simply supported wooden beam with concentrated load at centre as shown in Figure 9. Observation Tables: Beam Dimensions Mean Dimensions Location 1 2 (mm) Breadth(mm) Depth (mm) 9. y = Extreme fibre distance from neutral axis = d/2. then BM at failure is given by BM max= Wu L/4. The bending stress calculated using bending moment at failure stage. Generally BM is maximum when SF is zero and therefore without much error the bending stresses at failure can be calculated using equation (5). iv) Note down the maximum load at which beam fails and the corresponding beam deflection.

They shall also write down any difficulties faced while performing the practical.Course: Engineering Mechanics Laboratory Load-deformation Readings Main Scale Reading Bending Stress Reading # Load (kg) (cm) (N/mm2) Sample : [Show sample calculations for the Bending Stress.8 | P a g e . they shall also write down suggestions (if any) in improving the practical. ii) Note the exact force applied and deflection at the failure. 9.] Calculation Discussion : [The students shall write down their observations about the practical in this section.] Result(s) & : Conclusion (s) Precautions : i) Ensure that the external load is gradually applied. Moreover.